PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE

1. What factors to consider for site selection?
Ans : District classification, Transportation facilities, Manpower
availability, industrial infrastructure, community infrastructure, availability
of raw water, effluent disposal, availability of power, availability of
industrial gas, site size and nature, ecology and pollution.
2. What are different standards?
Ans : Most commonly use standards are as follows:
Sr.
Standard
Description
1.
ANSI B18.2
Square and hexagola head bolts and nuts
2.
ANSI B16.3
Malleable iron threaded fittings
3.
ANSI B16.4
Cast iron threaded fittings.
4.
ANSI B16.9
Steel buttwelding fittings
5.
ANSI B16.11
Forged steel socketwelding and threaded fittings
6.
ANSI B16.25
Buttwelding ends
7.
ANSI B16.28
Short elbow radius and returns
8.
MSS-SP-43
Stainless steel buttweld fittings
9.
MSS-SP-83
Pipe Unions
10. API 605
Large diameter carbon steel flanges
11. ANSI B16.1
Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings
12. ANSI B16.5
Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings
13. ANSI B16.47
Large diameter steel pipe flanges and flanged fitts.
14. ANSI B16.20
Ring joint gaskets and grooves for pipe flanges
15. ANSI B16.21
Non metallic gaskets for pipe flanges
16. API 601
Metallic gasket for refinery piping.
17. API 5L
Specification for line pipe.
18. ANSI B16.10
Welded and seamless wrought steel pipes
19. ANSI B36.19
Welded and seamless austenitic stainless steel pipe
20. ANSI B16.10
Face to face and end to end dimensions of valves
21. ANSI B16.34
Steel valves, flanged and buttwelding ends.
3. What are various temporary closures for lines?
Ans : Line blind valve, line blind, spectacle plate, double block and bleed,
blind flanges replacing a removable spool.
4. Where jacked screwed flange is used ?
Ans : For spectacle discs, one flange is jacked screw flange. This flange
has two jacked screws 180 degree apart which are used to create
sufficient space between flange for easy removal and placement of line
blind or spectacle blind.
5. What is double block and bleed?
Ans : Two valves with bleed ring in between with a bleed valve connected
to the hole of bleed ring.

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6. Where blind flange is used ?
Ans : It is used with view to future expansion of the piping system, or for
cleaning, inspection etc.
TOWERS

7. What are crude oil ranges?
Ans : Crude oil BP Range: 100F-1400F, lightest material: Butene below
100F, Heavier materials- upto 800F, Residue above 800F.
8. What is batch shell process?
Ans : feed, heat,condense,heat more,condense, low quality.
9. What are types of towers?
Ans : Stripper, Vacuum tower, trayed, packed towers.
10. What is chimney tray?
Ans : It’s a solid plate with central chimney section, used at drawoff
sections of the tower.
11. What factors to consider while setting tower elevation?
Ans : NPSH, Operator access, Maintenance access, Minimum clearance,
reboiler type , common area, type of support, Tower dimensions, type of
head, bottom outlet size, foundation details, minimum clearances.
12. How to located tower maintenance access nozzles ?
Ans : At bottom, top and intermediate sections of tower, must not be at
the downcomer section of tower and in front of internal piping.
13. How to located feed nozzle ?
Ans : Must be oriented in specific area of tray by means of internal
piping.
14. How to located temperature and pressure instruments ?
Ans : Temperature in liquid space, at downcomer side and pressure in
vapor space, in area except downcomer sector.

