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CleanMilk Home Pasteurizer and Refrigeration System

BIOEN 215: Introduction to Bioengineering Problem Solving, Section AA

Jasmine Hawkins: Contributions included writing abstract, problem statement, describing prior
art, generating design specifications and solutions, and conclusions. Team member also aided in
editing and revising paper, as well as setting up times for team meetings.
Tayler Hoftell: Contributions included writing abstract, problem statement, describing prior art,
generating design specifications and solutions, and conclusions. Team member also aided in
contributing personal ideas to report and powerpoint, as well as attending all meetings.
Ritika Jain: Contributions included writing abstract, problem statement, describing prior art,
generating design specifications and solutions, and formatting references. Team member
provided original ideas and aided in revising the final report.
Aaron Nguyen: Contributions included generating design specifications and solutions. Team
member focused greatly on graphic design of solution and contributed on problem statement.
Also aided in the generation of the powerpoint.
Dan Tu: Contributions included generating design specifications and solutions. Team member
focused greatly on graphic design of solution.

December 16, 2015

In many low-resource settings worldwide, the consumption of raw milk can often lead to
foodborne illnesses from harmful bacteria such as Listeria, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The

lack of access to pasteurization, a mechanism that involves the heating and cooling of milk to kill
these bacteria, often has devastating impacts on the growth of infants and the health of
communities. Current pasteurization methods in these low-resource settings are large-scale or are
costly for families or small scale farmers that obtain milk from their own livestock. Our goal is to
develop a small-scale two-fold system that incorporates pasteurization to kill harmful bacteria in
milk as well as refrigeration to eliminate the risk of post-pasteurization contamination. This
system is intended for use by families or small-scale farmers in low-resource settings. We
determined several high-level needs for our system including lifespan of the device, percentage
of Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli eliminated, and availability of the energy source.
The CleanMilk Home Pasteurizer and Refrigeration System utilizes solar-generated electricity to
power a heating mechanism for raw milk that quickly raises its temperature to 160 F, then uses a
water cooling system to chill the freshly pasteurized milk and maintain its temperature at 40 F.
Our device is built of stainless steel and thermoplastic tubing, which are both materials with
extremely high durability to ensure a lifespan of several decades. Our device provides
communities in low-resource settings with a reliable and accessible pasteurization and
refrigeration system. Furthermore, the CleanMilk Home Pasteurizer and Refrigeration System
has the potential to eliminate cultural stigmas against pasteurized milk and spread awareness of
the importance of pasteurization and refrigeration techniques.

Problem Statement and Description

Milk is an essential part of human diets, especially for infants and young children. In
developing countries, milk is mostly sold raw through informal markets due to the lack of
adequate pasteurization and refrigeration methods. Raw milk is often contaminated with Listeria,
Escherichia coli and Salmonella, which cause some of the worlds most common and deadliest

foodborne illnesses.1 Infants, young children, elderly, and the immunosuppressed are especially
vulnerable to these diseases.
This problem stems from areas where there is lack of access to pasteurized milk and the
price of raw milk is often less than that of commercial, processed milk. Societies that obtain their
milk from small scale farmers who cannot afford portable refrigeration suffer from the risks of
increased incubation of bacteria in milk or from the addition of pathogenic chemicals to stabilize
it.2 This leads to the underconsumption of milk as a whole, since processed milk is expensive and
raw milk is harmful to ingest. In countries like Egypt, this has huge impacts on the development
of young children, who lack milk in their diets, leading to 29% of children having stunted
Our project aims to design a solution to this global problem by creating a two-fold model
that incorporates both pasteurization and refrigeration to prevent the development of foodborne
illnesses from milk. By implementing our design in developing countries, we can spread an
awareness about the importance of milk pasteurization and refrigeration, while providing
families with access to uncontaminated milk.

