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Stanza I (Lines 1-4)
Get out the microscope, because we’re going through this poem
Line 1
Whose woods these are I think I know.
Our speaker is not the most confident person in the world. This
line begins as a question, and we’re totally ready to get on board the
question train, but then, halfway through the line, he switches it up.
He wonders initially who owns “these woods.” The word these
makes us realize that our speaker is actually near the woods in question.
Our speaker then tells us he thinks he knows who owns these
woods. Notice how he doesn’t say he knows who owns these woods;
he says he thinks he knows.
Why doesn’t our speaker say, “I think I know whose woods
these are”? What would be lost or gained if the poem began with that
rewritten line?
Line 2
His house is in the village though;
The speaker thinks he knows the owner of woods, and this owner
lives in a house in the village. Civilization, sweet, sweet civilization!
This line tells us that there is a village around here somewhere.
The word “village” reminds us of thatched roofs, smoke curling out of
little chimneys, and of a few stores and homes clustered around a
single main street; in other words, a village is not the most hoppin’
place in the world.
However, our speaker is relieved that the owner of the woods is
in the village – now he doesn’t have to worry about getting caught





trespassing on someone else’s property.
Line 3
He will not see me stopping here
Man, this woods-owner guy must be pretty strict if our speaker
is so worried about getting caught taking a breather on his property.
The speaker is almost trying to calm himself down and reassure
himself that the owner “will not see me stopping here,” as though he
believes that saying so makes it true. It’s similar to the magical phrase,
“If I can’t see them, they can’t see me,” uttered by Haley Joel Osment
in the movie Sixth Sense.
This line also tells us that the speaker has stopped, that he’s
hanging out at the moment.
Line 4
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
Our speaker is a total rebel. He’s hardcore trespassing so that
he can…watch the snow fall?
Yes, he has stopped in order to take a gander at snow falling on
Stanza II (Lines 5-8)
Get out the microscope, because we’re going through this poem
Line 5
My little horse must think it queer
Our speaker is not alone! He has a horse, and this horse is little.
Maybe a pony.
The speaker and his little horse probably spend a lot of time
together, because our speaker is totally able to read the little horse’s


TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. 4 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. why are we stopping here? We’re in the middle of nowhereville. ice-covered lake to the other. Line 6 To stop without a farmhouse near Our speaker continues to read his horse’s mind. ISC & CBSE . ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH He imagines that his horse is thinking that things are a little strange right now. Line 8 The darkest evening of the year. and we also are kind of intrigued by the fact that the speaker is not riding through the woods.” so they must be on a little patch of snowy shoreline with dark trees to one side and a glossy. Why is this speaker dilly-dallying when the light is dying and the snow is falling? A lot of people in his place would want to scurry home as fast as is humanly possible. Where’s my dinner? I don’t know about you. exactly. It must be really cold if the lake is frozen. but is right beside the woods. “Whoa. but it’s also approaching nighttime too. Not only is it snowy and wintry. the speaker and his horse have stopped: they are currently hanging out between the woods and the “frozen lake. Line 7 Between the woods and frozen lake Now we get the 411 on just where. There isn’t even a farmhouse close by – what’s going on?” The fact that our speaker even attempts to figure out what his horse is thinking shows that he’s a caring kind of guy. but I’m cold. and that he’s aware that stopping in the middle of some snowy woods is kind of a random thing to do. and imagines the horse is thinking something along the lines of.

“Hey. is everything OK? We’ve been standing here staring at nothing for a little while. we mean that he shakes his harness a little. the next best option is to shake his booty. It also happens to mark the beginning of winter. Stanza III (Lines 9-12) Get out the microscope. So. Line 10 To ask if there is some mistake. which give a nice little jingle (think Santa Claus’s sleigh). “the darkest evening of the year” makes us think of the winter solstice.. because we’re going through this poem line-by-line.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. There are little bells attached to his harness. Besides sounding ominous and like the preview to a horror movie. Line 9 He gives his harness bells a shake Even though the speaker can read his little horse’s mind. Our speaker knows his horse is shaking his bells in order to “ask” his master if something is awry. it’s dark out and it’s getting darker by the minute. which occurs in late December (in the northern hemisphere) each year and marks the moment at which the sun is at its farthest possible distance from the observer. and I just wanted to make sure you didn’t need me to keep on truckin’. Again with the mind reading. Whatever the case may be. We don’t think that the speaker is the kind of guy to pack flashlights. I’m cool with the standing still thing. ISC & CBSE 5 . the horse can’t talk back. It’s kind of like the horse is saying. but I just wanted to make sure I wasn’t TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. is there’s a problem. And by shaking his booty.

At this point. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH misinterpreting you.. Stanza IV (Lines 13-16) Get out the microscope.” The word “sweep” makes us think of the sound brooms make when they sweep dust into a dustpan. Our speaker finally admits to liking the woods. Line 13 The woods are lovely. He’s entranced by the darkness and deepness of the woods. but they also make us feel slightly anxious. dark and deep. because we’re going through this poem line-by-line. Everything is very. and he thinks they are lovely. though. We knew it all along.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.” Line 11 The only other sound’s the sweep Beyond the harness bells’ shaking. ISC & CBSE . we realize that the speaker is taking inventory of all of the sounds around him. There’s something mysterious about the maze-like nature of woods and forests. Dark and deep woods are awesome in our book. the only other sound that the speaker can hear is the “sweep. is that our speaker digs these woods. Line 14 6 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. very quiet. He’s interested in sounds. There’s just a gentle whirr. The sweeping noise comes from the slight wind and the softly falling snow. The point. Line 12 Of easy wind and downy flake. Have you ever listened to snow falling? It’s very. very still.

mom. when he says the line a second time. Our speaker really is in the middle of nowhere. because he feels the need to repeat the fact that he’s got miles to go. we hear the word “sleep” more clearly than when we heard it in the line before. Line 15 And miles to go before I sleep. Line 16 And miles to go before I sleep. OK.” or “I will take care of you. this line makes us think of how awesome it will be for our speaker to finally rest his head on his pillow after such a long trek. But I have promises to keep.” or they may be things like.. Rats. before deciding against it. ISC & CBSE 7 . Maybe that’s because “sleep” has the honor of wrapping up the entire poem. our speaker flirts momentarily with the idea of breaking them.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. In any case.” Regardless of whether these are big promises or little promises. These promises may be things like. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. “I’ll be home for dinner. “Let’s get married. because he’s still got a few miles to go before he can rest his head on his pillow. so our speaker must really be far from home. He better roll out soon. But we feel like we are well acquainted with that feeling of being so far away from where you need to be that it almost seems easier to just give up and hang out. Our speaker begins this line with the word “but. However.” The word “but” makes us think that the speaker is contemplating staying in these woods rather than returning to the village to fulfill the promises he’s made.

No. From the first two lines what do you figure out about the speaker’s occupation? From the first two lines one can figure out that he is a traveler and probably travels long distance to fulfill his promises. Q5. Q2. What is “I” in this poem? Who does the pronoun “whose” refer to? The narrator of the poem is the “I”. “Whose” refers to the owner of the woods by which the narrator of the peom is passing by. Q6.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Q4. The little horse finds it “queer” as there was no farmhouse in sight where one can stop to rejuvenate oneself. What is the significance of “He will not see me stopping here”? The significance of “He will not see me stopping here” lies in the fact that the owner of the “woods” is unaware that someone is feasting his eyes on his property. What does “must” mean here? Why does the “little horse”. His stopping signifies that he is a lover of nature. ISC & CBSE .. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q1. Do you think the owner of these “woods” is a lover of nature? Give a reason. Q3. and moreover it is a 8 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. the owner of the woods is not a lover of nature as he is in his village indifferent towards the beauty of the woods. Why does the speaker stop at the woods? What does his stopping here signify? The speaker stops at the woods to feast his eyes at the beauty of the woods. find it “queer”? The word “must” mean “for sure”.

. Where is the speaker at this time? What is he doing? What makes these woods attractive to the speaker? The speaker is in front of the woods where he has stopped to feast his eyes on the beauty of the woods. What are the three sounds spoken of? The three sounds are of (i) horse bells (ii) wind and (iii) the flakes of snow falling Q11. The speaker is on his way to some place. It is very quiet all around.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. ISC & CBSE 9 . the horse thinks it to be a mistake. What makes his pausing by the woods unusual. Q13. The snowfall has made the woods look attractive. thus the phrase mean that there is snow falling which is like silk. desolate place when it is snowing and already evening. What image is created by “downy flake”? “Downy flake” refers to the snow fall. downy means silky. Who does “he” stand for? Why does he think there is some “mistake”? He is the horse. Q12. Q9. Q7. What is the significance of the word ‘But’ in the second line? TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. but as the traveler has stopped to see at the beauty of the woods. Q10. especially at the time of speaking? The speaker’s stopping by the “woods” is unusual as : (a) it is snowing (b) It is a dark evening. He thinks that there is some mistake as the horse and its traveler usually stops in farmhouses. Which lines emphasize this? The last two lines of the extract “The only other sound’s the sweep of easywind and downy flake” emphasize that it is quiet all around. The image is that of silky snow falling whichis beautiful. Q8.

What does he decide to do? Why? The speaker has decided to move ahead and not merely enjoy the beauty of the woods. 10 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH What are the “promises” he has to keep? The word “but” is significant as the speaker thinks that it is more important for him to fulfill his responsibilities than to gratify his soul by enjoying the beauty of the woods.. The speaker has to make a decision. in your opinion. Q14. He decided to do so as he has some responsibilities to fulfill. Why. does the poet repeat the line“And miles to go before I sleep”? The poet repeats the line as he wants to emphasize to himself as well as to the readers that he has promises to fulfill. Q15. ISC & CBSE .TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.

A Doctor’s Journal Entry for August 6. images. fear and panic too is created all around the narrator and the narrator gives a dreadful account of it in the next few lines. The use of this journal form for writing poetry is ingenious because this kind of poetry requires no rhyme pattern or other poetic devices. it is a continuous narration of what happened on a particular day. “The roof. the walls. humor and irony. “It took some time for me to understand The friction on their burns caused so much pain They feared to chafe flesh against flesh again TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. dust swirled Around me. The poem is in a form of journal entry made by a Hibakusha (a Japanese word for a bomb survivor) on August 6. clipped. A DOCTOR’S JOURNAL ENTRY FOR AUGUST 6. The entry gave the readers a vivid picture of how the people were taken aback when atomic bombs were dropped on their city of Hiroshima in 1945 during the Second World War.” An atmosphere of horror. Narrative Technique: Vikram Seth’s poetic style has many features like the use of prose-pattern. and. The poem has no rhyming scheme or stanzas. as it seemed the world Collapsed in timber and debris. In the beginning of the poem. The poet also uses Hyperbole (exaggeration) for highlighting the current situation. 1945. wit. 1945 ANALYSIS The poem.. one can see the account of the impact of the atomic bombs on the city. The style is colloquial. ISC & CBSE 11 . epithets.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. 1945 is penned down in the form of an entry in a journal by a doctor for keeping records.

When someone is in deep sorrow he loses the power of speech.“……. dismayed. My mind Ran at high speed.. his state of mind and perceptions. The bombs that tore away the human beings of their clothes signifies that the whole of human race who suffered. The poem expresses the personal torments and sufferings of the victims. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Those who could.. ISC & CBSE .. they still remain silent. A woman with a child stand in my pathBoth naked. Note the symbolism in the following lines. 1945 is a poem about the poet’s own sorrows. It symbolizes that a powerful nation destroys the lives of the common people. 1945. They were speechless.” The common thing between all these people was that they were dumbfounded and silent. my body crept behind. Symbolism: The poem is highly symbolic. “My legs gave way.” Lyrical in Spirit: Lyric Poetry deals with the poet’s own feelings.and now the thought arose That some strange thing had stripped us of our clothes. Thirst seized me. feelings. “What choice had we? A dreadful loneliness Came over me when she had gone. shuffled in blank parade.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. I sat down the ground. Had they come back from the bath? …………………………. he becomes numb. My breath was short but bit by bit my strength 12 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. but no water could be found.” Vikram Seth has personified ‘loneliness’ to describe the helplessness of the survivors in A Doctor’s Journal Entry for August 6.I saw. A Doctor’s Journal Entry for August 6.

calls out for his wife. 1945 is the destruction caused by the atomic bombs on Hiroshima. and even thinks of helping out his staff in his hospital. and it was a warm morning when the narrator. (bit by bit my strength/Seemed to revive) and rebuilt their shattered city and their world. However. a doctor by profession. The poet has described the gruesome reality of the first nuclear explosion and its power to destroy the whole human race. which was bombed on 6th August 1945 during the Second World War.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. The Narrator says that the day was peaceful and beautiful. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. The main theme of A Doctor’s Journal Entry for August 6. It was morning. 1945” who experienced the atomic bombing. Seemed to revive and I got up at length. rose up. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q1. as one of the world leaders in today’s world. A soldier hands over a towel to the doctor to cover himself. ISC & CBSE 13 . This bombing wiped out two cities and millions died.” The above line shows the indomitable spirit of the doctor. There is still hope for care and concern in the minds of the people. got up and stretched himself and was relaxing at home. induced with determination that he regains strength finally.. This symbolizes Japan. The poem depicts both mental and physical agony. Japan endured the calamity. The doctor. Who is ‘Me”? Where is he at present? What time of the day is it? What is the narrator enjoying as described immediately before these lines? “Me” in the extract is the narrator of the poem “A Doctor’s Journal Entry for August 6. though himself wounded. Human Goodness: Even during such a crisis and chaos the goodness in human nature is not lost. He is at his home in a city (Hiroshima or Nagasaki) in Japan.

How is the natural scene. Q5. What harm did the flashes cause to the building? Why did the narrator exclaim that “the world collapsed”? The flashes destroyed the buildings.. 14 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Q2. The narrator exclaimed that “the wrold collapsed” as wherever he would see all around him. What are the strong flashes mentioned in the extract? Why does the narrator wonder whether those are magnesiumm flares? The strong flashes mentioned in the extract are the atomic bombing that happened in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the Second World War on 6th August. Q3. A splinter had protruded into his thigh. Blood started sprikling from the right side. significant in the context of the poem? The natural scene described just before the extract is significant as it shows how the beauty of nature was destroyed in a moment by the man made culture of war and hatred and scientific developments. His cheek was torn and he removed dispassionately a piece of glass from his body.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Why is the narrator looking for his wife? What does his attitude towards his wife indicate about his character? The narrator is looking for his wife to figure out if she is safe. described before this extract. The narrator wonders whether they are magnesium flares as it is war time and he thinks that it is probably the magnesium flares that are usual during wars. He dcan not think that the city is bombed with an atomic bomb. The evil use of science is juxtaposed against the beauty of nature. ISC & CBSE . What happened to the narrator’s body? What was the reaction on seeing all this? The narrator’s clothes were burnt. Q6. Q4. 1945. he could see nothing but destruction and decay.

(a) the cruelty and inhumanity of the warmongers and (b) the goodness. It is the atomic bombing and the shock of it which caused her appearance to be so.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. The doctor thinks that he should get to hospital as they needed aid and he should help his staff in hospital. Q7. Their conversation shows two things about human values. like other citizens of the two Japanese cities. Yecko San is being described as pale. ISC & CBSE 15 . A gate crashed on him and cuased the death. Q9. fighting spirit. were suffering because of the war mongers who decided to use atomic bombs on these two cities. Describe the appearance of his wife. They felt strange about it and said sorry later torealize that it was a dead man. The narrrator’s attitude towards his wife indicates that he loves his wife too much and is caring about her. Fire narrator intended to go to the hospital as (a) he himself is TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. who was holding her elbow.. What has caused her appearance to be so? What does he tell her? How does their conversation indicate about human values? The wife of the Doctor. Q8. How did fire spring up in the dust? Give two reasons that made the narrator intend to go the hospital. What are your feelings for the narrator and his wife? Give a reason to justify your feelings. helping nature of the people like doctor and his wife. bloodstained and frightened. Agaisnt what do they trip up in the street? How do they feel about it? What has caused that object to be there? What does he think that they should do now? They trip up in the street against a head. My feelings towards the narrator and his wife is that of sympathy as they. Q10.

Why do you think. What does the soldier do for him? Then what does he tell his wife? Why? The soldier gives him a towel. he then tells his wife to go ahead as he has no strength to carry on. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH wounded and would need medical attention. By referring to any two examples. After that he sees “shadowy forms of people” silently walking with their arms stretched straight out. dangling from their shoulders as they cannot bear the friction of the burnt skins and (b) a woman and her child both naked as their clothes are all burnt with bombing. scarecrows and the dumb indicate? The naked suffering people of the bombed city parading with paid are referred to in the extract. ISC & CBSE . show how the poet gives a detailed picture of what was happening. Describe of the sights which he sees later. Q12. he sees a soldier. Q11. What are the “shadowy forms” referred to in the extract? What do the words. dangling from their shoulders as they cannot bear the friction of the burnt skins. in the poem. Q13. and a woman and her child both naked. and (b) being a doctor.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. all do not feel ashamed of being naked? They do not feel ashamed of being naked as (i) everyone’s clothes are burnt and all are naked (ii) more shameful act was of the people who decided to bomb the city (iii) they are so numb by the experience that feeling ashamed does not matter to them. He asks his wife to do so as she should get medical aid even if he cannot. 16 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Q14. The two examples are (a) shadowy forms of people” silently walking with their arms stretched straight out. ghosts.. The words “ghosts”. Later. he thought he should be in hospital to serve others in these trying times. Q15. “scarecrows”.

