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Radial Conduction

Report Submitted 01/28/15

Group 2

By:

Damon Dunwody

And team

I certify that all the writing here is our own and not acquired from

external sources. We have cited sources appropriately and

paraphrased correctly. We have not shared our writing with students

outside our group, nor have we acquired any written portion of this

document from past or present students.

Abstract:

This lab report gave students a way to apply technical knowledge from ENGR 3150. In

the procedure, an insulated metallic disk was heated at the inner radius and temperatures were

taken at six different radial distances. The resistance heaters energy exchange was set to 10W,

30W, and 60W, for three trials. However, due to the capabilities of the resistance heater, the trial

using 60W could not be performed. The trial with the heater set to 10W left temperatures varying

from 20.8 C to 28.4 C. The trial with the heater set to 30W gave results measuring from 24.6 C to

45.6 C. The boundary conditions were used at points ST-1 and ST-6, for the 10W trial, in order to

find coefficients to the analytical equation for heat transfer in the metallic disk. The boundary

conditions for ST-2 and ST-5 were also used to find the coefficients for the heat transfer equation

as well. The two sets of coefficients were averaged in order to achieve a more accurate equation.

This was repeated for the 30W trial. The analytical equations yielded values very close to that of

the experimental data and both data plots followed a similar trend, close to a logarithmic function.

Next the coefficients, found from the analytical solution, were used to find the heat transfer at the

inner and outer radius of the disk. The students found the percent difference of the two heat

transfers to be 0%. The percent difference is 0 for both equations, which confirms that the

experiment, at both 10W and 30W, was in the steady state. From this lab, students learned how

radial conduction can be found in a metallic disk, how to develop an analytical equation using

boundary conditions, and how to calculate the heat transfer of the disk at a certain radial location.

Introduction:

Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to

the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between particles. In this laboratory, the

effects of radial conduction are studied on a brass disk using a resistance heater made of copper

and the Edibon TXC/CR computer program. The resistance heater, heats the metallic disk at the

inner radius. Probes connected to the computer will read the temperatures of the plate at different

distances from the inner radius. The metallic disk was also insulated on the top and bottom

surface with near perfect insulation as well as using a cooling water jacket around the outer radius

to absorb the heat transfer from the disk. This laboratory teaches students to develop boundary

conditions for heat transfer problems as well as an analytical solution for radial conduction

through a metallic disk. From the data collected in the experiment, students then can compare

their analytics results with the experimental data, showing the accuracy of their equations. Some

other concepts practiced in this experiment involve energy balance as well as expressing heat

transfer in cylindrical coordinates.

Technical Background

The foundation that of our knowledge of heat transfer through conduction originates from

the first law of thermodynamics which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed

during a process; it only changes form, or also known as the conservation of energy principle,

which can be expressed as

total energy

Total energy

Changethe

=

( 19 )

entering the

leaving the

total energy of

system

system

the system

)(

)(

Energy transfer can happen in forms of heat, work and mass transfer. When the energy change of

a system is zero, as long as the state of the system doesnt change during the process, the process

is steady.

= E

out ( 111 ) . If there are no external effects, the total energy of a system during

E

a process is the change in internal energy, making it possible to transform the energy balance

equation into a heat balance equation, which is

Heat transfer is driven by a temperature difference and happens through conduction, convection,

radiation or a combination of all three and is either in steady state or transient flow. Being in

steady state, there is no change in temperature with respect to time. Knowing mass is necessary in

finding heat transfer,

, mass must

Q , but when calculating the rate of heat transfer, Q

m=V

Ac

m

, and the heat balance equation is then altered as such

[ ]

kg

( 116 )

s

[ ]

kJ

m

Q=

h=m

cp T

( 118 )

s

In the process of steady state conduction, the rate of heat transfer was discovered through

experiments with a plane wall. The experiments showed that the rate of heat transfer via

conduction depends on its geometry, thickness, material of the medium and the temperature

difference and how these variables were proportional to heat transfer. Then Jean Baptiste Joseph

Fourier, a French mathematician and physicist, came along and further developed this into what is

now known as the Fouriers law of heat conduction, which is

cond=

Q

kA ( T 1T 2 )

x

=kA

dT

[ W ] ( 122 )

dx

Taking Fouriers law of heat conduction and arranging it so that it is solving for the rate of heat

transfer of a cylinder, a couple things need to be made clear. Noting in Fouriers law of heat

conduction, the rate of heat transfer is proportional to its area,

proportional to

to time, the rate of heat transfer into the cylinder must equal the rate of heat transfer out of it,

Q

cond , cyl=2 Lk T 1T 2 [ W ] ( 339 )

Q

r

ln 2

r1

()

Procedure

1. Record the geometry of the outer disk and turn on the power for the TSTCC controller.

2. Log in computer. Open software and select unit as TXC-CR.

3. At the prompt window, click START in the top left corner. The real time temperature

plot is displayed at the bottom and can be modified by clicking on the icons of

temperature sensors in the bottom left corner, so that the desired reading can be shown

only.

4. Open the tap which is connected to the cold water influent tube and adjust the flow so

that SC-2 is approximately 2.0 L/min.