Prior Art
In 1933, Alexandre Lesperance patented an improved portable milk pasteurizer. This
pasteurizer consists of tube containing milk that is surrounded by a water column, thereby
heating it fully and evenly. The device has an attached thermometer to indicate when the milk
has reached an internal temperature of 142 to 145 F. Then, the water receptacle is filled with
cold water, causing the hot water to drain out, which cools the milk back down to a temperature
at which the growth of any remaining bacteria is inhibited.3 The main complication with this

device is that the water in the receptacle is heated on a stovetop, which is not feasible in lowresource settings where access to electricity to power stovetops is unreliable. Our design process
recognizes energy poverty as a critical barrier to developing a milk pasteurizer. Thus, our design
process relies on energy that can be readily harvested at the site of implementation.
A similar patent published in 1956 by Oscar C. Hoggren ensures that the entirety of the
milk is completely submerged into the boiling water to kill all bacteria, including those found in
the cream that rises to the top of the milk. It also ensures that the food value of the milk is
not destroyed, preventing vitamins such as riboflavin which are destroyed by light to be
degraded.4 Our design process takes into consideration a completely homogeneous heating and
cooling process, while ensuring that the process does not destroy or impair the food value of
One of the most relevant solutions to our problem is an animal food pasteurization and
refrigeration system developed in 2010 by Martin Foerster. This system sterilizes animal food,
especially milk, by heating and subsequent cooling in the same system. Once the liquid has
reached a temperature of 194F, the cooling system is activated and the liquid begins to cool
down to a temperature between -4 and 14 F. This model incorporates the heating and cooling
system that are pertinent to our design model.5 However, these temperatures are different from
those necessary at which to pasteurize and store milk, as milk develops an unpleasant taste when
heated for long periods of time at temperatures over 168 F.4 Therefore, our two-fold design
process recognizes the need for a heating methodology that does not exceed this temperature and
also incorporates a cooling and refrigeration system.
Most other existing technologies are milk cooling systems created for use by dairy
farmers, tailored especially towards those in countries in East Africa. These innovations are

essential because 85% of rural parts East Africa lacks reliable access to a power grid, which has a
significant impact on the transportation of food products, including milk.6 However, our group
aims to create pasteurization systems for families, which does not currently exist for use in lowresource settings.

Design Specifications
High-Level Needs of Milk Pasteurization and Refrigeration System
1. Manufacturing cost per device must be low in order to provide affordable solution
for cleaning raw milk for families in low-resource settings.
2. Process of pasteurizing and cooling milk should be relatively short to prevent
growth of bacteria.
3. Device should be made of durable material and last years to ensure replacement is
not a necessity for a few decades.
4. Device should kill harmful bacteria in the milk: especially Listeria, Salmonella,
and Escherichia Coli. It should also prevent its growth following pasteurization and
during refrigeration process.
5. Device should be intuitive and easy to use, even for those without experience with
similar devices so that uneducated societies can use device.
6. Energy source should be broadly available in low-resource settings with
unreliable access to energy grids.

Design Criteria for Milk Pasteurization and Refrigeration Systems

Need #

Design Criteria


Accepted Value


Manufacturing cost

US Dollar



Length of process required

to heat and cool milk




Life-span of device

Years until corrosion



Removal of bacteria

Percentage of Listeria,
Salmonella, and Escherichia
coli eliminated


Ease of use

Number of steps required

by human to operate


Availability of energy




Generation of Design Specifications

The manufacturing cost per device is fundamental to our design because families in lowresource settings cannot afford investing significant amounts of their income on devices that can
be viewed as luxury goods. In addition, higher quality materials have higher costs, so it is
important for our design to take into account the manufacturing cost, while still maintaining the
quality of the material. We chose a range of 50-100 U.S. Dollars to manufacture each device. In
India, for example, the average income per capita in 2014 was $3840, adjusted for purchasing
power parity, though this number is overestimates the conditions of most families as the
distribution of income in India is highly skewed.7 Ideally, our projected cost goal is around $50,
which would not be a very significant fraction of a familys income, especially for a device we
anticipate will be functional for several years.
The length of the process required to heat and cool milk needs to be relatively quick in
order to reduce the regrowth of bacteria. Using the traditional method of heating milk for 15
seconds at 161 F, we can quickly pasteurize the milk. After 15 seconds, the cooling system will
be activated and the liquid will begin to cool to under 40 F within 40 minutes.8 This