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6 What are the auxillary equipments of compressor? Ans : Lube oil consoles. 11 What are compressor suction line requirements? Ans : Minimum 3D straight pipe between elbow and inlet nozzle. liquid ring compressors. Wast heat system. liquid pumping. 8 What factors to be considered while designing compressor housing? Ans : Operation.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE COMPRESSORS 1 What are the types of compressors? Ans : Positive Displacement. volume bottles. Seal oil consoles. increases based on inlet piping layout. rotary lobe. building width. 4D . hook centerline elevation. converting this energy into higher pressures in a divergent outlet passage called a diffuser. Inlet air filters. rotary screw. compressor suction drum. rotary vane. knock out pot. Inter and after coolers. gas re-injection and process compressors. Condensate pump. Climate conditions. 4 What are types of steam turbine and why are they popular? Ans : Condensing and non-condensing. 5 Where gas turbine drive is used ? Ans : Desserts and offshore platforms where gas is available. Pulsation dampner. steam turbine and gas engine. building elevation. Vertical split case. gas lift. Centrifugal and Axial. Economics. Surface condensers. Large volume of gas at moderate pressure. 9 What are the compressor housing design points? Ans : Floor elevation. for gas transmission. Popular because can convert large amounts of heat energy into mechanical work very efficiently. Air blowers. 7 What are the types of seal oil system? Ans : Gravity and pressurized. 10 What are the types of compressor cases? Ans : Horizontal split case. 2 What are types of compressor drives? Ans : Electric motor. Safety. 3 How Centrifugal compressors work ? Ans : Highspeed impellers increase the kinetic energy of the gas. Maintenance. gas turbine. dynamic.

overflow. 2 What are drum elevation requirements? Ans : NPSH. operator access. What are necessary parts of inlet line of compressor? Ans : Block Valve. What points to be considered for reciprocating compressor piping layout? Ans : High pulsation. Isolate line support from adjacent compressor or building foundations 14. analog study. DRUMS 1 What are drum internals? Ans : Demister pads. agitator. manhole. manhole.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE 12. Open sided structure with a roof. outlet. temperature element. saddles for horizontal drums. 5 What are necessary nozzles for pressure vessel? Ans : Inlet. maintenance. outlet. Distribution piping. Straightening vane in inlet line if not enough straight piece in inlet line available. What are the types of compressor shelters? Ans : On ground with no shelter. although the vessel is provided with a vortex breaker. lugs. drain. Strainer. 3 What are drum supports? Ans : Skirt for large drums. pressure gauge. common platforming. vent. Baffles. agitator. Break out flanges in both inlet and outlet to remove casing covers. and steamout connection. temperature element. level guage. drain. all branches close to line support and on top. legs. Open elevated installation. 6 What is preferred location for level instrument nozzles? Ans : Away from the turbulence at the liquid outlet nozzle. instrument should be set in the quiet zone of the vessel for example on the opposite side of the weir or baffle or near the vapor outlet end. pressure relief. Curtain wall structure (Temperate climates). 13. . minimum clearance. PSV in interstage line and in discharge line before block valve. level instrument. 4 What are necessary nozzles for non-pressure vessel? Ans : Inlet. Vortex breakers. Elevated multicompressor structure. simple line as low to grade as possible for supporting. vent and for steamout.

preferably on the bottom section of drum. . preferable at the top section of drum 4. 3.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE 7 What is preferred location for process nozzles on drum? Ans : Minimum from the tangent line. What is preferred location for steam out nozzle on drum? Ans : At the end opposite to the maintenance access. 2. What is preferred location for vent ? Ans : AT the top section of drum at the end opposite the steam out connecton. What is preferred location for drain? Ans : Must be located at the bottom section of drum. What is preferred location for pressure instrument nozzle on drum? Ans : Must be anywhere in the vapor space. 5. 1. What is preferred location for temperature instrument? Ans : Must be in liquid space.

Its about 1 ft. 4 What is standard for petroleum pumps? Ans : API 610 is the standard for centrifugal pumps in petroleum industry. for waste material in concrete pit. may be on spring supports. determined by testing and expressed in feet of water by pump manufacturer. 11 How to support discharge line of centrifugal pump ? Ans : Discharge line should be supported as close to the top elbow as possible and should be within five diameters of that elbow. result in loss of head and capacity and create a severe erosion of the impeller and casing surface in the adjacent inlet areas. 6 What are types of rotary pumps ? Ans : External Gear. two lobe. or pump quantities too small for centrifugal pumps. Cam and piston. 3 What is velocity head? Ans : The head loss caused by the consumed power to accelerate stationary fluid to suction line velocity during pump startup. 7 Where rotary pumps are used ? Ans : For viscous liquids that are free of hard and abrasive fluids. screen at the bottom. 8 Where should boiler feed water pumps be located ? Ans : They take water from a deaerator and generally operate close to the vapor pressure of the liquid. 2 What is cavitation ? Ans : Cavitation is a rapid collapse of vapor pressure that can produce noise. 5 Where positive displacement pumps are used ? Ans : Used to move viscous liquids. for surface condenser. injects chemicals or additives into a system. 9 Tell something about vertical pumps ? Ans : Used where low available NPSH is not sufficient. 10 Where centrifugal pumps in vacuum service be located ? Ans : directly below tower. using spring support. single screw.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE PUMPS 1 What is NPSH ? Ans : It is measure of the pressure drop of the liquid as it moves form the inlet of the pump to the eye of the impeller. . Two screw. three lobw. hence they must be located as close to the deaerator as possible.