Which four people does the poet see on the way to the hospital? What was common to all? Why? The four people that the poet sees on the way to the hospital are soldier. a naked man. “dumb” indicate that the people of the city are suffering limitlessly because of the atomic bombing.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. No. but their own profit. What/who do you think is responsible for causing so much bloodshed? Does it prove that the tyrant is really powerful? Give a reason to justify your opinion. The war mongers are responsible for causing so much bloodshed for no reason. Q16. They are so as the atomic bombing has caused all these. it does not prove that the tyrant is really powerful as the fighting spirit and helping nature of people proves however inhuman the war mongers may be. Q17.. Q18. ISC & CBSE 17 . What is the impact of his wife’s absence on him? What does the impact indicate about their relationship? “A dreadful lonelines” came over the doctor in the absence of his wife. It shows that the doctor and his wife are too much in love with each other and in their suffering they needed each other. a naked woman with his naked child. and an old woman. their cruelty and violence will be countered by people’s faith in humanity. All of them are naked and suffering from immense pain and are dumb with pain and shock. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.

’ 18 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. This sonnet If Thou Must Love Me is a combination of Petrarchan and Shakespearean conventions.. It is used by the poet not just to praise the subject but has also focused on the intellectualism of what love should be. The sonnets have been very popular since their publication. FORM & STRUCTURE: The poem If Thou Must Love Me is a sonnet. Moreover. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH IF THOU MOST LOVE ME. an argumentation by a lover presented in a form of sonnet. Elizabeth Browning was a Victorian poet whose poetry was very popular in England as well as in the United States.... A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem with a normal rhyming pattern in iambic pentameter. Barrett Browning is more concerned about the kind of love that lasts forever rather than ‘love for love’s sake. All her sonnets revolve around her intense love for her would-to-be husband Robert Browning. The fusion of these two conventions adds unity to the sonnets and seems to echo the unity of the couple portrayed in the poem. ANALYSIS Sonnets from Portuguese is a collection of 44 sonnets written by Elizabeth Barrett Browning during the years 1845-1846 and published in 1850. It seems like she is not happy with the present idealism of her man. ISC & CBSE . the sonnet seems like a discussion by the both parties about their relationship. She had put forth a quotation. REPETITION: The word ‘love’ has been repeated for at least ten times in the poem.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. USE OF DIALOGUE: The poet has used dialogue in the sonnet. The poem is more about the lady’s opinion about how her man should love her. The rhyme scheme in this sonnet is abba/abba/cdc/dc.

her smile. women were not treated equal to men. PERSONIFICATION: Personification is that figure of speech where abstract ideas are attributed human qualities. Again ‘love’ has been personified in If Thou Must Love Me. the poet has used this technique of Cumulative Listing. During that period. therefore she was afraid that Robert Browning would leave her. Barrett Browning was against these TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. In support of this statement. That is why she says that her lover must not love her for her smile or gentle voice as these qualities fade with time. the speaker uses Cumulative Listing and enumerates her physical characteristics in the poem. her pleasant voice etc. Here in this sonnet. This poem shows her suggestion to her lover about how he should love her. The Cumulative Listing reinforces the idea presented in the first two lines of the poem. Therefore. they could only study history.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. when the speaker says.’ CUMULATIVE LISTING: Cumulative Listing is a technique of listing similar ideas in poetry. Women Rights: During the Victorian period. She wants Robert Browning to love her forever and such kind of love can only exist when he would love her as a person and not for her looks. ISC & CBSE 19 . THEMES: Theme of Love: Love is the most dominant theme in Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s sonnets. They were not given the right to study classical and commercial subjects. ‘love’s sake’ and ‘love’s eternity. the poet wants her lover not to love her for love’s sake or for her physical attributes. It emphasizes a particular statement. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was disabled and had incurable diseases. geography and general literature. women did not have the right to vote or had any right to own property. In the first two lines of If Thou Must Love Me.

Q3. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH social and gender differences and one will find that her writings were based on issues like child labour. 20 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Her sonnets give importance to the thinking of women and not to the male-dominated society. The love relationship between Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning became so famous that till today many refer to them. What does the phrase “falls in well with mine” suggest? The phrase “falls in well with mine” suggests that the male language of wooing does not matter to the poet and those tricks of thoughts of the male lovers are nothing but wasted attempts as she can see through them. To whom are these lines addressed to? How is he related to the poet? Comment on their relationship. the speaker wants her lover not to love her for superficial qualities or out of pity but for what she is as a person. If Thou Must Love Me.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Robert Browning is Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s lover and later husband. The lines are addressed to Robert Browning. As Elizabeth’s father was against the match they had to elope to get married. And a person should love someone not because of outward beauty. Here in the sonnet. as beauty lies not in how a person looks. ill treatment and oppression of women. Thus this poem questions the idea of a woman and demands the right of woman to speak and to be heard. Yes. Why does the poet proclaim not to say certain things in love? Do you agree? Why? The poet says that the lover should not proclaim that he loves her for her beauty as outward beauty is an impermanent thing. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q1. Q2. but how a person is. In this poem she mocks the idea of courtly love.. another significant poet of the Victorian Era. I agree. ISC & CBSE .

” Q7. What is the poet trying to suggest in the above lines? The poet suggests that neither beauty. then as soon as the reason of the pity withers away. Q4.” With time people’s perception changes . In other words. Q5. the sympathy would make her forget to weep. She thinks so because if the reason of love is pitying the beloved.what one finds beautiful today. the love will also vanish. What does the phrase “change for thee” signify? Is it a significant phrase in the peom? The phrase “change for thee” signifies “change for you.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. Q6. is being comforted then the compassionate gesture. What would make the “creature” forget to weep? When the creature. ISC & CBSE 21 . What does the lines “so wrought. Therefore the poet says that a love based on outward beauty makes no sense as it may wither with time. Q8. / May be unwrought so” signify? The lines “so wrought” May be unwrought so” signifies that a love “fashioned in such terms (based on physical beauty) would soon become out of fashion. What does the poet mean when she says not to love in pity? Why does she think so? The poet is of the opinion that if the lover loves her out of pity then as soon as the melancholy of the poet withers away. one may not find it tomorrow. the lover would make the beloved TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. nor one’s perception of beauty is constant as they change with time. that is the person who is sad. there would be nothing more to love. Therefore the poet says that if the lover loves her for her outward beauty then it may change very soon as neither outward beuaty is permanent and not one’s liking is permanent.

for eternity.” Yes. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH so happy. ISC & CBSE .” 22 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Q9. Why would the comfort of the beloved be a reason of losing the love? Do you agree with the poet? The comfort of the beloved be a reason of losing the love is that the comfort would dry her tears and that way the reason for which she was loved will wither away. leading to a withering away of the love. one can achieve “love’s eternity. “Evermore” means everlasting. Q11. What does “love’s sake” mean? Do you agree to it? What is the meaning of “evermore”? The phrase “love’s sake” means “only for the sake of love. Q10. The second last line of the extract starts with a “but”.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. will never die. that she would forget the reasons of the sadness.. Q12. What is “love’s eternity”? Can one achieve “love’s eternity”? “Love’s eternity” is a love which is eternal. Why? The second last line starts with a “but” as the poet prescribes before this line a series of things for which the lover should not love the poet and then says that she should be loved only for love’s sake. Yes. one should agree to it as a love which is only for the sake of love will last forever.

pierce through the heaven and watch the angels play. political and economical. She means to say that humans can conquer all the three realms of the earth. dive into deep oceans. ISC & CBSE 23 . I BELIEVE ANALYSIS Capabilities of Human Beings: The poem I Believe depicts the theme of the uncountable capabilities of man and his dreams and achievements. At a spiritual level. religious. it means raising our conscience to a higher point and becoming one with God. The poet believes a human being can rise to great heights.the atmosphere. and conquer all the three realms of the earth. The poet also believes that humans can make this world heaven-like and themselves like angels. A number of restrictions are imposed on women in a patriarchal society. She wants to reach the sky. Brucellish K Sangma. the poet wants to say that human beings can conquer all parts of the universe if they believe in themselves. The poem voices the concern about dreams and aspirations of a woman in a male-dominated society. The poet believes today’s women like the poet can achieve her goals. In the first stanza. The woman of today wants to free herself from such a society and achieve her dreams. In fact. the lithosphere and the hydrosphere. Such a society is male-centred and they subordinate women in all domains in their life: familial. This actually means that humans can achieve the most difficult and sometimes even the unachievable goals. Feminist Reading: The poem I Believe has been written by one of the eminent Garo poets and activists.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. the poet says that a human being can throw a pebble upwards.. STYLE: TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. endure a number of hurdles and reach their goal. use their capabilities and work diligently.

it has no rhyme scheme and no regular pattern of rhythm. It should be noted that each stanza is a single sentence. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Simplicity rules the poems of Brucellish K Sangma. Thus. SYMBOLISM: 24 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. The poem consists of six stanzas and the poet has taken ample care to use appropriate English words to convey her theme and message. The different stanzas are put together through the central theme which runs throughout the poem. The device is used to emphasize the main idea of a poem. which originated in Japan. It is for this reason that the poem resembles the Japanese Haiku. ISC & CBSE . It is technique which involves a kind of accumulation of broadly similar ideas.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. This poem I Believe consists of six stanzas. paragraphs. the ideas. ANAPHORA: Anaphora is a figure of speech in which there is deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of verses. Anaphora is frequently used in Bible and in poetry strongly influenced by Bible. HAIKU: A Haiku is a traditional poetic form . Each stanza begins with the phrase ‘I believe’ and enlists a number of things that the speaker is capable of doing.. clauses or sentences. ‘I believe’ has been used repeatedly in the beginning of each stanza (except stanza 6) to convey the feelings. dreams and aspirations of the poet. It is three-line poem with a total of 17 syllables. In this poem I Believe. It is a translation from the original Garo poem. if put together can be seen forming a list or catalogue. The poem is composed in free verse i. each comprising of three lines. CUMULATIVE LISTING: I Believe has used the technique of Cumulative Listing. Anga Bebera’a into English by the same poet.e.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q1. ‘Priceless gems’ symbolize the resources available on earth. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. It is in this context that the above lines are being written. “I believe I can dive Right into the depths And swim with the sharks” (Stanza 3): Here.metals. minerals and precious stones. Symbolism refers to the use of symbols to represent ideas and qualities. Brucellish K Sangma’s poem “I Believe” deals with what she believes to be her duty as a human being.. ‘depths’ symbolize the ‘ocean of life’ and ‘sharks’ symbolize the hurdles and difficulties faced in life. Some of the symbolism are listed below: “I believe I can soar heights Touch the silky clouds And feel the stars” (Stanza 2): Here. though written in simple and lucid words. has symbolic meaning. Who is the speaker? What is the context in which these lines are spoken? Brucellish K. I Believe. ISC & CBSE 25 . Sangma.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. the poet of “I Believe”. The poet believes she can cross all hurdles that come on her way and achieve success. ‘stars’ symbolize the list of achievers. But before she talks about her duty she says that she can achieve many things. is the speaker. ‘Adorn’ means to enrich oneself with this resources. The entire poem. “I believe I can claw into the earth’s belly Pick up the priceless gems And adorn myself with them” (Stanza 4): ‘claw into the earth’s belly’ symbolize putting in labour and hard work to achieve something. heights symbolize ‘sky’ meaning space without limit.

The poet’s resolve and willpower to achieve things in her life is very much evident in these lines. Does the poet really want to swim with the sharks? State the idea of the poet behind these lines. What she means here is that if she wants.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. she says that she can soar to the heights of the silky clouds and can view the stars. has the force in it to penetrate heaven and create the possible gap for the poet to have a view of heaven. but she really does not intend to persue all those. Sangma though in the beginning of the poem states that she can do many impossible things.” The poet says that she has the resolve to dive right into the sea and swim with the sharks. She says that she has the resolve to dive into the deep sea and swim with the sharks and then she can also reach the mines to get the priceless gems with which she can beautify herself. What does it mean “to pierce the heavens”? “To pierce” is “to penetrate”. Q4. In this context the phrase “to pierce the heavens” is used. What heights does the poet want to achieve in these lines? The poet. Q5. Both her wishes can provide her certain kinds of pleasures. ISC & CBSE . Brucellish K.. 26 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. says that she has the willpower in her to throw a pebble upwards which would pierce the heaven and let her have a view of the angles playing. Brucellish K. The poet believes that the pebble (small stone). ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Q2. which shows that she is courageous and adventurous and is ready to undertake any challenge for the sake of pleasure. Q3. she can achieve heaven. Brucellish K. Her ambition in life is not to achieve pleasure and riches for herself. Sangma’s intention in these lines is to present the impossible things that she could achieve if she wants to. but to fulfill her duty as a human being which she states in the last stanza of the peom “I Believe. she intends to throw. Comment on the intention of the speaker in these lines? The poet. Sangama. In the same way.




Q6. What is “earth’s belly”? What is its importance? What is the
poet’s intention?
The phrase “earth’s belly” refers to the mines, as mines are
underneath the surface of the earth.
The importance of the phrase “earth’s belly” is that it has
innumerable riches in it. All the expensive metals with which we adorn
ourselves are underneath the earth. Brucellish K Sangma says that
she has the resolve in her claw and reach the “earth’s belly” to get
priceless gems to adorn herself.
Q7. What are the things the poet wnats to achieve? Does the
poet really feel that she can do all these? If not, then what is the
purpose of these lines?
The poet, Brucellish K. Sangma in the poem “I Believe” says
that :
• She can pierce the heavens and see the angels play.
• She can soar to the level of silky clouds and view the stars.
• She can dive into the sea and swim with sharks.
• She can even take out gems from mines to adorn herself.
The poet thinks that she has the resolve, courage and
determination to undertake all these tasks for sake of pleasure, riches
and enjoyment.
But, as the last stanza of the poem states, she sincerely believes
that her first duty is to fulfill her responsibility as a human being.
Q8. What is “world’s treasures”?
The phrase “would’s treasures” refers not to the rich mines or
to priceless gems or to any other expensive luxurious things of the
world; but they refer to the human beings who are more valuable than
anything else according to the poet, Brucellish K Sangma.
Q9. What is the firm belief of the poet?
The firm belief of the poet, Brucellish K Sangma, is that it is her





first duty to fulfill her role as a human being - that is, to make the world
a better place for fellow human beings to live in.
Q10. What is the role assigned to the poet? What is the poet’s
The role assigned to the poet is that of being a human being. To
distinguish ourselves from animals, we should not only pursue things
which are determined by our drives for hunger and pleasure; but to
think about our fellow human beings and make the world a better
place to live in.
The poet’s dream is that if all the people of the world start thinking
in the way the poet does then the world will be a better place to live.






The title of A Psalm of Life is an appropriate one. A psalm is an
invocation to mankind to follow the path of the righteousness. Here,
the speaker advises people to be heroes in their lives. He asks them to
lie in the present, without thinking about the past or the future.
A poem teaching a moral lesson is called a didactic poem. A
Psalm of Life is a didactic poem. The poet’s task in the poem is to
instruct and guide, to inspire and modify. The poem teaches basic human
values and lays out a foundation for a prosperous, ethical life.
Form and structure:
The poem consists of nine stanzas of four lines each. The poem
has regular rhyming pattern. Each stanza follows the rhyme scheme
abab. In every stanza, the first line rhymes with the third line and the
second line with the fourth.
Allusion is a reference to other works or cultures in prose and
poetry. H.W Longfellow has used allusions to convey his message in
the poem.
‘Tell me not, in mournful numbers.’
In the above line, numbers refer to the verses in the Bible.
‘Dust thou art, to dust thou returnest’
The above line too has a Biblical reference.
Similes: It is a figure of speech in which a likeness between two
different things is stated using the words ‘like’ or ‘as.’ Examples of
similes in A Psalm of Life are,
1. Still, like muffled drums, are beating
2. Be not like dumb, driven cattle!


Examples of alliteration in the poem are. *Life does not end with death. Still achieving still pursuing. Dust thou art. *Become great by emulating great men. 1.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Life is but an empty dream. Find us further 3. A Psalm of Life is a whole collection of moral principles to be followed by all the people. Art is long and Time is fleeting ALLITERATION: Alliteration is the close repetition of the consonant sounds at the beginning of words to facilitate narration.. 2. 30 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Examples of metaphor in the poem are. The principles listed by the poem are enumerated as follows. PARALLELISM: Parallelism is used when the speaker says 1. Soul id dead that slumbers… 3. *Time is too short for our long mission. Life is real! Life is earnest! 2. ISC & CBSE . 1.W Longfellow points out that one has a duty to make this world a better place to live in. Dumb driven cattle 4.*Life has a serious mission. H. *We have a destiny irrespective of our joys and sorrows. Learn to labour 5. Grave is not its goal 2. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH METAPHORS: Metaphor is that figure of speech where comparison of two different things are implied but not clearly stated. to dust thou returnest.

Q3. He justifies the statement with the Christian belief that man emerges from the soil and eventually returns to it upon death. ISC & CBSE 31 . Q5. What does the poet wish to signify by the term “mournful numbers”? The poet uses the term “mournful numbers” to signify “sad songs”. it may seem that with death comes an end of life. is not what it appears to be? How does he justify this statement? According to the poet. The poet refers to the Christian belief that after death man returns to TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. according to the poet. What does “dust” refer to? To which belief does the poet refer here? “Dust” referred to in the extract is the metaphor for the universe. Explain : “Life is real! Life is earnest!” Life is not an empty dream. *Learn to labor and wait for results. *Act now. but a reality which has a sense of purpose.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Q6. and therefore life is real and earnest. Q2. with positivism. and therefore one should live life “earnestly” that is. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q1. *Be a hero in the struggle of life. Why does the poet claim that life is real and earnest? The poet claim that life is real and earnest and death is merely an illusion as soul transpires from body.. Thus death is not the ultimate end of life. Q4. vitality as well as sincerity. but it is not so as soul is immortal. in the living present. The third line of the extract “For the soul is dead that slumbers” means “the person who is inactive is virtually dead”. What. but it never dies. Explain the third line of the extract. It can also a metaphor for a fatalistic and a pessimistic view of life.