specification is important to our design because any remaining bacteria in milk after the
pasteurization process are prone to growing in a danger temperature zone that ranges from 40 to
145 F.9 In addition, it is equally important to maintain the cool temperature of the milk
following pasteurization because it takes 4 hours for bacteria growth to spoil unrefrigerated
The lifespan of our device is an extremely crucial specification because the model needs
to withstand years of use. In many cultures, access to pasteurization and refrigeration are viewed
as luxuries. Families cannot afford to replace these pasteurizers frequently, or even at all during
their lifetimes. Our device needs to be made from durable materials that have the ability to hold
up after decades of use.
In addition, our device needs to be non-corrosive so that it does not contaminate the milk.
In the United States, the average lifespan of household and kitchen appliances is about 10
years.11 Although there are few statistics that accurately portray the lifetime of these appliances in
low-resource settings, we extended the lifespan of devices in these settings to account for the
inability to replace the device with ease. We determined a reasonable life-span of 15 to 25 years
in rural areas, as families in these areas cannot afford the luxury of replacing appliances, or even
purchasing them in extremely poor communities.
The purpose of our device is ultimately to prevent the development of harmful foodborne
diseases by eliminating bacteria. The three most prevalent bacteria found in raw milk are
Listeria, Escherichia coli and Salmonella.1 By heating the milk to a high temperature,
pasteurization eliminates most harmful bacteria found in milk. Our goal is to eliminate 99.99%
of the three harmful bacteria to eradicate the risk of contracting diseases borne from these

One of the main focuses of our project is to also provide a device that has simple humanmachine interface so that it is intuitive and easy to understand, especially because most lowresource settings also have low literacy rates. In India, for example, the literacy rate in 2011 was
69%, a value which is significantly lower in areas where this device would be used, such as
slums and in rural areas, as many people are un- or undereducated.12 In addition to the necessity
of intuitive use, complicated devices are likely to be used improperly, reducing the effectiveness
of the processes conducted. Our design will ideally consist of 2-4 simple steps which would
promote effective use of the device.
In most low-resource settings, reliable access to energy grids is also largely unavailable.
In Sudan, another country that is a significant consumer of milk, only 32.6% of the population
has access to electricity.13.14 Therefore, it is necessary that our design implements energy sources
that can be easily harvested in these regions, ideally renewable energy sources, which would
provide a lower financial burden on families to power.

Solution Generation and Selection

Rationale for Solution Generation
During the design process, we were inspired by existing milk pasteurizers. We maintained
similar structures for all three, but changed various design specifications to determine their
effects and ultimately generate the best possible design. Foremost, an important part of our
design is the actual pasteurization methodology. We chose two different methods of milk
pasteurization that differ in temperature and duration and compared the results of each to
determine which one was more efficient for our design. This process should be quick to
eliminate harmful bacteria already present in the raw milk, and furthermore, diminish the risk of
bacterial regrowth following pasteurization.
One of our main aims was to ensure the use of alternative energy sources and
mechanisms of heating and cooling. We compared solar energy and biogas based on the
availability of these energy sources. Both are easily available in rural communities, meaning that
they can be easily implemented in low resource settings, though to slightly different degrees. In
addition, we considered differences between stainless steel and aluminum in terms of
manufacturing costs, heat conductivity, and years until corrosion. While the cost of aluminum is
significantly lower than that of stainless steel, aluminum is prone to corrosion which can
contaminate the milk.
Additionally, based on the differences in energy sources, our designs differed greatly by
their simplicity and ease of use. In low-resource settings where literacy rates are extremely low,
devices must be simple enough for people to be able to operate it. Our first two designs are
extremely simple to operate, whereas our third design involves a multi-step process because of

its use of biogas. Overall, our aim is to ensure that the device is easy to use and can be operated
without technical knowledge of the operating system of the device.

Design 1
This is a double compartment unit that pasteurizes and cools in two different systems within the
device. The first part of the machine will be the pasteurization unit. Solar cells will generate
electricity that will run through a nickel-chromium wire between the stainless steel container in
which milk is held and the stainless steel outer shell of the device. A thermometer will internally
monitor the temperature in the device, and once a temperature of 161 F has been reached and
maintained for 15 seconds, the milk will automatically begin to be transferred through a tube
leading into the cooling compartment of the device. This refrigeration system is powered by a
water cooling system and works by running water through a tube to absorb heat from the milk.
This water then flows to a nearby fan that cools it so that it can cycle through the tube to again
absorb heat. This cycle continues for the duration of the cooling process. Once all the milk is
cooled, it will be kept in this compartment to act as a refrigeration system. At the bottom of the
device, there will be a spout to pour the milk from when it is needed.