jacket. 2 How the suction line reducer should be placed ? Ans : It should be placed top flat.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE 1 How suction line is supported? Ans : Commonly supported under the elbow adjacent to the pump nozzle. cooling. 2 What should be stack height? Ans : Stack height shall be minimum 6M above working platform in the vicinity of 25m radius. heat generated-absorbed. heating coils. REACTOR 1. SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGERS . support at top elbow. chemical reaction. Min 90M away from tanks and 30M away from control room. stress. agitation. block valve. Pressure indicator. Tell about reactor? Ans : Heart. 5 What is accepted distance between pumps? Ans : 1200 MM / 4 feet. min straight length of 3D. strainer. 3 What are suction line requirements? Ans : To flat reducer. as short as possible with consideration to stress. 6 What is special requirement for discharge line of positive displacement pump? Ans : Relief valve whose discharge is connected in suction line between the isolating valve and the pump. 4 What are the requirements of discharge piping? Ans : Reducer. FURNACES 1 Where furnaces shall be located ? Ans : Furnaces shall be located upwind or side wind of process units to blow any combustible leaks away from the open flame. block valve. no pockets. min. mixing. check valve.

DOUBLE PIPE OR FIN TUBE EXCHANGERS 28. 4 What should be clearance between flanges of exchangers? Ans : 1000 MM. hotter fluid : To reduce heat loss to the surroundings except steam. Fixed tube. PLATE EXCHANGERS 27.. Where used ? Ans : To cool tower overhead vapors. kettle arrangement. SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS 1 What are the types of tube arrangments? Ans : U-tube. . 2 What is full form of TEMA? Ans : Tubular exchangers manufacturers Association.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE 1 Where spiral heat exchangers are used? Ans : Generally in chemical plants 2 How piping is positioned for spiral heat exchanters ? Ans : Piping positioned to allow opening of covers and the removal plates. low temperature applications. AIR COOLER EXCHANGERS 29. 3 Which fluids to be sent through tubes? Ans : Fouling and/or corrosive fluids (Easy cleaning and cheaper to replace tubes than shell). cooling fluid. Where used ? Ans : Used when liquid has a greater resistance to heat flow than another or when the surface area is small. refrigerant. Where plate exchangers are used ? Ans : Low pressure.

smooth trucking traffic. never below grade. bullet head not toward other vessel. not one above the other. not in same dyke where other flammable liquid HC’s stored. 2 Where to located LPG Storage ? Ans : Downwind of process units. important buildings and facilities. distance between vessels of different groups 30M. . no dip ditch to avoid LPG Settling. single row in case of spheres and bullets. Cylinders vertical.000 cum. curb wall. total capacity 15. not near other gase cylinders. separate dedicated manifold for each group.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE LPG STORAGE 1 How to group LPG Vessels ? Ans : Max 6 Vessels. 3 How to operate LPG Cylinders ? Ans : Separate area for empty and filled cylinders.

