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IAEKAE=I1

l,xywttpo r'ar aorpo

H ENETEIO:
TH' IAPY:H:KAOEEONOYI
OEOPEITAI
AOIO' EOPTA.
opori yro touq xatoixoug rou or Aumpo-Loi rom6oo eixov r6roirepouq -L6youqvo yoprrioow tn 6roxooroorrl rouq enfrero, ro
1988.Aiyor <inorror owrperclnroov epn66rc ovd"Loyc;re exei.
vo nou ernguLdooowov o doouq pereixov mnv on6poon rou
Ilp6tou Xtci.lou mn peMowrxf 0don tori Xi6veo, to 1788.H
Aumpolic rirov ox6pn <ilvomn yn' or dnorxor 6ev efuov r6do
rr toug nepipeve rl nr,ig 0o enrB(ovov. Xropf(owov ond tn yevvdrerpd rouq pe ivo 0o.Lrioororol6r 25.000 xrhopCrp<,tv,6rripxerog 8 pnv<irv.Mixpr vo xorogrdoer ond rnv A'y"yLioo en6pevog md).oq ovego6rcopori peooldpnocv 6u6pror xp6vro, xor<i
rn 6rdpxetort:v onoirov or dnoxor BpOnxovoro npd0upc tnq
-Lrpoxtov(oq.floMoi cnd oworiq 6rov ror<i6rxor nou erxav ri6n
yvopioer trq nro ondv0poneq 6qrerqrou ondvOp<lnou18ouorovo. flop<i to 6rioro.Lo orrr6 {ex(vnpo, or dnorxor empiooov, eunppnocv, xotix.l,uocv pro rinerpo, Oepelicloov pro 6npoxpor(o
ror 6rop6pgcooov6vov 6roxprr6e0vrx6xopoxrripo.H rmepngdveronou ilroOov or Aumpo-Loixo0ciqp6pto(ov mv i6puon rou
d0vouqrouq 6rov ovopevdpevn.
flop' 6.Loow<i, or eoptoopo( opoup60nxov on<i 6ro6n-lcloerg
6ropoprupiog. flpritor Aumpo.l,oi 6v irov or .leuxof <inorror
owfOero, n Aumpo.Lio eixe enoxrorei nepilou 50.000xp6vlo
vopirepc, ond toug npoy6voug ev6q troori nou ofpepo ouvri-

IE MAYPOKAIAINPO

Ooqovogdpetoroq <Apopiyrvegrng Aumpo).iog>,1wooroifinv


Auorpo.lio xor oq <porlpor>>.
Kotri rov enorxrop6 tnq Aumpo-lioq
ond touq A1"y.Louq,or neproo<itepor on<i roug opxrxorig xoroirouq rnq eire oxo'rd;0nxov ond rouq onoixouq eite r60ovov on6
ciL,\.[eq
crtfrq, pe onore]eopo opro;:ivor on<i rouq ofyxpovouq
onoy6voug toug vo pnv eoptdoouv tn 6roKoorooTrieflrero tou
enorxropori,o-l-Ldvo 6ropyovtiroouv6ro6n.Ltioerq6ropoprupioq. Or eoptool.roi eoric(ov oronnpd mov tp<ino pe rov onoio n
Aumpo-trio iyrve -Leuxri.Oo {exrvdor,r ou-rd To Kgd}aro ond(owoq, ow(0eto, mo n6q n Aumpo-Liodnoryevo eivor pofpn,
xor n6q 0oppotrdor<iy"y.Lor
dnorxor rord.Ln{ov vo 8ronpti{ouv
vevorctovio.
flpoq cnoguyrlv nope{nyfoeov on6 pdpouq rr,rv.leuxdrv
Aumpo-Lclv,ogeiL<ovo {exo0apior,l drr 6ev xctnyop<i roug.upoydvougtoug yro xtitr povo6rx<ionexOig.Awr06r<,rq,o tr6yogyro
'rov onoio 0o ooxoln06 pe tnv e{6waron rov Apopryfvrlv e(vor
oxprBoq ro yeyov6q dl 6ev rmfpfe povo6rx69: anore.Lei xo-Ld
rexpnpropivo nop<i6erypoev<iqgorvotrrdvou
rou onoiou tn ouxv6tnro e.kixroror owrLcpBdvowor. Av r<orro [poro npd]To
pe to onoio ouoxeri(outrre rn -Li{n <yevoxrovio> eivor oul,ri0oq
or 6o.logovieg nou 6rdnpo{ov or No(i ma mpot6na6o ouyxi'r4poong, owdg 6ev cnotLaoov Kcv rn peyclfrepnq xlipoxoq
yevorcrovforou 20od orcbvo.X(ryxpovorm<jxor enrtuxnpivrov, ov
xor prxp6repnq x-tripoxog,exmpoterolv e4dwt'long rmfp{ov or
Toopovof xor erotowd6eq d-l-Lor.looi. Xrouq 6ur.nlxofq m6xouq ylo ro e1'yriqpdMov nepr-Loppdvoworno.Ludpr0por-Looi
cv<i rov xdopo. Oordoo, n yevoxtovio onorel,ei rdoo enar6uvo
0dpo rirorenponpdpe eire vo pnv ro oxegr6poore ro06lou eite
vo mmefoupe 6tr ounmd (6rov tov No(( Kor 6xt rov ro-Lov ov0pdluov. H <ipvnori pcA dpoq vo ro ovoloyr(6pome 6xer owinereq:6evldBcpe ooBop<iptpc po vo xorome oupe uq no.luyevorrovfeq uou 6ronpdx0nr<ovperd tov B' flclx6opro
<iprOtrreq
II6Icpo otnt cnoypunvou;redrotevo ororpdyoutrrernv rntitrrevn. Ae6opivou pd.Llororou nupnvrKorlpoq on.Lomooiou,or yevorrovrreq pcg rdoerg,po(i pe rnv tcion Foq vo Koroorpsqorys

O TPITO: XIMNANTZHI

rouq rrsplpo-L.LowrKorispoq rr6pous, ovriKorw oro 6fo rnKporifipo p6oa l.rsro orloia ro ov0p6rrrvoi6oqrlOovdv vo owrmpiyer ol<ix-lnpnrnv npoo6d rou rv pr<ivurri.
Ilop<i ro oufovdpevo ev6rcgipov yo tn yavox'rovio on<i pdpouq ryuxotrdyov, Bro.l6yov, o-L}d rcoronlov ov0ponov, opropdvo Boorrd 0dtrrcrapo arrniv e{oro-}.ou0orjvva cnore.Lorjv ne6io
(<ic to onoio toxtrxri oxordrowrnopd0eonq.Yndpxouv <i-tr-Lo
vow pdLn tou ei6ouqtoug, ri pfnoq np6xertor yro ov0pomvn
emvdnonxop(q (<,IKoUqrrpo6pdFous;Yndpfe n yevoxrov(o;Io
on<iwo nopixx-Lron xo0' 6-Lnrnv ov0pomvn rmopio, i pinorg
owiporve opretri ouxvd drme va ouyxoro-Ldyetor, po(i pe tnv
rdxnn xor tn yloooo, oro xopoKTnpronx<ilvopiol.roto rou ov0p6noq Mrinoq oripepo n orxv6tntd rnq ou{<iveror, .L<iyorou
<in ro oiryxpovo6n-tro:m'rpinouvT n 6rdnpa{ri rnq pe ro ndrnpo evdg xoqrmof, opptrfvowoq dtor nq evmxro6erq ovomolig trrcqyipo on<ito g6vo tiMov ov0ponarg fto noro .Ldyor<ioo
nol-Lci neprorolx<i 6xow npooekfoer 1600 ].iyn rrpoooxi; Or
owoupyoi eivor <ipoyeovrirpo-Lodropo, ri prinoq ouvn0ropdvor
<iv0pr,lnornou irrxe vo ppeOouvoe oouui0rmeq owOrireg;
fro vo xotovoriooupe to gorv6pevo tng yevorroviog, 6ev
;rnoporipe vc xrvn0ori;reoe orevci nloioro' npiuer va aw.lfooupe oroxeio on6 m pro-troyio,rnv n0xri ror rnv rguxoLoy(o.
'Eror,
0o opxiooupe pe tnv ovixveuon rnq proLoyrxriqrmop(oq
tnq, {exrvrirwog ond rouq (olxorig pag npoy6voug xor gt<ivowoq pixpr tov 206 orriva. Agori 6repewfooupe rov tp6no pe
rov onoio or 6o.\ogtivor outrrgrtriooovrn ycvoxrov(o pt roug
n0rrofq rouq xo6rxeq, 0o pnopiooupa vo efetdooupe trq ryuxo.Lo,yrr<dg
tng enrntooerg oe owoupyoriq, enr(owo Oripato xor
rpiroug. flporori <ipa4ovo(nrriooupc rrq onowfioerg mo eporripoto or.rrci,0o pog gove( xpriorpo vo ooxo.trn0oripenptirro pe
tnv ef6wrlon tov Toopovov, oq pro xopoKrnprmrxri pe.Litn
nepirrrarong po pro eupeio tti{n yevoxrondrv.
H TA'MAN|AEtNAtENAoPEtNovnoi, oxe8dv ionq dxrcong pe
tnv IpLov6io, 250 xr-Lr6perpoporpr<i ond tn votrocvotolxri

:E MAYPO KAI AINPO

oKrd rnq Auorpc-Liog.'Otov ovoxoi.riq0nre on6 rouq Eupttrloiouq, ro 1642,xororxo(rwcv 0116nspirrou 5.000xuvnyofgtpogooullixteq, oulTvsfq Tr,rvABopryivov rnq nnerp<otu<rig
Aumpoi.ioq, or onoior 6rd0etovro onlor.imepo iooq texvoloyrx<i pioo oe oxion pe orrorov6rino're oriyxpovo lo6. Or Toopovoi
6ev xc'rcoxefo(ov nopd -liyeq onlig popqiq li0rvaiv r<or{ritrrv<lv epyo-Leiov.'Onoq ror or ABopiyrvsg,6sv 6d0rav psro.LtrrKd
epyo-Leio,yeropyic,rrnvotpogio, olyeronLomrxri, 16{o ror Biln.
Xe owiOeon 6proqpe au"tofq, 6sv elxov orire pnoupepor,yr, oxriIoug ri 6rrruo, oure ri{epcv vc p<ipow f vo ovciBouvgorrd.
EEdoovTo povo6rx<intr<orrirous l-tioo rirov o6ieq rcr<i-L.Lni.eqyro prxp<i p6vo to{i6ro, or Tcopovoi nopipevcv cnoroppivor on6 rri0e <i-Llnov0pcinrvn enogri og6tou n rivo6og
tnq erng<iverog'rnq 0<i).coooqxdrproTnv Tcopovio on6 tnv
Aumpolic, 10.000xp6vro nprv. K-Leropivormo r6rron6 toug
ofprrov rri src-row<i6eqyevriq, erxcv 8roy<iyettn porprirepn
nepio6o onop6v<oonqorn oiqxpovn ovOpronrvntmopio -pro
onopdvoon nou xor<i ro <iMc nepryp<igeror p<ivo os 6pyo srn'O'rcv
mnpovxriq Eowoofoq.
te-Ltr<<i
n <igr{n rov leuxov onoir<ov rnq Aumpo-l,ioq i6ooe rtroq mnv onopdvroon, 6ev rmipxov i.oof mn fn xerpdtepo Koroprtopvol ylo vo Korovoioouv
o 6vagtov <l.l.Lovorr' 6,Trol Toopovoi xor or }euroi.
H rpoyrxri ow<iwnon rov 6r.ioLorirvo6flnoe oe ouyxpofoerq
oxe66v opooq p6hg r<otd<prooovmo vnoi ppetovof cinorror xor
qrop<i6eq
E6xroq,yupci mo 1800.Or ler,'xoi cnriyoyovnor8rdyrc
pydrsg Kor l.uvoireg yro ou(riyoug,upoiBnoov os oKpornprooporiq ror 6oi.ogoneq cv6pttv, r<oton<itnoov xuvnydtolouq Kor
npoon<i0nocvvo ex6rr,l{otrvtouq Toopovofg on6 rn yn touq.
'Eror,
otl'wopo n oOyxpouonmldmnKs mn 6rcog<i.i,ron(ctrrxot
xr,rpou,pro on6 nq ouvnoimspss olrisq yevorrovfog Koe' 6ln
tnv ov0prirrnvnlmopid. C)qcno'rileopo rov oncyioyr,tv,o r0oyevrignln0uop<igtng poperocvoto-Lrxriq
Toopovrcqerxepero0ei
tov NoipBpro tou 1830oe 72 erdhreq <iv6peg,3 erri-Lrreqywoixeq xor xov6vo ncr6i.'Evoq poor6g ordrooe i9 Toopovofq pe
ivo neprmpegdpevonupop6i,o onLropivo pe xopcprd.Tiooeprg

O TPITO' XIMNANTZH:

d.L.Lor
dornoov evi6po oe pro opri6c r0oyevov,ox6ttooov30, xor
niro{ov to xoppr<i touq on6 ivo pprixo' o onoioq oipepo pvnpovefetot oq A6goq rng Nixnq.
'Onog
ftov guorx6, or Toopovoi rrpodpnoovoe cvt(notvo,
'rouq ovtinorvo' Tov
xor or .Leuxoi pe rn oerp<itoug oe 6rx<i
Anpi.trrorou 1828,yro vo 6r'ioertitrog otnv x-Lrpdxoontnq Bioq, o xupepvritnq Arthur 6r6tc[e 6.trouqrouq Toopovotig vo
eyxctoleiryouv to tpripo tou vnorod touq nou :ixe fi6n enor
xrote( onti Euponofoug.Ilpoq emBoliv tiq ev ldyo 6ro-rcyriq,
n xupipvnon xpnpoto66rnoe nq ley6peveq oneptni.ovopeveq
opd6eq>,ot onoieq ouyrpotofvtov on6 xot<i6lxouqxot xo0o6nyorivtov cu6 tnv ootuvopfo, pe oxon6 tnv xoto6io{n xot
Ocv<irtlon Toopov<irv.Me tnv enrpoLri otpotr<,lttrof v6pou tov
NodpBprotou 1828,or otpottotaq e{ouoto6otri0nr<ovev .[euxo vc oxot<irvouv rd0e Toopovd nou ovtixpr(ov oro e6ti9n tov
onoix<ov.Kot6nrv, ot r0oyeveigemxnprix0nxov: 5 oyyhxdq -tr(peg
yro xd0e ev6i.xo nou mov6tov (ovrovdq Kal 2 yrc x<i0encr6i.
H <o0llnyn potip<ov>,dnoq ovop<iotnxe tr6yr,ltou oxoup6xpclpou 66ppotog ttlv Toopavclv,nripe 6rootdoergnpooo6og6poq
enrxeipnong,ornv onoia enr6i6ovtov 16oo xupepvnttriq neptnLcvopeveqopri6eq6oo xot r6tottr<iq.Tout6xpovo Oeoniotnxe
Fro sfirrponf p nrxegofuiqrovWilliam Broughton,oyyi.rxov6
opxr6r<ixovotnq AuotpoLioq, yto vo fiporivsr pro ouvohKri noAgorj e{erdotnxov npordottq
trrtrrn oxattxci ;.retouq rOoyeveiq.
rouq
noui.lioouv oq ox}<iBouq'
xot
vo
<inogvo touq oui'LciBouv
vo rouq 6nlnrnpt<ioouv, vo rouq noyroitpouv ri vo toug ruvnylloouv Fe rn pofoero oxril<l)v,n entrpond rotiln{e otn ouvaxlonrng roKrlKriqtov cnrxnpu{tov Kol orn xpnotpoloinon
qrrrlov ooruvoptKov.
To 1830,ivoq onpowrxdq repontioroLog'o GeorgeAugustus
Robinson,npoo.Lrlg0nxepo vo oup<elrpdroerrouq avorroptivowS Toopovoris Kol vo rouq petogper mn Yrioo Oliwepq' 20
xr-trr6petpopoxpui on6 to Bopetocvoto.Lrr6dxpo tnq Toopovioq.
O Robinson6rov nenctopivog <itr evepyodoenpoq 69etroqtov
'Elope
npoxotoBol:i 300 o1ryi.trr,ivhpov, xor 0o
Toopovrov.