Q13.” Human body is made of dust and after death returns to dust. It may be the destination.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Explain in brief the meaning of the expression “dust thou art. Q12. The goal of the life should be to live earnestly every day. Q8. Such a comparison is made as the poet considers the world a battlefield in which one stays temporarily with a specific purpose and each day one fights a battle to live earnestly. What is compared to the sound of muffled drums? And why? Out hearts beats are compared to the sounds of muffled drums as with the passage of time we are progressing towards our grave. Q11. What is the destination of “our hearts”? Is it the final destination? The destination of “our hearts” is the grave. what matters is how earnestly one has lived life. should we live our lives? The aim of our lives should be constant earnest striving in the present.” “Bivouac” means “an encampment in the open air without tents”. according to the poet. so that the future becomes increasingly better. to dust returnest. ISC & CBSE . 32 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. How. but the soul is immortal and will never die. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH the dust from where it comes. How does the poet refute the above mentioned belief? The poet refutes the Christian belief of “from the dust. It is a Christian belief. to the dust” by saying that human body is made of dust and will return to dust. Q9.. Q10. Explain “bivouac of life. but it does not matter. Q7. To what does the poet compare the world? Why is such a comparison made? The poet compares the world to a battlefield.

and future must invariably be fine should we have done justice to the present.. Q19. How does the poet wish us to act in the struggle of life? In the struggle of life. Q17. “dumb. but we should fight like heroes. Q16. according to the poet. Q14. Q20.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. driven cattle”? The expression “dumb. Why does the poet urge us to take interest only in our present? The poet urges us to take interest only in our present as the present is the solution to the past. What does the poet mean by “footprints onthe sands of time”? The phrase “footprints on the sands of time” signifies the name and fame that one leaves behind after one is dead in the course of human history (sands of time). TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. What do the lives of great men teach us? The lives of great men teach us that we can only leave our mark in this world through our good deeds. The shipwrecked brother (referring to fellow human beings who have strayed from the right path) is sailing. Q18. we should not surrender. What is indicated by the expression. What the poets means by “bivouac of life” is “the battle field of life”. Explain : “Heart within and God o’erhead!” To live an earnest life in the present we should have faith in our actions (heart within) and at the same time have infinite grace and mercy (God o’erhead) of God. driven cattle” indicates the cattle that go by blind faith and not by reason. Q15. ISC & CBSE 33 . What is referred to as the “solemn main”? Who is sailing as the ‘main”? Life is compared to “solemn main” (sea) as it is grim in its depth and vastness.

Q22. What virtue of patience does the poet bring out in these lines? The virtue of patience the poet brings out in these lines is that one should carry on doing good with courage and determination and wait patiently for the fruits of labour as it will arrive even though it may take some time. 34 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Why does the poet refer to the “footprints on the sands of time”? The poet refers to the “footprints on the sands of time” as he gives importance to human history.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. earnest and patient lives in accordance with righteousness and God’s grace as it will provide meaning to life. State the central idea of the poem. The central idea of the poem is to urge the readers to live hardworking. the mark one leaves in human history through one’s heroic deed of living life earnestly. Longfellow. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Q21.W.” Q25. Explain. “with a heart for any fate”. explain the meaning of “shipwrecked brother”. ISC & CBSE . “With the readiness to face any eventuality that might befall us. How can we make our “brothers take heart again”? We cah make our “brothers take heart again” by setting the right example of living life earnestly. Name the poem and poet. “Shipwrecked brother” is used here to mean fellow human beings who have strayed from the right path and courted disaster. Q26. Q24. The poem is “A Psalm of Life” by H. Q23. With reference to the extract.

like a painting. rainy cold night. It is the height of someone’s artistic abilities. An artistic work which is simply beautiful is art. but at the same time art also has a social fucntion. Rahmat’s little daughter back at home in Afghanistan is TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. sculpture or piece of music or writing (poetry. it serves much more significant function than that. It is the artist’s highest achievement and the best in his ability as an artist. THE KABULIWALA Q. Behrman is infected by pneumonia and he dies. fiction. Henry’s “The Last Leaf. Old Behrman has done so throughout his life.. During the process of painting it on a windy. THE LAST LEAF Q. All the artists in the story “The last Leaf” want to create masterpieces and strive towards it. Rahamat. Behrman’s artistic piece proves that art is not only for the sake of beauty. but his work of art saves someone whom he cares for. He paints a leaf in the ivy tree which instills faith in Johnsy and she recovers from her illness. but before death he does something which is truly a masterpiece. but an artistic work which saves the life of a person is more beautiful than that as it has served a much more significant function that just soothing someone’s eyes and heart. ISC & CBSE 35 . A masterpiece is a great work for art.). Therefore it is a masterpiece.” It is true that a work of art is valuable for its beauty. etc. Do you agree that a work of art is only for the sake of beauty? Comment in relation to O. to educate. Thus Behrman’s last leaf on the ivy tree is truly a masterpiece as it saves the life of Jhonsy.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Do you agree that the ending of the story “The Kabuliwala” exquistely renders the richness of the inner world of man? Rabindranath Tagore’s short story deals with a relationship between a five year old child Mini and a Kabliwala (an Afghan).

ISC & CBSE . But when a strange incident lands the Kabuliwala in jail. He goes for voluntary selfimprisonment for fifteen years to prove his point and at the same time for his greed for money. Mini forgets all about him. The lawyer is a man of firm determination as he not only says things but proves them by action. Mini’s father. though she never appears in the story. Kabuliwala again appears on the wedding day of Mini and realizes that his daughter also must have grown up by that time. The artistic mastery of Tagore’s stories is visible in their successful endings. THE BET Q. Tagore was a practitioner of psychological and social realism as his stories depict poignant human relationships within a simple plot. The twist happens as the story is not anymore about friendship but portrays a father’s love for his daughter who is living far off. The Kabuliwala’s love for his daughter is manifested in showering his love to Mini. For greed.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Tagore pays more attention to the richness of the inner world of man. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH essential to the story. Give the character sketches of the lawyer and the banker. he gives away his precious youth. to emotions and less to outward events. As a short story writer. his freedom and all form of enjoyment of life without any association with any other human being. the narrator could realize this and consequently curtails some expenditure of the festivities of the wedding to sponsor the Kabuliwala’s return journey back to his country. His acceptance of the bet shows his 36 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. develops around incidents and ends with a twist.. It starts with Mini as a girl and her developing friendship with the Kabuliwala and suddenly there is a twist in the story as the Kabuliwala was sent to prison Years after we meet the Kabuliwala on Mini’s wedding day. The sort story “The Kabuliwala” begins abruptly. How do they differ? With which character are your synpathies? Give reason for your answer.

It is a true that there are many disasters waiting on such TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. I sympathize with the lawyer as he has ambitions to realize his dream of material possessions and in the process of acquiring it through the bet realizes the vanity of it and left it. THE TIGER IN THE TUNNEL Q. But life had to go on.. Baldeo’s twelve year old son Tembu. but also points out his greed for material possessions. his truthful nature. took up the position of being a night watchman in the same station after his father’s death as he has to look after the family after his father has passed away. There is the fear of a tiger near the tunnel and one night when Baldeo was on his duty. He hosts the party for discussion on capital punishment and moreover to trap the lawyer. the banker is rackless with his money. who works as a night watchman in a wayside station. He goes in for an unnecessary bet just to prove that death penalty is better than life imprisonment. He is a man of determination and action by giving up two millions to prove the fleeting and futile nature of material possessions. But at the same time it can be said that he is a life-like human being. When we meet him later in the story as an older man. His job is to look after the safe passage of trains from the tunnel. determination. we see a change in his fortunes which makes him flout his principles and wickedly think of killing the prisoner just before the accomplishment of his captivity period. he was attacked by the tiger and killed. As against the lawyer. ISC & CBSE 37 .ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. While laying the conditions for the agreement. though Baldeo could also hurt the tiger and it got killed being hit by the train. State how Ruskin Bond brings out this idea in his story “The Tiger in the Tunnel”? Ruskin Bond in the short story “The Tiger in the Tunnel” talks about the bravery of Baldeo. a tribal man.

Love is not about captivity. when Princess September saw that the bird was suffocating in the golden cage and was about to die. When the bird was caged. When one loves someone one should set him or her free. The story ends happily when we see Princess September married to the King of Cambodia and living a happy life with him. A small bird came to her room and sang melodious songs to make her happy. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH a way-side station. which had been gifted by her father. Do you agree? Give a reasoned answer with reference to the short story “Princess September”. ISC & CBSE . it is about freedom. and did not eat or drink.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. she set him free. he stopped singing. Finally. The bird prayed for his freedom and said that he could only sing when he is free. Baldeo is dead. PRINCES SEPTEMBER Q. but the fear of that cannot deter people from carrying on with life. The bird was thankful to the Princes and srayed with her and sang for her. The bird used to fly around with princess September in the place and sing songs for her. one should set him or her free and love can blossom the best when there is freedom. Similarly. But her jealous sisters advised her to keep the bird in a golden cage. Thus the story proves that when one loves someone. 38 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. but his family must carry on living and thus Tembu had to be courageous enough to take up the job as life has to go on. The short story “Princes September” is a fairy tale where a Siamese Princess’ parrot died and she wept bitterly..

He however wants to avoid the long phrases and talk directly. He personifies gossip as Report. There are unconfirmed reports that Antonio has had his rich ships wrecked in the narrow seas of Scotland called the Goodwins 2. or one who tried to convince her neighbors about her loyalty to marriage by weeping on the death of her third husband. This strip of water is risky and shallow and this is where many ship wrecks have taken place 3. He wishes that he was so distinguished and capable as to be able to save his dear friend. 3. Act-III Scene-I Points:  Salarino and Salanio enter and wonder what Rialto is abuzz with  Salarino answers that 1. the honest merchant. Report (the personified Gossip) was as untrue a woman as ever knapped (nibbled/bit) Ginger (a reference to old women in Elizabethan England). Shylock is compared with the devil here. who may or may not be true  Salanio wishes that 1. (Since she is thrice married she is disloyal. ISC & CBSE 39 . He confirms that Antonio. a woman. Personification: Salanio continues to address gossip as a woman  Salarino and Salanio spot Shylock and ask cross themselves in mock fear..ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.) 2. Prolixity: long phrases Important figures of speech: Metaphor: Salanio compares the direct and straightforward manner of talking with a highway. has lost his money 4. Important words and phrases: Knapped: nibble. Salarino compares the many ships with the dead remains of the human bodies in a metaphor 4.) TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. (This gesture reflects the typical prejudice that Jews were subjected to.

damaging Shylock’s business. 2. Antonio used to lend money out of courtesy to people. 3. a prodigal. damn: the curse) Salarino and Salanio tell Shylock that He is in no position to judge Jessica That the difference between Jessica’s ‘flesh’ (here character) and his is as stark as between ‘ivory’ and ‘jet’ That the difference between her blood and Shylock’s is as plain as it is between Rhenish wine and Red wine Shylock tells Salarino and Salanio that he has run into a bad deal with Antonio He calls Antonio a bankrupt.       1.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Salanio also continues the pun (and the insult) and mocks Shylock suggesting that Shylock knew that Jessica was in that age when daughters elope with their lovers (the pun being that the mother bird knows that the fledgling will fly away) Shylock responds with his own pun on the word ‘dam’ and curses Jessica (dam: the mother bird. who once used to insult Shylock and call him a ‘userer’ (a term of insult). ISC & CBSE . Salarino insults Shylock punning on the word flight (escape and flying off).     40 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Salanio asks Shylock what the news prevails among the merchants Shylock takes it as a slight and answers that the merchants are talking and gossiping about Jessica’s flight (elopement). saying that he knew the ‘the tailor’ (an indirect reference to Lorenzo) that had stitched the wings of the bird (Jessica) that flew away with. Now he will have a hard time saving himself from the penalty Salarino hopes that Shylock will not pursue the bond in letter and spirit if the Bond is forfeited. Shylock’s answers and reveals his intentions in the following speech: To bait fish withal: (he will catch fish with Antonio’s flesh) if it TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.. He wonders what a pound of flesh is good for.

(Antonio’s flesh will satisfy Shylock’s revenge if nothing else) He hath disgraced me. if you tickle a Jew he will laugh) if you poison us. hyperbole)} laughed at my losses. do we not die? (the effect of poison on the body of the Jew is that same as it is on the body of others) and if you wrong us. choices and feelings?) fed with the same food. healed by the same means. mocked at my gains. (does he not eat what others eat? Is he not hurt with the same weapons that hurt others?) subject to the same diseases.. as a Christian is? (does not the weather behave with the Jew as it does with everybody else?) If you prick us.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. thwarted my bargains. ISC & CBSE 41 . (Since TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. (His enemies have been excited and friends have been made unresponsive) and what’s his reason? I am a Jew. senses. he will seek revenge much as any other man would do the same) If we are like you in the rest. (Shylock’s race and his business deals have been at the receiving end of Antonio’s hatred)cooled my friends. (is he not subject to the same diseases and cures that others are used to?) warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer. shall we not revenge? (and if a Jew is wronged (ill treated). do we not bleed? if you tickle us. hands and organs?)dimensions. will feed nothing else. sense organs. and hindered me half a million. (Is not a Jew a human being. (And this has all been done as Shylock is a Jew) (From here Shylock asks a series of Rhetorical Questions) Hath not a Jew eyes? hath not a Jew hands. (Antonio has made fun of Shylock’s losses and joked about his profits as he is a userer) scorned my nation. does he not have eyes. organs. do we not laugh? (if you penetrate a Jews body with a needle it will bleed. affections. we will resemble you in that. passions? (does he not have a human shape. it will feed my revenge. heated mine enemies. {Antonio had insulted Shylock and caused him a massive loss to the tune of half a million (fig of speech. hurt with the same weapons.

2.) Tubal. ISC & CBSE . and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. a friend of Shylock’s and a Jew. revenge. (The evil behavior taught by the Christians will be practiced against them. who has robbed him. 4. he will be very like the others is respect to revenge) If a Jew wrong a Christian. Shylock asks him if he has been to Genoa to look for Jessica and Lorenzo.    1. has felt the curse so strongly for the first time (in light of his personal loss). But they don’t have it.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Shylock rants against his daughter.  42 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH a Jew is no different from the others in respect of his human qualities. They are revengeful. what should his sufferance be by Christian example? Why.) He wishes Jessica dead at his foot with the jewels in ear He wishes that she was placed in her coffin (hearsed) at his foot with his money in the coffin He laments that he has spent an incalculable sum in her search and has not been able to find his daughter. One of his other TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. (Therefore. 3. He refers to the Curse of God on the Jews that condemned them to exile. Shylock says. what is his humility? Revenge. Shylock argues that by the Christian example. And Shylock will be more aggressive than the Christians in his execution of revenge.. He calls his misfortune ‘loss upon loss’. He refers in particular to A diamond that cost him two thousand ducats in Frankfort that Jessica has carried with her The Jewish race. Shylock uses a Biblical allusion to carry the point home. Tubal announces that he cannot find Jessica.) If a Christian wrong a Jew. the Jew shall show no mercy if a Christian has wronged him. I will execute. and he wishes her dead as he bemoans his losses. (Shylock refers to the one quality that Christians are supposed to have: humility.) The villany you teach me. Tubal informs Shylock of Antonio’s great loss. 5. enters.

Portia reasons...stay you from election. He asks Tubal to hire him a lawyer to pursue his bond well in advance (fourteen days before the bond is forfeited) He declares that he will pursue the bond to the bitter end. she will lose his company. Tubal informs him of Antonio’s many creditors He informs him also about a turquoise (a precious metal) ring Jessica has taken with her—given to Shylock in his bachelor days by a woman named Leah... She tells him that she feels that she will not lose him (although she stops initially short of confessing love) Her instincts that Bassanio will make the right selection cannot be said to be guided by hate.... coming from Tripolis.. Shylock’s spirits brighten.. if not love She confesses that a maiden in the affairs of love and marriage has no speech ‘tongue’ to express herself.) He asks Tubal to see him at the Synagogue (the Jewish temple).ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH        TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. If Bassanio chooses incorrectly.... In Belmont. Shylock is saddened by the news but the news of Antonio’s loss gladdens him.. ISC & CBSE 43 .... only ‘thought’ She would like to detain Basaanio for a month or two before he TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Act III Scene II       Points Portia: I pray you. He will try to eliminate Antonio as it will lead him to better profits (Antonio used to oppose Shylock’s moneylending.. has been reported missing. ships.... Portia begs Bassanio to delay choosing the casket for a day or two.... when Tubal reports that Antonio’s ships have run into trouble and that Antonio’s creditors are certain Antonio is ruined. presumably Jessica’s mother— and has traded that ring for a monkey.. however... Shylock is especially embittered when Tubal reports that Jessica spent eighty ducats in one night............