At least one of the block valve should be placed in vertical so that spool can be removed allowing the control valve to be removed. Why block valve is used at the root of an instrument like pressure indicator? Ans : They are needed to isolate gages for maintenance during plant operation and during hydrostatic testing of piping system. How control valve block valves should be located ? Ans : They should be as close to control valve as possible. It can also be used to sample or for adding a comparison gage. 3. considering drain requirement and handwheel clearance. What are instrument categories? Ans : General. pressure.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 1. for non-critical and critical fluids having a fluid temperature to suit the soft seat material and where relatively low pressure drop is required across control valve. temperature. density etc. 2. Which instruments are handled by piping department ? Ans : flame arrestor. 9. to relieve pressure and /or drain the liquid before servicing the gage. Where butterfly control valve is used ? Ans : Used for large size piping network handling clean fluid for low pressure drop across control valve and soft seated control valve. They are called root valve. 7. 6. flow. read and control. 10. Where ball control valve is used? Ans : Suitable where nature of fluid is slurry form or handling two phase flow having particle in suspension. They have side mounted actuator. Why control valves are usually flanged? Ans : For ease of installation and removal during maintenance. abrasive. level. indicate. Where and why bleed valve is used in instruments ? Ans : If the conveyed fluid is hazardous or under high pressure. viscous fluids. transmit. 4. a branch fitted with a bleed valve is inserted between the gage and its isolating valve. breather valve. 5. What are basic functions of instruments? Ans : To sense. Neutral fluid like glycol is used on instrument side of diaphragm. Where diaphragm assembly is used ? Ans : For corrosive. Metal seated valves used for higher temperatures. 8. .

17. rotameter. 20. What are straight run requirements of orifice plate ? Ans : Inlet straight run requirement can be 15D to 20D and outlet straight run requirement 5D min. 15. 16. It must be located at lowest point of bottom run. it should be vertical or 45 to vertical on both sides. not above control valve. 13. How orifice flange taps should be oriented ? Ans : For liquid and steam. Where reducer shall be located in control valve assembly ? Ans : As close as possible to control valve. How TSO valve should be installed ? Ans : Tight shut off (TSO) valve or reduced port ball contrl valve should be installed in vertical for gas service and horizontal ok for liquid service. It is to be confirmed with instrument engineer in instrument specification of . What are the types of flow measuring devices? Ans : Orifice plate. as both sides are blocked in this case. magnetic flow meter. It depends on piping configuration and d/D ration i. 12. ration of inside dia of orifice plate and pipe.5 inch. How control station should be supported ? Ans : It should be supported such that control station piping is self supporting even if the control valve is removed. For one drain. Why and where drain should be located in control valve assembly ? Ans : Drain is used to drain the piping between two block valves on two sides of control valve before removing control valve for maintenance.e.e. Normally. 19. Taps are 0. turbine flow meter. For gas and vapor lines. 18. positive displacement meter. Variable area flow meter i. How breakup flanges for control valve should be located ? Ans : One vertical and one horizontal which is achieved by having one block valve in vertical leg of control valve inlet. it should be upstream side of control valve. Do not place support on inlet elbow. with 200mm clearance between actuator and valve.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE 11. on exit side elbows of bottom run of control valve. preferably directly welded control valve flanges. 14. and two drain used if control valve fails close. What is piping and instrument scope of supply for orifice meter ? Ans : Piping provided gaskets and bolts and tapping from orifice plate to two block valves. Instrument provides orifice plate and flange assembly and connection down stream of block valves. How bypass valve in control station should be located? Ans : Near inlet branch point. One drain is used if control valve is fails open. it should be horizontal or 45 degree down from horizontal on both sides.

filled system. 30. thermowells. What is minimum pipe size required for thermowell installation? Ans : 3” . Inclined tube for very low pressure measurement used. 33. How filled system temperature element work ? Ans : Bourdon tube. 31.? Ans : Installed directly on nozzle. bimetallic thermometer. Invar and Nickel pair used. conductance. the spiral and helical. calibrated tapes or dip sticks placed in vessel and calibrated directly in level or volume. float. What are types of level measurement? Ans : Direct and inferential 24. 27. PIPING GUIDE 21. uses pressure sensing assembly to get the level. most widely used since 100 years. 23. Where restriction orifice plates are used ? Ans : For effective distribution of fluid in piping network. 26. 22. bourdoun tube indicates on scale temperature. radiation. What thermocouple metals normally used? Ans : Iron + Constantine. 32. bellows and diaphragms. reflex or transparent. 25. 29. What are manometers? Ans : Single or U type glass tube with mercury or other fluid. filled with liquid.MILIND SATPUTE project. What are inferential methods of level measurement? Ans : Hydrotatic head. resistance temperature detectors. 28. How bimetallic thermocouple work ? Ans : Different expansion of different metals bends the bimetallic strip to indicate temperature. What are pressure instruments used in chemical industries? Ans : Manometers. What is hydrostatic head type level transmitter. What are direct methods of level measurement? Ans : Gauge glasses. What are straight run requirements for vortex meters? Ans : 5D upstream. buoyancy. bourden tubes. liquid expands. 34. What are types of bourdon tubes? Ans : C. What are temperature measuring instruments? Ans : Thermocouples. Diaphragm type used for liquids with solids. How resistance thermocouples work ? Ans : Electrical resistance of a conductor changes with temperature. Chromel + Alumel etc. 35.

