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MCHE 3450

Mechanical Engineering Laboratory

Radial Conduction

Experiment Performed 01/14/15


Report Submitted 01/28/15
Group 2

By:
Damon Dunwody
And team

I certify that all the writing here is our own and not acquired from
external sources. We have cited sources appropriately and
paraphrased correctly. We have not shared our writing with students
outside our group, nor have we acquired any written portion of this
document from past or present students.

Abstract:
This lab report gave students a way to apply technical knowledge from ENGR 3150. In
the procedure, an insulated metallic disk was heated at the inner radius and temperatures were
taken at six different radial distances. The resistance heaters energy exchange was set to 10W,
30W, and 60W, for three trials. However, due to the capabilities of the resistance heater, the trial
using 60W could not be performed. The trial with the heater set to 10W left temperatures varying
from 20.8 C to 28.4 C. The trial with the heater set to 30W gave results measuring from 24.6 C to
45.6 C. The boundary conditions were used at points ST-1 and ST-6, for the 10W trial, in order to
find coefficients to the analytical equation for heat transfer in the metallic disk. The boundary
conditions for ST-2 and ST-5 were also used to find the coefficients for the heat transfer equation
as well. The two sets of coefficients were averaged in order to achieve a more accurate equation.
This was repeated for the 30W trial. The analytical equations yielded values very close to that of
the experimental data and both data plots followed a similar trend, close to a logarithmic function.
Next the coefficients, found from the analytical solution, were used to find the heat transfer at the
inner and outer radius of the disk. The students found the percent difference of the two heat
transfers to be 0%. The percent difference is 0 for both equations, which confirms that the
experiment, at both 10W and 30W, was in the steady state. From this lab, students learned how
radial conduction can be found in a metallic disk, how to develop an analytical equation using
boundary conditions, and how to calculate the heat transfer of the disk at a certain radial location.

Introduction:
Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to
the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between particles. In this laboratory, the
effects of radial conduction are studied on a brass disk using a resistance heater made of copper
and the Edibon TXC/CR computer program. The resistance heater, heats the metallic disk at the

inner radius. Probes connected to the computer will read the temperatures of the plate at different
distances from the inner radius. The metallic disk was also insulated on the top and bottom
surface with near perfect insulation as well as using a cooling water jacket around the outer radius
to absorb the heat transfer from the disk. This laboratory teaches students to develop boundary
conditions for heat transfer problems as well as an analytical solution for radial conduction
through a metallic disk. From the data collected in the experiment, students then can compare
their analytics results with the experimental data, showing the accuracy of their equations. Some
other concepts practiced in this experiment involve energy balance as well as expressing heat
transfer in cylindrical coordinates.

Technical Background
The foundation that of our knowledge of heat transfer through conduction originates from
the first law of thermodynamics which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed
during a process; it only changes form, or also known as the conservation of energy principle,
which can be expressed as

total energy
Total energy
Changethe

=
( 19 )
entering the
leaving the
total energy of
system
system
the system

)(

)(

Energy transfer can happen in forms of heat, work and mass transfer. When the energy change of
a system is zero, as long as the state of the system doesnt change during the process, the process
is steady.

= E
out ( 111 ) . If there are no external effects, the total energy of a system during
E

a process is the change in internal energy, making it possible to transform the energy balance
equation into a heat balance equation, which is

Q Qout + Egen = Ethermal ,system [ J ] ( 113 )

Heat transfer is driven by a temperature difference and happens through conduction, convection,
radiation or a combination of all three and is either in steady state or transient flow. Being in
steady state, there is no change in temperature with respect to time. Knowing mass is necessary in
finding heat transfer,

, mass must
Q , but when calculating the rate of heat transfer, Q

become mass flow rate,

m=V

Ac

m
, and the heat balance equation is then altered as such

[ ]

kg
( 116 )
s

[ ]

kJ
m
Q=
h=m
cp T
( 118 )
s

In the process of steady state conduction, the rate of heat transfer was discovered through
experiments with a plane wall. The experiments showed that the rate of heat transfer via
conduction depends on its geometry, thickness, material of the medium and the temperature
difference and how these variables were proportional to heat transfer. Then Jean Baptiste Joseph
Fourier, a French mathematician and physicist, came along and further developed this into what is
now known as the Fouriers law of heat conduction, which is

cond=
Q

kA ( T 1T 2 )
x

=kA

dT
[ W ] ( 122 )
dx

Taking Fouriers law of heat conduction and arranging it so that it is solving for the rate of heat
transfer of a cylinder, a couple things need to be made clear. Noting in Fouriers law of heat
conduction, the rate of heat transfer is proportional to its area,

A=2 rL , and inversely

proportional to

x . And in steady state, since there is no change in temperature with respect

to time, the rate of heat transfer into the cylinder must equal the rate of heat transfer out of it,

cond , cyl=constant . The new equation is


Q
cond , cyl=2 Lk T 1T 2 [ W ] ( 339 )
Q
r
ln 2
r1

()

Procedure

1. Record the geometry of the outer disk and turn on the power for the TSTCC controller.
2. Log in computer. Open software and select unit as TXC-CR.
3. At the prompt window, click START in the top left corner. The real time temperature
plot is displayed at the bottom and can be modified by clicking on the icons of
temperature sensors in the bottom left corner, so that the desired reading can be shown
only.
4. Open the tap which is connected to the cold water influent tube and adjust the flow so
that SC-2 is approximately 2.0 L/min.
5. Set the resistance heater to approximately 10W by adjusting AR-1, which is found in the
bottom right corner of the software window.
6. Select only SW-1, ST-1 to ST-6 for the sensor plot. Select hours as the time unit for the
sensor plot.
7. Let the temperature measured at the largest radial distance (ST-6) stabilize. When
temperature has not changed in 2 minutes, record the readings from SW-1 and ST-1 to
ST-6.
8. Set AR-1 to 30W and repeat step 7.
9. Set AR-1 to 60W and repeat step 7.
10. After collecting the data, click STOP at the top left corner and close the software. Log
off the computer and turn off the TSTCC controller.
11. Close the tap, which is connected to the cold water influent tube.
Discussion and Results