TEMAYPO
KAIA:NPO

inorpve ri-L.Leg
700 lipeq F rnv oloKfuipoon rnq onooro.Lriq
tou. Agof 6r6rpa{eoopopoOqxrv8rivougxor ndpooeno.tr-Liq
r<oxouxieg,xcr<igepe,ouvenu<oupoupevoq
on6 pro Ooppotrior0oyevri ov6pol Truganini, vo ouyxewpdroer toug evcnopeivoweg
r0oyeveiq----opnxri nei0ow<ig roug 6tr 0c eixov xerp6tepn poipo
cv 6av nopo6i6owov, xor opy6repo tmd rnv one ,ri rov dnfu,rv.
flol-Lo( on6 roug orxpo-Ldrtouqtof Robinson nd0ovov xa0' o6dv
npoq rn rrioo Oliwpq, dprog200 nepinou pn6peoovvo enrprooouv' or te.Lewofor em(rirweq evdg nlnOuoporj nou d.l-Lote
cpr0pofoe 5.000.
ltn rrioo <D.Liwepg,o Robinson priAOnxevo exnotrrdoer xor
vo exxprmrovioer roug em(oweg. O rorouiropdq rou 6roxofwov oov gu-Lorri, oe prc cvepo6oppivn tonoOeoio pe e.Ldxrmo tpaxofpevo vep6. flpoxerpivou vo 6reuxol.w0ef o exnoLrnopdg rouq, to nor6r<ixopimnxov on6 roug yoveigrouq. To
oumnpti xcOnpeprvdnp6ypoppo nap dppove ovoyvtiroerqrng
Bip,loa rpolpafieq f;rvtov ror enrOe<,rprioerg
rov xpeponarv ror
tov momov r,lme vo eivor xo0op<ixor rcxronotnpivo. Oordoo,
n .Lrtri 6iorro igepe tov unoortrop6, o onoioq, oe ouv6uoop6
pe rrq oo0ivereq,o6riynoerouq rOoyeveig
mo 0<ivoro.Ei.dxrorq
pp6gn ror6p0ooov vo emBrdroow naproodtepo on6 .liyeg ep6op<i6e9.H rup6pvnon neprxoqrero d{o6o pe tnv e.},ni6oor r0oyeveig vc neOdvorlv.To 1869 e(xov onopeiver (<owovoi pov<ixo
n Truganini, pio ox6pn yuvofxo ror ivog dv6pog.
Or tperq owoi telewoior Toopovoi npooi.lxuoov ro ev6rogipov rov enrotnp6v<,rv,or onoiot rrimeuov 6rr otrvrmof'Etor,
oov rivov xopivo xp(xo perolf ov0p<,inouxor nrOrixov.
6tov o reLewoiog dv6pog, ovdporr William Lanner, niOove to
1869,6rjo owino).eq op<i6eqrotprirv, pe enrxego.Liq tov 6po
George Stokell, rnq Boorhxrig Erorpeioq tnq Toopoviog, xor
tov 6po William Lodewyk Crowther, tou Bao .rxorj Ko-leyiou
Xerpoupycirv,{d0oryov xor enovi0oqrov ex neprtponrlg to orirpo
rod Lanner, x<iBowog6rrigopo pdpn 'rou xor x-LiBowdq tc n
pio on6 tnv <il-trn.O 6p Crowther dxorpeargooupevfp ro xegtllr, o 6p Stokellto x6pro ror ro nd6ro, ror ivog rpirog to orpn<i

O TPITO: XIMNANTZH:

Aporcpd, o William Lanner, o rtieuraioa raoltardg cit6pag' 6e{d, n


'fruganini,
n u)twaia taolatti fwaiKa. (@oroypaqieg rci Charles
Woolley an6 tn ooMoyi rou Mouoiou ttlg Taoyaviag.)

Korrn Fi-rn. Arrd ro 6ippo tof Lanner,o 6p Stokelli<ptrc{e trlo


0drn yto xonv6.
flporori n Truganini ne0<iver,'ro1876,rnv rpopoKporoUosro
ev6ex6pevoev6gnopdporou perogov<irrouor<pc,trnproopof
rot
(ntofoe eni poroirovo xnSeure( orn Oci-\oooo.
EmBeBorc,tvowoq
rouq g6pouq rnq, n BoorhKri Erorpefo{i0orya ro oxe.}.er<i
tnq
ror tov i0eoe oe 6np6oroOdomo Mouoiornq Tooporrog,dnou
ropiperve pixpr ro 1947.Tn xpovrdexeivn,ro Mouoeio tmoxr,rpnot rrlrKo ouq KololTrlirq ncpi xoxoyouorrciq
xor pnegcpe
To oKIfld rri( Truganinio 6(,)pduo.onou ;.rnopouoov
vo rov
[3linouv p<ivoenrorripoveq.Kor ourci 6pog xoro1"yi.].0nxe<lq
xor<dyouoro.Te.lx<i, 'ro 1976,1st.rn ouprr-hipoon Kord srov
qro ro 0dvoro rnqTruganinixornopcirrg evoroorrqrou pouoslou. o oKf^f roc1nqoflolsgp(l)0nKr
xor n rt'gpo rnq oxopnimnre
mn 0<i.troooo,
ofpgovo ps rlq srnOupiqrnq.

:E IVIAYPOKAI A'NPO

Av xor or Toopovo(ritov.Liyoroe opr0p6,n e{6woof roug ei,


xe 6uoovriloyc pey<i.Lneni6poon mnv rmopio tnq Aumpo-trfoq,
xo0r,rgn Toopovic ritov n npr,rtn ouotpo.Ltovf quorxio nou
i).uoe to rrp6pLnFo rov r0oyevov tnq xor nnrxe rn ox66v
o-Lox-lnporrx<i<te.Llxri>.Lrion:ror<igepe,on' 6,tr Eorv6rov, vo
{egopro0ei 6louq touq reoysvsiqrng. (Xtnv npoyporrx6tnrc,
opropivc nor6r<iroopov<,iv ,y-uvorxrivpe leuroUg xurmyofs E6nog eni(noov, ror or cn<iyovoitous Eipvouv odppo os opnxovio tnv Kupipvnon rng Tcopcnoq, n orrofo 6sv xer cr<dpn
Kp(vrr16qvc rouq xerprmei). llolloi ler"xoi mnv nnerpctrrxri
Aumpo).io (6-\erpcv tnv re).er<irnro rng h.ionq rrou sfirrerjx0n(s mnv TooFovio rcr 0ilnoov vo rn prpnOofv, ixowog om6oo onoxopioer ror ivo 6i6oypo 0116oLrrriv.H e{6wroon tr,rv
Toopcvrov 6ronpdr0me oe rc, orxnpiveq neproxiq, xohig0me
i.errropeproqond tov omrK6 Tlfiro Kar irrxe opvnnxr,lv oxotrirov.
'Eror,
n e{<iwoon rtov onpowrx<i noi.tm-trn0ioreprovABoptyivclv
ctroBr,ol.rrOatoq,xr,rpcpoxprciolo to omrxciK\.rpo,orn ps06pro d nipov outfq.
To dpyovotov oumpohovov xuBepvrioeovpo rnv ulonoinon ourris rnq noi.tur<6q,epnveuopivo orrd rrq KupspvnrrKq
nepuri.ovopeveg op<i6eqrng Toopovroq,frov ivog xl<i6oq irptnurov ootwoprxriv nou ovopc(drov <Amuvopio IOcyevrow,or
onoior eEdppo(ovtoxnxig <ovoQirnongror e{6woong> yro vo
6oiogovrioouv ri vo er<6r6{ouv'rouq ABopiyrveq.Mro npoorprLriq toxrrxri touq drcv vc rreprKuK-trovouvivcv xotou,\rop6 rn
vixto xor vo emriOewor to {npipr'lpo, nupopo.}.ctwcgmo ryoxvo.Iuxv<i6o,Logovor-Joov
Apopipvegps rpogrs nou nrprrixov
6n-\ntfpro, evri cpior<owov vc ou"1xewpovow orxFd].orouq ABopiytveq,vo roug ci.uoo66votrvon6 to .Lcrp6ror vo toug o6nyofv p ro 116610
mn <pui.oxri.O pperovcigpuOrmoproyp<igoq
Anthony Trollope e{igpo(e rnv r<upiopxl m<ion tr,rv Bpetovov
rou l9ou olovo orrivowr orouq ABopiyrveq,6rov 6ypcEe:<ho
rov ouorpc,\rovciporJpopnopor-ipcvo noUpe pc oryoupro<irt
npiner vo e{o<povrmei.'Oloror epn).ex6pevorogeii.ow vo ern6rt,xow to 0dvor6 rou xropiqourdq vo rmogiper oor6nog>.

O TPITO:XINlNANTZH:

Olroxuxg auriq soKo-Loueofoovvo egcppd(owcr mnv


Aumpo.Lio xor xotdTov 206 olovo. To 1928,oe ivo en:ro66ro
'A.Lrg
mnv ndln
XnpNTKg,n omuvopio ogoyiooe 31 ABopiyrveg.
H oumpoLroui Bou.LriopuiOnr<evo ono6ex0eiprc cvctpop<iyro
tn oEoyrl xor, cwi 'rng omuvopiog, naponipp0nxov oe 6irn
yo rp6vo6rio enr(<irwegApopiyrveg.Or o.truoi6egpo ro .trcrpd
xpnorponoroirwov pixpuro 1958,o 6e omuvopx6g enftponoq tnq lloi,rtaiog tnq Arrnruiq Auorpcl(cq rmepopfv0nxe tnq
ocv0pr,rnrmrrriq>xpf onq touq, drov e{riynoe orn Herald rng
Melpofpvng 6u or gulcrcopivor ABopiyrvegnporrpotioov vc
rux.l,ogoporiv o).uoo6epivor.
Or Apopiyrveqrnq nnerpotrxriq Aumpoliog frov tmeppohr<i roLu<ipr0poryro vo e{owo0oUv n-}ripoq,6rioq or Toopovoi.
Eworirorq, ond rnv dgr{n rov Bpetovr,ivonoixrov ro 1788it,rq
tnv onoypogri tori 1921,o nln0uop6q tr,lv Apopryivov exe perr,.r0riono trg 300.000mrq 60.000ncpinou.
Xripepo, or m<ioerqtr,lv i.:uruirv Aumpolciv orrivowr ornv
orpornpri rmopfc toug rrou< -low eupir,lg.Tdoo n xupepvnuxri no-Lrtrxrl 6oo xor noMoi l,euxoi no.Liteq 6rororixowqr crr6
oi.odvopeyo).ftepn oupn<i0eroonivowt moug Apopiyrveg'd.L-Lorf,.eur<of
tlmdoo opvo(ntor xornyopnpcrxd rci0e rmorttdrnto
yro tn yevorrovio. To 1982,)'lo fiop<i6erypo,ivo ou6 ro xupiopxo er6noeoypo<prx<i
nepro8rrd tnq Aumpo-Liog,ro The Bulletin,
6ntrrooleuoe
rnv enrmo.trriproq xupioq PatriciaCobern,n onoio
opvou.r'-rov
;.rroyov<ixtnonorr or lruxoi cinorxore{rilrooov roug
Toopovorlg.Xtnv npoypotrxdtnto, iypcEe n rupio Cobern, or
<inorxorrirov erpnvdg .orxor uryni.of n0rxorj entu6ou,avo or
pp6pxor,
Toopovoi rirov 66hor, 6oLogovu<oi,no-Lepoxopefq,
.Loipopyor,ryarpr<ipn8eq
Kor rropoFopgopivor Grrd'rn orirp .n.
Emnlov, ncpope).oUoovro pop<i 'roug,6ev ntr6vo1"rovrot eixov orroKpouorrKciyopri-Lroi0rpo. Yne60uveqyro rnv e{orp<ivroi touq ritov or ov0uyrerv6qnpoxtrxiq roug, n illenyn Opnoxewxr,iv nenorOrioeovxor n loxr<ipo toug vo ne0tivouv. To
yeyovdq6tr, fotepo on6 xr).rci6:qxpdvro empioong, drrxe vo
ex,\eiqouvrcr<i rn 8uipr<ero
proqoriyxpouongpe roug ouoirouq,

:E MAYPO KAI A'NPO

6ev onorei.oUoenopd on.hi ofpnroon. Or pdveg ogoy6g nou


6ronp<ix0nxoverxo.vowoupyorig toug Toopcvoriq xor Ofpoto
rouq onofroug, ror 6xr to owiorpogo. E[d-tr-].ou,or dnoxor gepov dnLo p6vo yro owonpomoo(o, 6ev irov e{orxeropdvorpe
tn xpfon roug, ror ou6inote nupopd.Lnoovnaproodtepougon<i
4l Toopovorjgtn gopri.
[iA NAoE o Ttr nEPtnTo:EltTov Toopovov r<ortaiv ABopryivrov
tnq Auotpo-Liogotrq oootig touq 6rootdoerg,nopo06tr,lrperq
(Etrriveg11,12xor 13),dnou cnerxovi(owor,
x<iptegrou x<iotrrou
yro rperg 6rogopertrig xpovrxiq neprd6ouq,opropiveq po(rxig
do-Logoviegnou ixouv xopoKTnplorf yevoxtovfeq. Xroug av ).dyt l xdpreq nopox<iFnreror ivo epdrrnpc yro to onoio 6ev un<ipxer cni.ri on<ivrnon: lk:g opf(etor n yevoxtovio; Etupoi.oyxri,
onpcfver <e{6vroon evdq y6vouq>,8o.Logovioproq opd8oq (n
oyyhxri ).ln <genocide>
nporfnter cn6 tnv ellnvrxf <yvoq>
rorrn trotrvrxf pi(o <-cide>,nou onpciver govefto). To Oritrroto enrliyovtor ener6f ovfxouv oe xdrrolo oFd6o,ooxdroq rof
xotti n6oo xd0e 00po oq <itopo 6rinpole fl 6xt r<itr nou vo
6rxoro-Loyeitn 6ologovio tou.'Ooo ylo ro xo0oprotrx<ixopoKrnptorrKd rnq op<i6og,ourd pnopi va eivor quf,.nx6(e6old0peuon pofpt:v Toopovr,ivond LeuxoriqAuorpoLotis), :Ovrxd
(Oovdtoon leuxdlv Xkipov -tov no.Lovov o{ropotrxtiv oro
Kotiv, to 1940- on6 -LeuxorigPr,roouq),e0votx6 (ollnloe{dvttoon rrov Xoftou rcorTofror, 6rjo opd6ov poripov Aqpxovtov,
orn Pou<ivtc xor ro Mnoupotivtr), Opnoxeutrxd (otrInloe66vroon pouoouLpdvov xor xprorrov{rlv oro AiBovo rrq re.treurc(eq
6exoetieg) f no.lrtrxd (exxo0opioerqKopnor(rovtirv on6 toug
Epu0poriqXtrrep,perclv 1975xor 1979).
Av xor ro Boorx6 yvtipropc rnq yevor<toviog eivor cvcpgipo,\o n po(rrri 6o,LoEovio,6ev ugimoror oupgorvrooq npog ro
n6oo mev6q 6 eupfg oprop6qnpdnervo uroOernOei.
H tri{n <yevoxtovio> ouxvti xpnorponoreiror t6oo extevoq drme xciverro
vdntrr<irnq xor 6ev pog r<<iver
evrinroon <ftov rnv oxoupe. Ax<ipn
ror ov npiner vo neproproreioe neprrrrooerqpoQxrig 6o-trogo-

O TPITOI XIIINANTZH'

OpultNr>

InNoxloNrE

, 1492-r9oo

Eflqiva 11
NEKPOIOYI\4ATA
l. )o(
A-LoriTtol

OYTE:
P<ioor

2. x

lti-tr-Lor,
Mrrp<ir
Apeprrovoi
louovoi

3. noor
4. boo(
5. )ooc(

o. )o(
7. rJ
8. )o(
9. loo(
10. x
I l. x

Iv6r<ivot
Mneooorjx
lv6r<ivor
Iv6r<ivoL
Kopoiprxig
lv6r<ivor

Apoourovoi
Iv6r<ivor
llpotemtiweq
Bouopdvor,
Orcworor
ABopilrveq
Toopovoi
Mopropi