How much extra space required for rack ? Ans : 20 % extra for future lines. Access and maintenance of each item in pipe rack. instrument and cable trays on utility level or separate topmost level. Which lines placed where in rack ? Ans : Process lines on lower level. What are steps in rack design? Ans : Generate line routine diagram. determine amount of expansion leg from nomograph. insulated or bare pipe. What are design considerations for pipe rack ? Ans : Rack width. set width of rack. determine growth by multiplying coefficient (From nomograph) of expansion by length of line. utility lines on top level. determine growth of each branch and see weather the have enough flexibility. liquid or vapor. Calculate bent spacing. if not anchor at ¼ th distance on both sides. decide elevations and levels. Try anchor in middle. How to route steam lines on rack ? Ans : Steam headers on top level or rack. 38. usually above the headroom. steam lines with expansion loops on one side of rack. Flare line outside rack on cantilever beams or inside rack above top level . Schedule. no of levels and elevations. What factors affect pipe span? Ans : Size. . 42. pipe support or intermediate pipe bents.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE RACK 36. What is pipe bent? Ans : Pipe bent consists of a vertical column or columns and a horizontal structural member or members that carry piping systems. 43. 39. 37. What are spandrels? Ans : Horizontal structural members located along the longitudinal centerline that are used for structural stability. and decide loop size. line s with orifice runs on one side of rack beside columns for maintenance using portable ladder. pipe flexibility. Line that require largest expansion leg should be located on the outside of the loop. 41. Heavy lines near columns. 40. bent spacing.

magnesia. calcium silicate. cellular silica. Mineral fiber. diatomaceous silica plus asbestos. What insulating materials are used ? Ans : Asbestos. . polyeurothene foam. mineral wool. cellular glass.MILIND SATPUTE PIPING GUIDE INSULATION 44.

warranty. breather. gas or powder. What are the steps in selection of valve? Ans : What to handle. 10. piston. 4. diaphragm. special alloys. What are functions of valves? Ans : Isolation. 6. delivery time. function. stainless steel. What is straight through valve? Ans : Valve in which the closing operation of valve is achieved by 90degrees turn of the closing element. cost. What pressure tests are carried out on valves? Ans : Shell-hydrostatic. seat surfaces. flush bottom. disc type. 12. stem type. foot. carbon steel. non-return and special purposes. bonnet type. 5. seat-pneumatic -1- . 9. What are non-return valves? Ans : check valve. What are special valves? Ans : multi-port. butterfly. when valve is not closed tightly. gun metal. bronze. What are regulation valves? Ans : Globe. What are wetted parts of valve? Ans : All parts that come in contact with surface fluid are called wetted parts. Which standard specifies trim numbers for valve ? Ans : API 600. What is wire drawing? Ans : This term is used to indicate the premature erosion of the valve seat caused by excessive velocity between seat and seat disc. fluid nature. 3. ball. What is trim? Ans : Trim is composed of stem. 11.PIPING INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 1. 13. 7. piston. What are isolating valves? Ans : Gate. construction material. diaphragm. 2. polypropylene and other plastics. 8. pinch. body ends. seat-hydrostatic. plug. how to operate. pressure relief. butterfly. pinch. liquid. alloy carbon steel. float. regulation. What materials are used for construction of valves? Ans : Cast iron. needle. back seat bushing and other small internal parts that normally contact the surface fluid.