Design 2
This is a single compartment device which heats and cools the milk within one vessel. Milk is
poured into the machine and then heated. Solar cells will generate electricity that will run
through a iron-based wire. This design features pasteurization method with a longer duration
where milk is heated to 145 F for 30 minutes. Through an internal monitor, the device will
activate evaporator coils once the desired temperature has been reached for a sufficient length of
time. These coils operate in a similar way to coils in refrigerators, where water absorbs the heat

from milk that has just undergone the pasteurization process. The coils will be located in the
same compartment that the milk is in, but will not contaminate the milk or alter the taste. As that
is running, a condenser coil pulls liquid water through a tube that runs through an expansion
valve. After running through the valve, the liquid is cold which will then cool the milk and
provide a refrigeration system for the milk.15 This model primarily uses aluminum to keep the
manufacturing cost per device low.

Design 3
This is a two compartment device that heats and cools milk. The heating system will implement
biogas-powered hot plates. Biogas utilizes combustible gases created by the decomposition of
organic materials that either generates electricity energy in a traditional combustion engine or
thermal energy by direct combustion. Once all of the milk has reached an internal temperature of
145 F, a timer will begin to ensure that the milk is maintained at this temperature for 30
minutes. Following this duration, an evaporating cooling system located in the same tube that the
heated milk is transferred from will begin. The hot air generated by the heating process will be
tunneled into a cooling pad which allows the water in the pad to absorb the heat. Then the cold
air will be redistributed to the storage part of this device. The cold air will be continuously
circulating to keep the storage compartment at 40 F. This device is made of both an aluminum
interior and stainless steel exterior. A nozzle will be included at the bottom to dispense the milk.

Pugh Chart of Milk Pasteurizing and Cooling Devices

Weight Scale: 1-3
Design Scale: 1-5


Design Criteria


Design 1

Design 2

Design 3

Manufacturing cost

Length of process to heat and

cool milk

Life span of device

Removal of bacteria

Ease of use

Availability of energy source





Weighted Total




Rationale for Pugh Chart Weights

The weights were assigned based on the dire importance of each component to our final
design. The most important criteria to the success of our device are lifespan, percentage of
Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli eliminated, and the availability of the energy source.
Each of these were assigned the highest weight of 3. The fundamental purpose of our design is to
eliminate harmful bacteria in raw milk by creating both a reliable device and readily available
energy system. Our three other design specifications are dependent on the successful
implementation of these three criteria. If these preliminary criteria are not satisfied, our other
design specifications will fail to benefit the device. For example, if our device has a very short
lifespan, the total manufacturing costs will be extremely high due to replacement charges,
regardless of the initial cost to manufacture the device.
Simple human-machine interface and manufacturing costs were assigned a medium
weight of 2. One of the most important factors when considering implementation of a device in a


new environment is ensuring that other societies have ease-of-use. While a development team is
able operate the device with ease, its ease of use is difference in a society comprised of largely
undereducated people. If all other design specifications are fulfilled but the device is difficult to
operate, it will likely not be used by consumers. In addition, it is necessary that manufacturing
costs, and therefore total cost of the device to the consumer, are kept low because the device
would not be bought and implemented otherwise. This is because most users of our device do not
have significant amounts of disposable income to invest in cleaning food. However, though these
criteria are important to the consumer, it is more essential that the device eliminates foodborne
bacteria, maintains its value for several years after its purchase, and can be fueled by energy
available in the region.
The length of process to heat and cool the milk was assigned the lowest weight of 1.
Although this criterion remains important to the consumer, it is not imperative to the overall
functioning of the device in comparison to other high-level needs. The short process that lasts 15
seconds at 161 F causes less damage to the nutrient composition and sensory characteristics of
food than the process that lasts 30 minutes at 145 F.16 While this need is relevant in our solution
generation process, it is merely an inconvenience to the consumer rather than an indicator that
the device is not functioning correctly or at all.