MEPO:
Aleorireq
Nioor
Ndo In

XPONOAOTIA
1745-1770

HtrA

1620-1890

1497-1829

Aurtl(iq
1492-1600
Iv6ieg
Iqnovoi
Kewprxri
1498-1824
ror B6peu
Apeptr(n
Apywrvoi Apy!"rrvli 1870-1880
Ko0olxoi
Mndepg

loMio
Ndrro
AgprKri
Au<npo.loi Auorpo-l{o
Auorpoi.oi Toopovio
Moopi
Nioor
To<itop

1572
1652-1795
1788-1928
1800-1876
1835

x = hy6r.por 011610.000,
)o<= 10.000i rreploo6rpor,
)oo(= 100.000
n rreploo6rpor,rooor= 1.000.000
d fiEproo6rpor

:E MAYPO KAI AINPO

viog pey<i,lngxlfpor<cq, e{oro}.ou0or.iv vo utpimowct opropivc


opErtrsy6pevoonpeio. I6ori peprrd nopo6e{poro:
fl6oor 0dvcror onortointor npor<erpivouvo pr-trdpeyo yevor<tor.roowi yro onL6 rp6vo;flp<lr<ertoryro cwe.Loq ouOoipeto
epornpo. Ot Aumpo-Lo(or6roocv rcr roug 5.000Taopovolig,
evo cpepxovoi <inorxoror6r<ooqvroug re}errroioug 20 lv6rcivouq
Xoorex<ivqto 1763.Anox-Leierdpoyeo prxpdqopr0p6qOupritov
ro xopor<rnprop<!
rng e{<iwooriqroug oq yevoxtovrog,
nop<iro
yeyov<lq6tr rmripfe nMpnq;
Eivor onopoitnto n yevorrovic vo 6ronpdrreror on6 xupepvrloerq,ri petpoi'v ror or pepov<,lpveq
npti{erg t6rcl'rctv;O xorvr,lvro-L<iyoq
Irving Horowitz xopoxtfproe rg np<i{erqr6r<lt6)v
<6o.Logovio>,r<crdproe tn yevoxtovio r,lgtov <6opu<6xor ouornporrx<iogovropdoOotovovOponovord ivqv xporrxoypogeroxporxd prxovrop6>. Ewofrorq, ov<ipeoooe uxo0opd>ruBepvntu<dq6o).ogovieg (or 6rarlyoi tov owrnd-Lov tori Xt<i.Lrv)
r<or<r<oOopci>
r6rorrxig 6o.loqovieq (n npdolnryn enol"ye.lporrtirv 6oi.oE6v<ovIv6r<ivr,rvon6 rotcoreucotrrg etorpeieg rng
Bpo(rliog) exreivercr vq our-xiq tp<iopcev6rripeorovneprnrc'ioeov. Or lv6rdvortnq Apeprxriqoxotrir0nxovt6oo on6 tov opeprxovrx6mpotd 6oo r<oron6 r6roteq, evriror'Ipno tng B6perog
Ntynpiog oroto0mov cnd mpctuirteq cl-L<ircr cud ouppopieq
rou 6p6pou.To 1835,pi-trnmq gutrnqTe Arr Ayouo rov Moopi
rnq N6oS Zn-\ov6ioq exri-treoov pe emtu.xio 6vo to).pnp6 oxi6ro: ix.Lepov ivo nLoio, ro g6ptooov pe npopri0ereg,eroipoi.ov
otrq vfoouq Todrop, oKdrooov 300 on6 toug xoroixouq (pi.ln
proq <i,l-lnqnoluvnororriq opri6oq nou ovopri(owov Mopropf),
tmo6of].rooov roug tm6-Lornouqxor rori}opov nq vfoouq. Xrlpgovo p rov oplopd rori Horowitz, or.rrri xor noMdq <l.l.}.ege[ioou enrpe.Loqoxe6roopivega{owr,ioerqprcq gu}.etxrig opd6oq
cnd prc <i-l-ln6ev or.mmoUv yevorrovreq, 6r6u or rpui.iq mepolil"rcv evdqrporxof ypcEeroxpcrxori pnxovropoli.
Metprier oq yevoxtovio o po(rx6q Orivoroqov0pc6novoq onoti.leopo ox-lnprirvnp<i[eov nou 6ev eixov oxe6romei cr6rx<i
x'nq eurpeLogoxe8toopivegyevoxToYrovo Touqorcorr,roolrv;

O TPITO'XIMNANTZHI

Opr>MENB> lENoKToNrBr,

rgoo-r95o

Erx6'ts,12
NEKPOI
OYMATA
1. nooo< Eppoior,
Toryy<ivor
llo.L<,rvoi,
Pooor
2. xxx
Xippor

OYTE'
No(i

MEPO:
Korxdpvn Eup@rrn

XPONOAONA
1939-1945

Kpodreq

194l-1945

3. ro<

nolovoi
oqropqrKoi
4, xx
Eppoior
5. )oooo( [IohrKoi
owiTro.\o1
6. ror
EonKig proYdTnrS
7. \xx]/. Appdnor
Xeppog
8. >or

Pooor

lloulxooLoBio
Kqriv

1940

Ou(pqvoi
Prooor

Ouxpovro
Proqlo

1917-1,920
1929-1939

Pooor

Prooro

1943-1946

Torip<or
feppovoi

9. >oor

Mouooui.-,
;:rivor, rv6ourmdq

ApFrvio
I9l5
Notro6rnr- 1904
Kn AqprKn
Iv6fo,
1947
[oKrmdv

lv6ouuiq,
pouooutrp<ivor

x = hy6rpor 011610.000,)or = 10.000i rproo6rpo1, $c( = 100.000li rrproo6repoL )o(xx = 1.000.000 d lreproodrepol, rcooo. = 10.000.000 d lIprco6-

'E MAYPOKAIA:NPO

4lI

viss nspr-troppdvol"rorn ysvoKrovfo rov TooFov6v crrd rous


Aumpoloug, n yevoxtovio trov Appevi<,rvond toug Toripxoug
xctri tov A' Iloyxdotrnolldlepo, ror (npot(mcog) or yevortovieg nou 6rdrrpo{ovor No(i xotd tn 6rriprerorou B' flolxdoprou
flolpou. Xto d.LLo<irpo, <irov or Iv6rdvor Todxto, Toipoxr xor
Kpx rov voloovoto-Lrxr,rvrro.Lrterovrov HIIA rmoxpedr0nxov
6rd tnq pioq vo peteyroromoOoriv 6urrxci tou Mrororrrri rar<i rn
6exoer(c rou 1830,o np6e6poqAndrew fackson6ev efte pnt<i
oron6 no.tr-Loi
Iv6r<ivorvo neOdvouvxo0' o66v, orfte 6pog dlope to oncpo(tnto pitpo nporerpdvou vo 6rornpnOoriv(<lwovoi. Awi0eto, or no.lu<iprOpor0rivotor rmrip{ov ro ovon6geuxto
ororc,treoporov tmoxpeorrxov poxptovxerptprv6v noptrrov pt
).fyo doq xc06lou rpdgrpo ror por.rxoMro oouvfOrotc er.trrxprvfiOion yro to pdlo rng np<i0eonq
otn yevoxtovio Srotrim,roen xuB6pvnontnq flopoyouring6rov
xornyopiOnxe yro ouvdpyero ornv qgdvron rov Iv6rdvtov
fxoucyr<iru,ol onofor eixov uno6ou.Ltl0e(,pooovrotei, orepnOeirpogipr,lv xor gopptixcovror, tii.oq, ogoyroore(. O unoupy69 Apuvoq tnq flapoyoudnq ondvrnoe xr,rpigneprorpogig drr
6ev unripxe npdOeonvo cgovroro0v or fxoucyr<ircr:<flop6rt un<ipxouv0r.iporoxor OUreq,6cvunripxcrro'rpiro onopoftnto
otorxe(o yro vo 0epe-Lro0eito dyxtrnpo rng yevoxtoviog -pe
d).).ol<lyro, n tp60nn.Zvvzmig, egdoov 6ev ugiotoror npd0eon, 6ev pnopei xoveiq vo pr).<iyro yvoKtoria>.
O pdvrpogovrtup<ioonog tnq Bpo(rliog oro Hvtopivo'E0vn cvtixpouoe pe
nop6poro rp6no rrq Kornyopisrlpi yevoxrovioqtov Iv6r<ivov
rou Atrro(oviou:n[...] onouoio(ov o 66-].o9ror to xivn'rpo nou
onorrorjvtor r,roteto oupp<ivvo xopor<tnproteiyevoxrov(a.Ta
eyr<.lflporo6ronp<ix0nxovyrc rcOop<iorxovoprxofq i.dyouq'or
curoupyoi eixov onor.lerotrx6 ot6xo vo r8ronorn0otivtn yn ttov
0updrov toug>.
Opropiveq po(rxiq 6otroEoviaq,6n<,lqtov Eppofov xor ttov
Tory"ytivovon6 touq No(i, rmrip{ov onpdrtrnteg' or otpoyiq6ev
ouvrmorjocv owinorvo yrc npoyevimepouq g<ivougtoug onoioug 6rinpo{ov or oEoyiweq. Xa no}-Ldg<i},-}.eq
neprntdroerg,

O TPITOIXIMNANTZH:

Opr>lrrNe: f rNorroNrEz, r95o-199o

78g
'lot

0t

Errivq 13
NEKPOI
OYMATA
1. )c(
IvdrdYor
2. x.
Ivor<ivorAxd
J. )q
4. )d

Apywrvoi
rrotrirq
MouooulpovoL xpronovor
'Ipno

OYTE
Bpo(r-\r<ivor
flqpcyouovoi
Apywrvdq
mpordq
Xptotrovoi.
pouoou.tr-

MEPO:
Bpo(r.Lio
Ilqpoyou<in
Apyewrvri

XPONOAONA
1957-1968
1970-1980

Aipovoq

1975-1990

6. ro<

Awino.tror

7- x

Awino.tror

8. ,oc(
9. )oc(
10. pi
ll. roo(

NoTlooouoqvoi
OuyKowiEor
Tod-ror
Xod-rou

Fovol
Boperolryn- Nrgrpio
provof
Aucr<i-ropog Ionpeprui
Iourvio
Auroxp<iro- An;rorporio
poq MrIoKr.rprKiq
AgprKRq
Boprooou- Xou6<iv
6qvoi
Iwi Apiv
O!.fKdwo
Xoti-rou
Poudlro
Torjror
MToupof-

12. x

ApoBrg

MoripoL

5. x

1976-1983

1966
1977-1979
1978-1979

1955-1972
1971-1979
1962-1963
1972-1973

\.I1

Zovlrptpn

1964

:E MAYPOKAIA'NPO

NEKPOI
OYMATA
OYTE:
13. x
Topr,\,
XrvoLd(or,
Ervd\d(or
TopiL
14. )ooo( MroyK-trowC- floKtqrqvrqol
Kdqqrpqrdq
15. ,ooa. KoprrorQovof Epu0poi
XPep
16. ror
Kopomorig
lv8o\dorol
xql KlYd<ol
17. ro(
TrpopC(or
Iv6ov6oror

MEPO'
XPONOAONA
Ipr Adrxo 1985
MToyK.Lo- l97l
nS
KoprdrEn 1975-1979
Ivoovno(o

1965-1967

Avoro.trrrd 1975-1976
T,t 6p
(1116
=
x = trry6repor
10.000,
n 10.000
d rrploodrepoL
)m(= 100.000
rt rrpro= 1,000.000
o6rpor,
rooo(
d rproo6rpor

oo16oo, n poQx.ri 6o.Logovionpoxirrner oq x-Lrp<ix<.lon


prog oerpdg 0116gdvous fiou 6ronp<irrouv xcr or 6rio nLeup6q, oe cwinorvo yro roug g6voug nou 6rinpo(e n <i.Lln.Av pro npdx.lnon
oxotrou0eitcr ond po(xri owinorvo ro onoio rmepBoivow xor<i
rrolf rrq Sromdoerqtng np6n-Lnonq,ndrg onoEoo((ot1e nd're
<on}<i> cwfnorvo pe'rorp6nowcr oe yevorrov(q Tov M<iro rou
1945,omv ndln Xedg tnq A.Lyepiog,or eoproopoi yro rn hi-rou B' floyx6oprou llotrdpou ele}.fx0nxcv oe gu.tretrxig ou{n
yxporioerq, rcr<i rn 6r<iprero tov onoiov A-LyeprvoioK6rooov
103 fdLloug. Or ftiMor ow66pooov B<ivouoo:oporr.trdvarooni6ooov oopdwo rdoospo xoprd, dvo xoro6poprxd Bopptip6roa uop<irneg n<i),erq,ropdwog pe no.l,rrrx<iopyriv<ooovoEcy6g
ower6rxnong, ror orporuirteg oxdtrovov o6roxpir<,lg6rolov (ruvoworjoov. Or vexpoi A-Lyeprvoiovrltr0cv moug 1.500ofpg<,tvc
pe rouq f<iMouq, orl9 50.000 orfrg<ovo pe toug A,\yeprvofq. Or
eppnveieqtou ouppdwog 6rogipow doo r<cror extrpfioerqyo
rov opr0p6 trov vexpdrv:yro touq ldMoug, rirov rotocro-Lf prog
egiypong'yo roug A-Lyeprvorig,
enpdrerto yro ogoyf pe 6rom<ioerqyworrovroq.

414

O TPITO: XI[,1NANTZHI

Oto AY:KoAoEtNAt
NABPEoEt
ivoq xorvti ono6ert6q opropdgytc
rn yevor<toviordoo 6foro.Lo eivor vq rotnyopronorn0ofv to ximtpo nou o6nyofv mn 6r<inpo{i tnq. Mo.}.ovdtrev8ixetor vo
ounm<ipxow tour6xpovo oprer<i xivnrpo, Bolerier vo xoprmouv
oe tdooeprqrctnyopieg. Xtrq np<irteq66o, ugimotor npcypcuxn oiryxpouon ouprpsp6wrov yripo cn6 tn 1'n ri tnv e{ouoio, n
onoic pnopei vo enev6feror ri dxr pe r6:oloyrr6 pcv8fc. Xnq
<l.l.}.eg60o, rm<ipn e.L<inqrn oi-yrpouon rirorou ei6ouq, xor to
xivnrpc efvcr neproodtepo r6eo.Lo1'rxdf yr,'xo-Loyrxd.
To mo xorv6 iooq r(vnrpo yro ysvoxrovic eptpcvi(erotdtov
ivoq mpotrrorxd roxupdrepogi.o6g emxerpeivo xo-ro).<ip:r'rn
yn evdq oo0evimepou i.oori, o onoiog owrmdxetor. Xrq opi'rpnregreprntooerg nou awdooowor
{exdOopomnv rornyopic
ormi oqr<oto.\iyowor 6xr p6vo n e{6w<oon tov Toopovov rcor
r<lv ABopryivrov crrd 'rouq .LeuxorjgAuorpo-Lofq o.tr-Ldxcurtov
Iv8r<ivov tnq Apeprxriq on6 toug -LeuxorjqApeptrovofq, rov
Apoourovtirv Iv6rcivrovond rouq Apyawrvofq xor rov Bouopdvr,lv
xor Otew6tov on6 rouq Mn6spq rnq Ndrrog Agprrriq.
'Eva
<illo our.nOegxivnrpo ogop<itnv imop{n prcq porpoirovnq nri-lnq yro tnv e{ouoic mo eoro'reptr6 ptoq nloupo.Lmrrcig
xorvroviog,n onoio r<opurpovsror
ps rn pio opri6o vo enr6rrirxer
pro tei.rxn i.fon, e{owrirvowoq rnv <i}-ln. Xrrq neprnr6oetg nou
otpopofv 6rio 8rcgoperrriq e0vomiq op<i6e9rep oppdvowor n
yevoxtovio tov Touror ond roug Xor.iroumn Pou<iwoto 19621963,rov Xofrou ond rouq To[.rol mo Mrroupoiyn ro 19721973,tov Xdppr,rvon6 rouq Kporireq orn frouryxoo.LoBio
xotti
tov B' Iloyrdopto fl6lepo, tov Kpootrirvon6 rouq Xippoug oro
ti.loq tou i6rou no).ipou, xor tov ApciBov orrd rouq poripouq
cxn Zov\rBopn ro 1964.*Qm6oo, Orir:q ror 0fporo pnopei vo