25. What are two types of ball valve? Ans : Full port design and regular port design. soft seat and metal seat. ball check valve. Where diaphragm valves are used ? Ans : Used for low pressure corrosive services as shut off valves. What are ball valve body types? Ans : Single piece. three piece. solenoid. 18. It can be optionally closed automatically or normally. piston check valve. What is BlowDown Valve? -2- . 26. handwheel. Quick acting operators for non-rotary valves (handle lift). conventional check valve. wafer check valve.14. What is Barstock Valve? Ans: Any valve having a body machined from solid metal (barstock). sandwitch and flush bottom design. What are types of check valve? Ans : Lift check valves and swing check valves. What are available valve operators? Ans : Handlever. where a valve is inserted between each boiler and the main steam header. What are butterfly valve types? Ans : Double flange type. 23. powered operator likes electric motor. chain operator. What is BIBB Valve? Ans: A small valve with turned down end. 21. pneumatic and hydraulic operators. stop check valve. long pattern. according to type of seat. 22. Why ball valves are normally flanged? Ans : Because of soft seat PTFE which can damage during welding. tilting disc check valve. gear operator. 17. 24. Where stop check valve is used ? Ans : In stem generation by multiple boilers. 16. wafer lug type and wafer type. the short pattern. like a faucet. 15. 20. 19. What are non-slam check valves? Ans : Swing check valve. double piece. Usually needle or globe type. What is Bleed Valve? Ans: Small valve provided for drawing off liquid.

30. What is Root Valve? Ans: A valve used to isolate a pressure element or instrument from a line or vessel. 28. What is Paper-Stock Valve? Ans: A single disc single seat gate valve (Slide gate) with knife edged or notched disc used to regulate flow of paper slurry or other fibrous slurry. What is Quick acting valve ? -3- . 27. What is Slurry valve? Ans: A knife edge valve used to control flow of non-abrasive slurries. What is Vacuum breaker? Ans: A special self-acting valve or nay valve suitable for vacuum service. What is Breather Valve? Ans: A special self acting valve installed on storage tanks etc. What is Spiral sock valve? Ans: A valve used to control flow of powders by means of a twistable fabric tube or sock. 37. installed to admit gas (usually atmospheric air) into a vacuum or low-pressure space. Such valves are installed on high points of piping or vessels to permit draining and sometimes to prevent siphoning. operated manually or automatically.Ans Refers to a plug type disc globe valve used for removing sludge and sedimentary matter from the bottom of boiler drums. driplegs etc. 29. or a valve placed at the beginning of a branch form the header. 34. What is Drip Valve? Ans: A drain valve fitted to the bottom of a driplet to permit blowdown. 36. What is Flap Valve? Ans: A non return valve having a hinged disc or rubber or leather flap used for low pressure lines. These valves are used for vehicular and firewater connections. 32. 35. What is Hose Valve? Ans: A gate or globe valve having one of its ends externally threaded to one of the hose thread standards in use in the USA. 31. What is Throttling valve? Ans: Any valve used to closely regulate flow in the just-open position. 33. to release vapor or gas on slight increase of internal pressure ( in the region of ½ to 3 ounces per square inch). vessels.

attached on pad type nozzles. What is diverting valve ? Ans : This valve switch flow from one main line to two different outlets. 43. -4- . 46. What is safety valve? Ans : Rapid opening(popping action) full flow valve for air and other gases. WYE pattern and angle type. What is foot valve? Ans : Valve used to maintain a head of water on the suction side of sump pump. WYE type and pneumatic control type with no moving part. but when water reaches valve. 40. 39. 38. air flows out of system in valve open condition. What is relief valve? Ans : Valve to relieve excess pressure in liquids in situations where full flow discharge is not required. spring or by piston. What is sampling valve? Ans : Usually of needle or globe pattern. What is float valve? Ans : Used to control liquid level in tanks. 45. solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing a weight which in falling operates the valve. either by manual lever.Ans: Any on/off valve rapidly operable. What are blow off valve? Ans : It is a variety of globe valve confirming with boiler code requirements and specially designed for boiler blowoff service. Used in drip legs. which rises with liquid level and opens the valve to control water level. Unsuitable for water or for liquid service in general without a cushioning device to protect piping from shock. used to remove air and other gases from boilers etc. when release of small volume of liquid would rapidly lower pressure. 41. What are types of flush bottom valves? Ans : Valves with discs opening into the tank and valves with disks into the valve. It can also remove air from system. 44. float inside valve raises to close the valve and stop flow of water. reactors and vessels. What are flush bottom valves? Ans : Special type of valves used to drain out the piping. 42. basically a lift check valve with integrated strainer. in which case. Quick acting valves are desirable in lines conveying flammable liquids. placed in branch line for the purpose of drawing all samples of process material thru the branch. operated by float.

