Genetics Unit Predict and Post Test

The bab mix up
In a hospital, three babies were born simultaneously during
a thunderstorm. The lights went off for a few seconds
and during that time the babies were mixed. The
hospital wants to be sure that it is giving the right baby to
the right parents by attempting to match the blood types.
Can you help?
Parents
The Anchetas, type O and AB
The Romeros, type A and B
The Holleys type A and O

Babies
Baby A is type AB
Baby B is type B
Baby C is O

Multiple Alleles
◆ More

than ◆ TYPES:
one type of A
I AI A, I Ai
allele for a B
B B
B
I I ,I i
trait
A B
AB I I
◆ Example:
O
ii
Blood Type

Step 1 Legend
alleles = genotype
blood type - pheno type
write as a T chart

1. Legend:
genotype phenotype

Step 1 Legend
alleles = genotype
blood type - pheno type
write as a T chart

genotype phenotype

Heredity
transmission of genetic characters from
parents to offspring
passing genes from parent to child

Short Quiz - prompt and
response
1. Mendel’s profession: ________________
2. Heredity is __________________________
3. Pisum sativum is the Genus species
name for his favorite plant the
___________________.
Fun thought:Biology is the only science
in which multiplication is the same
thing as division.

Predicting Inheritance
using Punnett Squares
Unit 5: Genetics
Chapter 8

Let’s Review our Vocab!
• Dominant traits cover up
Recessive traits
– Dominant Allele = capital letter (B)
– Recessive Allele = lower case letter
(b)
P = Parents

F1 = first generation
offspring

F2 = second generation
offspring

Dominant or Recessive?
• B=Black b=white
– Bb: Dom or Rec? Color?
• T=Tall t= short
– TT: Dom or Rec? Height?
• P=Purple p=white
– pp?: Dom or Rec? Color?

• Genotype: the actual alleles for a
trait
• Represented by letters: AA, aa, Aa
– Homozygous Dominant: 2 dominant
alleles (AA) (purebred)
– Homozygous Recessive: 2 recessive
alleles (aa) (purebred)
– Heterozygous: 1 dominant allele & 1
recessive allele (Aa) (hybrid)

Homozygous or
Heterozygous?
• BB
• Kk
• ff

Purebred or Hybrid?
• rr
• Ww
• NN

Homozygous or
Heterozygous?
• BB
• Kk
• ff

• Homozygous dominant
• Heterozygous
• Homozygous recessive

Purebred or Hybrid?
• rr
• Ww
• NN

Homozygous or
Heterozygous?
• BB
• Kk
• ff

• Homozygous dominant
• Heterozygous
• Homozygous recessive

Purebred or Hybrid?
• rr
• Ww
• NN

• purebred
• hybrid
• purebred

• Phenotype: how the trait is seen
– Ex: Guinae pig fur color: black or white
P = Parents

F1 = first generation
offspring

F2 = second generation
offspring

Genotype or Phenotype?
• Black
• Bb
• tt
• Short
• KK
• Pp
• Tall
• White

Genotype or Phenotype?
• Black
• Bb
• tt
• Short
• KK
• Pp
• Tall
• White

• Phenotype
• Genotype
• Genotype
• Phenotype

Genotype or Phenotype?
• Black
• Bb
• tt
• Short
• KK
• Pp
• Tall
• White

• Phenotype
• Genotype
• Genotype
• Phenotype
• Genotype
• Genotype
• Phenotype
• Phenotype

Mom and Dad have four
daughters and each
daughter has one brother...
How many people are in the
family?

Mom and Dad have four
daughters and each
daughter has one brother...
How many people are in the
family?
7- two parents, four daughters, and
one son

Two babies born on the
same day in the same year
with the same mother and
father are not twins. How
can this be?

Two babies born on the
same day in the same year
with the same mother and
father are not twins. How
can this be?
• They are two of three triplets!

Punnett Squares
• A Punnett Square is a tool used for
determining the possible genetic
outcomes of the offspring of two
parents
– Punnett Squares are used to determine
the parents’ or offsprings’ phenotypes
and genotypes. A A
a
Aa Aa
– Punnett Squares
show all of the possible
Aa
combinationsaof Aa
offspring
genotypes
that a couple could have.