Evaluation of Design Scores

For manufacturing costs, Design 1 received the lowest score of 1 because it is made
entirely of stainless steel, which is a very expensive material, and is comprised of 2
compartments, which nearly doubles manufacturing costs. Design 2 was assigned the highest
score of 5, because it is made of aluminum, a less expensive material, and has a single
compartment which maintains a low manufacturing cost. Design 3 was given a rating of 3

because it combines both stainless steel and aluminum to keep costs moderate. Similarly to
Design 1, this design uses two compartments which increases the cost to manufacture the second
The length of process to heat and cool the milk is longer in Designs 2 and 3 and shorter in
Design 1 due to the two different methods of pasteurization. Designs 2 and 3 feature the 30
minute pasteurization method whereas Design 1 features a 15 second pasteurization method.
The two materials we considered for use in our devices are aluminum and stainless steel,
which are both common metals used in existing devices. Stainless steel is a superior material
because it does not corrode and is much more durable than aluminum, but it is also much more
expensive. The lifespan of Design 1 is expected to exceed that of the other two designs because it
is comprised solely of stainless steel and therefore was scored at 5. Design 2 utilizes only
aluminum, a metal prone to corrosion, and therefore was assigned a low value of 2. Design 3
combines both aluminum and stainless steel so it was assigned a 3 to account for the combination
of both materials.
The main goal of pasteurization is to eliminate all the harmful bacteria within raw milk.
All three of our designs fulfill this by heating the milk to high temperatures for sufficient lengths
of time and then quickly cooling to 40 F or below; therefore, all designs received a score of 5.
Designs 1 and 2 are extremely easy to operate in low-resource settings, so they were
assigned a high score of 5. They are operated by pouring milk into the system and turning on the
system with a button. Design 3 requires a greater number of steps for the user to complete the
process. It has a more complex human-machine interface because it is powered by biogas instead
of by solar power in our first two designs. The user must first insert a biogas source, including
cow manure or some other organic waste, in order for it to be fixed for use by combustion. Then,


they pour milk into the top of the device and push a button to begin the pasteurization process.
The process of harvesting biogas is not as intuitive as the use of solar powers found in our first
two designs, so Design 3 was given a lower score of 3.
Designs 1 and 2 generate electricity through the use of solar power. Though this source of
energy is widely available, it is not omnipresent and cannot be used as extensively as biogas,
which solely needs organic waste to generate power. Therefore, Designs 1 and 2 received scores
of 4 because they are powered by solar cells. Design 3, which runs on biogas, received a 5.

Solution Selection
After evaluating our Pugh chart and design options, we decided that Design 1 would best
fit our goals for this project. Using the Pugh chart illustrated how the differences between
specific designs would affect the overall success of each. Design 1 had the highest weighted
total, which was an indicator that it was the best fit for our specific design criteria. We especially
took into consideration the criteria that were assigned weights of 3, as these were the most
essential criteria to the overall success of the device. These criteria were lifespan, percentage of
bacteria eliminated, and availability of energy source; design one received scores of 5, 5, and 4
for these criteria, respectively, which are all extremely high scores. As a result of the fact that
design 1 fit not only our most important criteria well, but fulfilled all of our specified high level
needs, we determined that we would continue with this design.


Design Description
Design of CleanMilk Home Pasteurizer and Refrigeration System
Figure 1 displays the overall design for our CleanMilk pasteurization and cooling system.
The system is 51.5 centimeters in height with a diameter of 24
centimeters for the bottom compartment and 18 centimeters
for the top compartment. The fan and pump system together
are 18 cm by 25.5 cm by 8 cm.
The top compartment shown in Figure 2 is made of
stainless steel and has a 3-gallon capacity, which can sustain a
familys milk needs for about a week. It consists of the lid,
lock, thermometer, heating wire, sliding door, and start button.
The heating and cooling system starts with a simple press of a
button as shown in Figure 3. When the user presses the start button, the system uses stored
energy from the solar panels to
heat a wire made of a nickelchromium alloy which runs
throughout the top compartment.
Once the internal thermometer
detects a temperature of 161 F,
it holds the temperature for 15
seconds before shifting the
sliding door over as seen in
Figure 4.

The sliding mechanism works by pulling a wire which is attached to the red pole. This
pole slides over and compresses the spring, moving the hole into place, allowing the milk to
drain into the bottom compartment. We chose to use the nickel-chromium alloy for the
composition of the wire because it is corrosion resistant and commonly used in electrical
devices, and will therefore be an efficient heating coil to pasteurize the milk. Our choice of metal
for the compartment itself is stainless steel because of its high durability and resistance to
corrosion. Additionally, stainless steel does not alter the taste of milk, unlike metals such as
nickel and brass.


