You are on page 1of 34

How it all came together

PROCESS
Dream Defenders facilitated a cultural education project focused on revolutionary organizations from around the
world to highlight their elements of rebellion. The project included graphic artwork, education via social media and
this curriculum toolkit. The research for Blacked Out History: Rebellion was done by Dream Defenders organizers
throughout the state of Florida, and the artwork was created by a team of Dream Defenders artists, and talented
allies. The curriculum toolkit was created by traditional and radical educators in Dream Defenders membership
body. Rebellion features 9 organizations including; Left Roots, FRELIMO, Brown Berets, Sandinistas, Young
Lords, Zapatistas, South African Student Movement, Black Panther Party and the Popular Front for the Liberation
of Palestine.
This project was a labor of love.

RESEARCH CONTRIBUTORS
The Black Panther Party - Dream Defenders Staff
Brown Berets - BADD Squadd
Left Roots - Orlando Squads
Mozambique Liberation Front - GoDDsville Squadd
Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine - South West FL Squadd
Sandinistas - FIU Squadd
South African Student Movement - Trill Squadd
Young Lords - Broward Squadd
Zapatistas - Miami Squadd

CURRICULUM CONTRIBUTORS
Sherika Shaw
Kiesha Moodie
Athena
Shoshanna Bordes
Isaiah Thomas
Jonel Edwards
Chauntey Robinson
Steve Gilliam

Content
LESSONS

Embody the Change You Want to See: 4 Square & Presentation

Standards and Objectives

Vocabulary Worksheet..

Presentation Guidelines

Grading Rubric - ruby star

Embody The Change You Want To See: Essay

Standards and Objectives

ONE PAGERS

The Black Panther Party.

The Brown Berets

Left Roots.

The Mozambique.

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.

Sandinistas

South African Student Movement..

Young Lords..

Zapatistas..

ARTWORK

LESSONS

EMBODYING THE CHANGE WE WANT TO SEE:


PRESENTATION
Introduction:
Dream Defenders will begin a cultural education project focused on revolutionary organizations from around the
world and highlight their elements of rebellion. This lesson asks students to explore movements and organizations
that led social change and display a coherent understanding of organizations and issues.

Standards and Objectives:


See Below

Essential Questions:

How are you creating the change you want to see in the world and the society we live in?
What kind of leader do you want to be?

Materials Needed:
One pagers on organizations
Art (optional)
Presentation Guidelines
Vocabulary Worksheet
Grading Rubric - ruby star

Vocabulary:

movement / mo ovmnt/ noun


1. a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.

struggle / strl/ verb


1. make forceful or violent efforts to get free of restraint or constriction.

tactic / taktik/ noun


1. an action or strategy carefully planned to achieve a specific end.

strategy / stradj/ noun


1. a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.

organization / rnzSH()n/ noun


1. an organized body of people with a particular purpose, especially a business, society, association, etc.

capitalism / kapdlizm/ noun


1. an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for
profit, rather than by the state which often leads to exploitation of workers

patriarchy / ptrrk/ noun


1. a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

white supremacy/ noun


1. the belief that white people are superior to those of all other races, especially the black race, and should
therefore dominate society.

liberation /librSH()n / noun


1. freedom from limits on thought or behavior

Suggested Procedure:
To set up this activity, the teacher will make copies of the information on the 4 or 5 organizations out of
the 9 provided with this toolkit. The teacher should pick the organizations that they believe will
resonate most with their class demographics.

STEP ONE
To introduce the unit teachers will go through the vocabulary with students using the Fierre Modeled Vocabulary
Worksheet provided.

STEP TWO

Students will read the one pagers on each organization together as a class. After reading each one pager,
students will participate in a think- pair-share. Theyll read the one pager, share the main idea with a partner, the
teacher can call on a couple of groups to share their thoughts on what theyve just read.

STEP THREE

Students will be introduced to the concept and rules of the game 4 square (http://www.squarefour.org/rules) with
the modification to fit this activity. Teacher will label 4 or 5 areas in the classroom that represents the 4 or 5
organizations they read about. When prompted, students will be asked to go to the labeled area of the classroom
that has the organization that they like the most. There should be a number limit for each area to assure the class
is evenly distributed.

STEP FOUR

Once the students self select their organization of choice. Each grouping of students by organization will discuss
why they chose the organization they did using guiding questions.
Guiding Questions:

What was the struggle this organization was fighting?

What Strategy and tactics did your organization use?

STEP FIVE
The self selected groups by organization will then work together to create a presentation to the rest of the class on
their organization. Students should aim to embody the organization and talk it on as their own. Dressing in similar
apparel, using similar language, etc. Refer to Presentation Guidelines.
*Students should feel free to use other forms of media and text to learn more about this organization.*

STEP SIX

Students present their assigned organization to the class. The teacher will use the rubric to assess the groups
presentation.

Standards & Objectives


Common Core Standards (6th grade):
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the text.
Objectives:

Students will be able to understand key vocabulary related to social justice movement.

Students will be able to cite strong and thorough textual evidence from the text.

Students will be able to support analysis of what the text say as well as inference drawn from the text.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.6.7 Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually,


quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
Objectives:

Students will be able to integrate information from images and text into presentation

Students will be able to display a coherent understanding of organization and issue.

Common Core Standards (9th - 10th grade):


CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text
says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Objectives:

Students will be able to cite strong and thorough textual evidence from the text.

Students will be able to support analysis of what the text say as well as inference drawn from the text.

Students will be able to understand vocabulary related to social justice movements.