Punnett Squares
• A Punnett Square is a tool used for
determining the possible genetic
outcomes of the offspring of two
parents
– Punnett Squares are used to determine
the parents’ or offsprings’ phenotypes
and genotypes.
– Punnett Squares show all of the possible
combinations of offspring genotypes
that a couple could have.

Punnett Squares
• Used to predict the traits of each
possible offspring during a cross
• Five Step Plan
– 1) Legend
– 2) Parents
– 3) Punnett square-set up
– 4) Punnett square-fill in
– 5) Answers in boxes

5-Step Plan for Punnett
Squares
Flow Map
5-Step
Plan
1)
Legend

2)
Parents

3) Punnett
Square:
Set it up

4) Punnett
Square:
Fill it in

5)
Answers

Pg
10

Sample Problem
You do NOT have to write this
slide!
● In guinea pigs, Black (B) is dominant to
White (b)
• Black guinea pig (BB) x White guinea pig
(bb)
• What are the chances that the offspring
will be black? White?
• How many offspring will be black? How
many will be white?

Five-Step Plan
• 1) Legend
– Always use the first letter of the
dominant trait to represent your
alleles. (ex: in this case, we use
B for black)
– Set up a table:
Genot Pheno
ype
type
Black
BB
Black
Bb
White
bb

• 2) Parents - Write this as a
“cross”
– BB x bb

• 3) Punnett Square - Set it up
– Draw a square and divide into
four sections
– Write the genotype (letters)
from one parent on top (one
letter per box)
– Write the genotype from the
other parent alongBthe left side
B
b
b

• 4) Punnett Square - Fill it in
– Fill in the boxes with one letter
from the top and one letter from
the left (2 letters per box)

B

B

b Bb

Bb

b Bb

Bb

• 5) Answers
– Each box = a 25% chance of
offspring inheriting that genotype
– Always put a box around your final
answer!!!

B

B

b Bb

Bb

b Bb

Bb

100% Black
offspring
0% White
offspring
Ratio: 4 : 0
OR

• Now we have COMPLETELY answered
the question and we are done!
– Always double check!
Now you
practice on the
whiteboard!

Interpretation check
Legend practice
Blue flowers dominant to yellow flowers
genotype phenotyp
s
es
BB
Bb
bb

Interpretation check
Blue flowers dominant to yellow flowers

genotype phenotyp
s
es
BB

Blue

Bb

Blue

bb

yellow

Interpretation check - write in notes
Smiles are dominant to frowns.for each phonetype Tell the
genotype
____________ smile _________smile ___________frown
Love is dominant to fear - for each genotype tell the
phenotype
___________ LL ______________Ll___________ll

Interpretation check - write in notes
Smiles are dominant to frowns.for each phonetype Tell the
genotype
_____SS___ smile ___Ss___smile _____ss____frown
Love is dominant to fear - for each genotype tell the
phenotype
__Love_____ LL ___Love_____Ll___fear____ll

Practice
• Keep your notes in front of you.
• For each problem you will do steps 1
& 2 (legend & parents) first.
• You will then do steps 3-5 (Punnett
square and answers).

Example:
Tall (Tt) x short (tt)
t

t

T
t
What % of the offspring will be Tall?
Short?
What is the ratio of tall : short?
(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

Example:
2. Tall (Tt) x short (tt)
3 &4

T
t

t

t
Tt
tt

5. What % of the offspring will be
Tall? Short?
What is the ratio of tall : short?
(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

Tt
tt

Example:
Tall (Tt) x short (tt)
t
T
t

Tt
tt

t
Tt
tt

What % of the offspring will be Tall? 50 %
Tall
Short?
What is the ratio of tall : short?