5. Set the resistance heater to approximately 10W by adjusting AR-1, which is found in the

bottom right corner of the software window.

6. Select only SW-1, ST-1 to ST-6 for the sensor plot. Select hours as the time unit for the

sensor plot.

7. Let the temperature measured at the largest radial distance (ST-6) stabilize. When

temperature has not changed in 2 minutes, record the readings from SW-1 and ST-1 to

ST-6.

8. Set AR-1 to 30W and repeat step 7.

9. Set AR-1 to 60W and repeat step 7.

10. After collecting the data, click STOP at the top left corner and close the software. Log

off the computer and turn off the TSTCC controller.

11. Close the tap, which is connected to the cold water influent tube.

Discussion and Results

Table 1

Distanc

Temp @ 10W

Temp @ 30W

28.4

45.6

28.46237345

45.52674967

16

25.6

37.8

25.51649793

37.64566623

24

24.1

34

23.79327122

33.03552795

32

23

30

22.57062241

29.76458279

40

21.7

27.7

21.62226232

27.22744061

48

20.8

24.6

20.8473957

25.15444451

Figure 1

Figure 2

Table 2

Heater Power

Percent

Setting [W]

Difference

10.4

4.44

4.44

32

11.87

11.87

T ( r )=C1 ln ( r ) +C2

q =k

C1

r

( )

Q=qA

A=dt

The experiment gave data for the temperatures at the radial distances on the disk when

the resistance heater was set to 10W and 30W. The experimental data for 60W could not be

obtained due to the restrictions of the resistance heater. From the data the conduction equation,

the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius, and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius were

calculated for both 10W and 30W. The conduction equation was found using two boundary

conditions and the equation:

T ( r )=C1 ln ( r ) +C2

With the heater power set to 10W the conduction equation was calculated to be

T ( r )=4.25 ln ( r )+ 37.3 using the average of the boundary conditions of ST-1 and ST-6 and

the boundary conditions ST-2 and ST-5. With the heater power set to 30W the conduction

equation was calculated to be

conditions of ST-1 and ST-6 and the boundary conditions ST-2 and ST-5. The rate of heat transfer

was calculated next using the equations:

q =k

C1

r

( )

Q=qA

A=dt

W

mK

radius of 110mm. With the heater power set to 10W the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius

was found to be 4.44W and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius was found to be 4.44W.

The percent difference between the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius and the rate of heat

transfer at the outer radius was found to be 0%. With the heater power set to 30W the rate of heat

transfer at the inner radius was found to be 11.87W and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius

was found to be 11.87W. The percent difference between the rate of heat transfer at the inner

radius and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius was found to be 0%.

The complete solution of the differential conduction equation for 10.4W is as follows:

T ( r )=C1 ln ( r ) +C2

28.4=C1 ln ( 8 ) +C 2

20.8=C 1 ln ( 48 ) +C 2

28.4=C1 ln ( 8 ) +C 2

28.4C1 ln ( 8 )=C2

20.8=C 1 ln ( 48 ) +C 2

20.8=C 1 ln ( 48 ) +[28.4C 1 ln ( 8 ) ]

C1 =4.242

28.4(4.242 ) ln ( 8 )=C 2

C2 =37.22

25.6=C1 ln ( 16 ) +C2

21.7=C1 ln ( 40 ) +C 2

C1 =4.26

C2 =37.4

The

C1 and C2 from each calculation are averaged to obtain the final conduction

equation:

T ( r )=4.25 ln ( r )+ 37.3

The Boundary conditions used in the solution were temperatures found at ST-1 (8mm) and ST-6

(48mm). Then temperatures found at ST-2 (16mm) and St-5 (40mm) were used for the boundary

conditions. Two sets of boundary conditions were used so a more accurate solution could be

found for the conduction equation.

In Figures 1 and 2 the disk temperature gradient was graphed with both the experimental data and

the analytical data. Both the 10W and 30W share the same general trend. The temperature falls

along an exponential curve as the radius increases. The temperature at 30W falls more drastically

than the temperature at 10W. The analytical data was found using the conduction equation (as

seen above). In both Figures 1 and 2 the experimental data fallow a very similar curve to the

analytical data. In both Figures the experimental data follows a shallower cure than the analytical

data.

The data presented in Table 2 is the rate of heat transfer at the inner and outer radius. The percent

difference between the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius and the rate of heat transfer at the

outer radius was 0 for both the 10W and the 30W. This means that the conduction in the disk is

equal to the conduction at the outer radius of the disk.

Conclusion

In this experiment the data was used to solve a one-dimensional conduction equation.

Due to the restrictions of the resistance heater, the data for 60W could not be obtained. The

conduction equation was solved using boundary conditions found in the experiment at certain

radial temperatures given. Rate of heat transfer was calculated for in this experiment by using

data found and the coefficients found in the conduction equations. It was concluded that system

was in a steady state because the conduction at the inner radius of the disk was equal to the

conduction at the outer radius of the disk. This was found when the percent difference between

the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius and the outer radius was 0%. This was true when the

resistance heater was set to 10W and 30W both.

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