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.9-10.7 Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's
life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
Objectives:

Students will be able to analyze various accounts of movement and organization

Students will be able to determine which details are emphasized in images and why


StudentsName:_____________________________________

Date:_____________________________________

PresentationGuidelines
Eachgroupsgoalshouldbetoembodytheirorganizationduringtheirpresentation.Theroomshould
thinkthatthepresentersareapartoftheorganization.Theroomshouldgatherasenseofthe
organizations,lingo,appearance,culture,missionandvision.

Answerthesequestionsthroughyourpresentation:

Whydidthemembersofyourgrouppickthisorganization?
Whatwasthestrugglethisorganizationwasfighting?
WhatStrategyandtacticsdidyourorganizationuse?Wasiteffective?
Howdidthisorganizationdressandtalk?Whatwastheorganizationalculture?

StudentsNames:______________________________________________________________

NameofOrganization:__________________________________________________________
CATEGORY

Reasonfor
group'schoice
oforganization

Points:_______

Itwasclearwhyall
memberschosethis
organization

Itwasclearwhy
mostmembers
chosethis
organization

Wasmentionedbut
notclearwhyanyof
thememberschose
thisorganization

Wasnotincluded

Organization's
mission

Points:_______

Organization's
missionwas
included,clearand
explained

Organization's
missionwas
mentionedbutnot
clearlyexplained

Organization's
missionwasnot
clearly
communicated

Wasnotincluded

Organizations
struggleand
fight

Points:_______

Wasincludedand
explainedwith
examples

Points

Wasincludedbut
notexplainedwell,
didnotinclude
examples

Wasincludedand
notattemptedtobe
explained

Wasnotincluded

Organizations
strategyand
tactics

Points:_______

Wasincludedand
explainedwith
examples

Wasincludedbut
notexplainedwell,
didnotinclude
examples

Wasincludedand
notattemptedtobe
explained

Wasnotincluded

Organizations
physical
presentation
andculture

Points:_______

Wasincluded,
visibleand
explained

Wasincluded,
visiblebutnot
explainedwell

Wasincludedand
notattemptedtobe
explained.

Wasnotincluded

GroupsPoints:_____/20

TeacherComments:___________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

EMBODYING THE CHANGE WE WANT TO SEE: ESSAY


Introduction:
Dream Defenders will begin a cultural education project focused on revolutionary organizations from around the
world and highlight their elements of rebellion. This lesson asks students to explore movements and organizations
that led social change and to communicate their point of view or the information theyve gained through clear and
coherent writing.

Standards and Objectives:


See Below

Essential Questions:

How are you creating the change you want to see in the world and the society we live in?
What kind of leader do you want to be?

Materials Needed:
One pagers on organizations (see below)
Art (optional)

Vocabulary:

movement / mo ovmnt/ noun


1. a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.

struggle / strl/ verb


1. make forceful or violent efforts to get free of restraint or constriction.

tactic / taktik/ noun


1. an action or strategy carefully planned to achieve a specific end.

strategy / stradj/ noun


1. a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall aim.

organization / rnzSH()n/ noun


1. an organized body of people with a particular purpose, especially a business, society, association, etc.

capitalism / kapdlizm/ noun


1. an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for
profit, rather than by the state which often leads to exploitation of workers

patriarchy / ptrrk/ noun


1. a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

white supremacy/ noun


1. the belief that white people are superior to those of all other races, especially the black race, and should
therefore dominate society.

liberation /librSH()n / noun


1. freedom from limits on thought or behavior

Suggested Procedure:
To set up this activity, the teacher will make copies of the information on all the organizations provided
with this toolkit.

STEP ONE

Students will read the short excerpts on each organization together as a class. After reading each excerpt a
couple of students will share initial reactions about the organization they just read.

STEP TWO

The teacher will give the students the two prompts to choose from. They would write either an argumentative
essay or an informative essay.

Argumentative Prompt: According to what youve read in organization A, what is your stance on the
strategy this organization used to create social change?

Informative Prompt: According to what youve read in organization A, what was this organization's
strategy to create change?

STEP THREE

Students can then share essays with the class or turn them into the teacher.

STANDARDS & OBJECTIVES

Common Core Standards (6th grade):


CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.6.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in
standards 1-3 above.)
Objectives

Students will be able to produce clear and coherent writing

Students will be able to develop, organize and style writing to best convey point of view and/or
information from text

Common Core Standards (9th - 10th grade):


CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and
style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in
standards 1-3 above.)
Objectives

Students will be able to produce clear and coherent writing

Students will be able to develop, organize and style writing to best convey point of view and/or
information from text

ONE PAGERS

BlackPantherParty

Imagery:BlackPanther;thepeople;the[solidarity]
fist.

Importance:EmoryDouglasdidalotofimageryof
everydayworkingclasspeopletoshowthatregular
peoplewereapartofthestruggle.DreamDefendersis
talkingaboutdevelopingprogramsthatcanprovide
directservicestothecommunitiesthatweservebased
ontheirbasicneeds.

Summary:InOctoberof1966,inOaklandCalifornia,
HueyNewtonandBobbySealefoundedtheBlack
PantherPartyforSelfDefense.ThePantherspracticed
militantselfdefenseofminoritycommunitiesagainst
theU.S.government,andfoughttoestablish
revolutionarysocialismthroughmassorganizingand
communitybasedprograms.