Portia will have the wish and the desire of breaking the oath she has been under. She curses the time (the naughty times) that puts barriers between ‘the owners’ and ‘their rights’ {between Bassanio and Portia} Despite her declaration.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. She says that as men on the rack will say anything to ensure their life and save them TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Portia is entirely his.             44 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH risks his chances in casket selection She wishes she could teach Bassanio how to choose right but expresses her helplessness as she will break her oath to the will of her father If Bassanio moves towards making the wrong casket selection and fails to get Portia. the blame should lie on Fortune not on Portia If it is proved so Portia blames Fortune. not herself (as she has dedicated herself to Bassanio already) She blames her desire of keeping Bassanio with her for extended period of time for her long speech as she intends to hold him back from choosing the casket for as long as she can In response to Portia Bassanio says that he is living on the ‘rack’. a torture bed.. there will never be treason in Bassanio’s love Portia still playfully refers to the Rack. hinting at his emotional torture (he is desperate to make the selection) Portia plays along the torture bed metaphor and asks Bassanio what treason (crime) has been mixed with his love Bassanio answers that the only treason (crime) there has ever been is that he has doubted his success in love. He argues that much as there will never be friendship between fire and ice. if Portia and Bassanio can’t get together. Thus Bassanio’s failure will ‘make’ Portia wish a sin (sin of breaking her oath Bassanio’s ‘eyes’ (his gaze) should be ‘beshrewed’ (treated as the culprit) as it has cast a spell on Portia Portia declares openly that she is not her own mistress now. She gives her ‘one half’ to Bassanio and the other half that comes to her goes to him too. ISC & CBSE .

from virgin sacrifice to the Sea Monster (she uses a classical allusion).. if Bassanio wins  She remarks on how Bassanio moves towards the caskets.... ISC & CBSE 45 .......... comparing Bassanio with Hercules (the young Alcides) when he saved the Trojan Princess.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. If Bassanio wins he will be like a new crowned monarch before whom his subjects will bow 3.  Presently Portia compares herself with the virgin who is about to be sacrificed and people around her (Nerissa and others) with the Dardinian (Trojan) wives who are so tense and miserable that their faces are tear-streaked... Music will be like the sound of the drums into the ears of the dreaming bridegroom summoning him to marriage on the day of the wedding.......... Hesoine.....  She asks Bassanio to approach the caskets in the manner of Hercules and conveys to him that she is much more anxious than he is considering that she is merely a spectator and not a participant in the exercise... It tells him that ‘Fancy’ (attraction) is false and dies TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. from torture so will Bassanio say anything to save himself  Playing the rack metaphor further Bassanio asks Portia to ‘promise me life’ (tell him the secret of the caskets) Portia: Away then... Notes on the song  The song guides Bassanio towards the right selection of the casket... At that time the whole of Troy gathered to mourn (howl) at the spectacle..... If Bassanio loses he will be like the dying swan whose grave will be Portia’s tears (simile) 2....makest the fray  Portia asks Bassanio to proceed for casket selection and says that he must choose the one that she is locked in  She tells Bassanio that he will find her if he loves her  She asks for music while Bassanio makes the casket selection saying that music will bring about romance in the effort: 1.

. their true possessor might be dead with her head in the tomb (sepulchre)  In this manner ornament (fake show) is very like (simile) the peaceful and misleading shore to an actually stormy sea........... {Bassanio should not pay any attention to the charm and the fancy of the gold and the silver caskets} Bassanio: So may... ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH very much in the cradle where it is born. they should not pay attention to Fancy (attraction)......TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. it is created and purchased in the form of cosmetics (by the weight)  The outward appearance could be miraculous if beautiful and those who are beautiful in this way are light of character (not serious people)  The crispy/snaky/golden locks (the blonde hair) that sway in the wind on the heads of beautiful women may actually be artificial.. Therefore. ISC & CBSE ....Joy be the consequence Bassanio says:  What appears does not always become true  The world (society) is misled by outward embellishments (decoration)  The most corrupt plea (request) in law is that which is uttered smoothly and presented in a melodious voice to conceal the evil intent  In religion errors are sanctioned by pious looking men who justify them citing the text (religious books)  The most plain vice (sin) is that which appears as virtue on the outside  Cowards with scary hearts and temperaments try to look brave sporting the beard of Hercules and Mars (the God of war)  Beauty is not always natural..... the beautiful scarf on the face of an Indian beauty (ordinary looking woman)  Outward charm is the falsehood that cunning people assume to 46 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.

become rashly hopeless.............ratified by you Points:  Bassanio finds Portia’s picture in the casket  He calls the artist who has drawn Portia’s sketch ‘a demi God’  He calls the artist ‘a demi God’ as the artist has succeeded in capturing Portia very closely in the image (that Bassanio has found) 1.... Portia: How... ISC & CBSE 47 .... with its lackluster appearance impresses Bassanio more than the fine words written on the gold and silver  He chooses lead and wishes himself joy.. which threatens instead of promising anything.. Or whether he feels that they are moving (Bassanio comments TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE..... befool the wise. metaphor: joy of love is to fall on her like soft rain)  She has felt the blessing of love in excess............... it must be less or she will be surfeited (too full with it).. Bassanio: What find I here......  Gold should therefore be rejected as it was once the curse for king Midas (allusion to the King whose touch would convert everything to Gold)  Silver should also be rejected as it is a common metal that exchanges hands in the form of coins  Lead...surfeit Portia says that:  All her feelings except those leading to love have vanished  Feelings such as those that led her to doubt Bassanio.... Bassanio wonders if Portia’s eyes are moving 2. shiver in fear and harbor jealousy have all fled away  She wants her love to be moderate and not drive her into excessive ecstasy (Figure of speech Apostrophe: love is addressed here directly)  The joy of love should be like gentle rain upon her (figure of speech.....ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED......

2.) Portia’s lips in the picture are parted only by her sweet breath. Finally Bassanio says that he is far from able to convey the beauty of the portrait much as the portrait is far from able to convey Portia’s beauty: the degree by which he cant convey the beauty of the portrait corresponds with the degree by which the portrait cant convey Portia’s beauty.       1.. how he was able to resist the brilliance of Portia’s gaze. such a barrier is welcome even between two sweet friends (metaphor again: the upper lip and the lower lip are the two friends that are separated by Portia’s fragrant breath) Bassanio compares the painter (who has done the portrait) with the spider (metaphor again). 48 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH upon liveliness in the picture. thus. 5. 4. 3. who has woven a golden web in Portia’s hair to capture the hearts (feelings) of men. The picture is so full of life that its stillness is gone. He picks up the scroll and reads it finally. ISC & CBSE . his luck has and will fetch him happiness He should turn to Portia and claim her with a loving kiss TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Portia’s golden hair thus capture the feelings of men faster than gnats (insects trapped in cobwebs) Bassanio wonders how the painter could have done the eyes. the painting should have had only one eye. Portia’s one eye should have had the power to steal both the eyes of the painter and.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. calling it the essence and gist of his destiny The Scroll: Bassanio is told that his choice has not been influenced by his outward appearance On his true choice Bassanio stands a fair chance of success This ‘fortune’ (Portia and her wealth) falls to him he should be happy and satisfied Bassanio’s happiness should augur him well. In Bassanio’s love stricken assessment.

not quite able to understand that the ‘peals of praise’ (sound of applause) are meant for him  Bassanio calls Portia ‘thrice fair’ and tells her that his confusion is as great as that of the above mentioned contender  He asks her to confirm/ratify and sign his achievement for him Portia: You see me.. yet. who has inherited her father’s estate. ISC & CBSE 49 . Lord Bassanio. (Portia refers to her own condition and state here.. That only to stand high in your account (so that she could win TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ratified by you  Bassanio calls the scroll ‘gentle’ and turns to Portia to claim her as instructed  He intends to accept her in marriage and asks her to accept him  He uses a SIMILE to convey that his state is like that of a contender who has impressed the general public but is not quite able to believe that he has done so. she wants that she should be sixty times her better in her attitude and approach). where I stand. although people have appreciated him  Continuing the simile Bassanio says that such a contender is Giddy (nauseated/exhausted) in his response to the crowd and dazed. To wish myself much better (she has no need to want to be better). A gentle scroll………………………. asking Bassanio to look over her perspective) Such as I am (in her state as Portia. she does not want anything more from life). A thousand times more fair (a thousand times prettier). ten thousand times more rich (ten thousand times richer).ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. for you I would be trebled twenty times myself (For his sake/ so as to be worthy of him. the heiress of Belmont): though for myself alone I would not be ambitious in my wish (For the woman Portia.

ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH his complete affection).TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. happier than this (still happier thinking). livings. my lord: (But at this very moment she giver herself and all her possessions to Bassanio) 50 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. which. she is not yet so old But she may learn (Her biggest happiness being that she is not so old that she may not learn) and. Governor and King). these servants and this same myself Are yours. her king (that Bassanio is her Lord. (her value put crudely) Is an unlesson’d girl. As from her lord. but now. unexposed to society and cultures (she undervalues herself)} Happy in this. ISC & CBSE . {is that she is an uneducated/ untaught girl. This house. I might in virtue. but the full sum of me (but in totality) Is sum of something. her governor. unschool’d. Happiest of all is that her gentle spirit Commits itself to yours to be directed (and her greatest source of happiness is that she and her essence is Bassanio’s to direct). Myself and what is mine to you and yours Is now converted (Everything that is hers is Bassanio’s): but now I was the lord Of this fair mansion. servants and her own Queen) Queen o’er myself: and even now. Exceed account (people might say that Portia is the full of qualities/ pretty/has friends and inheritance). master of my servants (before Bassanio succeeded Portia was the owner of the house.. She is not bred so dull but she can learn (that her upbringing has given her the means to learn). friends. unpractised. beauties. to term in gross.

and he can feel the joy – both expressed and unexpressed  He promises Portia that he will not let the ring part from his finger ever  That the parting of the ring will be akin to Bassanio’s death  Portia should then say that Bassanio is dead. having seen Portia and Bassanio prosper in their hopes of wedlock.. lose. Nerissa tells Portia and Bassanio that:  It is now her time and Gratiano’s that the two of them. Let it presage the ruin of your love And be my vantage to exclaim on you. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ISC & CBSE 51 . or give away. and as and when. Bassanio’s dead Points:  Bassanio confesses that Portia has robbed him of all words. that he has no ability to thank her  He blushes (blood speaks to you in my veins)  He also says that he is terribly confused in his thoughts as a result of his great success  In a simile.. (If. (Her allegiance to Bassanio is marked by the giving of this ring) Which when you part from. I give them with this ring. the loss will give Portia the justification to accuse Bassanio and lead to the destruction of their love) Bassanio: Madam you have bereft………….ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. he compares his own confusion with the confusion of a favorite Prince after the Prince has delivered a great speech  The buzzing of the crowd around the Prince is such that the Prince is not able to understand the response  Every little response of the crowd gets mixed with the other responses and what comes out is a ‘wild nothing’ (no meaningful interpretation)  The one element of the Prince’s understanding is that the crowd is happy with him. Bassanio loses the ring.

Gratiano expressed his love for Nerissa as he does not believe in ‘intermission’ (wasting time) either} No more pertains to me. I loved. (While Bassanio wooed Portia.. Bassanio wonders who it is that Gratiano wishes to marry. ISC & CBSE . For wooing here until I sweat again (he made the effort to impress and persuade Nerissa about marriage). if promise 52 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. for intermission. Bassanio. my lord. my lord. at last. And sweating until my very roof was dry (metaphor: it means that he was completely exhausted trying to persuade Nerissa) With oaths of love (with promises of love). can look as swift as yours: (He congratulates himself on being as alert as his friend and master. (It does not suit him to waste time much as it does not suit Bassanio) Your fortune stood upon the casket there (while Bassanio’s fate depended on the selection of the right casket) And so did mine too (even Gratiano’s luck and fate depended on Bassanio’s right casket selection). My eyes. you have got me one (Bassanio has found him a wife without quite realising it). ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH would like to celebrate the event  Gratiano expresses his joy at the union of Bassanio and Portia  He calls it the happiest event in their lives  He expresses his wish to marry at the time Bassanio and Portia will ‘solemnise the bargain of your faith’ (formalize their marriage). I beheld the maid.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. {While Bassanio expressed his love for Portia. Gratiano set her eyes on Nerissa) You loved. He tells us why in the next line) You saw the mistress. Gratiano: I thank your lordship (he thanks Bassanio). as the matter falls (to conclude). than you.

2. 3. TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. ISC & CBSE 53 . that he is sick in mind and body Bassanio reads the letter Portia: There are some shrewd contents……brings you Portia notices the changing expression of Bassanio and says that contents of the letter are shrewd (sharp/bitter) She tries to guess what the letter could contain. he managed to get a promise). 2. I got a promise of this fair one here (he managed to get Nerissa’s word) To have her love. It could be the TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. last (finally. welcome Bassanio welcomes Lorenzo and Salerio in Belmont He wonders if his newly acquired status as the Lord of Belmont gives him the capacity to welcome Lorenzo and Jessica there He welcomes them on behalf of Portia Portia welcomes them too Lorenzo tells them that he did not intend to be there in Belmont but Salerio requested him to accompany him there and that despite his saying no many times Salerio insisted that he be there Salerio tells them that Antonio has sent Bassanio a letter that he has borne from Venice Bassanio asks them how Antonio is Salerio makes an indirect reference to Antonio’s sickness. provided that your fortune (to be able to obtain her love if you were lucky enough to get her mistress) Achieved her mistress. Portia asks Nerissa if this is all true Nerissa replies in the positive and tells her that she has taken fancy to Gratiano Bassanio asks Gratiano if he meant to marry Nerissa and gets a reply in the positive At this point Lorenzo and Jessica along with Salerio enter Bassanio: Lorenzo…………………………..       1.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH     1..

Mexico and England. Barbary and India He asks if all Antonio’s ships have been drowned: not one has escaped the rocks that destroy merchants? Salerio: Not one…………………………………his bond TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Lisbon. or something equally grave as Bassanio’s constitution (complexion) would not have changed in this manner as no ordinary letter would have changed it in any firm man Portia notices Bassanio’s constitution getting worse and worse and finally asks what the letter contains Portia tells him that she is Bassanio’s half and therefore must have half the share of everything that Bassanio gets Bassanio: O sweet Portia……………………….. 1. 3.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.merchant marring rocks Bassanio tells Portia that: The letter contains some of the most unpleasant words that were ever written by man When he first declared his love for Portia he told her that all his wealth was his gentleman’s background (it ran in his veins) Bassanio told Portia that he was a gentleman and he did not misinform her Yet. ISC & CBSE . in telling her that he had no wealth he bragged and spoke a lie as he was in debt At the time he told Portia that he was valued at a zero he should actually have told her that he was worse than zero He has been bound to a dear friend (Antonio) It is on his account that Antonio has got indebted further to his enemies He shows Portia the letter and in a metaphor Compares the letter to the body of Antonio Every word of the letter to the open and bleeding wound on Antonio’s body He asks Salerio if none of his ships have returned from Tripolis. 4.         a) b)   54 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH news of a dead friend.

his two friends. Salerio answers in the negative... its forfeiture and Justice Jessica: When I was ………………………. the Duke and the Magnificoes have tried to convince Shylock to drop his cruel plea But they have not been able to move him from the envious plea that he be given his bond. that a) Shylock will have Antonio’s pound of flesh b) He will deny even twenty times the value of money he lent Antonio if he is made that offer She tells them that law and power of authority alone can save Antonio. To this Portia responds: TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. poor Antonio Jessica tells Bassanio that she heard Shylock swear to Tubal and Chus. Shylock will destroy him Portia asks Bassanio if his friend Antonio is in such trouble and in response to that Bassanio answers: He calls Antonio his dearest friend and the kindest man Antonio is one in whom the best and untired spirit for helping others is visible He is someone in whom the ancient Roman values live on It is thus ironical that he has to face Shylock’s ire Portia asks him further what sum he owes the Jew and Bassanio gives her the three thousand ducats figure. He confirms that Antonio’s ships have drowned indeed.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH              TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. He also tells Bassanio that Shylock won’t accept the money even if he is offered it He confirms that Shylock has been importuning the Duke (who had the authority to sanction the bond) day and night He calls Shylock a creature who in the shape of man is desperate to ruin Antonio Shylock has been questioning the freedom of Venetian law and constitution as he has so far not been given the chance to move court for Antonio’s flesh and if he has been denied Justice Twenty merchants. ISC & CBSE 55 .

another metaphor. destroy) the bond. bring your true friend along (when the debt is settled Antonio may join Bassanio in Belmont). and then treble that. no more (Is three thousand ducats responsible for such a fate. You shall have gold To pay the petty debt twenty times over (she tells him to carry so much gold with him as to pay the debt twenty times over) : When it is paid. away! For you shall hence upon your wedding-day (she invites Bassanio to walk the aisle/participate in the marriage ceremony first): Bid your friends welcome (she asks him to welcome his friends). and she 56 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.. show a merry cheer (and be cheerful): Since you are dear bought. First go with me to church and call me wife (she tells Bassanio to undertake the oath of marriage first). My maid Nerissa and myself meantime (she and Nerissa) Will live as maids and widows (will live as women whose husbands are not there with them). ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH PORTIA What. ISC & CBSE . For never shall you lie by Portia’s side (as Bassanio should never be by Portia’s side with a guilty heart) With an unquiet soul (a guilty heart). she is amazed at the paltry sum of money)? Pay him six thousand. Come. (multiple twelve by three and pay him thirty six thousand and pay the bond) Before a friend of this description (before a friend of Antonio’s nature and description) Shall lose a hair through Bassanio’s fault (loses his life or faces any risks on Bassanio’s account). I will love you dear (she tells him that he is her rare possession.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Double six thousand. And then away to Venice to your friend (and then tells him to go to Antonio). and deface (cancel.

ISC & CBSE 57 . Antonio begs Shylock to consider his plea 3.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. The position of law and its influence on Venetian citizens becomes clear 5. Act III Scene III Salient points 2.look to him TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. BASSANIO tells Portia that:  He will start for Venice as she has given him the leave to do do  And he will try to save his friend and come back to her as soon as he can  He will not rest and lie down till he gets back  Nor will he rest till he is united with Portia once again. BASSANIO reads the letter aloud:  Antonio’s ships have all been lost  His creditors are after him for the debt he has to settle  His finances are running very low  His bond to the Jew has been violated  He will lose his life as he has no option but to pay the penalty  He absolves Bassanio from all the debts that Bassanio owes him  He expresses the wish to see Bassanio before he loses his life  But he also tells him to travel back to Venice at his leisure and not in forced by the letter PORTIA asks Bassanio to conclude all his business here and go to Venice as soon as possible. Shylock conveys that he is steadfast and that come what may he will extract the penalty 4. But let me hear the letter of your friend (She asks him to read her the letter).. will love him very much) . Antonio wishes for Bassanio’s return 1) Shylock: Gaoler………………….