* Aev npiuer vo nopo^iqroupe 6rl'ro 1994,6fo xp6vro


Fr<i tnv up6rn
ix6oon tou prp-Liou,artu-LixOnre orn Poudvlo n rpirn rrpdqn oto 6p<ipo
'rov Xorirou xor Toritor, pe 06teg rouq Xo6'rou Kor ofporo 800.000 6(,)S
1.000.000Tof'ror (xor ovtrqpovorivreg Xoutou). Axdpn, rn ogoyi 8.000
Booviov ouri XdpBouSorn tpepnivlroo, ro 1995.(t.r.F.)

lE lvlAYPO
KAIAtnPO

415

ovrixouv ornv i6rq e0vocxri opd6o xor vo 6rogipow p<ivo mrq


uolrtu<ig toug ondqerq.'Erol ixov ro np<iyporo mn peyo).riTepn Karoysypoppivn yevoxrovio rng rmop(og, ;re to 0ripoto
vo exnlrr,iwor o 20 sKoropFlipro xotd rn 6exoerio 1929-1939,
Kor 66 sKoropFfpro pe'ro{f 1917xor 1959:tn yevoxrovio nou
6rdnpo{e n ruBipvnon rnq E >A xorri no-lrtrrclv owrn<itrov
ovcipeoomouq i6roug rouq nol,iteq rnq. flo-Lrnxdq exxo0opioerqnou <,rxprorivpnpomd oe or.rrrirnv eni6oon neprLcpBdvouv
roug drr,lyporiqpepx6v exotoppupirlv Kopnor(rov<rlv on6 roug
Epu0pofg Xpep xor<i rn 6eroerio tou 1970,xor rnv e{6woon
exotowd6ov xr,Lr<i6r,lv
xopouvror<irvon<l tnv xupdpvnon tng
Iv6ovnoicq xotri to drn 1965 o9 1967.
Xrc 6rio rivntpo yro yevortovio nou pd.Lrgnepryp<iqmov,
to O0poto pnopouv va r6o0ouv og onpowxd epn<i6roornv
npoond0ero rrov 6ologdvrov vo onoxrrloouv rov i.Leyxotng ynq
fi rnq efouoiog. Zro <i.l-Lo<irpo ouvow<ipe tnv e{dwoon, orq
ono6ronopnoiou tp<iyou,proq opod0ntnq perov6rnroqn onoio
xotnyopeitor on6 touq 6o.Logdvougrnq yro ro 6ervd nou ugimowor. Or EBpoior6rox0nxov on6 rouq xprmrovorlqtou 14ou
orovo argono6ronopnoior rpciyoryro tnv em6npfo mq Boupovlxliq novrillnq, ond toug Pciloouqmrg opxdg rou 20of orcivo
r,rqono6ronopnoior rpriyor yro ro notrr-rKd npoB.triporo rnq
Ptoo(og,on6 rouq Ouxpovorig petd tov A' Iloyx<iopro ll6-trepo
oq ono6ronopnoior rpciyor yro rnv onerfui tov pnoloepirov,
xor cn<i toug No(i xot<i rov B' floyx6opro lld).epo tog cno6ronopncior tpriyor yro rnv rirro rnq feppoviog orov A' Iloyxdopro
fl6lepo.'Otcv n 7n Tc{ropxio lrrrxori rrov HnA dogc{e exorow<i6eq Iv6r<ivouqXrou mn p<i:xntorl fouwer Nr ro 1890,or
orpondrteg inorpvov ra0umepnp6vn ex6imon 'yrotnv olox}nporrxri ouwprpi tnS 7nSTo|ropxioq Inmrorj rmd tov o[pornyd George Custer mn p<ixn tof Arr-trMniyxxopv, 6exoriooepo
xptivro vorpirepo.Tnv nepio6o 1943-1944,mo onoxoprig<opo
tov 6ervdrvtnq Pooicq crrd rnv eropofui tov No((, o lrri,Lrv
6r6ro{a tn Oov<itrlon ri oni.Lcon i{r e0votxr,tv petovonltov, or
onoieg LertoUpyrroovoq ono6ronopnoior rpriyor: rov Mnc.lx<ip,

416

O TPITO: XIMNANTZHI

rov Tosro;vov, rcrv Tordpov rnq Kprpoiog,trov Ivyxorig,trov


Ko.lpofxov xor t<,rvKcpcto<ir.
H 'reLewaia xornyopio xrvritporv o<pop<i
touq qu-Letrxorig
ror 0pnox:utrxoriq 6rolporig. Xopig vo roxupi(opor dn r<otovoo tnv rpuxoorivOeontov No(i, gow<i(opor 6tr n e{6wr,ron
tov Toryyrivov miyo(x on6 <xcOopd>gulerrrci xivnrpc, evcirn
e[6woon t<ovEBpq(ov rmorcvoriwqv 16oo cu6 Opnoxewrxd xor
gu).etrxd rir.nrpo 6oo xor on6 rnv ovoQitnon ono6ronopnoiou
tp<iyou. O xot<i.Loyogtov Opnor<er.rnxov
orpoyrirv6ev ixer rilog.
IleprlotrrB<iverrn o<pcyri6Lov rc'rv pouooui.pdvov ror Eppoiov
on6 rouq XtoupoE6pougtnq A' XtoupoEopiog
rnq Iepouoc),ri1.r
rcrd tnv d.Loon rnq n6.Inq, ro 1099,Kol tn oEoyri trov y<ii..Lov nporemowc6v on6 toug r<o0o.Lrxofgtn y'uxto rou Ayiou
Bop0o.lopoiou,to 1572.BeBoiroq,
tc tpuletr<cixor 0pnoxeunx<i
xivnrpc ev6ixe'rcr vo ixouv o{r6-}.o.y,n
ouv8popri rot oe y:vortovieq nou oqeri.owor oe 6rev6{erqyipo on6 rn yn f tnv e{ouoio,
oMd xor mnv ovo(dtnon ono6ronopnoiou rpriyou.
ror ro
nEPAAnoTI: onorE:A:yMooNlE:a)gnpos rous opropoUg
rivntpc, rm<ipxernlnOcopcyevoxrovrrovnou 6ev oprpropntofl.ror. Aq 6oile n6oo po0r<imnv rmopfo tou ei6ougpoq, xor n6oo ndpov or.miq, exteiveror to opxeio r<ovyevoxtovrtirv.
Aln0erier, dnoq lfye'rcr ouxv<i,6n o <iv0ponoq {exorpi(er clg
ro povc6rr6 (rio nou orottirver p-trntou ei6ouq tou; ho nopd6erypo,o Sroxexprpivoqprol6yoq Konrad Lorenz,mo prBlio
rou On Agression (Em0:m6rnto), roxupi(etor 6tr evmx'rrir6erg
ovomo.Liq rcot<irou gdvou ouyr<potor.ivro (roo cnd rnv er6ri.Loonrov ern0e'nxrovevmirrov rouq. Xtnv ov0prinrr.ntmopio,
dpoq, tmotiOetor d'n n roopponio6rotop<ix0nreon6 tnv egefpeontov 6n.Lov:or x-Lnpovopnpriveg
ovomoliq pcq inorycv vc
eivor opr<et<iroxupig rirme vo rotomeilouv rn veoqnoxtnOeioo
u<ov6tnt<i pcq vo oxotrirvoula. Tnv errdvc cwi rou ov0pc'inou,
oq rou povoSrrof 6o.Log6vourcr onpoo<ippomoutnq e{ilt{nq,
evmepvi(owor o Arthur Koestlerxor noMoi <i.l-lor8rovoor.ipevor
xor 6npogrtreigor.1ryporpeig.

IE MAYPOKAIATNPO

417

Ernv npoyponx6rnro, ;re-Lirzq rorv re.Lewo(r,lv 6exoetrdrv


exow 6eiler <irrnoM<i (r,lo Oronpcirrow g<ivouq,ov Korcogctrrog6xr dlo. H 6ologovrc evtig yerrovrrori crdpou ri n ogoyri
prog yenovxriq op<i6oqpnopouv vc onoBofv oEitrrpeq yro ivo
(alo, ov pe tov tp6no otrr<i r6ronorn0ei tn xoporpdtero, tnv
rpogf ri to 0n.Luxdrou yeitovo. H eni0eon 6pog avexerxrv66vouq yro rov rnrrOdtrrevo.floMci e(6n (drov mepoirr"ror ta pdoc
vo oxo'r<ioouv touq opoiouq rouq, xor noMri on6 ereivo flou ro
6ro0rrouv onogeriyouv vo ro xpnorponouioouv.'Ioog oxoUyetor
onoxpouonxd vo r<ivoupe ovd.Luonxdoroug-<ogeleiog tou gdvou, eworirorg tiroreq cvc-Lrioerqp<iqBon0oriv vo xorol<iBoupe
po noro tr<iyoo g6voq go(veror vo xoporrnpi(er opropivo p6vo
ei6n (6ov.
Ero pn xorvrlvtrri ei6n, Orfteqxor 0rlporo e(vor xot' ovriyxnv
petrrovopdvociropc. Xro rorvt'lvrxcioopxogciyo,r,ro16oo,6nog
ro trtowcipro,or lixor, or riorveqxor to yup;rriyxro,o g6vog ynopei vo ndper tn popgri ouwonopdvov emOioeov ond to pdln
proq opd6og evowiov tov pe.Lclvxdnoroq yertovrxfg opci6og:
'rou nolipou nortrro(rx696ologovieg, i <nd.lepor>.H popgri
xil-Ler peto{ri tov 6r<igop<over6<ilv.Xro 0!1.rcto pnopei vo nepr-tropp<ivowor16oo ro opoevx<i doo xor to 0n-Lurti ritopo tnq
yertovxrig gufuig (<inclg ouppoiver orouq hixoug) i pnopei to
emtr0dtrrevoopoevrr<i vc xoprmofv ora 0n-LuxriKar vo 4uyoptiroouv po(i roug, oxortivowoq ro ppdgn rcr er6rr,ircowoq to
nrrnpivo opoe\1Kd (6nroq mrq poipoU6eg .lovyr<orip)f oxorovowtig ror ornd (6ntlq mo}eol'rdpro). Oq nopd8eryponopo0dro tnv neprypcgi rof Hans Kruuk prog prixnq ovcipeoooe 6rio
gcrpieg uorvtirv,crov Kporripo fxopor"yrripo tnq Tov(oviog:
<Kopr<i6exopr<irlcrvegoud rnv op<i6oErprirorqr<Pox [...] ripuo{ov dvo ou6 ro opoerrx<irng opri6oqMofvyKr Kordpxrqcvvo
ro 6oyrrirvow <inou pnoporioov -r6(c,rg ornv xo .rd, to n<i6to
xor ro ogrr<i.To 0Opoxd0nKeKdro on6 rouq 0freq tou, or onoior to xotdon(ov eui 6dxouepinou-lern<i.[..,] To cpoelrrd tov
Mo(rvyrr rupro-\extrr<i 6rope.limnxe 6rov opy6tepo pe-Lirnoo

418

O TPITO: XIMNANTZH'

rrpooKrrK6rporrS rr-lnyiq Tou,6rorrimooo 6TrTocgTld, ToT166ro ror or tipxergrou txovKorr(,rxeuopoi.foer ou6 ivo tporipo orn ouov6u.Lxri mliln, igepe po06q u,\nydgmnv rorhd xor
ro niotontj8rq,ror crxermo8opregqrFoppoylq
nowori).
l6rcircpn oqio ylo vo rotovoriooupe rr9 ofiopxds rov ysvoxrorrxr,iv pog r<ioeov dxer n oqmeprEopd 6fo sK rov rpr6v mv6rspov ouTyrv6v pog, rou yopitr-Loxor rou xorvof xrpnow(i.
llprv 01166rio 6exoetieg, x<iOepro).6yo90o tmi0ere 6tr n 6uvordrnr<i ;roq vo gepou;:c ontro xor vc xcroorpovoupe ourrrovropdvo opo6tx<iox66ro pog xoOror<ino-Lrlgovrxdtepoug ond
touq m0dxouq ----ovpnoporioopexov vo 0eop6oouperouq rrF
0rirouq govxoriq. Om6oo, np6ogorsq ovoxol,0yerq 6eixvow
dtt or yopiMeq xor or r<orvoixrpnow(f6eq 6rotpixow toui.<ixrmov e{ioou ;.rey<i}nm0ovdtnrc vc 6o,\ogor.n0oriv doo xor o
pdoog tiv0ponog. Xroug yopiMeq, yo nopd6eryto, ro opoevxd
;r<ixowor perclri toug yo tnv xoroni xopeprov, evfote 6e o vrxnrrig oxot6ver tov nrrnpdvo xcr to nor6r<irou. Mdxegtitorou
ei6ouq ouvrororiv onpcwrxf orrio Oov<itouyro ovri-Lrxouqxor
evri,trrxouqopoevrxouqyopiMeq. Kctri rn 6r<ipxerotnq (oriq tng,
n pion pntdpo x<ivertou.L<ixrmovivo p<,lpdond ppsEoKrdvo
opoevrx<i,to 6e 16%ortov 0ov<irtovov6-hxov yopr-Ltrrilvogeilowor oe ppegoxrovfeq.
I6roitepo 6r6orrrxri, 6rdn texpnprd0nxetrento;reptirg,
r-mrippro1,3
n
e{6wr,ron,
1974
Kor
1977,
proq
onti
rrq
op<i6eq
r<ov
le
pe.Lerofoe
xorvriv xrpnow(66ov nou
n fane Goodall ou6 xdnorc qwirroln opd6o. Xto riln tori 1973,or 6Uo op<i6egfrov
p<i.L).ovroo6rlvopeq: oro Boppri Bprordtov n opd6o Koooxdlo,
pe orcdr euii.xo opoenxd xor x<oporpdreroOexoniwe rsrpoyovrxrirvxltrropitptov,xor mo v6to n opd6o Koxdpo, pe i{r evdtrrxc cpoevrxri xor xopoxp<itero 6ixo tetpoyovrxrirv xr-Lropitpr,lv.
To rrpr,iro govrx6 neprmonxd .lope xcipo tov Iovou<iprorou
1974,6-tovi{r evri,}.rroopoevrx<i,ivo gnBo opoevrxdxor ivo
erri,lrxo 0n Lux<ittlv Kooori,Lo dgnoov nroo roug ro vrop<i;ri}rl rnq op<i6oq,toliEeqrov vcirro,xor rcordnrv,oxor.{owog xpou-

'E MAYPO
KAIA'NPO

419

ydg xrpnowQi6ov ond exeivn rnv xo're60uvon, xrv60rrov o06pupo xor toxrirepo oonou orgu8iooov tov lx6wr, ivc cpoelrxri
trov Koxripc. O fx6wr tp<inme oe gupi, 6poq vo opoem6 rov
Kooqxi).o rov imooe, rov rioupe mo 6ogoq, xri0roe n<ivtl mo
xeg<lLrrou ror en( 6ro lerrrti rori xporofoe to n66ro xo0oq or
rm6-trornorxrpnowQi6eg tov xrtmorloov xor tov 6<iyr<ovov.Or
enrrr0dpavorte-LrxricnoxcirpnoovogorJivcq on6 cworig nitc{e pro peyci-lnndrpo n<ivo orov fi<tiwr. Motrovdrr pnopofoe vo
onxtlOei,o fxciwr rirov oopopritpor,llorro;rt'vog,orlloppoyoU,oa
xor eixe po0dg nlnyig. fh0ov6roto niOova cn6 to tporipot<i
rou, ro0og 6ev rov {ovoei6e xoveig.
Tov endpevo privo, tpic cpoevrr<i xor ivc 0n-Luxdtov KoocxdLo tc{i6eryov {ov<i v<itrc ror errri0mov orov Nte, opoevrx6 tc)v Kox<ipo, o ono(og ri'rov f6n o8uvopog .ldyo rcinoroq
nponyo0pevnqenfOeonqf oo0dveraq.Or enrnOd;revor
rpdBn{ov
rov Nte orrd ivo 6iwpo, rov no6orrd'rnoov, tov 6<iyrooov, rov
rrwnoov xor ionoov ropprino ond to 6dppotou.'Evo On-Luxd
rov Kox<iponou pproxdtov oe o(mpo pe tov Nte rmoxpeo0nxe
vo oxolou0foer rouq emn0dpevouq oro p<ipero.Ario priveg opydtepa, o Nte a0e<i0n(r,lwov6g oMci x<itroxvog, pe tn onov6ui,rxri mri-trn ror rn ).er<ivn rou vo nporfixouv, pepx<i vrixro xor
ivo 6tirtu.Lo vo .treinouv,xor ro doxe6 tou vo ixer oupprxvoOei
oro l/5 rou guorolonxo0 peyi0oug. Aev e0e<iOn
{ovci.
Tov OeBpou<ipro
rou 1975,niwe eui,trrroxor CvodgnBo opoevrxd torv Koooxilc nfipov mo xot6m rov foLrdO, 6vo n-Lxrorpivo opoevrx6tciv Kox<ipo,xor tou enrtiOnxov. Eni 6exooxrri .Lerrr<irov rrtmofoov, rov 6<iyrc,rvov,rov xf,.coroofoov,tov
no6onotorioov, tov orixr,rvov rpn.L<ixcr rov nerofoov x<ip<,r,
rov
oepvovoro i8ogoq xor rou dmprpov ro n66lo. Mer<ito t6-Loq
rnq eni0eong,o lohci0 ritov ovkovoq vo onxo0ei dp0roq,ror
drrote 6ev tov {ovoei6e roveig.
Av xor or nopandvo em0ioerg eixov m6xouq opoevrxtitrov
Kox<i1lo,rov XerrripBpro tou 1975ro 0nlux6 M<iwop Mm tov
Kcx<ipo rpcupotiorme 0ov<iorpoinerto on6 toul<ixrmov tiooeplq pn 0ovorng6peq enrOioergrotri tn 8r<ipxerorou npon-