KeyPoints:

Vision:BPP10PointPlanoutlinedwhatfreedomwouldlooklike
https://www.marxists.org/history/usa/workers/blackpanthers/1966/10/15.htm
Comingofageafterthebigwinsinthecivilrightsmovement.MLKwasalive,MalcolmXwas
assassinated.
MajorwinsfromCivilRightsMovementwerenotfeltbyurbanyouthsotheywere
disconnectedfromthatmovementandthetacticsthatwentwithit.
TheywereheavilyinfluencedbyThirdWorldism
Theystartedasreadinggroupsdoingspeakoutsoncollegecampuses.
BlackPowerTheysawblackasaconsciousnessandnotacolor.
Theiropencarrytactics,aestheticandknowledgeofthelawallowedthemtoattractattention
andownspacesthatultimatelyhelpedthemtoownthenarrativeinmomentswhenthey
shouldnt.
PantherssawBlackPeopleastherevolutionaryedgeneededtotakeoverthestatewhile
workingwithotherpeopleofcolorandpoorpeople.
Peoplewerepoorandthebiggestvictimsofcapitalismafterthewinsof;heavypolice
repressionandbrutalityonadailybasis;burgeoningantiwarmovement.
Theywerelovedandprotectedbythecommunity
Theycreatedagenerationalaestheticthatembracedblackness
Theymadestatementsaboutpatriarchy,homosexualityandtalkedalotabout
intersectionalityinthemovement.

Morethan50%oftheirmembershipwaswomenandcarriedgunsbuttheywereexcluded
fromthevisualsandaestheticsthatwereshownandconsideredpowerfulinphotos

BrownBerets

Imagery:brownberets[symbolformilitancy],La
Causa,theBeretsnewspaper,hasasymboloftwo
riflescrossedoveracrosswithabrownberetatthe
top

Importance:Thosethatareoppressedorganizefor
themselves

Summary:TheBrownBerets(LosBoinasCafes)area
proChicanoorganizationthatemergedduringthe
ChicanoMovementinthelate1960sandremains
activetothepresentday.[1]
Thegroupwasseenaspart
oftheThirdMovementforLiberation.TheBrown
BeretsfocusonreturningallUnitedStatesterritory
onceheldbyMexicotoMexico;theyhavealso
organizedagainstpolicebrutalityandadvocatefor
educationalequality.SeveralgroupshavebeenquiteactivesincethepassageofCaliforniaProposition
187.

KeyPoints:
Fightingagainsttheestablishment,theBrownBeretsemergedinthelate60s&70sand
becamepartoftheChicanoLiberationmovementthatbuiltpowerbyorganizingbarriosand
creatingalternativestopoorworkingconditionslaidoutbythestate.
DuringtheChicanoLiberationmovement,theBrownBeretsstartedoutwithjustcivic
educationandinvolvement,butthatsoonchangedintomoreradicalmeansofattaining
justicethroughmilitantdirectaction.
TheBrownBeretsrespondedtothecommunitysneedsspecifically;therewasinadequate
healthcaresotheyopenedupfreeclinics.
Thosethatareoppressedorganizeforthemselves.
TheBrownBeretswereagroupofBrownyouthfightingforselfdeterminationoftheChicano
people.Theyemergedinthelate60sandearly70sandbecameapartoftheChicano
Liberationmovement.
TheBrownBeretsfoughtagainsttheestablishment(theState).Thespecifictargetsofthe
establishmentweretheunderfundedschools,police.
Theybuiltpowerbyorganizingintheneighborhoods(orbarrios)abouttheissuesthatwere
affectingthemthemost.
TheyledactionsagainsttheEastLApolicestationsfortheirbrutality,harassment,andkilling
ofChicanoyouth.

DuringtheChicanoLiberationmovement,peopleofMexicanheritagewerefacing
discriminationandracismintheircommunities,policebrutalityandharassment,poorworking
conditions,inadequateeducationandhealthcare,andtheVietnamwar.
Thegroupstartedoutwithjustciviceducationandinvolvement,butthatsoonchangedinto
moreradicalmeansofattainingjusticethroughdirectactionandmilitancy.
Theywereactuallyapartofthecommunitiestheyserved.Theywerechildrenoftheworking
poor,farmers,etc.
TheBrownBeretshada13pointpoliticalprogramthatincludedreturningtheland(Aztlan,
whichisthehomelandforindigenousAztec,stolenbytheUSGovt),employment,education,
housing,environmentaljustice,etc.
Theywereagainstcapitalismandimperialism.
PatriarchywassomethingthatwasnotaddressedintheBrownBerets.Womenwere
importanttothemovement,butnotintermsofowningstrongleadershippositions.
Thegroupworebrownberetsasasymbolofpridefortheirrace,Chicanoculture,andhistory
(hencewhytheyarecalledtheBrownBerets).Italsowasasymbolformilitancy.Brownand
yellowwereprominentcolorsfortheorganization.
LaCausa,theBeretsnewspaper,hasasymboloftworiflescrossedoveracrosswithabrown
beretatthetop.
onlyrealrevolutionarychangeandpoliticalpowerbypoorworkingpeoplewouldgainreal
equalityandfreedom.FreedomfortheBrownBeretswastheselfdeterminationofthe
Chicanopeople,tohavecontrolovertheireconomicsandpolitics.
Thosethatareoppressedorganizeforthemselves.TheBrownBeretsrespondedtothe
communitysneedsspecifically;therewasinadequatehealthcaresotheyopenedupfree
clinics.
TheeducationsystemwasfailingBrownyouthandsotheyorganizedstudentwalkoutsand
advocatedformoreChicanorepresentationinschoolcurriculumandstaff.
FREEtospecificallyaddresscommunityneedswhilestillfightingthebiggermonsterthatisthe
system.
Tofreeourselvesfromthevariousoppressionsthesystemplacesonusasapeople,
community,etc.