Table 1
Distanc

Temp @ 10W

Temp @ 30W

Analytical Data (10W)

Analytical Data (30W)

28.4

45.6

28.46237345

45.52674967

16

25.6

37.8

25.51649793

37.64566623

24

24.1

34

23.79327122

33.03552795

32

23

30

22.57062241

29.76458279

40

21.7

27.7

21.62226232

27.22744061

48

20.8

24.6

20.8473957

25.15444451

Figure 1

Radial Location (mm)

Figure 2

Table 2
Heater Power

Rate of Heat Transfer at

Rate of Heat Transfer at

Percent

Setting [W]

Inner Radius [W]

Outer Radius [W]

Difference

10.4

4.44

4.44

32

11.87

11.87

T ( r )=C1 ln ( r ) +C2

q =k

C1
r

( )

Q=qA
A=dt

Discussion and Results


The experiment gave data for the temperatures at the radial distances on the disk when
the resistance heater was set to 10W and 30W. The experimental data for 60W could not be
obtained due to the restrictions of the resistance heater. From the data the conduction equation,
the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius, and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius were
calculated for both 10W and 30W. The conduction equation was found using two boundary
conditions and the equation:

T ( r )=C1 ln ( r ) +C2

With the heater power set to 10W the conduction equation was calculated to be

T ( r )=4.25 ln ( r )+ 37.3 using the average of the boundary conditions of ST-1 and ST-6 and
the boundary conditions ST-2 and ST-5. With the heater power set to 30W the conduction
equation was calculated to be

T ( r )=11.37 ln ( r )+ 69.17 using the average of the boundary

conditions of ST-1 and ST-6 and the boundary conditions ST-2 and ST-5. The rate of heat transfer
was calculated next using the equations:

q =k

C1
r

( )

Q=qA
A=dt

The brass outer disk has a k value of 110.784

W
mK

with an inner radius of 10mm and a outer

radius of 110mm. With the heater power set to 10W the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius

was found to be 4.44W and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius was found to be 4.44W.
The percent difference between the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius and the rate of heat
transfer at the outer radius was found to be 0%. With the heater power set to 30W the rate of heat
transfer at the inner radius was found to be 11.87W and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius
was found to be 11.87W. The percent difference between the rate of heat transfer at the inner
radius and the rate of heat transfer at the outer radius was found to be 0%.

The complete solution of the differential conduction equation for 10.4W is as follows:

Boundary conditions: ST-1:

T ( 8 ) =28.4 and ST-6: T ( 48 )=20.8

T ( r )=C1 ln ( r ) +C2

28.4=C1 ln ( 8 ) +C 2
20.8=C 1 ln ( 48 ) +C 2

28.4=C1 ln ( 8 ) +C 2
28.4C1 ln ( 8 )=C2

20.8=C 1 ln ( 48 ) +C 2
20.8=C 1 ln ( 48 ) +[28.4C 1 ln ( 8 ) ]
C1 =4.242
28.4(4.242 ) ln ( 8 )=C 2
C2 =37.22

Boundary conditions: ST-2:

T ( 16 ) =25.6 and ST-5: T ( 40 )=21.7

25.6=C1 ln ( 16 ) +C2
21.7=C1 ln ( 40 ) +C 2

C1 and C2 can be found the same was as above

C1 =4.26
C2 =37.4

The

C1 and C2 from each calculation are averaged to obtain the final conduction
equation:

T ( r )=4.25 ln ( r )+ 37.3

The Boundary conditions used in the solution were temperatures found at ST-1 (8mm) and ST-6
(48mm). Then temperatures found at ST-2 (16mm) and St-5 (40mm) were used for the boundary
conditions. Two sets of boundary conditions were used so a more accurate solution could be
found for the conduction equation.
In Figures 1 and 2 the disk temperature gradient was graphed with both the experimental data and
the analytical data. Both the 10W and 30W share the same general trend. The temperature falls
along an exponential curve as the radius increases. The temperature at 30W falls more drastically
than the temperature at 10W. The analytical data was found using the conduction equation (as

seen above). In both Figures 1 and 2 the experimental data fallow a very similar curve to the
analytical data. In both Figures the experimental data follows a shallower cure than the analytical
data.
The data presented in Table 2 is the rate of heat transfer at the inner and outer radius. The percent
difference between the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius and the rate of heat transfer at the
outer radius was 0 for both the 10W and the 30W. This means that the conduction in the disk is
equal to the conduction at the outer radius of the disk.

Conclusion
In this experiment the data was used to solve a one-dimensional conduction equation.
Due to the restrictions of the resistance heater, the data for 60W could not be obtained. The
conduction equation was solved using boundary conditions found in the experiment at certain
radial temperatures given. Rate of heat transfer was calculated for in this experiment by using
data found and the coefficients found in the conduction equations. It was concluded that system
was in a steady state because the conduction at the inner radius of the disk was equal to the
conduction at the outer radius of the disk. This was found when the percent difference between
the rate of heat transfer at the inner radius and the outer radius was 0%. This was true when the
resistance heater was set to 10W and 30W both.