Chapter 15-2

Divisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal cord  Central Nervous System is the control center of the body  Brain- part of the CNS that controls most functions in the body

 Spinal cord- thick column of nerve tissue that links the brain to most of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system Most impulses from the peripheral nervous system travel through the spinal cord to the

The Structure and Functions of the Brain

 Brain contains about 100 billion interneurons  3 layers of connective tissue surround the brain  Space between the outermost and middle layer is filled

Cerebrum

 

3 main regions of the brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem Cerebrum- interprets input from the senses, controls the movement of skeletal muscles, and carries out complex mental processes such as learning Right side of the cerebrum controls muscles on the left side of the body Left side of the cerebrum controls right side of the body Right side of cerebrum associated with creativity and artistic

Cerebellum and Brainstem
Cerebellumcoordinates the actions of your muscles and helps you keep your balance  Brainstembetween the cerebellum and spinal cord; controls your body’s involuntary

Spinal Cord
 Vertebral

column surrounds and protects the spinal cord  Spinal cord links your brain and peripheral nervous system  Connective tissue surrounding brain also cover spinal column

Function of the Peripheral Nervous System
PNS consists of a network of nerves that branch out from the CNS and function to connect it to the rest of the body  Impulses travel to and from the CNS on a spinal nerve  Spinal nerves contain axons of both sensory and

Somatic Nervous System- controls voluntary actions such as using a fork  Autonomic nervous system- controls involuntary actions such as contractions of the smooth muscles that adjust the

Reflexes
 Reflex-

an automatic response that occurs very rapidly and without conscious control  Some reflex actions contract skeletal muscles with the use of the spinal cord only- not brain  Pain causes a reflex of movement passing only to the spinal cord  Pain also causes an impulses alerting your brain of discomfort  Reflex causes you to move before

Safety and the Nervous System
 Concussions

and spinal cord injuries can injure the nervous system  Concussion- bruise-like injury of the brain  Helmets help prevent concussions  Spinal cord injuries occur when the spinal cord is cut or crushed; causes impulses to be unable to pass to the brain from the body  Paralysis can result from spinal cord injury

Review

What is the function of the central nervous system? Which organs are part of this system? What is the peripheral nervous system and what is its function? Explain what a reflex is. How do reflexes help protect the body from injury? What symptoms might indicate that a person’s cerebellum has been injured?