LeftRoots

Imagery:L(pointstotheleft);earthtones,leftwing

Importance:Theuseofclayred,mustardyellow,black
andbrowntoelicitBlack,Chicano,Yellow,and
indigenouspower,isdirectlycorrelatedtothe
organizationsmissionoftransformingtheleftwing.
ThesignificanceoftheLeftRootslogoisthatonlytheL
oftheorganizationsabbreviatednamepointsleft,
signifyingthatsocialismistheonlyroadtoour
collectiveliberation;evokesBlack,Chicano,Yellow,
andindigenouspower,throughtheiruseofearth
tones.

Summary:LeftRootsisanationalformationofLeft
socialmovementorganizersandactivistswhowantto
connectgrassrootsstrugglestoastrategytowin
liberationforallpeopleandtheplanet.Whilemassorganizationsmustbecentralfeaturesofstrong
andvibrantsocialmovements,Leftcadreformationsaretoo.TheU.S.Left,dueinparttoexternal
assaultsandinpartfrominternalweaknesses,isatthispointunabletocoherethesemassstruggles
intoaneffectiveforceforrevolution.Thismustchangeifhumanityhasanyhopeofsurviving,much
lessthriving.ThisisacentraltaskofarekindledLeft,andLeftistsengagedinmassorganizationsand
socialmovementshaveaunique,butyetunfulfilled,roletoplayinhelpingtoreimagineandgivelife
toaLeftthatisasradicalasitisgroundedinmassstruggles.

KeyPoints:
LeftRootsisorganizingandbuildingaunifiedleftandunitingabaseunderanewerformof
socialismbasedonliberationforallworkingclasspeoplenomattertheiridentity.
LeftRootsformationwasinresponsetoaperioddominatedbyarulingclasshellbenton
intensifyingimperialistwar,neoliberalausterity,unfetteredextractionofnaturalresources,
andmilitarizedcrackdowns.
LeftRootsrecognizesthatwhitesupremacy,patriarchy,homophobiaandotherformsof
oppressionaredeeplyembeddedinmoderncapitalismandwillnotsimplywitherawayonce
wehavetossedcapitalismintothetrashbinofhistory
LeftRootsshiftsculturethroughpoliticaleducationtrainingthattheygiveorganizersin
variousfieldsofstruggle;aimedtospreadtheirideology.
LeftRootsisthereorganizationandreformationoftheUnitedStatesleftwingthataimto
connectgrassrootsstrugglesfromacrossthecountrytowinfreedom.
definefreedomastheliberationfromwhitesupremacy,patriarchy,homophobia,imperialism,
andanyotherformofoppression,andinstitutinganewsocietybuiltonprofeministand
proqueeractionsandmovements,democraticandnonsectarianordivisiveelements.

LeftRootsisorganizingandbuildingaunifiedleftandunitingabaseunderanewerformof
socialismbasedonliberationforallworkingclasspeoplenomattertheiridentity.
Weaimtobuildontheinspiringworkofpastsocialmovements
Theybuildpowerbybuildingmeaningfulrelationshipswiththepeopleofthecommunityand
connectionorganizationstoworktogethertowardsfightingoppressiononalargerscale
collectively.
LeftRootsformationwasinresponsetoaperioddominatedbyarulingclasshellbenton
intensifyingimperialistwar,neoliberalausterity,unfetteredextractionofnaturalresources,
andmilitarizedcrackdowns.
Leftrootsformationwasduetothethelackofasocialassemblingthathastheobjectiveof
revolutionarychange.Theircollectivegoalsaretobuildrelationshipswithpeopleofthe
communityandwithotherorganizationstobuildstrengthandmomentumforalarger
strategyofliberation.
Strengthenorganizationsandmovementsandtheirconnectiontoalargerstrategyfor
liberation;andbuildrelationshipsbetweenorganizers,leaders,andactiviststopavetheway
forboldandcohesivecollectiveactioninthecomingperiod.
LeftRootsshiftsculturethroughpoliticaleducationtrainingthattheygiveorganizersin
variousfieldsofstruggle;aimedtospreadtheirideology.
LeftRootsrecognizesthatwhitesupremacy,patriarchy,homophobiaandotherformsof
oppressionaredeeplyembeddedinmoderncapitalismandwillnotsimplywitherawayonce
wehavetossedcapitalismintothetrashbinofhistory
LeftRootsalsoacknowledgestheenvironmentalmovementthatfightstoendthedevastating
effectsofpollution,animalextinction,globalwarmingetc.,statingthat,theplanetisnota
commoditytobepossessed,ownedandexploitedbyhumanityforourownpurposes

FRELIMO|TheMozambiqueLiberationFront

Imagery:TheMozambiqueflaghasfourcolors:green,
red,blackandyellow,separatedbylinesofwhite.
Greenfortherichesoftheland,redforthestruggle
forindependence,blackfortheAfricancontinent,
yellowforthecountrysnaturalresourcesandthe
whitelinessignifypeace.

Importance:TheflagofFRELIMOreflectstheparty's
MarxistLeninistideologies.Theirgoalwas
internationalsupportandwiththeirownpropaganda
theyweresuccessfulDeconstructingFreedom
FreedomforFrelimowasliberation,andfreedomfrom
allcolonialruleandforces.

