More Chapter 13

Notes

Railroads- Early Improvements
 Early

1800sdevelopment in
England spreads
to U.S.
 Early trains
powered by
wind, horses
 1830- The Tom
Thumb runs at
18 m.p.h.!!

Railroads- Early Improvements
 Despite

early

fears of
speed, fire,
explosion,
trains quickly
replace canals
as the fastest
mode of
transportation

Railroads- Early Improvements
 Every

town wanted a railroad
 Some towns even moved or died
depending on the route of the railroad
 “Zig-Zag” routes- towns paid the
railroad to come to their town instead
of the straightest route

Transcontinental Railroad
 As

America spread westward, a
railroad to the west coast was
desperately needed, wanted
 The issue of which route to take was
complicated by North vs. South
tensions
 Wherever the eastern terminus was
would benefit- $$$ and power

Transcontinental Railroad

 After

southern secession, Pacific Railway
Act in 1862 provided federal $$ to build
railroad from California to Omaha

Transcontinental Railroad
 A great

race was begun- railroads were
paid by the mile built
 Central Pacific built East from
Sacramento
 Union Pacific built West from Omaha

I’ve Been Workin’ on the Railroad
 Thousands

of
workers needed
for the manual
labor of laying
ties, rails
 Chinese and
Irish Immigrants
used for work
ethic, cheap pay

I’ve Been Workin’ on the Railroad
 Rough

and
rowdy crews“Hell on Wheels”
 Built up to 10
miles per day
 Dangerous workmany injuries,
deaths

I’ve Been Workin’ on the Railroad
 May

10, 1869- Golden spike driven to complete the
Transcontinental RR at Promontory Point, Utah

Effects on Westward Expansion
 Railroads





brought to/from the West:

People, including many immigrants
Goods
Money
Transportation
Sold land for settlement
Made the “Wild” West much more
accessible to the average person

Texas Revolution- Spanish Texas
 Spain

controlled Texas
 There were actually more Native
Americans and Americans than
Spanish living there
 To attract more settlers Spain gave a
land grant to Moses Austin to start a
colony

Texas Revolution- Mexican
Independence Changes Texas
 1821-

Mexico gains
independence from
Spain
 Mexico gave
permission to Stephen
F. Austin, Moses’s son
to continue colony
 By 1830 over 30,000
people lived in Texasmostly American
settlers

Texas Revolution- Mexican
Independence Changes Texas
 Tensions



between Americans and Mexicans:

Language
Slavery
Taxes
Mexico closed Texas to American immigration

Texas vs. Mexico- Remember the
Alamo!
 Austin

goes to
Mexico city to try
to work out their
differences
 Meets w/
President General
Santa Anna
 Santa Anna
refuses Austin’s
requests, jails him
for a year

Texas vs. Mexico- Remember the
Alamo!
 Armed

rebellion
breaks out in
1835
 Texans appoint
Sam Houston as
leader of Texas
Army

Texas vs. Mexico- Remember the
Alamo!
 Feb.

1836
 1,800 Mexicans
surround 183
Texans inside the
Alamo- an old
mission building
 William Travis, Jim
Bowie, Davy
Crockett
 Texans held off
attack for 12 days
before being
overrun

Texas Independence
 Battle

of San
Jacinto- Texans
strike back and do a
sneak attack on the
Mexican Army
 Santa Anna is forced
to sign a treaty
giving Texas its
independence
 Texas was an
independent nation
for 10 years!

War with Mexico- Troubles
 Mexico

still
claimed part of
Texas-dispute
over where the
border was
 President James
K. Polk offers to
buy CA, TX, and
NM for $25 million
but is refused

Troubles with Mexico
 General

Zachary
Taylor leads U.S.
troops to the
border and is
attacked by
Mexicans
 Congress, urged
on by Polk,
declares war on
Mexico in 1846

Capturing NM, CA
 General

Stephen Kearny leads
troops west on the Santa Fe Trail
and peacefully takes over NM
 In CA, a group of rebels leads the
Bear Flag Revolt and declares CA
independent

The Invasion of Mexico
 War

lasted from 1846-1848
 Americans led by Generals Zachary
Taylor and Winfield Scott
 General Santa Anna led 15,000 soldier
Mexican Army
 Americans won major battles at Buena
Vista and Mexico City
 Many future Civil War generals got
their first military experience there

The Mexican Cession
 War

officially ends with Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo
 Mexico agrees Texas is part of U.S.
 Mexico gives U.S. CA, NV, UT, AZ, CO, WY
 U.S. pays Mexico $15 Million
 Promised to protect Mexicans living in
Cession areas
 Gadsden Purchase- U.S. buys one more
strip of land in Southern AZ and NM for $10
Million