50%
Short

(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

1: 1

Example:
Brown eyes (Bb) x Brown eyes
(Bb)
B

b

B
b
What % of the offspring will be Brown eyes?
Blue eyes?
What is the ratio of brown eyes : blue eyes?
(Hint: how many of each)

Example:
Brown eyes (Bb) x Brown eyes
(Bb)
B

b

B
b
What % of the offspring will be Brown eyes?
Blue eyes?
What is the ratio of brown eyes : blue eyes?
(Hint: how many of each)

Example:
Brown eyes (Bb) x Brown eyes
(Bb)
B

B
b

BB
Bb

b

Bb
bb

What % of the offspring will be Brown eyes?
Blue eyes?
What is the ratio of brown eyes : blue eyes?
(Hint: how many of each)

Example:
Brown eyes (Bb) x Brown eyes
(Bb)
B

B
b

BB
Bb

b

Bb
bb

What % of the offspring will be Brown eyes? 75 %
Brown
Blue eyes?
What is the ratio of brown eyes : blue eyes?
(Hint: how many of each)

25% Blue
3: 1

Example:
Purple Flower (PP) x White
Flower (pp)
P

P

p
p
What % of the offspring will be Purple?
White?
What is the ratio of purple : white?
(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

Example:
Purple Flower (PP) x White
Flower (pp)
P

p
p

P

Pp
Pp

Pp
Pp

What % of the offspring will be Purple?
White?
What is the ratio of purple : white?
(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

Example:
Purple Flower (PP) x White
Flower (pp)
P

p
p

P

Pp
Pp

Pp
Pp

What % of the offspring will be Purple? 100 %
Purple
White?
What is the ratio of purple : white?
(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

0% White
1: 0

Bell do all 5 steps of the following Punnett then review your
biochemistry notes for tomorrow’s bell questions and your personal
knowledge and health

Normal thumbs (T) are dominant to
hitchhiker's thumbs (t). A man with
hitchhiker's thumb marries a woman
that is heterozygous for a normal
thumb.

Bell do all 5 steps of the following Punnett then review your
biochemistry notes for tomorrow’s bell questions and your personal
knowledge and health

Normal thumbs (T) are dominant to
hitchhiker’s thumbs (t). A man with
hitchhiker’s thumb marries a women
that is heterozygous for a normal
thumb.
1 legend
2 parents
3 draw box and write parents
4 distribute alleles aka fill boxes
5 labeled % labeled ratio put a box

Normal thumbs (T) are dominant to
hitchhiker’s thumbs (t). A man with
hitchhiker’s thumb marries a woman
that is heterozygous for a normal
thumb.
t
t
T
t
% of Normal thumbs?
%
hitchhiker’s thumbs?
Ratio?

Normal thumbs (T) are dominant to
hitchhiker’s thumbs (t). A man with
hitchhiker’s thumb marries a women
that is heterozygous for a normal
thumb.
t
t
Tt

T

tt

t

% of Normal thumbs?
%
hitchhiker’s thumbs?
Ratio?

Tt
tt

Normal thumbs (T) are dominant to
hitchhiker’s thumbs (t). A man with
hitchhiker’s thumb marries a women
that is heterozygous for a normal
thumb.
t
t
Tt

T

tt

t

% of Normal thumbs?
%
hitchhiker’s thumbs?
Ratio?

Tt
tt
50 %
Normal
50%
hitchhiker’

Free earlobes (F) are dominant to
attached earlobes (f). A man with
attached earlobes marries a women
that is homozygous for free earlobes.
f
Ff

F

Ff

F

% Free Earlobes?
% Attached
earlobes?
Ratio?

f
Ff
Ff
100 % Free
0%
Attached

Joke break

Q: What was the biologist wearing on
his first date with a hot chick?

Joke break

Q: What was the biologist wearing on
his first date with a hot chick?
Designer genes
Designer jeans.

Date 2-17-16 Show all 5 steps
of the Punnett Square for this
family in your tablet

5 Steps of Punnett Square
Problems
• Step 1: Figure out the genotypes of
the parents.
– One is pretty simple – the recessive
parent has to have two little letters: aa
– The other has only two possibilities – AA
or Aa
– So we know that one
parent is aa
and the
other is either Aa
or AA.

5 Steps of Punnett Square
Problems
• Step 2: Figure out all possible
offspring that the parents could
have.
– For all possible genotypes, figure out
what the offspring would look like in
each case.
– i.e. make a Punnett Square for each
possibility.