Summary:TheMozambiqueLiberationFront
(FRELIMO)(Portuguesepronunciation:[felimu]),
fromthePortugueseFrentedeLibertaodeMoambiqueisthedominantpoliticalpartyin
Mozambique.Foundedin1962,FRELIMObeganasaliberationmovementfightingforthe
independenceofthePortugueseOverseasProvinceofMozambique.Independencewasachievedin
June1975aftertheCarnationRevolutioninLisbonthepreviousyear.Attheparty's3rdCongressin
February1977,itbecameanofficiallyMarxistLeninistpoliticalparty.ItidentifiedastheFrelimo
Party(PartidoFrelimo).

KeyPoints:
1.)TheMozambiqueLiberationFrontsstrugglewastheindigenouspeoplesfightagainst
Portuguesecolonization.
2.)FRELIMOformedinneighboringDaresSalaam,TanzaniaonJune25,1962,byexiled
MozambicanswhowereworkingtoliberatethemselvesfromthecolonizingPortuguese.
3.)FRELIMOfacedaninternationallyfundedandsupportedantisocialistdeathsquadthat
wasfundedbyadjacentwhiteminoritygovernments.
4.)FRELIMOformedwhenthreeanticolonialnationalistorganizationscametogether:
MozambicanAfricanNationalUnion,NationalDemocraticUnionofMozambique,National
AfricanUnionofIndependentMozambique
Frelimotriedtorevivethecountrysshatteredeconomy,butitseffortswerehamperedbyits
commitmenttocollectiveagricultureandbythedestructiveactivitiesofthedissident
MozambicangroupknownasRenamo.
ThemainenemyafterdefeatingthePortuguesewasRENAMOaninternationallyfundedand
supportedantisocialistdeathsquadthatwasfundedbythewhiteminoritygovernments

FRELIMOformedinneighboringDaresSalaam,Tanzaniaon25June1962,byexiled
MozambicanswhowereworkingtoliberatethemselvesfromthecolonizingPortuguese.
Theirgoalwasforliberationforthemozambicanpeople.Foreignpolicywasanothergoalof
FRELIMOgainingdiplomaticsupportfromtheUNsotheycouldgetsuppliesfortheirpeople
andfortheirpeopleontheground.Alsoisolatingportugalinternationalandcounterits
propaganda
FrelimostrugglewasoneofindigenouspeoplesagainstthePortuguesecolonization.
Frelimouseddifferentformsofpropagandatoshiftthenarrativeofthewarandtheir
campaigntowinoverinternationalsupport.
Frelimoleadershipstressedequalityforwomen,butmetmuchresistancefromalotofmen
theorganization.
Theyhadeducationprogramsforwomen,butwomenhadlittlesayintheeducationthey
received.AlthoughFRELIMOwasintentionalaboutmakingchangesaroundgender,divisionin
theorgcausedavoidinthegroupssolutions
Weshouldusethefreecampaigntocreatepropagandacampaigns,usinghowpeoplewantto
getfree,andbringpeopleintoaspacewherewesharepowerplayers,whilegivingpeople
resourcesonhowtotalktothem.

PopularFrontfortheLiberationofPalestine

Imagery:
Thefirstsymbol:insidearedcircle,ablackarrow
pointsfromawhitesemicircletoamapofoccupied
Palestine(Israel)andtheterritories.Belowthearrow,
ontherightside,isagreendot.
Thesecondsymbol:Insideawhitecirclewhichis
placedonaredbackgroundawhitearrowpoints
fromaredsemicircletoaredmapofoccupied
Palestine(Israel)andtheterritories.Belowthearrow,
ontherightside,isawhitedot.

Importance:Thesymbolsrepresentthereturnof
Palestinianrefugees.Redsymbolizesthegroups
MarxistLeninistheritage.

Summary:ThePopularFrontfortheLiberationof
Palestine(PFLP)isasecularPalestinianMarxistLeninistandrevolutionarysocialistorganization
foundedin1967byGeorgeHabash.Ithasconsistentlybeenthesecondlargestofthegroupsforming
thePalestineLiberationOrganization(PLO),thelargestbeingFatah.PFLPisdescribedasaterrorist
organizationbytheUnitedStates,[7]
Canada,[8]
andtheEuropeanUnion.[9]
Othercountries,suchas
India,China,RussiaandtheUnitedKingdomdonotdesignatethePFLPasaterroristgroup.

KeyPoints
ThePFLPaimstoliberateallofPalestinebyestablishingademocraticsocialistPalestinian
statethatincludesthedestructionofzionismandthereturnofthePalestinianrefugeesto
theirhomeland.
Theywanttocreateacommunist,workingclassparty,andthebestwaytheyseetodothatis
toliberatePalestinefromIsraelirule.
FreedomforthisorganizationistheliberationofindigenousPalestineandtobuilda
functioningworkingclassparty,freefromIsraelicolonialrule.
Theywanttobefreefromglobalimperialism.Theywantliberation.Theywantequalrights.
ThePFLPisfightingagainstIsrael,theZionistmovement,thePalestinianAuthoritygoverning
body,globalimperialism,andArabreaction.
ThePFLPaimstoestablishademocraticsocialistsociety.

liberatingallofPalestineandestablishingademocraticsocialistPalestinianstateincludingthe
destructionofIsraelandthereturnofthePalestinianrefugees.
Theirtacticshaveincludedhijackings,assassinations,carbombings,suicidebombings,and
paramilitaryoperationsagainstcivilianandmilitarytargets.
ThePFLPaimstomobilizeandleadthestruggleofthePalestinianmassesforthereturnto
Palestine,selfdetermination,andtheestablishmentofaPalestinianstate.