Figure 5 displays the bottom compartment, which is

also made of stainless steel with a capacity of 3 gallons. It
consists of two solar panels, a spout, handles, storage area,
and a cooling system which is shown in Figure 6. This
compartment is where the milk is cooled, which works by
pumping water through thermoplastic tubing. The water
absorbs heat from the milk,
and is then led into the
water storage area as seen in
Figure 7. The water is then
pumped up through multiple
series of tubes that run
throughout the cooling box,
which contains two fans
powered by a motor that
derives its energy from the
solar panels. These fans spin fast enough to cool down the heated water as it runs through the
tubes. By the time the water reaches the top, it is at a temperature of 40 F in order for it to cool
the milk further. The process repeats, which cools and maintains the milk at an internal
temperature of 40 F. We chose to use thermoplastic tubing for this cooling system because it
combines the strength and heat conductive properties of metal piping with the flexibility of
standard plastic tubing. Additionally, thermoplastic tubes are commonly used in the cooling


systems of many electronics. When the milk is needed, the user can collect their milk from a
stainless steel spout located at the bottom of the device.
This design features easily removable compartments such as the spout, thermoplastic
tube, and interior chamber which promotes ease of usage and maintenance. It also features a
battery that stores energy when the device is not being actively used or when it collects more
energy than is currently being used. This battery will provide energy in order for the machine to
continue to function when solar energy cannot be harnessed, especially for continued
refrigeration at night.

Potential Problems with the CleanMilk Home Pasteurization and Refrigeration System
Some potential problems that could arise with our device are associated with the motor
that generates energy from solar cells. When handling motors, there is always a risk of
developing a mechanical problem such as overheating of the motor, failure of the motor to start,
or simply the need for replacement parts. In developing countries, it is extremely difficult to
obtain replacement parts due to the difficulty of travel and expense of the replacement. The
motor is an essential component of our design because it powers the fan and cooling system;
motor failure would inhibit the cooling process and thus lead to growth of bacteria in the milk.
Another potential issue arises from the use of water in the thermoplastic tubes, which
could be conducive to the growth of mold or bacteria within the tubes. Because of this, the
tubing would need to be cleaned out and disinfected periodically with bleach solution. In order to
clean the device, the user would require knowledge of the structure of the device. This would
decrease the ease-of-use because it would require more instructions to be given to consumers for
proper care of the CleanMilk Home Pasteurizer and Refrigeration System.


A problem that could arise with the distribution of our device is facing cultural beliefs and
superstitions in undereducated societies. In low resource settings, cultural beliefs often conflict
with scientific data and findings. People rely on superstitious beliefs as a basis for health care
practices instead of consulting established scientific facts. Many people believe that pasteurized
milk is injurious to health simply because it is processed, or that it adversely impacts the taste of
milk, both of which have been proven to be untrue.2 These biases could impede our ability to
distribute the device in these settings.


In our project, we successfully generated a design for a milk pasteurizer and cooling
device that could potentially resolve the issue of harmful raw milk consumption in low-resource
settings. This project is extremely significant for low-resource settings because milk is an
essential and extensive part of the human diet, especially in infants and young children who
require the nutrients found in milk to facilitate growth. However, the high risk of contamination
of milk discourages its consumption in many low-resource settings such as communities in
regions of Eastern Africa and rural India. There are devices that currently exist to solve this
problem, though these solutions are tailored toward large scale pasteurization factories in
developed countries.
Our project not only to incorporates both pasteurization and refrigeration, but also to
spreads awareness of the importance of consuming pasteurized milk instead of raw milk. By
implementing our device, we can eliminate cultural stigmas that discourage the consumption of
pasteurized milk and prove the importance of the pasteurization of milk. Although our project
could not consider all factors required in designing a device due to our inability to experience
this problem firsthand in order to tailor the device towards the actual concerns of citizens in these
societies, we firmly believe that our team was able to generate the preliminary framework for a
feasible milk pasteurization and cooling device.
As a team, we developed reliable research skills by using search engines such as Google
Patent and PubMed. We also learned to effectively analyze the reliability of sources by
evaluating the author and time of publication. Designating different components of our project to
each team member and maintaining an open minded approach were extremely important in
agreeing on solutions in a timely fashion and completing each component by the next team

meeting. One of the most important skills we developed as individuals was learning to defend
our own opinions while still remaining considerate and respectful toward the views of other team


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