5 Steps of Punnett Square
Problems
• Step 3: Create the Punnett Squares
A

a

A

a

a

a

a

A

5 Steps of Punnett Square
Problems
• Step 3: Create the Punnett Squares
A
a
a

Aa
aa
Aa
aa

a

A

A

a

Aa

Aa

a

Aa

Aa

Step 4: Determine which
Punnett Square is accurate
• Select the Punnett Square that
reflects what we see for offspring
below.

5 Steps of Punnett Square
Problems
• Step 5: Confirm that you are correct.
A
a
a

Aa
aa
Aa
aa

a

You know that
the Punnett
Square on the
left cannot be
right because
½ the
offspring are
recessive.

A

A

a

Aa

Aa

a

Aa

Aa

Write on a sheet paper to turn in Now:

Punnett Quiz - 1) Blood type
2) dominant recessive
1)seats 1 & 3 Punnett Practice:
a woman heterozygous for type A
blood marries a man with O blood.
Show all 4 steps that come after the
bloodtype legend.
1)seats 2 & 4 Punnett Practice:
a woman with type O blood marries
a man heterozygous for type B
blood. Show all 4 steps that come
after the bloodtype legend.

1)seats 1 & 3 Punnett Practice: a woman heterozygous
for type A blood marries a man with O blood. Show all 4
steps that come after the bloodtype legend.
1)seats 2 & 4 Punnett Practice: a woman with type O
blood marries a man heterozygous for type B blood.
Show all 4 steps that come after the bloodtype legend.

2) Create a
Punnett
Square for
this family.
Show all 5
steps

Step 1: Parent Genotypes
• What are the genotypes of the
parents?

Step 2: Determine what
offspring are possible from
these parents.

• What are the genotype possibilities
for the offspring?

Step 3: Create Punnett Squares
for each possibility
• Create Punnett Squares for all parent
genotype combo possibilities

Step 4: Determine which
Punnett Square is accurate
• Select the Punnett Square that
reflects what we see for offspring
below.

Step 4: Determine which
Punnett Square is accurate
• Select the Punnett Square that
reflects what we see for offspring
below.

Step 5: Confirm that you are
correct.
• Be prepared to explain why the other
Punnett Square would not work.

Summary
• Step 1: One parent is homozygous
recessive: aa
– The other parent is either Aa or AA

• Step 2: these parents would either
have mixed offspring or all dominantphenotype offspring
• Step 3: Create
Punnett Squares

Summary
A
a
a

Aa
aa
Aa

a

aa

You know that the
Punnett Square
on the left is
correct because
half are the
dominant
phenotype and
half are the
recessive
phenotype.

A

A

a

Aa

Aa

a

Aa

Aa

How would you create a
Punnett Square for this family?

Example:
Dimples (DD) x No Dimples
(dd)
D

d
d

Dd
Dd

D

Dd
Dd

What % of the offspring will have dimples? 100 %
Dimples
No dimples?
0% No
What is the ratio of dimples : no dimples? dimples
(Hint: how many of each & reduce)

1: 0

Incomplete dominance
• a cross between organisms with two
different phenotypes produces
offspring with a third phenotype that
is a blending of the parental traits. 

It's like mixing paints, red + white
will make pink.  Red doesn't totally
block (dominate) the pink, instead
there is incomplete dominance, and
we end up with something inbetween.

Copy these notes onto sheet
paper in your units section of
your binder.
Incomplete dominance
• a cross between organisms with two
different phenotypes produces
offspring with a third phenotype that
is a blending of the parental traits. 
• It's like mixing paints, red + white
will make pink.  Red doesn't totally
block (dominate) the pink, instead
there is incomplete dominance, and
we end up with something in-

Incomplete dominance
• a mix showing a NEW trait
Remember Incomplete Dominance in
an example:
• RED Flower x WHITE Flower --->
PINK Flower

Incomplete dominance
What are the
percent
possibilities of
•Red
•White
•Pink
Offspring?

CODOMINANCE
• prefix "co-" is "together".
Cooperate = work together. 
Coexist = exist together. 
Cohabitate = habitat together.