ThePFLPisfightingagainstIsrael,theZionistmovement,thePalestinianAuthoritygoverning
body,globalimperialism,andArabreaction.
ThePFLPhasaround800membersbuthaslimitedsupportamongPalestiniansintheWest
BankandGaza.
theircollectivegoalistobreakdownconservativeArabstates,destroyIsrael,andapply
MarxistdoctrinetothePalestinianstruggle,whichitsawaspartofabroaderproletarian
(workingclass)revolution.Marxistsbelievethattheworkersoftheworldmustuniteandfree
themselvesfromcapitalistoppressiontocreateaworldrunbyandfortheworkingclass.
PFLPseemstohavealove/haterelationshipwiththeircommunity.Theywanttofree
Palestinebutareusingviolentmethodstoachieveit.
WhentheleaderofPFLP(AbuAliMustafa)wasassassinatedbytheIsraelimilitaryforces,
threedaysofnationalmourningwasdeclaredandthousandsofPalestiniansattendedhis
funeral.HisdeathwasavengedbykillingtheIsraeliMinisterofTourismsoitseemsthatthe
PFLPreceivessupportfromsomepeopleintheircommunity.
Theywanttocreateacommunist,workingclassparty,andthebestwaytheyseetodothatis
toliberatePalestinefromIsraelirule.
Patriarchy,homophobia,andclassismarenotaddressedintheirorganizationortheirstruggle
FreedomforthisorganizationistheliberationofallofPalestine.Theorganizationwantsto
buildaworkingclassparty.Habash(thefounderofPFLP)viewstheliberationofPalestineasa
fundamentalpartofthecommunistrevolution
Theywanttobefreefromglobalimperialism.Theywantliberation.Theywantequalrights.
JustliketheDreamDefenders.WebelievethatthisshouldinformtheFreeCampaigninthe
waythatweeducateourcommunitiesonissuesrelatingtooppressioninallareasofthe
world

Sandinistas

Imagery:Red[socialism]andBlack[anarcho]flags
imagesandbannersofAugustoCesarSandinoand
ErnestoCheGuevara,imagesofwomenandchildren
attherallies,imagesofwomenwithriflesand
fatigues.Thephotosofthepeople'spovertythetin
roofsandthecamposinosworkingthefieldwereto
showtheinequalityinthecomparedtowhereand
howthecolonoslived.

Importance:Postersofpromotingwomenand
thankingthemfortheirservicetotherevolution;
inclusionandabsorptionoftheneedsoftheentire
society

Summary:TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront

(Spanish:FrenteSandinistadeLiberacinNacional,FSLN)isnowademocraticsocialistpolitical
partyinNicaragua.ItsmembersarecalledSandinistas[sandinistas]inbothEnglishandSpanish.
ThepartyisnamedafterAugustoCsarSandinowholedtheNicaraguanresistanceagainstthe
UnitedStatesoccupationofNicaraguainthe1930s.

KeyPoints:
TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront(FSLN)wasanantiimperialist,leftistrevolutionary
organization.Nowitsthecurrentrulingpartywithademocraticsocialiststance.
TheFSLNwasformedbyuniversitystudentsinLeon,Nicaraguawhowereinspiredbythe
AlgerianLiberationFrontandwerecombatingsocialinequalityandfightingforredistribution
ofwealthandland.
WomenduringandaftertherevolutionhavebeenalargepartoftheFSLN.Fighting
discriminationandmarginalizationofwomenandfortheequalityofmenandwomen
Theybeganwithfightingforaccesstoeducation,health,housing,andsubsistenceforall
peoples.
Theyengagedinguerillawarfare,mobilizingintheinvisiblepartsofthecountrymeaningthe
campesinosinthecountryside.TheideologySandinismotookelementsofMarxistclass
analysisandSandinosnationalistandantiimperialistideology.
TheSandinistaNationalLiberationFront(FSLN)wasanantiimperialist,leftistrevolutionary
organization.Itisnowthecurrentrulingpartywithademocraticsocialiststance.
TheFSLNwasformedbyuniversitystudentsinLeon,Nicaraguawhowereinspiredbythe
AlgerianLiberationFront.TheFSLNwascombatingsocialinequalityandfightingfor
redistributionofwealthandland.
WomenduringandaftertherevolutionhavebeenalargepartoftheFSLN.Fighting
discriminationandmarginalizationofwomenandfortheequalityofmenandwomen