50. 48. What are eccentric plug valve? Ans : Off center plug. What are inverted plug design valve? Ans : Plug valve with taper portion up of plug. 53. for minimum pressure loss. temperature limitation. 52. can handle clean viscous and corrosive liqiuids. smooth transition from round body to rectangular port. 58. 56. 59. 54.47. minimum friction. isolating one safety valve. What are the uses of three-way valve? Ans : Alternate connection of the two supply lines to a common delivery vise versa. area almost equal to pipe bore. to reduce turning effort. division of flow with isolation facility. What are short pattern plug valve? Ans : Valves with face to face dimension of gate valve. For 8” and higher size. What are three patterns of plug valve design? Ans : Regular pattern. By pass of strainer or meter. What is metal seated lubricated plug valve? Ans : A plug valve with no plastic material. short pattern and ventury pattern 51. anti static design possible. low turning effort. for on off applications. What are Teflon sleeved plug valve? Ans : PTFE sleeve between plug and body of valve. as a alternative to gate valve. reversal of flow through filter. 49. moves into and away from seat eliminating abrasive wear. Graphite seat for high temperature applications. where grease is applied to contacting surfaces for easy operation. minimum pressure loss. What are permasil plug valve? Ans : Plug valves with Teflon seat instead of sleeves. What are uses of four way valve? Ans : Reversal of pump suction and delivery. corrosive and abrasive service. 57. What is dimensional standard for plug valve? -5- . What are ventury pattern plug valve? Ans : Change of section through the body throat so graded to have ventury effect. What is regular pattern plug valve? Ans : Rectangular port. on off action. Drip tight shut off not possible. What is pressure balanced plug valve? Ans : With holes in port top and bottom connecting two chambers on top and bottom of plug. heat exchanger or dryer. 55.

What is pinch valve? Ans : Similar to diaphragm valve. for low torque. with disk nut at the lower end and handwheel at upper end. What is angle globe valve? Ans : Ends at 90 degree to save elbow. What is double disc globe valve ? Ans : Has two discs bearing on separate seats spaced apart. 67. manufacture standard. disc can be integral with stem. composite disc globe valve. 61. used for control valves. Where WYE body globe valve is used ? Ans : In line ports with stem emerging at 45 degree. sw or threaded. same design as globe valve. 63. with sleeves of rubber or PTFE. What are types of globe valve? Ans : Angle globe valve. Usually flow direction is marked on the globe valve. What are characteristics of globe valve stem? Ans : Always rising design.Ans : API 599. for erosive fluids due to smoother flow pattern. 66. What are globe valve disk types? Ans :Flat faced type for positive shutoff. 71. What are globe valve port types? Ans : Full port: More than 85% of bore size. inside screw. 60. plug type disc globe valve. borged or barstock body and bonnet. 70. What are port types for gate valves? -6- . wye-body globe valve. 68. loose plug type for plug renewal or needle type for finer control. What is needle valve? Ans :Full pyramid disc. 62. Cast iron body. double disc globe valve. Reducer port: One size less than the connected pipe. 64. for very low service pressures like isolation of hose connections. Where plug type disc globe valve is used? Ans : For severe regulating service with gritty liquids such as boiler feedwater and for blow off service. higher pressure drop. smaller sizes. on a single shaft. which get sqeezed to control or stop the flow. manufacturers standard. How to install a globe valve ? Ans : Globe valve should be installed such that the flow is from the underside of the disk. 69. 65. flow control.

A U-bolt and clamp type bonnet. double disc paralles seats. screwed on bonnet.Ans : Full port and reduced port. What is lantern ring? Ans : It’s a collection point to drain off any hazardous seepages or as a point where lubricant can be injected. What are the types of bonnets? Ans : Bolted bonnet. 73. union bonnets. solid flexible wedge. -7- . bellow sealed bonnet. it is in the middle of packing rings. pressure seal bonnet. double disc wedge. breechlock bonnet. single disc single seat gate or slide. split wedge. Default is reduced bore. 72. How to close a gate valve ? Ans :Turn the handwheel in clockwise direction. 74. What are types of gate valves? Ans : Solid plane wedge. 75. plug gate valve. single disc parallel seats. Full port has to be specified in bom.