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Journal for the study of the pseudepigrapha crise es mong —& Gerber S. Oegema ‘THE ANOINTED AND HIS PEOPLE ‘Messani Expectations fom the Maccabees 10 Ber Kociba In thissytemic and radial work, Oegema studies the origins and development of expectations of a mestiah—royal, priestly oF prophetic In five parts, al the Jewish and Christian literature fom 200 4C€ to 200 CE is analysed for ite messianic intrest, ‘Special attention is devoted to the Peeudepigraph, che Qumran literature, Philo, Jovephus, the writings ofthe Early Church, the Jewish Apocalypses and the early Kabbinic writings. In this lmportane work, Orgema contends that we cannot speak of a ‘mesvianic idee’ in Judaism, but chat we can trace a historical trajectory of messianic expectations Gerber Ongena teaches New Testament and Ancient Judaism in he Department of New Testament ofthe Theologial Faculty, University of Tubingen and is Adjunct Dinector of the Institut fir antikes Judentum od helenistische Religansgescice Hb £50 00185.00 ISBN 185075 648 4 JSP Supplement Sei, 27 360 pp. USP 18 (1998) 71-86] ‘TITLES OF ENOCH-METATRON IN 2 ENOCH! Andrei A. Orlov “Teology Department, Marquet University ‘Milwaukee, W1S3233, USA Whoever is dealing withthe Account of Creation and the Account of the ‘Chariot mast inevitably fail is therefore written, “Let this heap of ruins be under your hand” (Is. 3.6). This refers to things thal a person ‘cannot understand, unless he fis in them, (The Book of Bahr, p. 150) In his introduction to the English translation of 2 Enoch F.1. Andersen states that ‘all attempts to locate the intellectual background of the 1. Part ofthis paper was read at the Annual Meeting of SBL/AAR, New Orleans, 23-26 November 1956 2. On different approaches to 2 Enoch, ef. LD. Amusin, Teksty Kumrana (Pamjatiki pis mennosti vostoka, 33/1; Moscow: Nauka, 1971); Fl. Andersen, "2 {Slavonic Apocalypse of) Enoch’, OTP, 1, pp. 91-221; Ch. Bottrich, Adam als Mikrokosmos: Eine Untersuchung zum slavsche Henochbuch (Frankfurt ar Main Peter Lang, 1995); idem, Das slavische Henochbuch (Gitersloh: Gitrsloher Ver- laghaus, 1995); idem, Welnweisheis, Mensethetsthik, Urkult: Studien zum slavi schen Henochbuch (WUNT, R2, 0: Tubingen: CB, Mobt, 1992); RL. Chale, “The Date and Place of Writings of the Slavonic Enoch’ JTS 22 (1921) pp 161-63 (163y; 5H. Charlesworth, “I the Crucible: The Pseudepigrapha as Biblical Inter pretation’ in JH. Charlesworth and C.A. Evans (eds), Peeudepigrapha and Early Biblical Interpretation (Sheffield: Shetfield Academic Press, 1993), pp. 20-431 Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament: Prole ‘romena for the Study of Cristian Origins (SNTSMS, 54; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); idem, The Pseudepigrapha and Modern Research with a ‘Supplement (SBLSCS, 7; Chico, CA: Scholar Press, 1981): Collins, "The Genre “Apocalypse in Hellenistic Judaism’, in D. Heliholm (e.), Apocalypticism inthe ‘Mediterranean World and the Near East (Tubingen: 1.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck 1983); L. Cry, "Quelques noms d'anges ou d'des mysterieux en It Henoch’, RB 49 72 Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha 18 (1998) book have failed’? Among these endeavors were several efforts to establish the connection between 2 Enoch and Ma‘aseh Merkabak.* (1940), pp. 195-203; 1. Daniiou, The Theology of Jewish Christianity (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1964); U. Fischer, Exchatologie und Jensetserwartung im hellnistischen Diasporajudentum (BZNW, 44; Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1978) 4. Fossum, ‘Colossians 1.15-18a in the fight of Jewish Mysticism and Gnosticis [NTS 35 (1989), pp, 183-201: K. Lake, The Date ofthe Slavonic Enoch’, HR 16 (1923), pp.397-98; N.A. Meschchersky, ‘Sledy pamyanikov Kumranav staroslav. yansko} i drevnerusso} literature (K izucheniuslavyanskih vers) knigi Enobay’, Trudy otdela drevnerustoiIteratury 19 (1963), pp. 130-47; N.A. Meschechersky, “XK istorii tekstaslayyanskojknigi Enoba (Sledy pamyatikov Kumrana v vizan tiskoj i staroslavyansko literature’, Vieaniakij vremenaik 24 (1964), pp. 91-108; INA. Meschchersky, 'K voprosu ob istochnikanslavyantko)knlgh Enoba', Kratkie soobshcheniya Institaa narodov Aci 86 (1965), pp. 72-78; T. Milik, The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976); G.WEE. Nickelsburg, “The Books of Enoch in Recent Research’, RSR 7 (1981), pp. 210-17; H. Odeberg, 3 Enoch or the Hebrew Book of Enach (New York: Ktav, 1973); M. Philonenko, ‘La cosmogonie du "Livre des secrets éHénoch’”, in Rell ions en Egypte: Hellénisique et Romaine (Pais: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969); S. Fines, ‘Eschatology and the Concept of Time in the Slavonic Book of Enoch’, in RJ. Zwi Werblowsky (ed), Types of Redemption (Leiden: EJ. Brill, 1970y; 5. Reeves, ‘Jewish Pseudepigrpha in Manichaean Literature: The Influence ‘ofthe Enochic Library’, in 1.C. Reeves (ed), Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vuatity of Jewish Pseudepigrapha (Ailanta, CA: Scholars Press, 1994), pp. 173- 203; A. Rubinstein, ‘Observations onthe Slavonic Book of Enech’ JS 15 (1962), Pp. 1-21; G. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticiam (New York: Schocken Books, 1954); idem, On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead (New York: Schocken Books, 1991) idem, Origins of the Kabbalah (Princeton, NI: Princeton University Press, 1987); M, Scopello, "The Apocalypse of Zostianos (Nag Hammadi VIU.1) and the Book ofthe Secrets of Enoch, Vgiliae Christanae 34 (1980), pp. 367-85; ME. Stone, Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period (CRINT: Piladelphi: Fortress Press, 1984) 1, pp, 406-408; A. Valllan, Le livre des secrets d’Hénoch, Texte slave et traduction francaise (Pais: L'inattt d'eudes slaves, 1952; repr. Pais, 1976); J. VanderKam, Enoch, a Man for All Generations (Columbia: South Carolina, 1995) 3. Andersen, °2 Enoch’ 4. On the Merkabah tradition, se the following sources: P. Alexander, ‘The Historical Settings of the Hebrew Book of Enoch’, J/S 28 (1977), pp, 156-80; D. Blumenthal, Understanding Jewish Mysticism, a Source Reader: The Merkaboh Tradition and the Zoharic Tradition, 2 vols; New York: Ktav, 1978; I. Chenu Mysticism in Rebbinic Judaism (Berlin: W. de Gruyter, 1982), M. Cohen, The ‘Shur Qomeh: Litrgy and Theurgy in Pre Kabbalistic Jewish Mytitsm (Lanhar: University Pres of America, 1983); J. Greenfield, “Prolegomenon’, in Odeberg, ORLOV Titles of Enoch-Metatron in 2 Enoch B One of the essential contributors to this approach, Hugo Odeberg points out that the similarities in descriptions of Celestial titles for Enoch in 2 and 3 Enoch may be the important evidence of a possible connection between 2 Enoch and texts of the Merkabah tradi ‘The purpose of this article is to call atention to some details of these descriptions which might shed new light on the relationship between carly Enochic® and Merkabah traditions. 4 Boch, pp. xi-xIvl I. Gruenwald, Apocalyptic and Merkavak Mystciom (AGIU, 14: Leiden: EJ. Bil, 1980; I. Gruenwald and M. Smith, The Helhalotk Literature in English (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983); D. Halperin, The Faces of Chariot: Early Jewish Responses to Ezekiel's Vision (TSAJ, 16; Tubingen: MobeSicbeck, 1988); dem, The Merkavah in Rabbinic Literature (New Haven: American Orient Society, 1980); M. lel, “Enoch is Metatron’, Immanuel 2425 (1950) pp. 220-40; L. Jacobs, Jewish Mystical Testimonies (New York: Schocken Books, 1977); IN. Janowite, The Poetics of Ascent: Theories of Language in a Rabbinic Ascent Tex (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989); M. Morgan, Sepher ha Razim: The Book of Mysteries (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983); C. Moay-Jones, ‘Hethaloth Literature and Talmudic Tradition: Alexander's Thee Test Cates, J/S 22 (1991), pp. 1-39: C. Newsom, Songs of Sabbath Sacrifice: A Critical Edition (HSS, 27; Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1985); P. Schifer with M. Schidter and HG. von Mutius, Synopse zur Hethaloth-Literatur (TSAI, 2; Tubingen: J.B Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1981), P. Schifer, The Hidden and Manifest God (Albany ‘State University of New York Press, 1992); P. Schafer etal, Ubersezung der Hek- hhaloth-Literanur (4 vols.; TSAJ, 17, 22, 29, 46; Tubingen: J.C.B, Mobr [Paul Siebeck], 1987-95); G. Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism and Talmudic Tradition (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 1965); idem, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticiom (New York: Schocken Books, 1954); IN. Séd, ‘Les traditions secrbes et les disciples de Rabbun Yohannan ben Zakkai RHR 184 (1973), pp. 49-66; M. Swartz, Mystical Prayer in Ancient Judaism: An ‘Analysis of Ma'aseh Merkavah (Tubingen: 1.C.B, Mobr [Paul Siebeckl, 1992), 5. Odeberg, 3 Enoch 66. On the figre of Enoch and Enochic traditions see: M. Black, The Book of Enoch or I Enoch: A New English Edition with Commentary and Textual Notes (SVTP, 7; Leiden: EJ. Bril, 1985); Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseud- “pigrapha; idem, The Pseudepigrapha: 3. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to the Jewish Matrix of Christianity (New York: Crotsrond, 1984). pp. 33-67; P. Grelot, ‘La Iégende d’Hénoch dans les apocryphes et dans Ia Bible: son origine et signification’, RSR 46 (1958), pp. 5-26, 181-210; HL. Jansen, Die Henochgestal: Eine vergleichende religionsgeschichlche Untersuchung (Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo Il. Hist-Filos. Klasse, 1; Oslo: Dybwad, 1939) H. Kyanvig, Roots of Apocalyptic: The Mesopotamian Background of the Enoch Figure and the Son of Man (WMANT, 61; Nevkirchen-Vluyn: Nevkirchener ‘Verlag, 1988); Mili, The Books of Enoch; Odeberg, 3 Enoch; M, Sion, Selected