Theybeganwithfightingforaccesstoeducation,health,housing,andsubsistenceforall
peoples.
TacticsandStrategyincludedguerillawarfare,mobilizingintheinvisiblepartsofthecountry
meaningthecampesinosinthecountryside.Theyalsoranliteracycampaignsandcampaigns
forpoliovaccinations.
TheSandinistasfirstfightwasagainsttheUnitedstatesanditsoccupationofthecountryin
theearly20thcentury.Althoughatthattimetheywerenotformallyreferredtoasthe
sandinistasbutratherasaNicaraguanresistanceledbyAugustoSandino.
ThereunificationoftheFSLNwasempoweredbyininsurgencyoftensofthousandsofYouths
fromacrossthenation..
TheideologySandinismotookelementsofMarxistclassanalysisandSandinosnationalist
andantiimperialistideology.Thewantedtoorganizeforthemilitaryoverthrowofthe
Somozasdietothereunresponsive&disregardingattitude/actiontopeacefuldemandsfor
democratizationandeconomicreform.
Overtimetheyfacedseveralsetbacksandbegantoregainfocustoestablishpolitical
platforms,nationalizationofpropertyownedbytheSomozasandtheirsupporters,improving
workingconditions,freeunionizationforallurbanandruralworkers,safeguardedfixed
pricesforbasiccommodities,improvedpublicservices,housingconditions,andeducation.
Theyabolishedtheuseoftorture,politicalassassination,endingdeathpenalty,and
establishingequalityforwomen
Bythemfocusingonthepoliciesofmassliteracy,healthcarereform,andthepromotionof
genderequalitytheSandinistaswereembeddedintotheircommunity.
Theywerefocusedonengagingtheirentirecoretobetheenginefortherelationship.There
wasmuchdedicationtoenfranchisingthecountrysvastruralandurbanpoorthroughmass
organizations.
PowerfulfigureslikeNoraAstorgaguerillaandfutureUNambassadorforUN
Thisinitselfhelpshiftsocietyawayfromtheirinnatemachismomentality,whichis
essentiallyanicaraguan/latinamericanreferencetopatriarchy.
Whenthesandinistasgainedpower,theyworkedonestablishingthefollowing:
nationalizationofpropertyownedbythesomozasandtheirsupporters;landreformation;
improvedconditionsandfreeunionizationforbothruralandurbanworkers;improvedpublic
serviceshousing,andeducation;EqualityforWoman;andtheformationofapopulararmy.
Womenplayedanintegralroleinthedevelopmentoftheirnation.ThevictoryoftheFSLN
broughtcrucialchangesandgainsforwomeninlegislationandotherfactions.By1987,over
30percentoftheexecutivepositionsintheSandinistagovernmentwerewomen.Someissues
werepresentinmaintainandsupportoflocal,socialservicesontheirownwithoutassistance
andhumanresources.Thiswasdifferentfromotherrevolutionswherewomanwere
sidelined.

SouthAfricanStudentMovement

Summary:#FeesMustFallisastudentledprotest
movementthatbeganinmidOctober2015in
responsetoanincreaseinfeesatSouthAfrican
universities.Theprotestsalsocalledforhigherwages
forlowearninguniversitystaffwhoworkedforprivate
contractorssuchascleaningservicesandcampus
securityandforthemtobeemployeddirectlyby
universities.ProtestsstartedattheUniversityof
WitwatersrandandspreadtotheUniversityofCape
TownandRhodesUniversitybeforerapidlyspreading
tootheruniversitiesacrossthecountry.

KeyP
TheSouthAfricanStudentMovementwere
fromthecommunitiesandgeographicalareas
theywerefightinginandfor
Theirtacticsofresistancewastoorganizeactionsandprotest;alsorefusedtogotoclass
underthemantraSchoolsNeedStudents
Theirvisionwastoendthehightuitionandmandatoryfeesaswellasthestrictand
unnecessarytotalitarianlikesocialstandardstheywereupholding.Theeconomicconditions
seepedintosocialconditions.Studentsfromlowincomehouseholdsandneighborhoodswere
forcedtopaycollegecoststheysimplycouldntpay.Theirvisionwasntoneofpeace,butone
offairness.
Theirtacticsofresistancewastoorganizeactionsandprotest;alsorefusedtogotoclass
underthemantraSchoolsNeedStudents
believedthatcollegestudentsshouldpayareasonableamountforhighereducation
Theywerefromthecommunitiesandgeographicalareastheywerefightinginandfor
Theyweresuccessfulintheirdreamsofloweringthecostofhighereducationthrough
thoroughorganizing.
Theyshiftedthenegativeanddownwardtrendtheculturewasheadedtowardsandcreated
ideologiesthatbreechfarbeyondcollegecampusculture.
Theyralliedagainsttheeconomicwarthatwasheldagainstthoseofthelowerclasswho
couldntaffordtheamountofmoneyinstitutionsforcedthemtopay.Asfaraspatriarchyand
homophobia,thetwowerenotdiscussedorfoughtagainst.
organizationwasaimingtoeliminategreedfromcorporateentitiesbecauseitbreachedinto
thelivesofeveryonearoundthem
Theynotonlydespisedtheinstitutionsforraisingthetuitiontopricesfarbeyondthegrasps
ofthestudents,butforenforcingstrictsocialrulesthatweresimilartothatofagovernment
underdictatorship.
TheyaimedforsimilargoalsandpossessthesametenacityastheDreamDefenders.

YoungLords

Imagery:outlineofPRflagw/handrisinginfront
andthephraseTengoPuertoRicoenmiCorazon
militantbrandingandincludessilhouettesofAK47s

Importance:Theirvisionofpowerwastoseethe
proletariattakecontrolofthemeansofproduction

Summary:TheYoungLords,laterYoungLords
Organizationand,inNewYork(notablySpanish
Harlem),YoungLordsParty,wasaPuertoRican
nationalistgroupinseveralUnitedStatescities,
notablyNewYorkCityandChicago.TheYoungLords
beganasaPuertoRicanturfgangintheLincolnPark,
ChicagoneighborhoodofLincolnParkinthefallof
1960andasacivilandhumanrightsmovementon
GritodeLares,September23,1968.