Since Antonio called him a dog.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. (Shylock conveys his religious intensity. I do wonder. He says that he has sworn to his God that he will pursue the bond.) Thou call’dst me dog before thou hadst a cause. But. speak not (argue not) against my bond: (these two lines indicate that Shylock is desperate to pursue his line of revenge) I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond. He will pursue it. beware my fangs: (Shylock’s argument is deductive. Now Antonio should brace for Shylock’s fangs.  The Duke will have to do justice to Shylock’s request  Shylock criticizes the jailer for taking Antonio to plead with him and others.  Antonio had called him a dog. He asks the jailer to treat him more strictly. ISC & CBSE ..   ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Shylock asks the jailer not to let Antonio importune him He expresses his hatred for Antonio’s charitable attitude and blames his interest-free loans for his losses 2) Antonio asks Shylock not to pursue his bond 3) Shylock: I will……………………request  Shylock dashes Antonio’s hopes of finding him merciful. 58 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Salarino and a Gaoler enter  Shylock calls Antonio a fool that lent out money gratis  He does not want Antonio to talk to him of mercy  Antonio pleads with Shylock to hear him out SHYLOCK I’ll have (pursue) my bond.  Shylock. Shylock roots and grounds his hatred for Antonio in this speech) The duke shall grant me (deliver) justice. Antonio. he (Antonio) must not expect anything but a dog-like behaviour from Shylock. since I am a dog. for him the bond is larger than life now.

Will much impeach the justice of his state (raise doubts on the rule of law in the state of Venice).  Salarino calls Shylock ‘an impenetrable cur’ (a hard-hearted dog) who lived with men  Antonio defeatedly confesses that he will not follow Shylock with useless requests  He knows why Shylock is after him and wants his life  He thinks that Shylock’s determination to kill him has to do with Shylock’s business interests. Thou naughty (indisciplined. as he has favored Antonio) gaoler.  Salarino expresses the hope that the Duke will not grant Shylock his suit ANTONIO The duke cannot deny the course of law: (Antonio says that it is beyond the Duke to refuse commoners justice or alter the very course of law for him) For the commodity (rights/agreement) that strangers (foreigners) have With us in Venice. ISC & CBSE 59 . that thou art so fond To come abroad with him at his request (since the jailor has favored Antonio and helped him speak to Shylock)  Antonio again begs Shylock to hear him out  Shylock very clearly conveys that the time to talk is long gone and that the bond will be pursued  He declares he will be cruel and not be foolishly merciful to Christians who have harbored the traditional hatred against him and his race. If Shylock manages to remove Antonio from the Venetian market.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. on that basis. if it be denied (refused).. he will be able to charge interest at will. states that the Duke had no power to alter the TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. partial. Note: Antonio is aware of the Venetian legal system and.

Pray God. and then I care not! (All that Antonio wants is that Bassanio should be present at the time his debt is paid in the form of a pound of Antonio’s flesh.) Since that the trade and profit of the city Consisteth of all nations (Venetian economy was very inclusive and the city’s prosperity was due to its lack of bias against foreigners. go: These griefs and losses (troubles. Shylock will be treated fairly by the Duke.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. on. Well.. That I shall hardly spare a pound of flesh To-morrow to my bloody creditor (That by the time Shylock looks to take a pound of flesh from Antonio. ISC & CBSE . he has lost his ships and now has to face the penalty) have so bated me (weakened him).. Lorenzo: Madam…………………………. Venice was a bustling city and a major centre for trade in Europe and people from all nationalities and religions were entitled to equal legal rights. Lorenzo and Portia talk and Portia hands over the manage and the charge of her Belmont house to him and Jessica and tells them that Nerissa and she intend to spend their time as nuns in a monastery till their husbands return. he will have no flesh on him). Bassanio come To see me pay his debt.) Act III Scene IV Background: A major scene that prepares the audience for the strategies that Portia and Nerissa are planning to adopt to save Antonio and help Bassanio in his efforts to do the same. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH course of Justice. enforce you 60 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.) Therefore. gaoler.

. There is reason for her to believe that Antonio is very like Bassanio 2. She bases her reasoning on the analogy of the two bulls: much as two bulls are yoked together in a cart. Portia: I never did repent……………………………… lays upon you. Antonio and Bassanio are two such friends  She reasons that Antonio is ‘a semblance’ (a reflection) of her own soul as he occupies a position equal to hers in Bassanio’s heart and in that case she has spent little effort in purchasing (securing) him.  She refers to Antonio’s state as that of ‘hellish cruelty’ (Shylock’s cruelty here that has captures Antonio) TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. of attitudes.  Lorenzo tells Portia that she has a ‘noble’ and true judgment of divine friendship (he refers to the friendship between Antonio and Bassanio)  He also claims not to be making these comments only because he intends to impress Portia  He praises Antonio and tells Portia about Antonio’s great character. ISC & CBSE 61 . Portia responds telling Lorenzo that  She never regretted being charitable and she asserts that she will not regret being charitable in helping Antonio. In such friends there is a remarkable similarity of facial expressions. friends and companions who spend their time together have their ‘souls’ (their natures) yoked to pull the cart of friendship 3. The reasons she offers are: 1. the knowledge of Antonio’s character would have helped Portia in strengthening her resolve to help him out  He calls Antonio a true gentleman and a great friend of Bassanio’s  He also conveys that Portia’s knowledge of Antonio’ s nature would have given her greater satisfaction than her usual acts of charity.

Before thee  Portia hopes to find Balthasar as helpful and honest as she has ever found him  She asks him to carry a letter to Padua to her cousin Dr.  She conveys the following plan to Lorenzo: 1.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Bellario as speedily as he can  She asks Balthasar to bring notes and garments that Dr Bellario has to give to her  She is to be met at the Tranect (the place where the ferries start and load for Venice)  There she asks Balthasar to meet her at the common ferry (the public boat) for Venice  Balthasar should waste no time in words and return as soon as possible  Balthasar exits and Portia tells Nerissa that they have work to do and they will meet their husbands soon  On Nerissa’s asking her if their husband’s will see them Portia replies in the following words: 62 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Nerissa and Portia will live there till their husbands return and Portia requests Lorenzo not to refuse this offer that she has made him affectionately  Lorenzo agrees to accept Portia’s offer readily  Portia tells him that her servants will recognize Lorenzo and Jessica in her place and Bassanio’s  Lorenzo and Jessica take their leave of Portia Balthasar: Now Balthasar……………………………. ISC & CBSE .  ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Portia considers talking of her efforts as self praise and does not want any talk over it.. She has taken a sacred vow that she will spend her time in prayer and meditation with Nerissa in a monastery two miles away 3. She entrusts Lorenzo with the manage and the command of her Belmont house 2.

and tell quaint lies (strange lies). How honourable ladies sought my love. they fell sick and died. (She is prepared to bet on the matter) When we are both accoutered (dressed) like young men.. And wish for all that. Portia tells Nerissa that their husbands will not be able to make out their identities. (into masculine steps and body language)and speak of frays (of quarrels) Like a fine bragging youth (a simile: like an irresponsible young man). ISC & CBSE 63 . TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. (Imp: There is a reference to illusions here. I’ll prove the prettier fellow of the two. (A reference to the feminine voice: Portia will speak between the tone of a boy and that of a man) and turn two mincing steps (ladylike steps) Into a manly stride. then I’ll repent (she will regret and wish) . (Portia will talk the favorite masculine jargon: about women seeking her/his love and she denying them in such a way that they all committed suicide) Which I denying. That they shall think we are accomplished With that we lack. but in such a habit (in such an attire). I could not do withal(she could not manage them all together). They will be under the impression that Portia and Nerissa are what they are not: men) I’ll hold thee any wager. that I had not killed them (she will regret killing them). PORTIA: They shall (their husbands will see them). And speak between the change of man and boy With a reed voice.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Nerissa. (This is a funny way of saying that Portia will be playing the dominant role between the two of them) And wear my dagger with the braver grace (She intends to carry the dagger much more bravely).

Portia tells Nerissa that she will inform her of the particulars once they are in the coach. Act III Scene V Background  The scene opens with Launcelot and Jessica conversing with each other in Portia’s garden  It is a comic scene and serves the purpose of giving the actors enough time to go back and forth before the greater and the more important trial scene that follows Launcelot: For look you……………………neither  Launcelot taunts Jessica that that the sins of the fathers (the ancestors) are to be laid against the children and she will suffer from the impact of Shylock’s sins  In a rather mocking tone Launcelot tells Jessica that he is concerned about her and fears for her  He asks her to be happy and cheer up as she is damned  Jessica retorts that her husband will save her as she is a Christian now and she cannot be suffering from the Jew’s natural sin  On this Launcelot blames the Christians who have been 64 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE..TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. She also asks her to hurry up as they had to cover twenty miles that day. That men shall swear I have discontinued school Above a twelvemonth. Which I will practice (which she will try and practice on others while she is in disguise). Nerissa asks her why they are to disguise as men. ISC & CBSE . (Portia will tell these lies in such a way that people around her will think that she has been out of school only a year back) I have within my mind (she has planned) A thousand raw tricks (rude jokes and words) of these bragging Jacks (eager and excited boys).   ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH And twenty of these puny lies (harmless but masculine lies) I’ll tell.

. ISC & CBSE 65 . He says that everybody at home is ‘prepared’ hungry enough for dinner Lorenzo calls Launcelot a wit-snapper – a person whose vocation it is to play with words and tells him to prepare.) On Lorenzo’s asking him to ‘cover’.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH          TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. ‘cook and serve’. the staple food that Christians eat. converting other people to the faith and says that such conversions will be against the interest of the Christians overall as they will raise the price of pork. (The word ‘cover’ indicated ‘cover’ the table. (Here Lorenzo makes a reference to all the courtly jesters that held a royal rank and profile and had the same ability as Launcelot to charm people TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. dinner Launcelot tells him that ‘cover’ is the word needed for the servants to serve dinner. and once that happens the Christians will not have enough money to put ‘rasher’ on the coals (rasher: pork strips) Lorenzo enters and hears Jessica’s plaint and warns Launcelot of serious consequences if he does not desist from taking Jessica into tight corners Jessica tells Lorenzo that Launcelot and she have fallen out as Launcelot has pronounced her damned and sinful and has also accused Lorenzo of being a mean Christian as he has been raising the price of hogs by converting her to Christianity Lorenzo tells Launcelot to ‘prepare’ for dinner Launcelot puns on the word ‘prepare’ and associates it with hunger. Launcelot flatly denies and says that he can’t cover (his head with a hat as it was considered a social affront – Launcelot puns again: ‘cover’ the table and ‘cover’ the head) Lorenzo uses an apostrophe: a direct address to something abstract to comment on Launcelot He remarks that Launcelot has planted in his memory an army of good words and that he knows of many fools who do very well in life on the basis of their verbosity.

3. ISC & CBSE .   1. 4. since no one mortal woman would be able to equal Portia’s qualities She opines that the poor..   ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH with words) Lorenzo asks Jessica what she thinks of Portia Jessica remarks: Portia is past all expressions and no words are enough to convey her essence Bassanio should live an upright life as he has the joys of heaven on earth (in Portia’s form) and should he not have an upright life on earth he will never go to heaven She reasons it further saying that the Gods playing a match in sport would need a lot more to equal the scales if they placed Portia on one as a wager. according to the Duke. 2. uncilivilised world does not have a match for her Lorenzo is quick to quip that he is Jessica’s husband exactly as Portia is Bassanio’s wife (a remark made in mock humour as he wishes Jessica to have the same opinion of him) Jessica wants him to know her opinion of him and they finally settle that Jessica will give him a fair assessment at the dinner table as he will be able to digest her criticism among all the other things ACT IV Scene I     66 The Duke enters the court set in Venice along with the magnificoes He feels apologetic about Antonio having to go through ordeal: he mentions Shylock as the stony adversary and an ‘inhuman wretch’ Shylock. is not capable of showing any pity and has not even a drop of mercy in his character Antonio thanks the Duke for trying hard to reduce the instinct of revenge in Shylock’s character and trying to mitigate (reduce) the harsh court proceedings TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.

The Duke means to imply that Shylock won’t show his revengeful aspect to Antonio finally and be considerate) Thou’lt show thy mercy and remorse more strange Than is thy strange apparent cruelty. That thou but lead’st this fashion of thy malice (that Shylock is conducting himself in this hateful manner) To the last hour of act. society and the world is of this opinion). and let him stand before our face (let the Duke and Shylock be face to face. he will display his merciful side) And where thou now exact’st the penalty.  Yet.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. no legal remedies can pull him out of Shylock’s reach now  Antonio’s only approach is to battle Shylock’s hatred with his own patience  Antonio confesses that he has run out of all options to compromise: his only strategy now is to brave Shylock’s fury in a patient manner NOTE: The address that the Duke gets from the Antonio has the title ‘YOUR GRACE’ and not ‘YOUR SERENITY’. (And while Shylock TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Dramatic device). Shylock. which serves its purpose to remind the audience that they are watching and reading an English play set in an Italian backdrop. Shylock’s obdurate (stubborn) nature has made it impossible for any compromises to be reached  Antonio tells the Duke that he is beyond legal redemption. and then ’tis thought (only up to the last point of the act.  Shylock enters the scene DUKE Make room (the Duke asks people to stand aside so that Shylock is visible to the audience). ISC & CBSE 67 . and I think so too (and the Duke is in agreement with that opinion).. (That once he has satisfied himself on Antonio’s plight. the world thinks (people around.

Shylock: I have possessed………………………………. the Duke hopes that Shylock will not seek it in the final analysis and show mercy) Which is a pound of this poor merchant’s flesh.Are you answered? Shylock refuses to budge and tells the Duke that it is his wish to TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. who have hardened emotions and wild feelings and have never been made civilized and sensitive would have pitied Antonio and a man in his state) From stubborn Turks and Tartars. But. touch’d with human gentleness and love. (The Duke defines the penalty: a pound of Antonio’s flesh) Thou wilt not only loose the forfeiture (He hopes that Shylock will not only forgo the penalty).. (Shylock will also forgive a large portion of the penalty.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Enow to press a royal merchant down (Antonio’s losses have been such that any other merchant would have given way under them) And pluck commiseration of his state (and his losses are enough to influence people into sympathsing with him) From brassy bosoms and rough hearts of flint. (under the influence of human feelings of Love and compassion.. never train’d To offices of tender courtesy.) Forgive a moiety of the principal. ISC & CBSE . (fig of speech: personification. the Duke personifies pity to convey that Shylock will cast an eye of pity on Antonio’s losses) That have of late so huddled on his back. (even the savage races. having felt pity for Antonio) Glancing an eye of pity on his losses.  68 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH has requested the Duke for granting him the forfeiture of his bond. We all expect a gentle answer. such as the Turks and the Tartars. Jew (The Duke tells Shylock to be considerate and gentle).

4.. Preference is guided by a man’s nature and thus rules his Passions. will be risked by such a denial As for reasons why he chooses to be so malicious towards Antonio. he tells the Duke and the Court that there is no basis for why a man can’t tolerate the sight of a roasted pig. according to his own admission. 2. the document of Venetian constitution and independence. proceed against Antonio He has. he dislikes them and is considered offensive. For all the examples Shylock mentions. But the intention of such a man is not to offend others.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH      1. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. 3. the cat and the bagpipe except one A man (any man) may offend others by taking a dislike to popularly accepted things. Therefore. ISC & CBSE 69 . sworn on the holy Saturday that he will work for the penalty and damages to be paid if the bond is forfeit If the Duke denies him the forfeit.    TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Shylock simply blames his whim HE uses the following examples to illustrate the role of ‘humour’ in a person’s conduct: If his house were infested with a rat and he pleased to spend ten thousand ducats to have the rat poisoned. The man is offended by things popularly appreciated. the violation will legal and Shylock will not be responsible for it The very ‘charter’. no one will question the legal validity of his judgment There are men who do not love the sight of a gaping pig ( a reference to the roasted pig on the dinner table) There are men who behave abnormally when they see a cat And then there are men who are allergic to the notes and the tunes of the high-pitched bagpiper (a bag-pipe is a popular Scottish musical instrument) Shylock uses the dichotomy (division) of AFFECTION (Preference) and PASSION (Strong like or dislike) to justify his argument.

. Shylock is more difficult to reason with than: a) Standing on the beach and expecting the tides to reduce b) Asking the wolf he has given the ewe (the mother sheep) weep for her lamb c) Asking the mountain pines (the pine trees on the hills) to move their tops from one side to another when ‘gusts of heaven’ (high winds) blow across them without making any noise d) Anything that is impossible and the hardest 70 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.  Antonio has so far been mute and he tells his friends and the Duke that: 1. therefore.  ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Shylock relates his argument to Antonio and announces it in the Court that he dislikes and hates Antonio as he (Antonio) has offended him. or forced to please Bassanio with his answers  Bassanio accuses Shylock of trying to kill all that he does not love  Shylock concludes that violence proceeds from hatred and a man kills what he hates  Bassanio argues that hatred should not be born out of offence  Shylock answers that it will be folly to let a serpent sting a man twice ANTONIO I pray you. think you question with the Jew……….TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. that Shylock has chosen to forego his financial interest and pursue a losing suit (a loss making venture in letting go nine thousand ducats and accepting a pound of human flesh) In the interaction that follows BASSANIO and SHYLOCK have a verbal duel and accuse each other of wrong doing:  Bassanio accuses Shylock of being insensitive and cruel  Shylock tells Bassanio that he is not bound. ISC & CBSE .Let me have judgment and the Jew his will.  It is. Shylock’s Jewish cruelty is coming to the fore here 2.