O TPITO: XIMNANTZHI

yoripsvoudrous. >rnv snieson ilopov pdpoqrioopo opovrKd


rov KooaKla, rnv opo rrou ivo ignpo opoevrx6 xor riooe(oupnepr.LopBcvopivngtng onoxOeioogx6pnq rriq
po On.Lux<i
M<iwap Mm) nopcxo.Lou0or-ioov.
Or enrn06pevor xdnnoov,
xomoi'xroov xor oupov mo d6ogog tn M<iwctrrMnr, tnv nodorrdrnoov rcorrnv xotonldxr,loov, tn orirrloov orov oipo rot
tnv ipr{ov xcito pe oppri, ror tnv ni.}noov oe pro rorngopxri
nLopci.fle0ovt nvtr pcprs qpydrrpo.
Tov M<ito tou 1977,ndwe opoevrx<itrDv KooqKi\c oKdtooov
tov To<ipLr,cpoevrrd tov Kox<ipo,x<lpiqor .Lenropipsrqrnq
p<ixnqvo roroypoEorjv. Tov NoipBpro rou 1977,i{r opoevrxd
tov Koooxi].o inrooov ro opoevrr6 Xvrg rrov Kox<ipoxor rov
xtfnnoov, rov 6<iyxooov,rov ni'rofcv rd'rtl, tov doupov ond
ro <irpc xor tou iorrooov ro oprmepd n66r. Tnv enopivn frov
ox6pn (r,lwovdq, 6pcoq6ev e0e<iOn
{ov<i.
An6 to un6).orno piln tnq op<i6oqKoxcitrro,6fo evdLrxo
opoevrxti xor 6rjo evi.Lrxo On.Lurde{orpovimnKov Fuornpro6oq, evril 66o veop<i0nlurcd petogip0nKov crnv optl6c rov
Kooor6).c, n ouoic xot<jnrv r<oti-Lopetnv nprinv xr,lpoxpdrero
rcovKoxcipo.Omdoo, ro 1979,n endpevnr<orpcyotrfrepn opd6o
npog ro vdro, n op<i6o Ko.\<iwe, p: rou.trdxrmov erwic evd-Lu<o
opoevxd, <ipxtoevo nopoBrti(ertn xopoxpdtero rov Koooxi.Lo,
,yrornv elogdvron r<orrov rpourpipowoq nr0ovdrqrnv euOr.ivn
porop6 opxerrirvpekrv rov Kooax6-Lc.flopdpoteq6roopc6rxiq
ernOioerq ixouv rotoypoEei ror mn povo6rrci dlln porp6xpor'n pei.itn nediou nou dxernpolporonorn0ei oe xorvofq xrpnowr(n6eq,o-l,l<idxr oe doeq ixouv 6revepyn0afoe nulpoiouq xrpnow(i6eg.
Av xpivet xoveig touq 6o).oEovrroriqxorvor3gxrpncl.r(ri6eg
pe Bdon rc np<iruno rov ovOprirnov6o.LoEdvr,lv,
eivor 6foro,\o vo pnv ewwooromei on6 rnv ovonota.Leopotrxdrn'rti rouq.
Mo].ov6tr op<i6egrprdrv irog i{r emtrOdpevove<popporioov
oe
pepovopivo 0iyoto, tc xoOrmofocv cv(rovo vc opuvOofv xot
to rnrnofoov eni 6ixo i<lq eir<oor-Lerrrdri xor neproodrepo,ro
0ipc nriwo re ncpipava (owov6 pet<i to nipog tnq eniOeonq.

IE MAYPOKAIA:NPO

421

Om<loo,or smtrOipevor 6wr,rg xordp0<,tvovvo xa0nfuovow to


-rov nopen<ipevo0dvor6
Oripo rouq, Kor otrxvd rrpoKo-Lotioov
rou. Xrnv cpxi, ro 0ritrroouvri0og ouonaipovero xoppf rou xor
npoono0o6oe vo npoororiryer to xeqdtrr tou, oM<i mn owdxero
ayxoriLerne r<iOenpoondOerovo o1-ruv0e(,
n 6e eni0eonorryaxl(<itov ox6pn xor ogori to Ofpo inoue vo xrvsiror. ,{116owri rnv
<inoyn, or 6roopo6rxdqem0oerg6rogpouvond rrq nm6repeq
;r<ixequou or.rxv<iextu.\fooowor mo eooteprxd proq opd6og. H
ovonote.Leol.rorxdTnro rt,rv xrFTrcwQi6<lv oq 6otrog6vrovogeiletor mnv iMenyn dntrov' ewodtorg exnfuiooerro yeyov6qdrr
6ev ixow trr<i0ervo oxotrirvow p6or,: mpol"yo-Lropori,po.trov6rr
qurd irov trreoomrq 6wot<irntdg rouq.
flipo o116r<i0e <pdvo{exoprmd, ovcnote.Leoponxri rpoivetor
ror n dtrn nopeio rnq yevoxtoviog. An6 to npctro govrx6 neprmorrxd pixpr tnv te).rxri e{6woon rng op<i6ogrrlv Koxripo
peootr<iBnoovtp(o xpdvro xor 6dxo ;riveg, ror dLor or g6vor
ogoporioov pepovo;rivc <i'ropc:nord 6ev 6o.Lo<povri0nxov
6Uo
ri neproo6teporxrpnowQi6eq tcw6xpovo. (Xe owr6rcmoLri ;re
ow6, or oumpo).oi <inoxor ouxv<ixot6p0ovov vo e{o-}.o0peUoow pro oi.6x-Lnpnop<i6aApopry(v<,rvoe pio privo nporvri en(0eon.) Kor owd n ovonote.treopotrr<itntoogei.Letorev pdper
mnv i).-Leupn6nLov. Eq6oov 6-troror xrpuow(ri6eg eivcr e{ioou don.Lor,yc vo 6ronpox0eiivoq g6voq npiner no-tr-troi
enrtrOipevorvo onvntonorfoouv ivo pupovclpivo 0ripo. (An6 tnv
<i-Lln,or ouorpo.l.oi <inorxor ono.Ldppovov ro nLeovixtnpo rc,rv
dnlov orivcwr oe <ionloug ABop(yrveq,xor pnoporioovvo rrupopo-tr.6oouv
no-tr-Lorig
po(i.) Enionq, or yrvoxt<ivor xr;rucwQi6eq
unotreinowor rrolu rov ov0pdrnov oq npoq rlS vonrrKss.touq
6wot6tnreq, pe onotileopo vc rmoleinowor xor oS rrpoqrov
mpotnyrr6 oxe8rcopti.Or xrtrruow(ri6eq6ev go(vetor vo pnoporiv vo oxeSr<ioouvr.uneprvdq em6popq ri ouwovrotrrevegevd6peqxoprmclv enrrrOdpevovopd6ov.
Om6oo, or yevortoweg rov xrpnow(66ov goivetor vo poprupouv np60eon xcr c6pd oxeEroopd.Or q6vor rov Koxdpo 6ronp<ix0nxovogori np<,itoor otrr<i6eq
t<ovKoooxd).oxtvrl0nxov

O TPITO'XIMNANTZH:

<ipeoo,ypiyopo, oOdpupcxor onogoormrx<i npoq rnv rotef0uvon tng xopoxp<itercgtrov Koxdpo, x<i0roovxorpoEu).ortrirwoq
oe 6wpo eni oxe66vpio opo, ror te.Lrxdag6ppnoovmo 0fpo
nou ewdnroov.'Evo d-trLoxol6 yvopropo nou xor4repe touq
xrpnow@6eq eivor n fevogopio: or xrpnowQi6eq ovoyvclpi(ow
ro pi.ln dMov opd6ov oq 6rogopenx<i on6 ro pdtrn rng 6rxriq
rouq, Kor rous enrgufuiooow 6rogopenxri or,1-rneprEop<i.
Ev oLiyorq, ond <i-Loro xopoKrnprmrK<ipog lvropiopoto (tnv
rixvn, rn yi.tiooo, rn xprion vopxotxdrv ouorriv xor dMo), exeivo nou epgovimepo xctdyetor o116(orrofq npo6p6pouq e(vot
n y:vorrouo. Or xorvoi xrpnow(66eq gdpvow ergndpog oxe6rcopdveq6ologovieq, fowooslq yerrovrxov opd6ov, uo,LiFouq yro KordKrnon xopoxpd'reroq xor onoyoyiq veopov 0n.Luxrirvtnq nowperdq. Av 6ivope moug xrpncw(66eq 66poto xor
roug exnor6eriotrreorn xprion roug, t6re ovopgipolo n gonxri
touq 0o ripxr(e vo npooayyr(ertn 6u<.fpoq.
onore-Leo;.rorrx<irn'r<i
H oupneprgopti tarv npnow@8ov tmo6n).t'rver 6tr ivcq an6
rouq onpowrxofg L6youg or onoior ouvdtervov fin Dropioof
poq oe opd6eq frov n ovdyxn d;ruvog andvcwt oe <il-\eq opri6ag ov0pclnov, r6rcitepc orld TdTerou onox'rrloope 6n-Lot<ot
eyreg<i-Louqopxerri peyri.Louqdrore vo oxe6rd(oq.re wi6peg. Av
o ou.tr-Lopopriq
orrr<igeivor opOdg,tdre n ropo6ooroKli Fgoon nou 6fvow or ov0pouoloyor ornv "ruvnye'rtrri" gfon rou
cvOpdrnouoq Krvnrriproq 8rivopnq mq e{6-}.r{nqiooq 're-}.rxrivo
ival il'r<upn -F rn 6rogop<i 6n epeiq or f6ror rmfp{ope t6oo
or 0freg 6oo xor ro 0rlpoto nou e{ovoyxrimnxov mnv opc6rxli
6ropioon.
EnoMENo:,KAtTAaYo nPoTYnA
yevoKroviosnou owoworilr ouxvdtepo mov <iv0ponoixor;v (orx<i nponyorjpevc:o <pdvoqov6pr,iv ror 1woxov torprci(er pe to np6nmo tov xprrcw(ri6ov
ror tr,:v .Lfr<lv, evti o g6vog ov6p6v oi-ld 6xr yworxrirv rcrpr<i(er
pe to npdnmo tov yoprLldrv xor t<,rvLeowopr<iv. Ax6pn Kormo
(<,:odpra46ev owar.r<i;lc nponyofFrvo rnq torrrxrig fiou oKo).ofOnoeo opyewrv6g mpot6q on6 to 1976iog ro 1983,dtov

: E M A Y P OK A IA : N P O

Liliana CarmenPereyra(21 ttafu),afi6utun


No. 195yem{i rav aplewrlcil desaparecidos,
mg onoiougoyti6eguntpdanronE
rav atQpa
vot 5u<nrcydtotavtlaBal n lJpow.H Liliana
arix9n ro 1977,dwaq ntwe yntriv tyrcuog.
Kpari9ntct (awavi oe ita tctwpopaoattatnpia! (mn Zrpatnari A&aifl/a ESMA)lixpl
ta yewnoet ror, @eppoutiprorov 1978,ofute ft1)popoli9nxepe rwnyttrxd 6rAo ao tceqalr ard rotnvi aria'raon. O orelerdg tng pptqnxe oe rexpotaqeio ric Mar de Plata, 6nou ixar ta.pei xal dMor
desaparecidos,t<aratayvcopimru<ero 1985.O yloc rnc 6ev txet Ppe9ei
rat nfiafit uo9etilnxe an6 (e'iyog o'rpatrrnuedt. H 'tixn riq Liliata
are*oi(a
tnt, awi),nl)n ftEpi rtpi1 tw onoia ooxlti enrcaleko n rpri
nv xolwa tng Apyewtig nporctytvou ta itxaroToyioet t4 npcilag tng.
(Euxapo'rti rcuq Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo fta rnv Eapaadptlotl to1)
5ucadyatog ta at anapayriyo m gonoypatpia.)

oK6Tooarrproo6rspouqorrd 10.000owrgpovoLivrqKorrrq orOq ourriKoyivlis rouq, rouq sqogovlo0iwsq fdesaparecilos].


nporof
exte.Lemofv,
0og, to 0fparo, nou or.rxvci
Booovi(owov
uapr-L<ipBovcv
riv6peq,prvcireq ror nqr6rd oq 3 ri 4 etov. Or
opyrn rvoim pcrro.trqoptoqf KcvovFlo rpo)rdrLmn owslogopd
orn (orxri oupueprgop<i6tov ou}-L<ippovoveyxriouq:or y,rvoixeg
6ev exre.Loirwovnopci p<lvoogof yewodoov, itor romro vaoyir,wnro vo uroOern0eiond rirervo (aury<ipro
orpcrro-rrxrov.
Axdpn xor ov n upodrci0eoripoq yro g6vo 6* eivot povo6trui peto{ri rov (rltov, 0o pnopofoe <ipoye,oritog ri ciMoq, vo
onotr-Lei ivo no0o.Loyrx6npordv rou oilxpovou noLrlopof;
Ilotr-loior.ryxpovor
oul.ypogeiq,
o oorpsqopvorrnv Koroorpog n - n p o r r < i y o v o vKr o L V ( ' v l ( ,qvn o " r p o n y H t ' v r q 'x o r v t ' r v i t c ,
rrlvoLrvvcrrlr8ovrxruow touq ioouq rtovrpt,lrrlv togcr,leveig
oyp{ougnou rire eivorcrpnv<igr.}.or
ei'reoproin'ror oe papovcopi