KeyPoints:
TheYoungLordswereMarxistswhostruggledforselfdeterminationofPuertoRicans,the
buildingofsocialismandthedefeatofthebourgeoisie.
TheirgoalwasalwaysPuertoRicanselfdeterminationbuttheirstrategychangedovertime.
Theybecamemorefocusedonpreparingforanupcomingarmedstruggle.
TheirstrategywastoeducateandorganizetheU.S.workingclass,beginningwithPuerto
RicansintheUS.Theirvisionofpowerwastoseetheproletariattakecontrolofthemeansof
production.
Thesocialconditionsprovedtoberipefortheradicalizationofincarceratedyouth.Their
strategywastoorganizetheproletariatintheU.S.andtomobilizePuertoRicans.
TheYoungLordswereMarxists;theysawhistorythroughthelensesofdialecticalmaterialism.
Aslongasasocietyhadcontradictions,particularlycontradictionsofmaterialinterests,there
wouldoppression.Theywantedasocietywherethesecontradictionswereresolved.
Thesocialconditionsprovedtoberipefortheradicalizationofincarceratedyouth.Their
strategywastoorganizetheproletariatintheU.S.andtomobilizePuertoRicanstofightfor
theselfdeterminationofPuertoRico.Onewaytodoitwasthroughtheirnewspaper,Palante.
TheirstrategywastoeducateandorganizetheU.S.workingclass,beginningwithPuerto
RicansintheUS
Theirvisionofpowerwastoseetheproletariattakecontrolofthemeansofproduction.
TheirgoalwasalwaysPuertoRicanselfdeterminationbuttheirstrategychangedovertime.
Theybecamemorefocusedonpreparingforanupcomingarmedstruggle.
thecampaignsdirectionswereultimatelydecidedbythecommunity.Theyengagedindirect
action

Theyalsohadadrugrehabilitationprogramaswellasfreebreakfastandfreeclothing
programs.
TheYoungLordswereMarxistLeninistsandadheredtoMaoZedongThought.They
influencedtheyouth
theYoungLordshadissueswithmachismo.Astheygrewinunderstandingandsocialpractice,
theyevolvedontheirpositions.Theyrejectedsexism,homophobia,andbelievedinthe
destructionofcapitalism.
TheydressedsimilarlytotheBlackPantherParty.TheirsymbolincludedanoutlineofPuerto
RicowithahandraisingarifleinfrontofitandthephraseTengoPuertoRicoenmi
Corazon.TheytendedtousethestyleofthegeneralPuertoRicanliberationmovement.
TheirimagerywasverymilitantandincludedsilhouettesofAK47s.Theywouldalsocarrythe
PuertoRicanflagatrallies.
TheselfdeterminationofPuertoRicans.Thebuildingofsocialismandthedefeatofthe
bourgeoisie.
organizeusingclassdialecticalmaterialistanalysislens
helpusnavigatethecollapseofourpresentlatecapitalism.TheDreamDefendersshould
investigateourconditionsscientificallyandworktopreparethepeoplefortheworseningof
thecrisisofcapitalism.Freedomcannothappenifwestillhavetobeparttimeserfs.

Zapatistas

Imagery:BlackflagwithredletterEZLNandared
star,sometimesanoutlinethesouthernareaof
Mexicoinwhichtheygovern.Manyalsowore
bandanas/blackmasks.

Importance:totheformationofthedemocratic
Zapatistaszone,theyrepresentedthepeoplewho
livedthatstruggleandwantedtochangetheir
conditions

Summary:EZLNwasformedinoppositionto
neoliberaltradeagreementssuchasNAFTA,signedby
theMexicanandUSgovernments.TheEZLNformedin
responsetothesigningofneoliberaltradeagreement
NAFTAonJanuary1st,1994andtheirfightwasonefor
thefreedomoftheirpeoplefromglobalizationitself.
TheZapatistasvisionwastofreetheirpeoplefromthepolitical.Theconditionstheywereupagainst
werelackoffreedomofexpression,therighttoorganize,andthefreedomtosettheirownpricefor
theproductstheyproduced.

KeyPoints:

TheirfightwasntonlytowardtheMexicangovernmentbutagainstneoliberalismandagainst
theglobalizationofthepoorandworkingclass.
FormedthedayNAFTAwassignedJan1st,1994
thesocialandeconomicconditionswereunjustfortheworkingclass.Theirstrategywas
armingthemselvesnottotakeoverpowerbuttocreateaspacefordemocracy.
Theirvisionofpowerwasbringingpeopletogetherfromlowerincomecommunities
Theirtargetwasneoliberalismandglobalizationitself.
Theconditionstheywereupagainstwerelackoffreedomofexpression,therighttoorganize,
andthefreedomtosettheirownpricefortheproductstheyproduced.
Whentheyfirststarteditwasindigenous/peasantrootedorganizationwithguerillatactics,
whocollectivelywantedabetterlifestandardforthepeople.
YaBasta(enoughisenough)asfarlivingconditionsforthepoorandworkingclass.Over
timetheyhavegraduallybeendissolvingitsclandestinemilitarystructureintosomethingthat
isfarmorefluid.
inthelatestyearstheyvelivedasiftheyvewonagainsttheMexicangovernmentlivingin
autonomousareasgovernedbytheZapatistaswherewomensrights,queerright,education
andhealthcareflourish.

Fromthebeginningofguerillatakeoversoftowns,totheformationofthedemocratic
Zapatistaszone,theyrepresentedthepeoplewholivedthatstruggleandwantedtochange
theirconditions
Theybelievedintheedijosysteminwhichcommunallandworkedbythepeopleshouldbe
controlledbythepeoplenotthegovernment.
BlackflagwithredletterEZLNandaredstar,sometimesanoutlinethesouthernareaof
Mexicoinwhichtheygovern.Manyalsoworebandanas/blackmasks.
EZLNistheacronymoftheorganization
theimplementationofautonomy,collectiveorganizing,andselfgovernment
theconditionswhichleadtotheirrebellionresonatewiththefreecampaign.Wesimilarlyare
identifyingthecoreissuesaffectingthemarginalizedofMiamitofindsolutionstothe
problemsandempowerthepeoplewithinthosecommunitiestohelp(re)buildabetterworld
forthepoorandworkingclass.

ART WORK
to view artwork, visit:
ddblackedouthistory.tumblr.com

You might also like