 The Duke wonders how Shylock will poleas for mercy if he himself is so unrelenting SHYLOCK : What judgment shall I dread. Why should the beds of the slaves not be as comfortable as those of their TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. marry them to your heirs?(To let the slaves be free and marry the slaves to their sons and daughters) Why sweat they under burthens(and not to let the slaves sweat in toil)? let their beds Be made as soft as yours (another simile. that they keep ‘purchased slaves’) Which. ISC & CBSE 71 . the slaves have no rights): shall I say to you (Will it be right if Shylock were to ask the Duke and the Venetian society…). 3. Shylock’s Jewish heart is the most impossible thing for a man to convince  Antonio tells his friends not to look to Shylock for any mercy and make any further offers  He also asks the Court to pronounce the judgment shortly and simply and Shylock have his will  In the interaction that follows Bassanio offers Shylock six thousand ducats and Shylock rejects it saying that he would not accept thirty six.(Shylock points out that the Venetians and the Duke have practiced Slavery. let alone six thousand ducats. He uses a simile to indicate the treatment meted out to the slaves by Venetian people) You use in abject and in slavish parts(in low tasks and slavery). have bought them.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED..’ the Venetians.(These slaves. doing no wrong? (Shylock has nothing to fear. He tells the Duke and the Court that his actions are perfectly justified) You have among you many a purchased slave. are used much in the manner of animals. Let them be free. like your asses and your dogs and mules. Shylock points out. Because you bought them (as ‘you.

they will tell him that the slaves are theirs and purchased. approaches the Court Salerio informs the Duke that there is a man waiting for the Duke’s permission to enter the Court. which I demand of him. the laws of Venice are flawed) There is no force in the decrees of Venice.   72 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH masters) and let their palates (the tongues of the slaves) Be season’d (be given) with such viands (delicious food)? NOTE: Shylock questions the dichotomy that existed in the Venetian society in its treatment of the Christians and the non Christians You will answer ‘The slaves are ours:’ (If Shylock asked the Venetian people to treat the slaves fairly. shall I have it? (Shylock craves for judgment. It is not for him to look into it morally when the Venetians do not look at Slavery morally) If you deny me. The man has the letters and has come all the way from Padua. He is legally entitled to cut it from Antonio’s body. a learned doctor. They don’t have rights and thus get no fair treatment…) so do I answer you: The pound of flesh.) The Duke declares that he has the power and the authority to dismiss the Court and that he will dismiss the court unless Bellario. Is dearly bought. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. whom the Duke has decided to adjudicate on the issue. (Shylock is merely extending the logic of Slavery to his own argument: Antonio’s pound of flesh that he demands of the Duke and the Court is earned by Shylock. ISC & CBSE . (The legal statutes of Venice are without any power as they are not function on the principle of equality) I stand for judgment: answer. ’tis mine and I will have it.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. fie upon your law! (if the pound of flesh be denied to Shylock.

he compares himself with the weakest fruit that has fallen first on the ground in a metaphor. He calls Shylock a cruel Jew.  He asks Bassanio to write ‘his epitaph’ (tombstone address). hateful) dog.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.  The Duke expresses his wish to see the letters and asks for the messenger  Bassanio asks Antonio to take courage and not give in just as yet  Antonio confesses that he is a tainted or sick ram of his flock and will fall to the ground first  He says that he is the fittest for death. be thou damned (Gratiano curses Shylock and calls him damned). And for thy life let justice be accused! (Shylock should have no reason to live except that he can not be killed legally in a civilized society) Thou almost makest me waver in my faith (Shylock forces Gratiano to lose faith in his Christian beliefs and thoughts) To hold opinion with Pythagoras (And Gratiano will agree with TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ISC & CBSE 73 .  Shylock remarks that no prayers will be able to ‘move’ him GRATIANO O.. inexecrable (repulsive.  Nerissa enters and she is dressed like a lawyer’s clerk  The Duke asks where she has come from and she greets the Duke telling him that she is from Padua and sent on by Bellario  Bassanio asks Shylock why he whets his knife so seriously  Shylock answers that it is his desire to cut off a pound of flesh from the bankrupt Antonio  Gratiano remarks that Shylock is sharpening his knife not on his ‘sole’ but his ‘soul’ (he uses a pun).  Gratiano tells Shylock that no metal—not even the executioner’s axe (the axe that the executioner kills the criminals)—could ever be half as sharp as Shylock’s hatred.

(and that wolf was hanged for the killing of human beings) Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet. Thy currish spirit (Shylock’s dog-like soul) Governed (inhabited.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. starved. ISC & CBSE . and ravenous. Understand that he was sick at the receipt of the letter b. (As Shylock’s thoughts are cruel. (while the wolf was hanged.. a young doctor of laws by the name of Balthasar. for all their words will not make Shylock’s course illegal  He tells Gratiano that he (Gratiano) is hurting his lungs in railing Shylock in this manner  The Duke mentions a letter from Bellario and wonders where the learned doctor from Padua is  Nerissa answers that Portia (the learned doctor) is waiting to be admitted in the Duke’s service  The Duke instructs his men to escort Portia to the Court room and asks his clerk to read him the letter from Bellario  The Clerk reads: Bellario in his letter has expected the Duke to: a.) Into the trunks of men (into the bodies of men). his soul escaped his body) And whilst thou layest in thy unhallowed dam (and while Shylock lay in the womb of his evil mother) Infused itself in thee (the spirit of the cruel wolf entered Shylock’s body). for thy desires Are wolfish. hanged for human slaughter. His dear friend and collegue. bloodthirsty and violent)  Shylock tells Gratiano and Antonio’s friends in general to shut up. was with him at the time he received the 74 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. bloody. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH the philosophy of Pythagoras) That souls of animals infuse themselves (The philosophy of Pythagoras was that the souls of animals fly into the human bodies at the time of their death. was present in) a wolf who.

f. b. it is not illegal and he cannot be stopped on purely legal grounds She asks Antonio his awareness of his predicament.. Duke’s letter Bellario informed Balthasar of the disput between Antonio and Shylock Together they consulted many books Balthsar carries Ballario’s opinion and has his own learning to back it Bellario does not have enough words to describe Balthasar’s learning and it is Balthasar who attends the Duke’s court at Bellario’s ‘importunity’ (request) and in his ‘stead’ (place) Bellario requests the Duke not to let Balthasar’s visible lack of experience stand in way of his Judgment In Bellario’s opinion Balthasar has ‘so young a body’ with ‘so old a head’ Bellario leaves Balthsar to the service of the Duke and the Duke’s ‘trial’ (here test offered to young Balthasar) should be the benchmark for Balthasar’s fame The Duke refers to the opinion that the learned Bellario has of this young doctor of laws Portia next enters the scene ‘dressed like a doctor of laws’ The Duke asks if Portia has been sent on by Bellario and she answers in the positive Portia is welcomed in the Duke’s court The Duke asks her if she knows the dispute between the Jew and Antonio Portia has full knowledge of the matter and asks Antonio and Shylock to stand before her She remarks that: Shylock’s ‘suit’ (request) is ‘strange’ (anomalous/abnormal) However. i. g. c.        a. h. That he stands to be threatened for life. ISC & CBSE 75 . e. d. TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH c. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.

Yet. Portia’s initial support to the legal validity of Shylock’s plea helps to bring out the monster in Shylock. d. ISC & CBSE . Mercy suits and defines the chosen King better than his crown 6. among other things. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH She asks him if he signed the Bond Antonio confirms having signed the Bond NOTE: Portia’s introduction is very subtle and leaves the audience asking the big questions. e. the element of MALICE AFORETHOUGHT with which Shylock pursues the case against Antonio. The scepter (royal staff) of the King represents the authority of his earthly power 76 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. The Duke’s clerk read out that in the letter. We know that she has considered the matter closely with Bellario. It blesses the person who receives it b. The quality of Mercy is not forced on anyone and by anyone (Shylock should not think of it that way) 2. It (the quality of Mercy) is like the gentle rain from heaven (figure of speech: metaphor) on earth 3. Portia only mentions that Shylock’s petition and suit cannot be summarily dismissed under the Venetian law. Must needs give sentence against the merchant there.. It blesses the person who gives it (or shows mercy) 4. It is the ‘mightiest’ (the greatest feature) in the ‘mightiest’(most powerful people) 5. Shakespeare has brought out. And that helps Portia expose his true colours to the Court and the audience at large.  Portia expects Shylock to be merciful  Shylock asks her why he should show Antonio mercy..TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. The quality of Mercy is blessed twice: a. Portia argues that: 1. there is no provision in law that can force him to do so Portia: The quality of mercy………………………….

in which resides the awe and the fear with which the King’s subjects perceive him Mercy. ISC & CBSE 77 . Mercy shown by God leads us to salvation and.) Mercy is a quality of God himself It is with Mercy that a mortal King and his mutable power appears Godly and Divine The King’s judgment is Godly when his Mercy moderates his Justice She tells Shylock to remember that Justice alone does not lead the human race to salvation. 16. The scepter of the King is also the feature.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH 7. 15. Forfeit of my bond Shylock is unmoved and asks the Court to deliver his Justice and the penalty on Antonio as forfeit Portia wonders if Antonio has been able to arrange the money TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. however. therefore. 14. greater than the influence of the scepter Mercy resides and is enthroned in the very hearts of Kings (Portia draws a distinction between authority and compassion of Kings.   TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. 12. 8. is higher. Man prays to God for Mercy and our prayers tell us to be merciful to others Portia observes that she speaks in such detail to remove the element of cruel and cold-hearted justice from Shylock’s plea If Shylock follows the course of Justice without mercy. 10. by the rule of law. he should know that Justice devoid of mercy dooms the human race (a ref to the original sin in the bible that doomed the human race). 11. the Venetian Court will. the symbol of his power and grandeur. we should know the importance and the need of Mercy. have to deliver a sentence of punishment on Antonio Shylock: My deeds upon my head……………….. She argues that a King is known not by his authority of power but by his greater merciful self. that though he requests Justice. 9. 13.

ISC & CBSE . is entitled to claim a pound of flesh from Antonio to be extracted from nearest his heart She asks Shylock to be merciful and accept thrice his money TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Portia looks over the bond and tells Shylock that for his money lent. 3.. the old testament. He says that He is indebted to pay the money ten times over And use his hands.  1.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. a character in the Bible. who was known for his wisdom and judgment) and says that he wishes to honor her. he is being offered thrice the amount Shylock cries foul and cites his oath he has made to God. it should appear that Malice (hatred) has won over Truth He requests Portia and the Duke to alter the law once so as not to let Shylock perform a legally sanctioned murder He requests them to do a great right by doing a little wrong to rein in Shylock’s malicious will Portia: It must not be………………………. his head and his heart to settle Antonio’s debt If such an offer fails to break ice with Shylock.         78 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH he owed Shylock Bassanio answers that he has the money and he deposits it on Antonio’s behalf. 5.it cannot be Portia tells the Court that the law cannot be altered There is no authority in Venice that can change a decree ‘a rule established by law’ As such a change will be recorded in the annals of legal history in Venice as a precedent and errors will be made by its use in future Shylock praises Portia by calling her a Daniel (NOTE: it is a biblical allusion to Daniel. 4. by the bond. He declares he will not lay perjury upon his soul for the state of Venice Portia declares that the bond is forfeit and that Shylock. 2.

.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH       TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. ISC & CBSE 79 . (He also calls Portia a well deserving pillar of law. Whereof you are a well-deserving pillar. and let her tear the bond SHYLOCK: When it is paid according to the tenor (when the bond is paid in accordance with the words in it i.e. a pound of Antonio’s flesh. someone who knows and intends to implement the law) Proceed to judgment (It is in the name of law that a judgment should be delivered): by my soul I swear There is no power in the tongue of man (he swears that there is not a single soul in the state of Venice whose words could dissuade Shylock from carrying out his intention of executing the bond on Antonio in letter and spirit) To alter me: I stay here on my bond (He intends to seek the implementation of his bond) Antonio requests the Court to give the judgment without delay Portia is prompt in telling Antonio that the judgment is not in his favour: he must prepare his bosom for Shylock’s knife Shylock calls Portia noble and excellent Portia explains that the intent (direction) and the purpose (scope) has a complete relation with the penalty that Antonio must pay and which is also mentioned on the bond Shylock praises Portia yet again and compliments her on the maturity of her judgment Portia asks Antonio to ‘lay bare his bosom’ and Shylock asserts TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. your exposition (Portia is complimented by Shylock.) It doth appear you are a worthy judge (Shylock calls Portia a deserving judge of the case. She knows the law and her understanding has been perfect) Hath been most sound (perfect): I charge you by the law (Shylock asks Portia to adhere to law in judging his case). someone who has shown knowledge and understanding of Shylock’s cause). You know the law.

ISC & CBSE . Give me your hand. The man intends to kill Antonio and he does all that he can in his hatred to stick to the Bond in letter and spirit. She asks for the scales to weigh the flesh  Shylock confirms that he has the scales but refuses to provide for the surgeons as it is not nominated by the Bond  Portia does mention that the lack of surgeons might bleed Antonio to death and Shylock ruthlessly conveys that he is under no obligation to save Antonio’s life  On Portia’s importuning his moral conscience. that Antonio must lose flesh from ‘nearest his heart.  Portia asks Antonio if he has anything to say to his friends before the final judgment is passed and he makes a long speech: ANTONIO But little (he does not have much to speak): I am arm’d (protected by his fortitude) and well prepared (prepeared for Shylock’s knife). a point in contrast 80 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Portia later turns the Bond on its head and it becomes untenable for Shylock to follow it in letter and spirit. Bassanio: fare you well! (he bids him goodbye) Grieve not (do not be sad) that I am fallen to this for you. Shylock replies in the negative and tells the Court that he does not intend to provide for any medical assistance to Antonio NOTE: Portia’s plan is a ploy to draw Shylock into admission of his own nefarious intentions. Again Portia reveals Shylock’s MALICE AFORETHOUGHT.. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH that Antonio must expose him his breast as it is from there that he must lose flesh  Portia confirms the words of the bond. (that he has met with this fate on his account) For herein Fortune shows herself more kind Than is her custom: (Antonio’s optimism. Shylock bites the bait and goes out of his way to show that he is about to commit a legally sanctioned murder in the garb of legalities of the Court.

(Bassanio should tell her how Antonio died) Say how I loved you. bid her be judge Whether Bassanio had not once a love.) Bassanio responds to this emotional speech by referring to his dear wife TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ISC & CBSE 81 . (Antonio argues that man generally lives to see his bad days while he does not have to live on.. To view with hollow eye (tired eyes) and wrinkled brow (lose forehead skin) An age of poverty. Antonio will pay the debt most willingly. (and leave it to his wife to be the judge of their friendship) Repent not you that you shall lose your friend. And he repents not that he pays your debt. when the tale is told. He is saved the pain of living through his miseries. fortune saves him) Commend me to your honourable wife: (he asks Bassanio to tell Portia his story) Tell her the process of Antonio’s end. (neither of them should repent on what has happened and what will follow) For if the Jew do cut but deep enough. speak me fair in death. (of the misery and the pain of misfortune. with his pessimism in the first act.) from which lingering penance (from that lasting punishment) Of such misery doth she cut me off.) it is still her use (It is the usual fate of people) To let the wretched man (the unfortunate man) outlive his wealth (see the days of his poverty after his wealth). (As no matter how deep an incision the Jew makes on Antonio’s body. tells him to read his fate positively. (Bassanio should tell the world about their friendship and their close bond) And. He will be dead soon and spared the horror of his poverty.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH  TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. I’ll pay it presently with all my heart.

this is also sanctioned by law and awarded by the Court Shylock rushes towards Antonio and thanks Portia again for a decisive sentence against the erring merchant. another Biblical allusion) and not to a Christian. including his wife to Antonio’s defence. The Bible considers Blood to be a sacred component of life. Shylock asks the Court to hurry up and award him his sentence Portia announces that Antonio’s pound of flesh is Shylock’s for the taking. shedding Christian blood was a crime of the highest order. expresses her disapproval of her husband’s offer Gratiano is the next to commit all his resources. Yet the distinction between TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.. Portia further states that Shylock may cut off the same pound of flesh from close to Antonio’s chest. He wishes his daughter were married to a descendent of Barrabus (a criminal in the Bible. It is sanctioned by law and awarded by the Court. ISC & CBSE . He goes a step further and wishes that Nerissa were in heaven to request the Gods to change Shylock’s mind Shylock mocks the Christian husbands for the frivolity with which they pledge their wives to the welfare of their friend.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Before he can lay his knife on Antonio’s body. Shylock is entitled to the flesh and not the blood. The flesh (that represents sin in the Bible) could be risked as it was rank and base. And in Venice. Shylock rushes to thank Portia. who is listening to this conversation unbeknownst to Bassanio. NOTE: An understanding of the Biblical canon is required here.             82 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH He says that Portia is as dear to him as life itself but not even life and his wife and all the world together holds a position that may be compared with Antonio’s He says that he is prepared to lose all to Shylock to save Antonio Portia. Portia stops Shylock She tells him that the Bond does not mention blood.