O TPITO: XIMNANTZHI

vouq q6vous, orrogsriyowoq rlq Fo<KdSogaydq. O Erich Fromm


nsptiypaq rlq sx0ponpo{(eq ovdpeoo mrq xoworvieg r<rrvny<irvtpogooul-Lerrrirv o)q <xopoKrnplonxci ovoiporteg>. Opropiveg
npot<iyovegrorvovieq (fluypo(or, Eonprfor) ovopgipolo gowri(ouv hy6tepo no.Lepoxopeigouyr<prrrr<ipe dMeq (r0oyevaiq
rnq Niog lourviog, Iv6rtivor rov Meydl<lv ll:6r<i6o)v Kor rou
Apo(ovfou). Ax6pn ror or notrepoxopeig -looi ldyeror 6tr no).eporiv pe reLetoupnrd rp6no xor 6roxdrrrouvtrg ex0ponpo[(eg
;:et<i ro Odvoto .Liytlv p6.trrqowrnti-Lov. C)o16oo,n e{r6omeupivn owri errdvc 6ev oultpr,rva( pe doo ixo prr,ioer(6woq po(i
pe toug i.ooig rorv uryrni6orv tnq N6oq lourvdog, yro rouq oro{oug otrxv<ii.iyeror 6n noie;roriv pe otryrcpomp6vori te.Letoupyx6 rp6no. Or naproo6repegexOponpo{(eg
mn Ndo lourvio pnopi dwrtos vo ouv(mowo oe oyrpox(eq pe liyouq ioq xoO<i.lou
vexporig,dpr,4 ev(ote x<inoregopd6eg xot6p0r,rvovvo ogoyr<ioouvtoug yeirovg touq. Onoq ror <iMor Looi, or rOoyevefq
rn5 Nioq IouwfoS enuerpotioov vo ex6r6[ouv ri vo oxotooow
touq ye(toviq toug 6nore'ro 0e<,rpodoovn-treoverru<d,oogo,Lg
i (ritnpc enrBioong.
Errq nporpeq eyypcip;rotegxorvrontg, n ouxvdrnro yvoKron<irvpoprupeiror mrq yporndq nnyCq.Or ndLepor ovripaoo mouq
'E-tr-trlveg
ror touq Tp6sS, rouq PoFoioug xor rouq Kcpxn6olrouq,
xo06q xor touq Aooupioug, touq Bopui.ovroug xor touq ll6poeg,
exov 6-Lorivo rorvd tel.oq: efte tn ogopi 6.Latvtrlv nrrnpivclv
o6rcxpitrlg gri).ou eiTe rn ogopi trov av6prirv ror rnv rmo6oftr<oonrov yworxrirv. Otror yv<,rpi(oupetn BrBlxri neprypogri yro
ro nciq yxpepimnxov -ro teixn rng Iepxorig oro <irouopo tnq
o<iAmyyoqrou Inoori rof Nauf. Ary<itepo ouxvri pvnyoverieror
n orryixro: lrfloKoriowoq ornv npoorcyi tou Kupiou, o Inoofq
dogofe roug rotokoug tng Ieprxofg, xo0og xcr r<ovnd.treovfor,
Moxxn6<i,ArBv<i,Xepp6v, Aepeip,xor noMciv rillov. Aw6 0eopri0nxe t6oo or.rvnOropivoclme to prp-Liorou Inoof rori Nouri
vo ogrepdlverp6fuq p(o <ppdonyro xdOeoEoyri, oov vo i.der: guorxd r<oror<6rooe 6).ouq toug xoroixouq, rr <il-Loneprpivotq H
p6r'n exrevriq cvcgopri efvor n ogoyf mnv i6ro tnv leprx6, rinou

'E MAYPOKAIA:NPO

o Inooriq 6KovKdrl fipoyFarxd oourrri0roro: xdpro rn Et,ri o


pto orxoy6verc,6rdtr exe ponOfoerrouq oyye.LroE6pouq
tou.
llop6poro enerodOroouvow<i;remrg neprypog6gt<ovno.Lipt,rvflou 6re{riyoyovor Xrcupog6por, or r0oyeveiqtov vnorriv
rou Erpnnxof, xor noMof ti],tror .trooi.Aev roxupi(opor, papoir4,
dtr n ouwprrrnxri rirro oe 6vcv nd).eFo qKo.trou0ofwov ndwore
ond ogoyi trov nrrnpdvrovo6roxp(t<,rg
gf.trou.'Opcoq
rdoo orrni
<iooror x<inoregnnr6tepeq er<B<ioerq,
6rroq n ext.Leonrr,rv ov6ptirv xor n tmo6oflrlon rrov yworxtirv, owiBorvov opxet<i ouxv<i<irorevo 0er,rpn0oUvx<itr nopontivo on6 ondvra nopiKx-hon
mov tp6no pe tov ouo(o B),inoupe tnv ov0prirnrvng6on. And
ro 1950Kol fmepo, 6xouv xoroypogei oxeSdveiroor nepurrcioerqyevorrovioq, 6fo ex tov onofrov fendpooov -ro 1 exoroppripro 0riiroto (oro Mnoyx.lowdq ro 1971xor ornv Kopn6r(n mo
tdln tnq 6excedoq tou 1970),xor <li-Leqrioosprq rrg 100.000
(mo Xou6dv ror rnv Iv6ovnoio orn 6aroetfo -rou 1960,Kor oro
Mnouporil'n xor rnv Oqr<<iwc orn 8erqerio tou 1970) (gl. xdptn oei,.412-413).
Eivor npogoviq dtr n yevorrovio onorelei pipog mg ov0pdrntvnq xor npocv0p<,lnrvngx.lnpovoprcig poq e6r,i ror eroroptrrripro xp6vro. Yn6 ro goq owrig rnq poxpofovng rmopfoq, yrod
vo;:i(oq:e dtr or yevoxtodeq rou 20ori arrivo tmrip{ov povc6rxdq; Aev xolp<icpgrpolio dtr o ldyog 1norov onoio o Xr<itrrvxor
o Xitlep i0eoov vdo pexdp mov opr0p6 tr,rv 0updrov dyxerror
mo 6n ono).<ippovovrpio onpowrKd rr.Lsovextfporo ivowr rrov
6oi.orpdvovtrov nponyoripevov orovov: nurv6tepoug nln0uopofg Otrprirarv,pelnopdvo pioo prrcgop<iq ror euxorvov(og
yro tn ouyxiwp<,rori toug, ror pe.Lrropivn rexvo-Loyio po(rxrig
'Evo
e{ciwclonq.
<ii,\o ropd6rrytrrctou rpdnou pa rov onoio n
rexvoLoyra pnopei vo 6relxo.Lrivetrn 6t<inpoln yevortonrirv nopdxouv or x<itorxor rnq .Lrpvo0<i-Looooq
PoBr<ivcmo Nnord tou
Xo-Loprirwo,mov votro6wx6 Epnnx6, or ono(or ritov 6rop<intot xurmyo( xeEoLov r<orono6exdtroov 'rouq n),n0uo1rofq tov
yertovxrirv vnorov. Omdoo, 6nolq pou e{fynoov or g0.or pou
ond rn PoBrdvo,or ev.L6ytl em6pop6q6ev <iv0noovnopci p6vo

O TPITO' XIMNANIZH:

psrd Tnv 6luon mo Nnold Tou :o.LoF6wo orod-trrvovrosKoupl6v, rov 19oouilvo.Xpeui(e-rcrvo xotcpri-Letgnpoon<i0:royro
vo onorego-lioerg ivov riv6po pe tri0wo 'roerofpl n .Leni6orou
oropovl xor Oe,\.at
xdno po vo oKovlmrl.
Evo notrunro oprpr,l,e
y<ipcvorpctrn;roogop<iro xqrd rrdoo
n onpeprvri texvoLoyio 6rruxoLrlval ofid qrLrco-LoyrKri
dnoryn'rn
6r<inpo{n yevorrovrrov,6nog 8roteiveror o Konrad Lorenz. H
ou.l-Lopmrxri tou 6xar oq e{riq: Kcrri rnv e{ii.r{n tou ovOprinou
on<irouq rn0frouq, n 6lorpo9ri FoSripxroe vc Booi(etot <i-Lor<or
fisproodrepo mo ruvriyr (<irov. C)m6oo, (orioope o: o).oivo rcr
noi.un-Ln0imepeqxorvcovieq,ro pdln rcrv ofioiov ifipsrr vo
ouvspydEowol.Titoreg xorvovreq6ev 0o pnoporioovvo 6rornpnOofv ov 6ev ovcrrrfoooFs roxupiq ovomo.l,iq Kord rou q6vou ouvovOpc'inorv.Kord ro pryoitrrspo pfpoq tnq e{e.}.rxrxriq
poq rmopioq, tc 6nlo pcq frov Lertoupyu<<i
p6vo o Kowrvis
orrom<ioerq'orr6TsopKo6os vq xoupe ovcmo-Lig orrivowr mo
vc xorrd[oupe Kdfiorov mo pdTro Kor vo tov ororrirooupe.To
otilxpovc duLo nou oKorovouv pe ro nrirnpc ev6q xoupnrof
nopoxdpnrow cwdg nq ovomoi.g,emtpdnow<igpoq vc oxorclooups xopig rlori vc 6o$pe to fip6oorro rcrv 0up<irarvpog.
Enopivoq, n rxvo-Loyio6nprofp.yrrora Vuxo.Loyrxtinpoonorror.ipavo]'rc rrq (rrolTei.porrKiq) yvoxrovieq 'rof Aouoprtq xct
rng TpsFntrr'u(q,1nq XrpooitrroKot rnq Apro6nq.
Apgrp<i-l-L<,1
xot<i u6oo ro ryuxoi.oyucdorrr6 enxeipnpo xer
dwr,rg ow6pdper onpowx<i orn oilxpovn euxoLio pe tnv onoio
6tcrrp<i'rtowor yevoKToyiq.H yevoxtolro goivarol Kord To rrope-\06vvo eixe rouldxrmov sqioou peyd-trnouxv6rnro pe oripepo, poi.ov6rr,yro rrpornror.ig Ldyouq,exe .Lrydtepo0riporo. fro
vc rnv xotovofooLls Ko-Lfrspq, rrpiner vo e1xoto.Leiqror,pettg
npepopnvieqxor touq oprepofq Korvo 6repeuuiooupernv n0xri
drciorqonrou govou riMr,lv ovOponov.
EtNAtEMOANEI
oTt H oPMHpog vo oKor(iooup xa'rooti.l-Le'ror
oxs66v fidwor on<in0rxiq ovooroi.iq. To oivtypo eivor: Tr orprBdrqtnv oneleuOeprirver;

:E MAYPO KAIA:NPO

Zipepo trrnopeivo xop((oupe rov x6opo oe nep<iq>ror nexeivouq>,6pr,rqyv<opi(oqredtr tm<ipxow xr.Lr<i6eg


6roEopetrxoi
<ere(vor>,or onoior drogdpouv oS fipoq rn yloooc, rnv etrrgdnon xor rrq ouvri0ereq16oo on6 epdg 6oo ror pero{f roug.
@ow<i(er ovdnto vo {o6iyo li{erq po vo ovo6ei{o to 0ipo
curd <i.tror
to {Cpoupeou6 to prplio ror tnv m-le<ipoon,xor or
neptoodtepor to ixoupe lvopioer ond npdlro x6pr mn 6r<ipxero
x<inorou ro{rbrori poq. Eivor 6foxo-tro vo cwr-\ntp0o$pe 'rov rpdno oxdryngnou xupropxofoe xot<i to peyo-trtrrepopdpoqtnq ov0prirmvnqrmopfcq, dnog neprypdgnxemo Kegd,\oro13.Onog
or xrlrnow(ri6eq, or yopiMeg xor ta rcorvovu<<i
oopxogdyo ltia,
6ropro0oopeew6q rng xatpoxpdrerogprog op<i6oq.O lvoor<iq
x6opog rirov notrf prxp<irepoq ror onLoriorepoq on' 6,tr eivcr
oripepo, xor r.mfpxov tr(yorp6vo yvomof <exeivor>-ro p6Ln
t<,rv<itrreocyertovrrriv opri6tlv.
Xtn N6o fourv6o, Lriyou x<ipn,pixpr npdogcro r<iOeguM
6rctnpofoe 6vo petopoll6pevo np6rtmo ex0ponpo{uirv xor
ouppoxrclv pe ro06vov on6 touq ye(tov6grnq. Mnoporioeq vo
6roBeig tnv en6pevn xorld6o e(re mo nLoioro gr-Lrrcriqenioxeryng (not xropiqxcvdvo r(v6uvo) eite noLeprxlig em6popfg,
<ipr,rgor m0ovdtnteq vo 6rooxioerq ovevdxlnroq pro oerp<ion6
rorl<i8eg ritov pn6cprviq. Or onopopfomor xov6veq yro ro n<iq
vo oupnepr<pipeoolos (pdq))6ev ioxuov ylo "sKtfvous),,TouS
eL<ixroroxotovontofq yerrouxorig exOporiq.Ko06q nepnoro0oo
mrg ror-L<i6eqrng N6og fourvioq, <iv0ponor nou xriuote am6i6owov oe rarrpo-Ltqr6 xor or onoior erxov e{i.L0erond tn Af0rvn
Enorrri p<1,hgpic 6exoedo vopirzpo, ouxvci pe npoer6onororjoov
yro nq oveinoro npordyovzq, er6ex0eigxor xonBo.Lrmrxig ouvd0eteqtr,lv -trorrlvnou 0o ouvol'rorjoo mnv err6pevnrod.<i6o,
Axdpn xor or ouppopiegtori Ai Kon6ve, oro Xrr<iyorou 20of
crr,ivo, onriOr(ov vo npoolopp<ivow 6o.log6vouq ond tilln nd,\n, itor 6me o exre.Lemfq vo pnv nr,r0er dtr oxortrlver r<inorov
ond <ep<iq>
aM<i an6 (KivouqD.
Mro npodrroon olrrdq mq guLerrxriq x<,lpoKparxdrnrog ouvowripe oro opxoroeMnvrx<i xeipevo rnq x-Loorxrigenoxiq. O

O T P I T O :X ! M N A N T Z H :

t6te 1w<oor6qxdopoq frov peyo-Lrirepoqror uro noxrioq, <omdoo (spsiq) ol'E-I-trnvsg


qoKo.LoueofooF
vo 8roKprv6Fomrofi6
<ereivouq>rouq Poppdpouq.H oyylu<ri .16{n<barbarian>npoipxeror on<irnv e-Ltrnvrrri<BdpBopoq>,
nou on.lofmoro oipor'El-\nvog.
ve tivog, pn
Or Arldnnror rot or flipoeq, rr,rv ouoi<,tv
o no).rtrop6q ftov egdpri-Logtcov E-tr-Lrivrov,
ncpipevcv ncp'
6i.o outri pdppapot H r6ovrxri 8royrlyri 6ev rircv vo oupneprgpeooroe dLouqtouq ovOprirnougrodrrpo, oMd, owiOero, vo
owopeiperq rouq Erloug oou ror vo rrp<opeiq
rouq exOporigoou.
Oti.ovroqvo ono6o-rotr
ro uf rorotyropro mov ripon npil.xrno
Kripo, tov opxny<itou rov ono{ov Ooilo(e, o o0nvoioq rmoprr<19xor orpotny6q Ssvogov 6lm6pnoenog o K0poqowtiperpe
nciwote rrg ro.Lig np<iferqrrov rpr.lovtou pe rn piymn ysworo6opfo, xor noq up<,rpofoero cvopriporo Trov ex0pc6vrou pe
tn piyrmn ox.Lnpdtnro (pyd(owog, yro nopd8erypo,ro ptitro
rouq ri rdpow<iq roug ro xiprc).
'Onroq
rcr or riorvegrou Kpotrlpo lxopoqr<ripo, or <iv0ponor
eEdppo(ov 6vo 6rrrd npdrtmo oupnepr<popciq:
roxupqcvomo-Ldgevowiov rou q6vou rdnorou on6 <epriq>,ctr-L<inpdorvo grog
l'ro vo oKoroofts Kdrorovorlo nKtwous.,6 rov Unoporiorqvo
ro upriferg pe oogci-lero.O 8roxtlpropdqor.1169
rco0ro'rorioe
tn
yevorrovic cno8ertf, eire xoveiq rov 0eropfoer r:rqivo xlnpovopnpivo (ox6 ivmx'ro eite og ivov povo6x<i ov0prirrnvon0rvo onorrolJpr ro rcirnv norro xo6rro. O,Lorrtoxo,Lou0or-lpr
6u<dpcg n.Lrxioto 6u<dpoq ouOoipeto xprtripro nou opi(ow
noroug ovOprirrouqvo oeB<ipooreKor norouq vo rreprrppovoripe. @u1r<ipor
pro oxnvri oro oepo6p6profrop6ro, oro uryine6o tnq Nioq lourviog, pe touq ouvepy<iregpou on6 rn gu}.ri
Touw<iyouevc mirowor opdxovor,{rmdlrrror xor pe oxropivo
nouxciproc,drcv nlnoicoe dvoqBpdpxoq ror o{riprmoq .},er,.x<iq
civ6pogpe tponri ouorpc-Lrovrinpogop<i xct pe vc roc-Lcr<opivo xonii.o vo xotrimrer to pciuo rou. flporof cx6pn xorrci{er neprrppormm<itoug Touw<iyouepe rlgoq nou i-}.eyenxopopogrin6eq por.ipor,ivoq orovog 0o nepdoernpotori pnop6oete
vo 8roxrioere cuuiv rn xc'ipo>,eixc f6n opxioervo orig'ropor