CODOMINANCE
A hybrid organism shows a third
phenotype --- not the "dominant” & not
the "recessive” ...
● but a third phenotype where
both traits show. 
In COdominance, the "recessive" &
"dominant" traits appear together in
the phenotype of hybrid organisms.
red x white ---> red & white spotted

CODOMINANCE
What are
the
percent
possibilitie
s of
Offspring?
•The
parents
are still
the white

flowering Four O’clocks
I know Write and complete the 3
sentences.
I see purple, pink, and white so I Know
this is _________ dominance.
About the Parents
When the F1 generation is 100%
purple flowers I know...
When the F1 generation has some
white flowers I know...

Constructed Response
The 2 different genotypes are___________
They both produce the phenotype________.
The result in the same phenotype because the
______________________________
Did you tell what does T do to t? Are the words
allele, dominant, and recessive in your
response?

Dihybred (simple ones) = 2
in a box
• BB – Big ears
• Bb – Big ears
• bb – normal ears
• PP – pink hair
• Pp – pink Hair
• pp – green hair
• Like penny flip put each possibility of
the 2 traits

Dihybred (simple ones) = 2 in a box and four
squares long





BB – Big ears
Bb – Big ears
bb – normal ears
PP – pink hair
Pp – pink Hair
pp – green hair

• Like penny flip put each possibility of
the 2 traits
• Mom= BbPp so = BP Bp bP bp

Dihybred (simple ones) = 2 in a box and four
squares long







BB – Big ears
Bb – Big ears
bb – normal ears
PP – pink hair
Pp – pink Hair
pp – green hair
Like penny flip put each possibility of the 2 traits
Mom= BbPp so = BP Bp bP bp

• Dad = bbpp homozygous recessive only
gives bg

Dihybred (simple ones) = 2 in a box and four
squares long
• Like penny flip put each possibility of the 2 traits
• Mom= BbPp so = BP Bp bP bp

• Dad = bbpp homozygous recessive only
gives bg
• So he only needs one square not 4
BP
bp

Bp

bP

bp

Punnett Square Bell practice

• The dominant trait is Radical and the
recessive trait is meek
Write all 5 steps

Punnett Square Bell practice

• The dominant trait is Radical and the recessive
trait is meek
Write all 5 steps
you can copy steps 3 and 4 as shown

Punnett Square Organizer
dominant recessive

dominant completely
hides recessive if present

first letter of dominant trait
uppercase Dominant
and lower case - recessive

incomplete
dominance

2 traits blend creating
NEW trait

first letter of each trait with
heterozygous both letters new
trait

codominance

2 traits BOTH show in
heterozygous

first letter of each trait with
heterozygous both letters
showing both traits

blood types

IA, IB dominant to i allele
of O blood, A & B
codominant

IA, IB or i

sex-linked

superscript of X
chromosome

XX, Xy XHX, XHy

Punnett Square Organizer
allele interactions

alleles

dominant recessive

dominant completely
hides recessive if present

first letter of dominant trait
uppercase Dominant
and lower case - recessive

incomplete
dominance

2 traits blend creating
NEW trait

first letter of each trait with
heterozygous both letters new
trait

codominance

2 traits BOTH show in
heterozygous

first letter of each trait with
heterozygous both letters
showing both traits

blood types

IA, IB dominant to i allele
of O blood, A & B
codominant

IA, IB or i

sex-linked

superscript of X
chromosome

XX, Xy XHX, XHy

Blood type pre -post test Reasoning
1. did you make your T-chart legend?
2. did you use your legend to determine the possible blood
types of the parents?
think, raise your hand when you have decided - How many
2x2 punnett squares do you need to draw to determine
the possible blood types for the 3 sets of parents?
optional - did you do any reasoning at any point to decide if
you don’t need to draw any of the squares? Please
share what you noticed.

More blood type Practice
Kailani has type B blood and Nainoa has type
O blood, what blood types can their children
have?
Thier daughter marries a man with AB blood.
What percent of their children are likely to
have type O blood?
What percent of their children are likely to have
type A blood?