He asks for a compromise. 3. if he cuts more or less than a pound by the twentieth part of a scruple (the smallest unit of measurement) or even the weight of a hair. the natural outcome that Portia takes out from what appears to be an unassailable Bond. Portia asks Shylock to take away a pound of flesh without shedding a drop of Christian blood She tells Shylock that He can cut off a pound of flesh But if he sheds a drop of Christian blood in the cutting of a pound. She intends to hunt Shylock with his own weapon: cold legality. 2. He wonders if that is the law and Portia points out that he can see the relevant act Shylock can immediately sense that he has been exposed and his game is up. TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. The Bond could be paid thrice and Antonio could go home. his lands and goods will be confiscate by the State of Venice Gratiano is ecstatic and Shylock is shocked. no more than a mere pound.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH   1. Shylock has refused settlement in open court and he will get only what his legal entitlement is: a pound of flesh without a drop of blood. blood and flesh is nowhere more apparent than in the Christian theology. It is the implicit reference. Shylock’s bond would not have had legal sanction had it explicitly referred to shedding Christian blood.     1. ISC & CBSE 83 .. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. 2. She intends to give him nothing but the penalty Portia tells Shylock: To be ready to cut off the flesh Not shed any blood Cut no less. It would shed Christian blood: an illegal and immoral act to commit in a predominantly Christian country. Shylock will lose all his wealth and property to the State of Venice and risk death himself. Portia however has other plans. The bond is malafide in light of what it would do if it were executed.

ISC & CBSE . the threethousand pounds.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.  Portia however will not let him go scot free. He knows that he stands thoroughly exposed. It is enacted in the laws of Venice (it is so written and mentioned in Venetian law. the other half (the other half of the property) Comes to the privy coffer of the state (will be owned by the state’s treasury). If he is given that he can go home  Portia refuses to let him have the offer. so enacted).  ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Antonio’s friends know that he has won the case. Gratiano begins to celebrate already by daring Shylock to act  Shylock asks for the principal amount he lent Antonio. Antonio)] ‘gainst the which he doth contrive (the person against whom the foreign citizen makes such an attempt) Shall seize one half his goods [that person (here Antonio )] will own half the property and goods of the foreign citizen (here Shylock) of the . Jew (she asks Shylock to wait): The law hath yet another hold on you (Shylock has further accountability to the Venetian law). If it be proved (successfully established) against an alien (against a foreign citizen. Shylock was a foreign citizen) That by direct or indirect attempts He seek the life of any citizen (that directly or otherwise. Shylock’s earlier refusals to settle the matter financially entitle him only to Justice and nothing else  Shylock is so defeated that he conveys his intent to forego even the principal. She brings the charge of murder to his door: PORTIA Tarry.. And the offender’s life lies in the mercy [the life of the offender 84 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. The party [the person (here. he plotted against the life of a citizen).

(as it is very clear by the case that Shylock tried to harm Antonio’s life) That indirectly and directly too (both directly and indirectly) Thou hast contrived against the very life [that he contrived. He tells Shylock that: Shylock does not have the leave to hang himself either He does not have the value of a cord (rope) left with him And the State must hang him The Duke tells Shylock that there is vital difference between him and the Christians and makes two points: He forgives Shylock his life even before he has asked for it Half Shylock’s wealth is Antonio’s And the other half should come to the state of Venice. [and in this matter the judgment of the Duke will be final and undisputed] In which predicament [in this problem and conflict]. TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. 3. planned. For it appears.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH  1.. Down therefore and beg mercy of the duke (Shylock should go down on his knees and beg the Duke for forgiveness). I say. and thou hast incurr’d (and Shylock has become liable for being prosecuted by the state of Venice for a crime that he could not have committed) The danger formerly by me rehearsed (the danger here refers to the danger that Shylock faces now from Venetian law) . ‘gainst all other voice. by manifest proceeding. thou stand’st [Portia is telling Shylock that he will have to defend himself now that he can be said to have tried murder] . against the very life of Antonio) Of the defendant (Antonio is the defendant here).  1. (here Shylock) will lie at the mercy of the Duke and the government of Venice] Of the duke only. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. 2. 3. This could be further converted into a fine if Shylock is humble. 2. Gratiano tells Shylock to beg mercy of the Duke and others so that he may get the leave to hang himself. ISC & CBSE 85 .

a life without money and means is hollow and Shylock wants to have none of it That if they have decided to take the means that have sustained his life.. 2. Keep the other half of Shylock’s wealth (that now goes to Antonio) to give it away to Lorenzo. He argues that a house without foundations is hollow. He uses a metaphor comparing his life with a house. Two further points he stipulates: That Shylock should embrace Christianity That he should draw up a deed of gift in the Court of all his possessions and transfer them to his son in law and his daughter The Duke tells the Court that he will withdraw the pardon that he has given Shylock if Shylock fails to satisfy the Court on these points Portia asks Shylock if he has anything to say Shylock answers that he is satisfied and has no say in the matter anymore Portia asks Nerissa to draw the deed of gift. 3. ISC & CBSE . they have decided to take his life Portia asks Antonio if he could show Shylock mercy. he would: Request the Duke and the Court to cancel the fine against half of Shylock’s wealth.   1. who eloped with his daughter Jessica.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.  1. very similarly. Shylock asks them to send it on and let him go home The Duke gives Shylock the leave to go Gratiano mentions that Shylock’s christening (the ritual of acquiring a new Christian name) will bring him to the font (the TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. A) B)       86 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Shylock’s defeat is now visible and he asks the Duke to: Punish him severely. Gratiano observes that all that Shylock deserves is a halter gratis (a rope free of cost) Antonio’s merciful character however comes out and he declares that if it pleases the Duke and the lords and the Court. 2.

. large stone bowl kept in the Church with holy water) with two Godfathers but had he been the Judge. 2. He asks Portia to accept something as a tribute.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH          1. ISC & CBSE 87 .     TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. She tells them that she has never been interested in money and monetory gains She asks them to recognize her when they meet again She intends to take her leave of them Bassanio importunes Portia to accept something to remind her of them. Antonio also requests her to accept the money and expresses his indebtedness to her Portia does not intend to take the fee. if not as fee He asks for two things to be granted: Portia should forgive him for being stubborn. This is the TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Gratiano means to say that he would have called ten more Godfathers as Jury to punish Shylock had he been the judge. 5. She tells him that she must go back to Padua by the next boat. Portia has freed them of grievous penalties and for her services he offers her the three thousand dollars that he got for Shylock. She says: A man satisfied with his work is paid by it In being able to deliver Antonio (save him) Portia is satisfied and therefore well paid. she should not say no to him Portia asks for Antonio’s gloves and Bassanio’s ring On being asked his wedding ring Bassanio recoils. Shylock exits the scene The Duke asks Portia to go home with him to dinner Portia humbly turns the Duke’s request down. 4. 3. the Magnificoes and the followers exit the scene Bassanio thanks Portia for her service to them as a lawyer. he would have sent Shylock to the gallows (to the hanging place) with ten Godfathers. The Duke feels sorry that Portia is not able to dine with him He asks Antonio to reward Portia as she has saved him his life The Duke.

TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. She accuses him of making an offer first and then not keeping his promise Bassanio tells her that the ring is a gift from his wife and that he swore it when he put it on that he would never remove it. Portia terms Bassanio’s explanation a mere excuse and wonders if his wife would truly object to the ring being given away if she knew the contribution Portia has made in Antonio’s life She says that Bassanio’s wife would not ‘hold enemy’ forever if she knew how well Portia deserved the ring She exits the place with Nerissa dissatisfied Antonio requests Bassanio to let the lawyer have the ring. 3. their going to Belmont is being compared with the flight of the bird) TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.    1. He requests Bassanio to consider his friendship with Antonio and the lawyer’s deserving nature to make his point Bassanio finally gives in and asks Gratiano to run after the clerk and give him the ring and bring him to Antonio’s house Gratiano exits the scene Bassanio and Antonio go to Antonio’s house even as Bassanio tells Antonio that they will fly away to Belmont in the morning (fig of speech metaphor. ISC & CBSE . 2..          88 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH ring that his wife gave him and he does not wish to part with it He says that the ring is a worthless article and it will be shameful of him to give Portia that Portia positions herself brilliantly and says that she will not have any other ring but the one that she asked for Bassanio pleads his helplessness and says that: More depends on the ring than the value He will look for the most valuable ring in Venice and give Portia that He will make public announcements to that effect if Portia spares her this ring that he got from his wife Portia mocks the offer Bassanio made and calls him ‘liberal only in making offers.

who will swear and pledge their innocence in the matter.. Brings back the elements of comedy to the play. Significantly different from the previous act as it lends the drama a happy ending 2. ISC & CBSE 89 . Brings together all the major characters 3. Portia says. Restores Antonio his fortune 4. Portia tells Nerissa to hurry and join her at the tranect (where the ferry for Belmont will be caught on their way back). Presents mock conflict (the ring episode) and its resolution in the play 5. Also presents to us Merchant of Venice as one of the problem TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. Once the rings have been obtained. Act V Salient points 1. There will be a lot of swearing on the part of the husbands. the women will have defensive husbands. ACT IV SC II  Portia and Nerissa enquire the Jew’s house so that the deed could be given Shylock to sign  They intend to leave Venice that evening itself in order to reach Belmont before Bassanio  The deed. will be welcome to Lorenzo Gratiano enters the scene  He overtakes Portia and Nerissa and hands them the ring that Bassanio has sent on  He also makes them a dinner invitation  Portia expresses her inability in attending the dinner  She accepts the ring most thankfully  She asks Gratiano to show Nerissa Shylock’s house Nerissa tells Gratiano that she will try to get the ring out from her husband and Portia wishes her good luck.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.

After Cressida was taken into the enemy camp. Reference 1: Troilus and Cressida In such a night (Lorenzo repeats the phrase ‘in such a night) Troilus methinks mounted (climbed) the Trojan walls (the walls of Troy) And sigh’d his soul (cried in pain) toward the Grecian tents (Grecian camp). When the sweet (fragrant) wind did gently kiss the trees (Wind personified: wind ‘kisses’ the trees: slowly and gradually moves the trees) And they did make no noise (and the kissing. • Troilus was Priam’s son. to whom he swore eternal fidelity. Troilus would stand on the walls of Troy looking at the Greek camp Reference 2: Thisbe and Pyramus JESSICA In such a night Did Thisbe fearfully (anxiously) o’ertrip (walk lightly over) 90 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.. the movement produced no noise) . Where Cressid (Cressida) lay that night (where Cressida was that night) There is a series of references drawn on here. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH plays of Shakespeare with elements of Comedy and Tragedy interwoven in it Lorenzo and Jessica compare their night with the classical nights: LORENZO The moon shines bright: in such a night as this (on one such night of full moon). in love with Cressida.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. ISC & CBSE . The references are as follows: • The full moon light is being compared with the night on which Troilus went over to the Grecian camps after the war of Troy had been concluded.

ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. symbolises Loss) in her hand (holding a willow) Upon the wild sea banks (on the banks of the stormy sea) and waft her love (waved to her love. Reference 3: Dido and Aeneas LORENZO In such a night (on a night such as this one) Stood Dido with a willow (a tree. Thisbe. fell in love with Aenas. who returned to the spot later stabbed herself too. anticipating his return. ISC & CBSE 91 . the dew (the wet grass) And saw the lion’s shadow ere himself (and saw the shadow of the lion before the lion) And ran dismay’d away (ran away surprised) The reference has three points: • Pyramus and Thisbe were lovers in Babylonia and their story is retold by Ovid in Metamorphoses • They had decided to meet under a tree. where Thisbe arrived. the Trojan Hero. who arrived later saw the blood smeared scarf (that had the blood of an ox). Dido. Aeneas) To come again to Carthage (to return to Carthage) Note: • The Queen of Carthage. thought that Thisbe had been killed and stabbed himself. saw the shadow of a lion and ran away. dropping her scarf • Pyramus.. She would wait on the banks of the stormy sea after Aenas had gone to found the city of Rome. • The story is told by many poets in literature Reference 4: Media and Aeson JESSICA In such a night Medea (an enchantress) gather’d the enchanted herbs (magical herbs) TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. seeing dead Pyramus.

TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. another example of women characters in Shakespeare’s comedies being smarter than the male characters. ISC & CBSE . JESSICA In such a night Did young Lorenzo swear he loved her well (Jessica outwits Lorenzo. She tells Lorenzo that he made her promises in love that he never kept). see note). ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH That did renew old Aeson (Jason’s father Aeson. Lorenzo means to be jovial in comparing their situation with that of the great historical figures they have mentioned before) Did Jessica steal (pun: rob her father and run away herself) from the wealthy Jew (Shylock) And with an unthrift love (pun again. mentioned also in the context of the Golden fleece in Act I  Medea was an enchantress who loved Jason and helped him get the Golden Fleece  Medea was said to have restored Jason’s father Aeson to life. Stealing her soul with many vows of faith (He captured her heart with declarations of love) And ne’er a true one (and did not keep his promises). certain herbs. esp. the expression implies ‘careless devotion’ and ‘penniless lover’) did run from Venice (escape from Venice) As far as Belmont (for Belmont).. The reference has the following points:  Aeson was the father of the Greek hero Jason. LORENZO In such a night 92 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. gained special qualities when gathered on a moonlit night LORENZO In such a night (on a night such as this one. Ovid wrote about it in Metamorphoses  The Elizabethans believed that herbs.

Portia and Nerissa have been in prayer for happy wedlock hours (a happy married life)  Lorenzo asks who is with Portia and Stephano mentions Nerissa as ‘a holy hermit and her maid’  Stephano asks Lorenzo if he has had any news from Bassanio..ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. hark. Did pretty Jessica. JESSICA I would out-night you (Jessica is confident she would outwit Lorenzo further if they were undisturbed). Notes on the above interaction: 1. But. Nerissa and she wander about the ‘holy crosses’ small roadside shrines 3. The allusions point to the one common feature in the relationships of all the archetypical lovers: the difficulties they faced in their union 4. Portia will be back before dawn 2.  Lorenzo asks Jessica to move in the Belmont house and take personal charge of the preparations to welcome Portia  Launcelot enters and announces the arrival of a post (a messenger) with his horn (post-horn: it was a custom for the TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. The above interaction shows us the romantic relationship between Jessica and Lorenzo 2. did no body come (if no one would disturb them). It reestablishes the elements of Love and Romance in the play 3. Slander her love (insult her ‘love’ here her love for Lorenzo). like a little shrew (complaining woman). Lorenzo tells him that they have had none. and he forgave it her (he forgave her for it). I hear the footing of a man (But they hear the steps of a man). ISC & CBSE 93 . Jessica and Lorenzo’s case is no different from that of the historical lovers  Stephano enters the scene and announces: 1.

     1.. the stars). Lorenzo calls Jessica his ‘sweet soul’ and tells her to move in the house and await the arrival of the master and the mistress of the house He doubts his own decision: there is no need for them to move in at all as they are almost into the early morning. 2. They have finally heard from Bassanio. 3. so has the sky got the stars decorating it. He asks Stephano to go into the house and tell the servants and the attendants of the arrival of the owners of the house He tells Stephano to play music in open air to mark the happy reunion about to take place in the morning hours Lorenzo makes the following observations about the night and music: The moonlight sleeps sweetly upon the bank (personifies the moonlight) They will sit out in the open and music will gradually ‘creep’ in their ears (a weak personification and a metaphor. the planets sing ‘like’ angels and they TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. 4. music is said to creep and thereby is compared with an creeping insect. 5. 94 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH messengers to blow horns before they announced the news) full of good news. Even the smallest orb (planet) that the human eye can see sings like an angel in its path and motion (simile and personification here. heaven (the visible sky) is compared with the floor) The floor of heaven (surface of heaven) is richly decorated with ‘patines of bright gold’ (pieces of shiney metal.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. 6. It can also be implied that it is the creeping saint trying to spread good feeling and harmony) The soothing calm and peace of the night suit the notes of melodious ‘harmony’(music) He asks Jessica to gaze at the sky and the floor of heaven (a strong metaphor continues in the next lines. ISC & CBSE . Explanation: as the surface of a room would have the beautiful pattern of metal and stone on it. He will be in Belmont before the morning.

Yet.  The musicians enter and Lorenzo asks them to arouse Diana (the moon Goddess) from her slumber by their music  He asks them to play welcoming notes for Portia  Jessica observes that she is never ‘merry’ (in the jovial mood) when she hears serious music LORENZO The reason is (Lorenzo tries to explain Jessica’s behaviour). It cannot. be heard as long as the ‘muddy vesture of decay’ (the perishable human body) ‘grossly’ (rudely/ roughly) ‘close it in’ (holds the ‘immortal soul’ captive) Note: What Lorenzo is saying is as follows: the music and harmony of the stars and the planets is found also in the immortal soul. 8. portrayed as a winged child) Explanation: Lorenzo gets highly philosophical in his observations. however. ISC & CBSE 95 . The harmony of the planets and the stars is also present in the immortal human soul 9. He refers to the ideas of Pythagoras in observing that the planets and the stars have an inherent music. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. man is unable to hear it as the soul is the prisoner of the perishable body. They sing together as if in a quire/concert with the ‘young eyed cherubins’ (A cherubin was the second in the order of angels..ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. your spirits are attentive (Jessica is never jovial when she hears sweet music as she is a receptive/sensitive listener): For do but note a wild and wanton herd (He asks her to observe the behaviour of an indisciplined. ‘sing’. The Elizabethans too believed that the motion of the stars and the planets produced sounds and the combination of these sounds created harmony. which is a human character) 7. uncontrollable herd of cattle). Or race of youthful and unhandled colts (or the breed of immature and untrained young male horses).

bellowing (producing loud sounds) and neighing loud (high sounds)..TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Or any air of music (song) touch their ears (if the animal mentioned. stones and floods (moved trees. trickery and robbery). plants and even the lifeless objects moved from their places) drew trees. hard and full of rage (as there is nothing so stubborn. insensitive and aggressive). son of Caliope. stratagems and spoils (is suited only for crime. ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Fetching mad bounds (jumping around madly). ISC & CBSE . Their savage eyes (wild eyes) turn’d (are transformed) to a modest gaze By the sweet power of music (harmonious influence of music): therefore the poet (here. the youthful and unhandled colts. You shall perceive them make a mutual stand (it is seen that they all stand together still). If they but hear perchance a trumpet sound (if they hear perhaps the sound of a trumpet). Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds (and someone who is not moved by the harmony of sweet sounds). The man that hath no music in himself (a man with no music in him). Which is the hot condition of their blood (which is the true nature of their wild blood). But music for the time doth change his nature (that it cannot be influenced by the sweet melodies of music). Ovid. was presented with the lyre of Apollo and sang and played so beautifully that animals. The motions of his spirit are dull as night (such a man has no 96 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. stones and influenced natural phenomenon). Is fit for treasons. hears the melodies and the sound of music). Since nought so stockish. the great Roman poet) Did feign (depicted) that Orpheus (the famous musician in Greek myth.

ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED..  They suddenly hear the music in the air. Erebus in Greek myth is the home of the dead): Let no such man be trusted (such a man is not worthy of anyone’s trust). she says. That a king’s substitute impresses us as long as the King is not around.  She uses a simile to tell Nerissa that the substitute disappears before the king as ‘the inland brook’ (the river) vanishes into ‘the main of waters’ (the sea). Enter PORTIA and NERISSA  Portia observes the light burning in her hall  She remarks on the light of the candle. throws out its beams of light  She compares the beams of candle light with charitable.  Nerissa points out that the music is of Portia’s band of musicians (it used to be a custom for the rich to employ their own musicians)  Portia opines that things are lent a charm and novelty by their TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. good deeds in a corrupt world  Nerissa responds that the moon light had quite eclipsed the candle’s beams  Portia compares the moon light with the greater glory. She adds that a King’s substitute can never be the King. Music has the potential to discipline and order even those forms of life that are naturally wild and insensitive. Mark the music (he asks Jessica to listen to the music). The little candle. spiritual life and is mentally dull) And his affections dark as Erebus (and his feelings are as evil as the home of the dead.  The presence of the king dims and lessons the radiance of the substitute. Note: Lorenzo’s argument is that music has great humanizing qualities and the sensitive react very gravely and somberly to it. ISC & CBSE 97 .

ho! the moon sleeps with Endymion (Classical allusion: in Greek myth: a beautiful youth. ISC & CBSE . Melody lost in chaos is noise.) To their right praise and true perfection! (things earn their right praise and true perfection by the time and place in which they are born and prosper) Peace. sounds more melodious at night than it does by day  Nerissa says that it is the silence of the night that lends music its greater melody. Portia hints at the silence of the night that makes the song of the lark as melodious as that of the crow). How many things by season (here.  Lorenzo recognizes Portia’s voice and announces her arrival 98 TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.  The music. if she should sing by day (if the nightingale were to sing during the day). ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH contexts.. loved by the moon. found worldwide and universally acknowledged for its melodious song). environment/surroundings/ right time) season’d (textured/defined/given a shape) are (By the above example Portia hints at the contextual propriety of all that is pleasing to human nature. That nothing is perfect without favorable surroundings. When neither is attended (when they are not heard.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. PORTIA The crow doth sing as sweetly (the crow sings as sweetly) as the lark (the lark is a bird of Alaudidae family. and I think The nightingale. When every goose is cackling (when geese made loud and unpleasant sounds) would be thought No better a musician than the wren (the nightingale would not be any more melodious than the wren). who visited him every night to bathe him in her silver light) And would not be awaked (and should not be aroused). Portia says. And silence makes the unpleasant sounds tolerable.

It is more like the ‘daylight sick’ (a day without much light). ISC & CBSE 99 . Lorenzo can hear the trumpet of Bassanio’s followers. 2. for the audience Portia remarks that Lorenzo recognizes her much in the manner of a blind man knowing the cuckoo (by its bad voice).. She requests Lorenzo and Jessica for the same and they readily oblige.     TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH        1. He promises Portia that they are no ‘tale tellers’ Portia replies that: The night is not true to its character as it is the time of happy family reunion. Lorenzo welcomes Portia home Portia tells them that Nerissa and she have been in communion with God for better healths of their husbands and asks whether Bassanio and Gratiano have returned. it looks a little dimmer The night is very like the day that is when the sun is concealed in the clouds Bassanio enters with Antonio. Gratiano and his followers Bassanio remarks that Venitians will share their day time with ‘the Antipodes’ (Australians) if Portia (who is as great a source of light as the sun) walks at night Portia puns on the word ‘light’. Lorenzo tells them that they have not yet returned. saying that she would love to give light (be a source of light) but not be light (light and shallow of character) She remarks that a ‘light’ wife (a woman of shallow character) TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. He informs them of the messenger whom they sent to announce their arrival in advance Portia tells Nerissa to instruct the servants at home not to let out the fact of their absence from Belmont to her husband. The figure of speech is a simile: ‘as the blind man knows the cuckoo’. 3.

Portia welcomes Antonio home. There is optimism in his heart. He describes Antonio as someone to whom he was very indebted Portia puns on the word bound. one that had ‘cutler’s poetry’ (the common inscriptions that the knife-makers decorated their knives with) on it He even quotes the inscription on the ring (comparing it with TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. ISC & CBSE .TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. and..                100 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH makes a heavy (sad) husband Bassanio should never have a reason in Portia to be heavy She thanks God for their safe and sound return Bassanio introduces her to Antonio and asks her to welcome him. She says that Antonio was ‘bound’ (in chains) for his friend. Bassanio should be much ‘bound’ (grateful) to Antonio. He dismisses her plaints as useless and being about ‘a hoop’ (a ring) of gold He calls it a ‘paltry’ (useless) ring. She says she is eager to host him not merely in words but in deed. Antonio expresses his satisfaction over having got acquitted and does not want the past to be talked about. She will ‘scant’ (cut short) ‘this breathing courtesy’ (this verbal welcome) By this time Nerissa has already cornered Gratiano and he defends himself loudly: Gratiano is prepared to swear that he has done no wrong and that Nerissa’s accusations are unjustly made Gratiano declares that the ring was indeed given to the clerk of the lawyer who represented Antonio He also declares that he has no interest in the matter and that the clerk’s welfare is of no concern to him Had he known that Nerissa would take the matter so offensively he would not given the ring away to the clerk Portia interjects and asks what the quarrel is about Gratiano informs them of Nerissa’s grievance. therefore.

The clerk will ne’er wear hair on’s face that had it (the clerk who got Gratiano’s ring will never have facial hair on him). NOTE: Nerissa’s grouse and Portia’s arraignment of Bassanio is the mock revenge the two extract from their husbands. those on the knives) as ‘Love me and leave me not’  Nerissa answers him thus: NERISSA What talk you of the posy or the value (Gratiano should not be the one talking of the poetry and its value)? You swore to me (Gratiano gave Nerissa his word that he will keep the ring with him and defend it). You should have been respective and have kept it (Gratiano should have kept his oath).  GRATIANO protests that the judge’s clerk will grow beard on his face if he grows to be a man. The two women have clearly outwitted their husbands in every department. God’s my judge (Just to take the quarrel forward. That you would wear it till your hour of death (he promised her that he will wear the ring till his death) And that it should lie with you in your grave (and that even his death will not separate him and the ring): Though not for me. The ring episode is their masterstroke. She mocks him wondering how a woman will grow to be a man. He should have kept the ring with him to keep his word. Gave it a judge’s clerk! no.ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED.. ISC & CBSE 101 . when I did give it you (at the time the ring was given him). she doubts Gratiano’s explanation that he gave the ring away to the judge’s clerk). Nerissa however is far from convinced. if nothing more). yet for your vehement oaths (Nerissa shows her displeasure by according greater importance to Gratiano’s oaths.  Gratiano swears again affirming that he gave the ring to a young man TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.

. she places herself in Nerissa’s shoes and declares that she would have been equally furious had she been in her place Bassanio in an aside wishes that he had never given the ring away. He should not have given away the first gift of his wife so carefreely: The ring was held on with promises and pledges of love It was also fastened with faith to Gratiano’s very flesh She points out Bassanio’s ring that she had committed to him at the time of their marriage. To take the point further. 2. 2. and he begged the ring of him. ISC & CBSE . alleging that he has given Nerissa a very unreasonable cause of grief. Bassanio swore that he would never part with it and Portia is confident that he will neither leave the ring nor remove it off his fingers for all the wealth the world has to offer She snubs Gratiano. short in stature. was only a boy.   1. In her opinion Gratiano is guilty. 3. The man. That the Judge who asked for it deserved it: That it was only after Bassanio’s act that he gave his ring to the clerk That the boy. asked Gratiano his ring That neither the judge (the lawyer) nor his assistant would accept anything but the rings Portia asks Bassanio what ring Gratiano has alluded to: is it the ring she gave Bassanio and the one he swore to keep for life Bassanio confesses that he cannot add a lie to an error he has already committed. Portia finally gives her opinion and criticizes Gratiano. his clerk. Gratiano could not say not to him. 3. talkative. who made the effort to prepare the deed of gift (for Lorenzo).   102 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Gratiano describes the man he gave the ring to.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. he says. 5. He points to his finger that does not have TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE.   1. If only he could cut off his finger and say that he lost it in defending the ring Gratiano tells them that Bassanio gave his ring away too. 6. 4.






the ring upon it
Portia accuses Bassanio of having a false and empty heart
She declares that she will not be Bassano’s wife till she sees the
Nerissa also vows not to consider Gratiano her husband till she
sees the ring she gifted him
In his defence Bassanio says that Portia would not have objected
to the rings being given to the Judge and his clerk if:
She knew the person who was given the ring (implying Balthasar,
the lawyer)
She knew the person for whom the ring was given (implying
Antonio, his dearest friend)
She knew why the ring was given (implying the impossibility of
saving Antonio and the ease with which Portia brought it about)
She knew how all his offers fell on deaf ears and nothing but the
ring would be accepted
If she knew all of the points, she ‘would abate the strength of
her displeasure’ (decrease her anger and plaints against
Portia, in mock humor between Nerissa and herself, further
expresses her deep displeasure with her husband on the following
That Bassanio did not know the ‘virtue’ (true value) of the ring
That he did not know half the value and the worth of Portia who
had given him the ring
That he forgot his own honour with which he had sworn to keep
the ring with him
She questions Bassanio’s version and wonders why any man
would be so stubborn as to insist on the ring if Bassanio defended
it with any ‘terms of zeal’ (determination)
The ring, she tells us, was held by Bassanio as ‘a ceremony’
(sacred symbol of marriage)





She is bound to agree with Nerissa that Bassanio gave the ring
away not to man but a common woman and she bets her life on it
NOTE: Portia’s speech is a further reflection on the Merchant
of Venice being an Elizabethan comedy. The woman holds the
man defensive. Portia is calling the shots here, and Bassanio
must defend himself.
No, by my honour, madam, by my soul (Bassanio swears by
his honor as a gentleman and his soul),
No woman had it, but a civil doctor (that he did not give it any
woman but a doctor of laws),
Which did refuse three thousand ducats of me (the same doctor
who refused three thousand ducats that Bassanio offered
And begg’d the ring (and asked Bassanio for the ring); the
which I did deny him (and Bassanio refused the ring to him
And suffer’d him to go displeased away (and the lawyer, being
offended by Bassanio’s refusal, walked away initially);
Even he that did uphold the very life (and Bassanio did suffer
the displeasure of the very person who saved the very life)
Of my dear friend (of his closest, dearest, friend). What should
I say, sweet lady (he tells Portia with regret)?
I was enforced to send it after him (that he was compelled to
send the ring to him);
I was beset with shame and courtesy (his refusal to the lawyer
had shamed him as a gentleman);
My honour would not let ingratitude (he could not let his honor
be tainted by his own inability to bestow a small reward)
So much besmear it (taint/stain his honour). Pardon me, good
For, by these blessed candles of the night (a metaphor: he





swears on the stars, comparing them with the candles),
Had you been there, I think you would have begg’d
The ring of me to give the worthy doctor. (Had Portia been
there she would ask Bassanio to give the precious ring away
to the deserving doctor who saved the life of his dear friend.)
Portia angrily tells him not to let the deserving doctor ever visit
The doctor, she says, has got the one thing she so dearly loved.
And the one thing Bassanio swore to keep for her and failed to
keep his word in.
Taking her cue from her husband, she will more than generously
bestow all that she has upon the learned and talented doctor
She will not deny the doctor any favours
Nerissa tells Gratiano that she will be uninhibitedly generous
with the lawyer’s clerk and that she should be left to her own
NOTE: Portia and Nerissa tell Bassanio and Gratiano in their
mock humour that the men have lost their absolute claim over
their women now. Since they could not suffer the shame of
denying the doctor and his clerk the one precious thing their
wives had given them, the wives will not be ashamed to deny
the doctor and his clerk the most precious thing the husbands
gave them. The husbands’ absolute claim over their wives is
their most precious achievement. Portia and Nerissa threaten
Bassanio and Gratiano that they will treat the doctor and his
clerk as liberally and attentively as they do them.
Antonio finally interjects and says that he has been the cause of
the unhappy quarrels between husbands and wives
Portia finally realises that she is taking the joke too far and assures
Antonio that he is welcome
Bassanio apologizes to Portia and asks her to forgive him
Before his dear friends and keeping them as witness he swears
to her on her beautiful eyes, in which he sees his reflection


              106 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Portia holds the argument there and asks the assembled party to notice that Bassanio’s oath is flawed In her two eyes Bassanio ‘doubly’ sees himself (his two images). swears by ‘his double self’ {Pun on ‘doubly’.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. Once he put his physical safety at stake for his friend. ISC & CBSE . Antonio hands the ring to Bassanio and tells him to swear never to lose it Bassanio looks at the ring with a sense of shock. The ring is the same that he gave the young doctor Portia tells Bassanio that she took the ring from the doctor At this Nerissa offers Gratiano a ring too. therefore. He. the doctor’s assistance Portia finally addresses all her guests: TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. saying that she obtained it of the ‘scrubbed boy’. Bassanio sees two images ‘doubly’ and behaves like a ‘double’ self (false person)}. The phrase ‘soul upon the forfeit’ means that Antonio commits his soul to Portia as the penalty if Bassanio fails her in his promises. now he is willing to put his spiritual safety at stake for him (note the use of the word ‘soul’).. Antonio tells Portia that Bassanio will never break his oaths in future Portia requests Antonio to be his friend’s guarantor and hands him the ring She asks Antonio to tell his friend never to lose the ring again. Such an oath cannot be trustworthy Bassanio asks for her forgiveness again and swears her that he will never break any of his promises Antonio now breaks in with his own assurance and tells Portia that he once lent his body for her Bassanio’s wealth He tells Portia that he almost lost his life for Bassanio and that he was saved by the young judge who took the ring Antonio pledges his soul for Bassanio’s sake again.

ISC & CBSE 107 .ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. her cousin. Shakespeare must conclude the comedy on the positive note much as he began it on a sombre note of Antonio’s grief. Bassanio and Gratiano shall prove that Portia and Nerissa left the house as soon as their husbands) And even but now return’d (and have returned only a little before the men). And I have better news in store for you (there is something better Portia has to share with Antonio) Than you expect: unseal this letter soon (she presents Antonio a seperate letter that she asks him to open). you are welcome. The TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. from Bellario (the letter was written by Bellario. the clerk). and came from Padua): There you shall find that Portia was the doctor (that letter proves beyond doubt that Portia was the doctor of laws and Nerissa. PORTIA: You are all amazed (she refers to their surprise and consternation): Here is a letter.. There you shall find three of your argosies (three of his ships) Are richly come to harbour suddenly (have returned to the harbour safely and unexpectedly): You shall not know by what strange accident I chanced on this letter (she does not intend to get in the detail of how she got the letter and from where). read it at your leisure (she shows them a letter. Nerissa there her clerk: Lorenzo here Shall witness I set forth as soon as you (Lorenzo’s testimony is now called upon. He beong a friend of Antonio. I have not yet Enter’d my house (she has just entered the house). NOTE: The above speech is the speech of resolution. Antonio. asking them to read it). It comes from Padua.

have safely come to road (back to the harbor) Portia tells Lorenzo that she has some good news for him and Jessica too Nerissa addresses Lorenzo and Jessica and says that she will give them the bounty without charging them a fee. She promises them that Nerissa and she will answer all questions faithfully. Gratiano gets to make the concluding remarks.            108 ICSE MADE EASY ICSE – X ENGLISH Merchant of Venice is rich again and his fortune is restored to him. Nerissa hands them the deed of gift that Shylock signed and that entitles them to all his property and money on his death Lorenzo thanks them and refers to ‘manna’. Portia and Nerissa drop ‘manna’ (the bread from heaven in the Bible) on starved people.. ISC & CBSE . He tells the audience that the only thing he will be wary of ever is losing his wife’s ring. he tells us.TRIED TRUSTED UNPARALLELED. She asks them all to go in and question the ladies there on oath so that their answers dim curiosities. For reasons of Dramatic Convenience the speech does not detail how and where Portia came across Antonio’s letters) Antonio expresses that he is dumb Bassanio and Gratiano wonder if Portia was the doctor and Nerissa his attendant Antonio reads the letter and conveys that his ships are back indeed. (Note: Lorenzo compares Portia and Nerissa with the angels from heaven and the others with the starving Hebrews. TIWARI TUTORIALS* ULTIMATE FOR ICSE. He calls Portia ‘sweet lady’ who has given him ‘life and living’ His ships. who nourished by ‘manna’ survived for forty years before they got to the promised land) The morning has approached and Portia knows that the men are still amazed by the sudden discoveries they have made.

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