I E M A Y P OK A I A : N P O

ond pioo pou: (H].ier poroiorop Aumpol, 1.rod 6ev l.upvrig


arn crr<ivnoou pe ro npdpotopr. Exei pnpomri mo pcitro pou,
{e6rn.trov6rov ro yevenx<i np6ypcppo yro rn yevortovio: Eyro
x.Lefo(o tov Aumpo.l.6, exeivoq roug Touw<iyoue, ror 6,\o outd B<ioeryevrxrirvxcpoKTnpronKovro orroio rlpoofuig0mov pe
pio pdvo Forld.
Me ro ndpoopo rou xp6vou, o opxo(ogorrr6g 6roxoprop6q
xa0imoror o.Loivo rcor.hydtepo ono6er<t6qoq B<ionev6gn0rrori
xo6xc. Aw' owori, xer el.rgcvrorei n t<ion uroOitnonq, toui.<ixrorov mo .tr6po, evdq oxoupevrxor3 rir6rxo -ev6g xtl6rxo nou
0iter nop6porougrov6veg oq-rneprqop<ig
onivcwr oe 6rogopeyevoxtoncg
rtKoriq .loouq. H 6rtinpc{n
owixerror euod<,rgornv
ono6oxri evdgorxoqrevrxof Kcvdvq.
llop<i 'rnv n0rxri olrrri ofyrpouon, no.Ludpr0porofyxpovor
yevoxt6vor ixouv unepnEoverrrei ovevdoioorc yro to eniteuyp<irouq.'Otov o opyewrv6g orpotnydq lulio Argentino Roca 6r60eoero rrcipnoq oe -Leuxofq ono(xouq e{owrirvowog opei}.rxto
rous ApoouKovoUqIv6r<ivoug,o xotarxoprmnpivoq xor er,yvr,:pcrvopyewrv6g.Lo69tov e{i}ele llp6e6po to 1880.Ildrq xotopOclvouvor oiryxpovor yevort<ivor vo cnogeuyouv tn ouyxpouon
ov<ipeoomrq np<i{ergtouq xor ornv ono6oxri evdqoxoupevxori
n0xof xr'i6rxo; Kotogeuyouv oe pro on<i rperg popgiq ex.loykeuonq, <i.Leqax tov onoiov onoteloriv ncpcMoyiq oe vo
on-L6ryuxo.troyrxd
0ipc: <Kctnydpnoero 0u;:o!>.
neproodrepor
flpt'rrov, or
unoornplKTdqev<iqorrougevrxoti
xo6rxo e{cxo}.ou0oriv vo 0eopofv rnv orno<ipuvo 6rxoro}.oynpdvn. H e-Lomrxriorrui ex-Loyireuonono6exWetor r8roitepo
pnoporiv ndwote vo npox-lnOouvtime
xpriorpn,6rdrr <ar<eivou>
vo oupneprgepOorivpe rp6no o onoioq vo 6rxoro.Loye(rnv ourociywo. Or Toopovoi, kiyou x<ipn,npoodgepov moug yrvoxttivouq .leuxorig onofxoug tn 6rxoro.Loy(cnou xperd(owov orcotrivowoq, o0pgovo pe extrprioerq,ouvoi.rxd 183cnoixouq oe 34
xp6vro, agoU rrpoirc eixov npoxlnOei cn6 ivov rroLri peyotrrirepo opr0F6 oxprrlrnproopr,lv,onoyoyov, proopr,lvxor 6o.Logovrr,lv. Mdxpr xor o Xiti.ep emxci.imme orrrocipwc dtav {exivnoe

O TPITO: XIMNANTZH:

rov Bf flcyK6oplo fl6i.e;ro: pnrixe mov rdno vo oxnvo0erioer


pro ryeu6rl eni0eon llotrr,rv6v oe yeppomd ouvoprotpu).dxro.
To vo ixerg tn <oomf, 0pnoxefo,rpul6 ri no.Lrtrx6nenoi0non, ri vc 6roteiveoor 6n er<npoooneiqtnv np6o6o rl ivo ovrirepo
enine6o nolruopori, owlor<i pro 8elirepn nopo6ooroxri6rxoro).oyio yro r<i0e np<i{n, outrrneprlotrrBovopivngtng yevor<tovioq,
erg p<ipoq6oarv6:v 6ro0irouvT o oromd r6e66eq.'OtovEortorioo oto Mdvoxo 'ro 1962,opetov6ntor No(i enipevov vo ;rou
efnyoriv pe rciOeooBopdtnto 6n or leppovoi efxov nOrxrlrmoxpioon vo erop<ii.olrvorn Pooic, 6rdrr o prooxdgLo6q erxeuro0euioer rov xopouvrop6. Moi.ovdrr ror or Seroniwe ouvepydreq
ne6iou nou pe ouv66euovmo 6pn @drEox tnq Nioq lourvcq
6poro(av oxe6dv i6ror mo p<itro pou, xdnoro mrlpf <ipxroovvo
gou rlnyouv roror onci ourouq drov xprmrovoixor norot !ouoou).p<ivor,Kor yro floro ]6yo or npcbror (ri or 6erirepor) rltcv
ovenov6p0oto xorr,ltepor dvOp<,rnor.
H neprqp6vnon goivetor
vq urororier oe pro oxe66v orxoupevrxf repopxio,oiypovo pe
'rnv ouofo ot e.y"yprippotor
.Looipe nponypivn petc.l-loupyio(or
.Leuroi <inoxor mnv AEprrri, yro nop<i6erpo) neprgpovoriv 'roug
xtnvotp6gouq (Tof'ror, Orew6ror), or onoior neprgpovorivrous
yeopyorlg(Xofrou), or onoior neprgpovorivtouq vop<i6egf touq
ruvnyorig-rpogooui-Lixreg (llr,-ytrroior,
Bouop<ivor).
Ti).oq, or n0rroi pcq x66rreq npoBlinow 8rcgopatxd owr
pet6nron yo roug ov0pr,inouqror 6roEoperxrl po to (<oo.'Etor,
or o(lxpovor yevort6vor ouxv<i ouyxpivouw to 0ilor<i rouq pe
(ciro npoxarpivou vo 6xoro.Loyrioouv tn Oov<itoofi rouq. Or
'roug EBpo(ouqrm<iv0p<oneg
No(i 0e<lpor.ioov
qeipeq' or fd-l-Lor
<inoxor otnv A,Lyepfoovogpowov orouq rOcyevefgpouooulp<ivouqcrq ratons(opotJpoior)'or <no-Lnopivor> flopoyouovoi
neprdypcgov toug xurmyoriq-rpogoouMirceg Axi og truoooopivouq opoupofouq' or Mndepq onor<orLorioov
toug Agpucovorig
(ynapnouivouq)'
bobbejaan
rcr or popgrlpdvorBoperolrynprovoi
ip-Lenov touq'Ipno arqtm<iv0p<ononop<iorro. H ol"yi.rrri yLr,rooo
eivar nLorjoro oa ov6poto (r,rov nou xpnorponorointal og psrotxoi xcpcx, npropoi: pig, ape,bitch, cur, dog, ox, rat, swine.

TEMAYPOKAIAINPO

431

Or ouorpo.\oi <inorxorenrmp<ituocvKol nq rperq popgfq


n0rxr,iv ex-Loyxedoerovyrc vo 6xorotroyioouv rnv e{ol60peuon
rcov Too;lovrlv. Om<loo, or opeprxovoi ouynorprcoteqpou xor
eydr0o pnopiooupe vc xotovofioou;re roi.rirepo tnv d.Ln6ro6u<oo(ctnq K-LoyfKsuonq
ov eorrdooupemnv nepirnoon uou
ond prxpoi ixoupe yalouxnOei vo ex-Loyrrelioupe:tnv ovo.Lox-Lipotn e{dwroon tov Iv6r<iv<lvtnq Apeprxriq.Mro oerp<iorrioeov nou ixotrpe ogoporooer neprf,opp<iver
xov6prx<irrq e{riq:
Kotci np6rov, onoge6youpe vo ou(ntofpe r6roirepo yro tnv
tpoy<l6io rov Iv6rdv<,rv-yro nop<i6erypo,cvoqepdtrrome s).dnmo oe owi otryrcprtrx<ipe trq yevoxtoneq nou 8ronpdxOnxov
mnv Eupr,lnnxotri rov B' Iayx6opro ll6lepo. H peyd-lnaOvrxri
tpoy<,l6iopog Oeopeitor,owi0eto, o Epgfhog Il6).apoq.Axdpn
xor 6tov ogrepovoule liyn ox6qrnorn ofyxpouon ieux<irvxcr
Iv6r<ivarv,
rnv onr;rntoni(or,pe oq x<irrnou owixcr oro FoKplvo
nopctr0rivxor rnv nepryp<igoqrexpnorponorr'lwoqmpotrorrx.ri
yi.oooo: o n6lepoq pe toug flixouot, n orlryxpouonmo fxpr'r
Xou<ipn, n p<ixn tori loirr"rer Nr, n xotcirtnon tnq A0onq x.ln.
<Dcwo(6pome -rouglv6t<ivouqt'lg 66lorixveqrnq evi6poq xor
rng 6o-Lr6rnrcq,no-Lepoxcpeiqxor Biorouqox6pn xor orlivowr
'Htov
gulig Iv6r<ivrov.
oe d-tr-treg
6ropdntor yro rn poppop6rnt<i
toug, pe o{roonpeioreg trq onox-Lermrx<i
rv6rovrxiq npoKrrKis
rou Booovroporitorv xpctou;rlvorv xor rnq cgoipeong tou oxo).n
rr,rv exop<,iv.'Hrov triyor oe opr0p6 xor (o6oov rogvop<i6egrurmyoi, r6roiteporou pioovo. O n.trn0uop6qrov Iv6rrivr,lvmlq HnA
ro 1492rropq6ooroxriexnpdror 6l ovepx6rov nepinou mo 1
axotopprlpro,opr0p6qnou roxpr<it6oo no).f pnpom<i mo oxe6dv 300exctopprjpro xotoixoug trov H|IA ofppo, om ro ovondgeuxro tnq xor<i-trmynq
owriq rng ouorqonKd <i6eroqnleipou ond roug .tretrxoriqvo yiveror op6or,4 oE0o-trporpoviq.T6Io9,
no.tr-Lo(Iv6r<ivor ndOovov cnd eu.f,oyrrixor rii-Leq ooOdvereq.Or
nopondvo or<ioerqtmoy6pauoov tnv no.Lrtrxli nou oxo,\.ofOnoov ylo ro rv6rovrxd(rirnpo or n.lCov8npotprleiqnpde6porr<cr
nyirS r<,lvHnA, on6 rov T(opt( Ou<ionryx'rov
ror riorepo (pI.
adt.44l-443).

O TPITO:XIMNANTZH:

Or ex-Loyrretoerqowig e6p<i(owcroe iv<r petooxnponop6


tov rmopucriv yeyov6rr,rv. H otpctronxrl ylt6ooo uno6nlt6ver
xnpuyp6vo ndlepo pero{t evri.}.txr'lvoppivr,rv pcxnrtirv. Xtnv
npcypotrx<itnro, 6pog, or ouvriOergtorrxiq tr,rv -Leuxovouviorowo oe orgvr6rootrxiq enr0ioerq (olrxvd on6 no.Liteq) oe
xoprri i xotouLroporjgIv6rdvov rolrn Oovdtoon otdpov xdOe
n-Lrxfogxor rp0lou. Korci rov npdrto otrirvoenou<topoftrov .Leurcirv, or rupepvrio:rq niuiptlvov nprenolryelporieg 6oi.orp6vouq
yro xri0e oxo}n Iv6rtivounou nopd6r6ov.Or oiyxpoveqsupoflou<ig xorvtolreg gcw<i(ouv tou.L<ixrmovefioou noLepoxcpeiq ror
ov roveig ovo-troytmef
Bioreq<1ooxor or xorvovieq tov Iv6r<iv<,rv,
rn ouxvdrnto rov enovom<ioeov, tov toftxrov no.].pttv,tnq Bicg rm6 tnv enrip:ro piOng,tng voptponornpdvnqpioq rotd tov
n6-trepo,oqrnep .opBovoeyx-Lnporclvr<ortov o.Lox-lnpcorrx6
pivnq tnq xcrompoqriq tr'lv nnyrirvtpogflq ror tnq rSroxrnoioq.
Xtnv Eupcbnnrmrlpxov <nepirexveg>pi0o6or pooovtopof: oxeglrlrs rov ovooKolonropci,
ro xcir.,urpo
mnv nupri Korro poplupro rou tpoxori. Av ror or lwrirpeqyro to piyaOogtou nln0uopori
rcovIv6r<ivtovtnq B6percqApeprxriq npotof tnv ovcxoli'ryouv ot
Euponciot 6rimclror onpowrx<i,oriptpovopa np6ogorss eKTtprioergov6pxowov oro 18 eroropptpro nepinou, optOpdotov
onoio o n-ln0uop6g rrov -L:uxtirvonoir<ov igtooe pdfuq mo ;-rioo
tou l9ou cuirvo.Mo-Lov6tropropivor Iv6rdvorrov HIIA (orloov
r,lgnprvopd6eg rwnyoi ror 6ev xol-Lrepyorioovrn lm, mny []srovdrnr<i rouq rirov yeopyoi nou (or.iocvoe xoprd. Or neproo6'reporIv8r<ivorpnopef 6wroqvo ni0cvov on<loo0iveteg,om<ioo
peprxig ond cutdq peto6d0nxov ox6nrpo ond 'rouq leuxofq,
sv6 600r Iv6rdvorenrpiooov o116'ng ooOivateqoxorr,r0mov pe
rno dpeoo poo. O te.Lewoioq<dyproq>Iv8r<ivogrov HnA (6vo
pi).oq mg <putrriq
ft<ixr ovdpcrr Ishi) n0ove p6i.rgro 1916,ror
ro onopvnpoveriporq rov -trsurov 6o.Log6vovtng rpufulgrou,
ypoppivo pe au0frn'ro xor xropiqono.Loyntrxli6r<i0eon,6npooreriowcv urixorxqr ro 1923.
rpagouv;.rropo1rowr
rxritrxrivc yto
Ev oliyoiq, or Aprrprxovoi
p<ixeqpeto[ri optpov, 6grnrn oiryxpouon Leuxov xor Iv6r<iv<,rv:

IE MAYPOKAIA:NPO

O khi, rcl,twaioc emQiv rng t$nnxig


qvlig frdx, om p6pen Katrrq6ptn H
rprotoypagiatot 6elmet twpopo rat Kdtramo and tnlt tha, o'nq29 Aoyoiotov 1911,
mt' nptpa too epqauotme tntra at6 41
xp6va xpvtfiyarcgot cva andptpo gapdryt.
Ta teptoodrepaVt)'n rng gulig wu ogoyrdomKovand lelt\oi| a\oiKoucyaatd 1853
Ka, 1870.To 1870,ot 6txatft emQiweg tng
rl.J"flnaia1
ogalic dttgvlov ornv dypn gion
rov 6por1A.ioev, 6not owttooat' va (ow ag
xwnyoi-tpogooolAlaeg. Tot Notyppro too
1908,&av ot emQiweEeixattpen9ei orcug
do oeptg,t onoyptitpotavaKlilultar',!xaia ro1,
raraohoyrStoug xat m4 nipat 6Aau epyabia, ra poixa xar ng npoyti4trcAryogig
ya to xErleva,yt anod)leoyaor tpag ant)
touglrdx (n pntipa rctj Ishi, n adefupi no
rar htaE nl:xtayttog dvdpag)t'a ne0dvow.
yra rpio oKt .n xpdvto donov 6vllopoiO Ishi rapipen't otroyd1laxo1
oe t'a awtfet riMo rat pyire nepna'rdwaEarot noltttoyd tat ).euxtit,
noreiowag 6n 0a ltwoapraei. Aw' awoi, too napaoxl9me epyaoia
oto Movoeio tor.tllayemmnyiov rnE Kafuq6pwagoto Zav <Dpatoioro,
6ooo riqatte atd gvyoioor to 1916.(H qorcypaglo Epoepxt-ratond
ra apxEiarou MovoeiovAt1ponotroyiagLowie, rcu lla,temotnpiou tng
Kafugdpwaqa o Mr tpxlei. )

rrov ov6p6v, l-rro opepKovrK6 rrrrnK6 Kor rous Koouprrdn6ss


0116rn pro rrlupd Kor rous dyprousvopd8ss Kuvnyorispioovo ord rnv dl-trn, rKovorigva npopdMouv roxupf owimoon. H
o0yxpouon oxprBmepo neptyp<igercr oq e{riwroon prog gufuiq
xopu<r,lvoypotov on<i pro d-l-trn.Epeig or Apeprxovoi Oup<ipo'A-Loiro(nepinou
ore tr.re
opyi'nq cu6lerdq poq mo
200vexpof ,

