POP– Point of presence

A location which allows you to access the internet, Internet
service providers (ISP) may have many PoP’s in an area to allow good access to the internet.
NAP– Network access point:
An interchange/ interaction between networks over the internet. This allows ISP’s to interact with each other.
IP– Internet Protocol:
The protocol used to send route packets of information across
the internet.
TCP– Transmission control protocol:
The protocol which takes data from a users application program

and it passes to the IP for transfer across the inter-

Protocol – communications protocol is a set of rules that allows a computer system to connect with a different sys-

FTP– File transfer protocol:
A standard protocol which allows files to be transferred between to different

ISP– Internet service provider

Network – a group of computers that are connected together by communication channels and that have the capability of sending or receiving information between them.
Protocol – communications protocol is a set of rules that allows a computer
system to connect with a different system

Client- Someone who uses the website/ servers.

Host - Someone who controls and hosts the servers.

What does the client do?
Uses the services of a server.

What's the role of the server?
Serve the needs of other computers.

Mail, file and web are all different types of servers.

What does a router do?
A router connects, passes on data . The data is sent from the
ISP is sent into a network then which the router moves on.

What is meant by the connecting backbone?
A part of computer network infrastructure that interconnects
various pieces of network.





Used by wireless-enabled
devices (computers, mobiles,
smartphones, etc.) to log in to
the internet. Wireless is exactly
what it says; there are no wires to
connect. (See page 27.)

No wires are
necessary to
use it.

Not always reliable you
have to stay within a certain area to use it properly.


A wired connection to a
broadband supplier. Normally the
connection is via a network card
in the computer. Cable users have
an Ethernet connection from
their computer to the network.


Wired connections may
not be as fast as wireless


A wired connection via a
conventional telephone line,
which needs a modem to convert
signals to and from analogue for

Normally works
at fast speeds

needs a modem to convert signals

What is a hyperlink?
a link from a hypertext document to another location, activated by clicking on a
highlighted word or image.
What is a web server?
Computers that deliver/serves webpages.

HTML – Hyper Text Mark-up Language
Web sites are broken down into 3 main parts –
1.) the head
2.) the body
3.) the footer
Each of these parts has its own
These tags can be used to tell the computer where on the page to display content.

HTML is the link used to link together or keep websites together ,
each different link makes a website or a webpage work and puts
everything together. Each different link would represent or be
called a HTML. A hyper text mark-up is a standard mark up language

How do search engines work?
Search engines work by retrieving information from
the HTML of web pages and storing this on an indexed
database. An automated web browser (which is known
by different names including crawler, spider and bot)
is used to follow every link in a website. Each page is
analysed as it is found, and relevant data is extracted
and stored on the search engine’s index database.

URLS— Uniform Resource Locator—it locates webpages
as the relevant tags that are typed in into the search
engine come up as the crawlers detect them.

When you enter a word or short phrase as a query, the
search engine looks at its index and displays a list of
the ‘best matches’, together with a short extract from
each web page. With most general queries there will be
many hundreds or even thousands of matches, so the
search engines operate a ranking system for their indexes.

Email—a form of communication
What is an address book?
A address book is the contacts you have saved on your email account which saves you
having to type in the email each time you send them an email as you type in a name
then then the email comes up as it is saved in your contact book.

What are attachments?
Attachments are files that can be attached such as documents, pictures or links in
the email which allows you to send files directly to a person through an email.

What is meant by the term multiple recipients?
This is when there are multiple recipients as in more than one person has received
the same email, you can email more than one person as the same time by putting a ;
between the different email addresses .
What is a store and forward system?
When someone send an email it is stored on a server so the next time the recipient logs in it is then forwarded to them.
Carbon Copy– when someone is sent a copy of the email but the email is not
directly directed towards them.
Blind Carbon Copy– when the person who the email is actually sent and directed to
cannot see the person who is sent a carbon copy of the email.

There are three different types of protocol used in email which are:
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol—The internet standard which is used for sending
emails across IP server in server-server transfers.
Post Office Protocol 3– Used to receive emails from the server over the IP connection.
Internet Message Access Protocol—This is the popular retrieval protocol.

Once it has reached the server it uses the
simple mail transfer protocol (smtp) to
transfer from the senders IP address to the
recipients server.
When someone sends an
email it uses the post office
protocol (pop) to reach the

Then when the recipient logs in
the POP (post office protocol)
receives the emails off the
server and brings it to the recipients inbox.

A computer which has a microphone output or a speaker alongside
with an internet connection it can be used to receive and transmit
voice files. The software which is needed to run VOIP is normally
consisted of a decoder/coder programme such as codec, this programme is used wherever necessary to digitise an analogue voice signal then to it compresses it and finally cuts it into parts and sends
it across to wherever the recipients address is. Then the same procedure occurs in reverse when the person receives a voice. This
would be a good way of using VOIP.

Transition modes :
Simplex transmission- Sends data from one signal which can be received
but not replied too.
Half duplex transmission— Allows two way communication but not both at
the same time.
Full duplex transmission—Allows communication between two people but at
the same time.

What is parallel transmission?
A number of bits of data which are transmitted over a equal number of
wires/channels at the same time which allows the bits from a whole byte to
be transmitted together.

What is serial transmission?
When bits are transmitted one at a time through one single cable at a time
which will reduce the rate of energy transfer alongside the costs too.

USB (universal serial bus) - a serial transmission method which was introduced in order to make many of the connections to a computer look the

Bi—directional transmission
This is about transmitting in both directions, in most cables light only
passes through in one direction therefore more fibres need to be added
so that the signal can be carried in the opposite directions. Eg. Fibre
optic cable.

What is a processer?
It is like the brain of a computer, it controls everything literally from moving the mouse to opening files, every move you make is controlled by the
processer of an object.

Client side processing is interaction that is made by a website when it is
opened by a user therefore a code is downloaded when the website is

Server side processing is the use of scripts which reside and are run on
another computer through the internet (on the web server) .



- An advantage would be speed as when
the code is loaded up the interactions
you make may be faster.

-It must be on one specific browser I order for it to work as not all browsers can
open certain scripts on a webpage.

-It is more secure as all the action does
take place on the one page and nothing
comes from the browser which could
cause corruption or security issues/

-It also depends on the computer as it
may have a slow processor which may
also increase the time it takes to load the
webpage up.



Efficiency– a complex code may be more Overloading– a server can only severe a
efficient as it does not have to be down- certain amount of people at the same
loaded to a users computer in order to be time
Speed– performance is affected by the
speed of the web server as all of the processing is don't by the web server , the
speed of your own web pages.

Security - it is not as secure as it could be
as the transfer of data over the network
may be open to security risks.

Data storage covers all the way in which data is actually stored. A
database is where all the data is help and organised in one way or
another e.g., a calendar or contacts, emails on your phone.
A primary key is the small things in which a database is made up out
of for example the product table would have the product item number.


Data type



Phone number


Email address


Post code