O TPITO: XIMNANTZH:

mo eopnKr6 Maine (260 vxxpoi) ror mo fiepl X<ippnop(2.200


vexpoi), ra rrprororrKd nou poq dr0noov vo unoornpi{oupe
'rn ouppe'roxri poq orov Mefixcvoopepu<ovm6fl6i.epo, mov
Ionovool.repxcvrxdfl<l).epoxor mov B' flclx<iopro II6.Lepo,owimoxo. C)or6oo,ro nfui0oq orrrriv rrov vexp6v eivor opelnrio
pnpom<i mrq ,\nopovnpiveg on<i.L:reqIv6rrivrov yrc 'nq onoieg
eu0uvdpomeepeiq.Av qr<i{oupepioo poq, pnoporJpevo 6ofpe
nriq, xc0riq [ovoypdgope rnv e0rrxri pog rmopio, oupgr]rriroope, 6nroq16oo noMoi d-Llorotryxpovor-Looi'rn 6r<inpo{nyevor<toviogpe tnv orro6oxri evdqotxoqrevxorj nOrxof rc66uco.H
f,.fon ouvimoto mnv enixlnon owo<ipuvoq rot ev6q ovr,itepou
r6eo6ouq, oMti ror mnv torinon 'rov 0updtov pe riypro (rio.
YnEYoYNH
flA To lANAfPAvtMoTH: opsplKqvlKriqrmopiog eivot n
oqn tKtlvn rng ycvox,ovioqfiou xat1n pryrmn rpcxrrrui onpooio yro rnv xorono-tripnori 'rnq: or qnxo-Loyrx6genrnrtiroerq
rng oe 0rfreq,0riporo xor tpirouq. To uro orlrypctxd epcl'rnpo
oEopri rnv eni6pcon, ri p<i.tr-Lov
rnv i}-Lerryn eni6poons, os rpi
touq. Ex npcirnq dryeog,0o ovipeve roveiq 6l xcpic Apixn 6ev
0o ;rnopouot vo npooe,\xUoer
tnv npoooxnrou xorvouneproocirepo cnd 6oo n ordnrpn, poQxri rcr <iypro6o.Lo<povfono-tr-Lrilv
cv0pcinov, X'rnv npoypotxdrnro, dpog, or yevorrolreg onolroq
npooe.trxfouv tnv npoooni rou xorvof dltrov xropciv, ror or<6pn onondrepo Srox<iutowor on6 {ivn nopippoon. Iloror cn6
ep<igi8ooov r6roirepn npoooxf mn orpoyritov Apripov rnq
Zovlt$6pn9 rc 1964ri tov Iv6rrivov Axi tnq llopoyou<inqxorri
rn 6erce-riorou 1970;
Awrnopopri-Leretnv cnouoio owi6poong oe owrlv ror oe
<i.Leq
rq tm6iorneq yevoxrovieqtov npdoEotr,lv 6:roeri<ov pe
rnv iwovn owi8poori poq mrg 6Uo povc6rrig neprrrur,loetg
yevoxtoviog nou nopopdvouviwovo xcpcpiveq mn pvripn poq:
ereivn rov Nc(i xor<i tov Eppoir,lv,ror (rct<i 6ewepo l6yo)
exein t<lv Toripr<,rvxord tr,rv Appev(ov. Or ouyrexptpiveg neprrnr,roerg
6rogepow oc rpio xpiorpoonprio on<irrg yrvoKlovleg yro trg ouoieg o6rogopoile: ro 0fpo'ro frov i.euxoi, pe toug

:E MAYPO KAI AINPO

ol Oriragritov ex0poi pog mov


onoiouq rouriEowor dr.tr-Lor.LsuKoi'
nd.Lapo,touq onoioug n no-Leprxrinponoy<iv8op<iqnop6rpuve vo Oeopor.ipexoxolig xcr va Froorjp(r6roitepo touq No(i)'
xor u<ipxouv euy.Lclrrorem(<ir"req mrq Hvopiveq flo.Lrreieg or
onoior xotoB<ltr-Louvpey<i-trnnpoondOero npoxerpivou vo pog
ovoyxti(ouv vo 0up6pome. Enopvclq, cnorteitor vog pdl-Lov
r6roirepoq ow6uoop6g otryr<upr6voore n yevoxtovic vo rpcBri{er tnv npoooxri tpirr,rv.
llopd6erypo Tng nepiepyng ond0eroqrov tpitov cnote.Lei
n m<ion rov rupepvdoeov, tov onoiov or evipyereqclvuKqrorrrpi(ouv rn ouMoyrxri cr4ponrvn yuxotroyc. MoLov6tr o oHE
uroOirnoe to 1948pra ouvOrixnnou xopoxrripr(e dyxlnpo tn
yevoxtovic, o opyovrop6qow6q rror6 6ev ixer ldper oopopd
pitpo yro vo onorpiyer, vo 6roxdryarri vo trpropfoer tn 6rcinpo{n yevorrovrov, nop<i tnv unoBo),rixcrclle}.r<,iv evoinr6v
rou ylo rrq yevoxtovieq nou 6ronp<ix0nxov mo Mnoyx-Lowdg,
ro Mnoupo(rwt, rnv Kopn6r(n,'rnv flopoyourin, tnv Orry<<iwo
xor ol,Lof. Xe pro xotol"yei.io xotd rng Ouyr<<iwog,oro qroKopfgr,lpo mq rpopoKporioqrof Iwi Apiv, n pdvn orldKpronrou
fevrxod lpoppotio rori oHE frov vo (nuioer on6 rov i6ro tov
Apiv vo 8repewrioerro 0i;.rc-Or Hvopiveq floltteieg 6ev nepr.Loppdvowor rov cro 60r.n nou dxouv ernxupriroerrn Xuv0rixn
nep( fevorrov(oq rof oHE.
OrpeiLetor <ipoyen crvryporrxf dtr\erryn owi6pooiq poq
oro drr 6ev lvr,ipi(ope ri 6ev pnoporioope vo evnpep<'r0odpe
yro rrg yevoxtovieq uou 6ronp<irrowov eni trov npepov poq;
Aogo.trroq6xr no.LLigyevorroueq tc,rv6exoeriov'rou 1960xor
1970 iruxov -Lerrropaporiq6npoorritn'rcq evdor,rBpioxowov oe
nfuipn a[ih{n, oupneprlo;.rBcvopdv<ov6oov 6ronp<ix0nxovmo
Mnoyx-Lowq,rn BpoE fo, ro Mnoupoirwr, rnv Kopn6t(n, ro
Avoto-Lrrd Trpdp, rnv Ionpeprvri fourvdo, rnv Iv6ovnoio, rov
Aipovo, rnv flopoyou<in,rn Poudwo, to 2ou6<iv,tnv Orryrdwc
xor rn Zov(rpdpn. (Or ono.Leregmo Mncyx-Lcwig xor rnv Kqpndt(n fendpooov ror ang 6rio neprrrdrosrq to I ercotoppripro.)
fro nopri6erpo, ro 1968n xupipvnon tnq Bpo(r-trioq
cnriy"ye e

436

O TPITO:XIMNANTZH'

KornyopiSYlo syx),nporrKiq rpd4lg Kord ro)v 134 0116rouq


700 epyo(opfvoug rnq Ynnpeofoq llpomooiog tov Iv6r<ivov,
yro to pd.Lonou inor{ov mnv e{dwcoon rov Iv6rdv<ovtou
Apo(oviou- M*oEf roy rpd{sov rrou uepryp<igowcrorrg 5.115
oetr(6eqrng ovogopdq Figueiredo, rou yevrrori erooyyetrdorng
Bpo(r.Liog,ror or ono(eq ovororvr'i0nxov oe ouviweu{n Td'nou
rou tmoupyori Eor,rteprrcirvtng Bpo(r.trfog,nepdopp<ivowor or
ox<i.Lou0eq:0ov<itoon Iv6rciv<,rvpe xprion 6uvcpitn, no-LuB6l,ov
xor (<ixopnqvo0eupivnq pe opoevrx6,r<oOdrq
rar pe rn ordnrpn
petri6oon eulopriq, yp(nng, gupotir,lonq ror r-Loprig'onoyoyri
xor tmo8orj-Loonnor6rov' np6o.Lnyn enolrye.Lpotrarv
6o.Log6vov Iv6r<ivov on<i xotooxeucmrxiq etorpefeg.Anoon<ioporo
on6 rnv ovcgopri Figueiredoepgovimnxcv mov cpepu<ovrx<i
rcorrov pperovx6 Timo, o.l.}.<ioninrxov vc nporcl6oouv 16ro(tepeg owr6p<ioerg.
Oo pnoporloa iooq xoveig vo oupnep<iver6n or neproo<ftepor
<iv0ponorontrofmoto 6ev vor<i(oworyro'rrg c6rxieqrrq onoieg
upimowor riltror rirponor 6 Oe<opofvdrr 6ev eivor 6rx6 touq
6ou.Lerti.Aur6 ovopgipoio onorelei pipog rng e{riynonq, o-Ltr<i
<ixr6-trn.IIoMoi <iv0ponorev6rogipowor no0roopdvoyro opropiveq o6rxieg, dnoq to onoprx<irw mn N6rrc AEprrri' farf 6xl
Koryro rn yevoKrovfo;To epcirnporC0nxepe onopoxrrxd rp6no
mnv Opydvoon Agpxovrxdrv Kpotov on6 rouq Xofrou, 0r11-roro
yevoxrovioqmo Mnoupoirwr, <inouto 1972oxot<ir0nxov80.000
ioq 200.000<iropo:
<To onoprxdrw rr,rvTofrot ixer eyxo0r6pu0ei
pe Feyotrd-rpn
oypr6tnto orr' ci,tr to orroprx<irwrof Vorster,mo orr<iv0pono cn' 6,n n uoproyo-\xri onorrrorporio.Mrrd ro Kivnporov
No(i to0 XitLep, dlote ornv ov0pr6ul'n roropio 6ev to owoy<ovi(etor.
Kor or looi mg Agprrrigorcouoriv.
AEprrovoiopxnyoi
T
rpor<ovrmodixowcr ov exreLemf Micombero[npde6porou
MnouporSr'nxor pi.Logmg gulriq tov Toriror] ror rou ogiyyouv ro xdproe o8elgrxti xorpenopd.Kripror,opxnyoixpotr,rv,
ov em0u1-reite
vo pon0rioeterouq looriq rnq NoFiFrnoq,rnS

TEMAYPOKAIA'NPO

Zrpuripuoue,tng Ayr6i.og,rnq Mo(opBixnqxot tng lourv6og


M[rodou vo cne.Leu0epr,r0odv
on6 toug .].euxofqxotouremdq
rouq, 6ev ixete xovivo 6xoicopo vo ernrpirlTs o AgptKovofs
vo 6oi.ogovoriv<l.,\-Louq
Atpprxcvorlg.[...] fleprpdvetevo e{ow<oOeirrl,ripog n e0votxri opd6o tov Xodrou tori Muoupo(rwr
nporori uv6or rrq goYSooq).
llporcerpvouvo xorovorioou;re tnv orrouoio owf8poong on6
;ripoug rpittov, npirrer vo nopctnpfooupe rnv owi6pcon rov
em(tirwov 0updtr,lv. Or qruxiotpor nou exouv e{crrioet priptupeg
yevoxtovioq, 6nog toug em(rirweq rori Aouoprrq, nepryprigouv
oq <yuxrxd pori6roopo>tnv eni6poon nou etxe n yevoxtovio
ndvo toug. Or neproo6repor on6 eprig ixoupe prooer tov wovo
ror Oropxri n6vo nou ouvo6e0arro <ixouopa rou guorKof 0ovdtou ev6g oyonnpdvou grlou f oq"yevri. Eivor oxe6dv o6fvoto
vo gowomoripe n<joo rroltrqrrtroot<i(etor n dvtoon tou n6vou
dtov rcveiq noporo-LouOeion6 nporo xipr ro 0dvoro noMtirv
oyonnp6vov g(trr,:v xor or4"yevov tmd ouvOrixegorpoioq BopBop6tnroq. Or enr(oweg n60ow va Opuptrroti(erorivc ourov6nto ofmnpo nenor0rioeov,oro rltraioro rou orroiou rdTotou
ef6ouq BopBop6tnto cncyopefetor oroOdvowot dtt rot6 r<<inorov'rp6no gdpow ivo mfypo ovo6ldrnros, l'lo vo dxouv rnIeyei clq 0fpoto proq titoroq popBopdtnrcq' Kol Blcivouvplo
oioOnon evoxig yro ro yeyovdg 6tr efi6<naov, e!6 or oli!'rpogof
'Onoq
rouq niOovov.
cxprBdq o Cvtovos or'rpottxdq n<ivog p<iq
pou6r<i(er, to f6ro roxrjer Kqr l'ro rov iwovo tptxtxd ndvo: 6ev
rm<ipxer<i-l,Log
rpdnoq vo enrpraroerqxor vo nopopeiverqocigpclv. flopoxotrofOnoo on6 npdrro xdpr rrs rrqpondvo owr6pdoergmo npdoono evdg otl"yevi nou empiooe en( 6rio xpdvro
mo AouoBrtq, Kor rI( 6sKorieq o6uvoto0oe vo x-Ldryer.
An<i 'rnv d-L-Ln,
oe d,rr ogop<i ng owr8prioerqrov cr.ruoupytirv, 6oor ond oworiq tmorofouv oe dvov n0rx6 xdr6rxqrrou
6roxpiver
ond <exeivouq>pnopei vo xoropO<,ioouvor6pn
"epciq"
xor vo oro0ovOouvtmeprigcvor'6oo16pr,rgovotp<ignxovrm6 to
npicpc evdg orxoq.rer,rxof n0rxotj ruirdtxoev6ixetot vo ouppept-

438

O TPITO'XIMNANTZH:

mofv ro pof6loopo rcrv 0qdtov touq, em6ervoripevo ond ttq


evoxdgtou rmcrtiou. To i6ro porlDroopop(aroovexotowd8eg
xrtrr<i6eqApepxovoi nou no).ipnoov mo Brew<ip. Axdpn xor or
ondyovor rr,rv yevoxtrlvov ----oronoior 6ev gipouv xop(o rrpoo<'lmxri eu0irvn- ev6ixetor vo oroOov0orivoulloyrxiq evoxiq, tnv
rororrrprxri ax6vo tou ouMopxor.i onypotropori rov 0up<itt lv,
xoporcnprmrxori yv<,rpiolrorosmg yevorrovioq. flpoxerpivou vo
opptruvouv rov ndvo on6 nq evox6g, or on6yovor ouxv<i {ovoyp<igolrvrnv rotopio: nopcTnpfore tn orcion rov o(ryxpovov
Apeprxovarvonivcwr d[n yvoKTov(ott:v Iv6r<ivr,rv,ri exe(vn
tng rupioq Cobern xor rloM6v dMov oiryxpovov Aumpofuiv
ondvowr mn yevorrovio tov Toopov<irv.
Mnoporipe n-Lovvo opx(ooupe vo xotovooripe xclurepo
tnv ondOero rov rpitrov pnpoord arn 6rdrrpo6n pros ywoKrovrog. H yevorrovio errrgdperyuxxri ovonnpic xor xp6neq yrxtxiq 6uolertoupyieg mo 0fporo xor toug Oriregnou m Buirvow
0116rrp6ro xdpr. Mnopei dpoq vo ogfoer Bo0r<ionpri6ro xor oe
6oouq poOoivouv yro owfv an6 6eurepo xipr ---6n<lq to not8rd
r<ovenr(6wov tori AouoBrrq ri or qruxoOeponeuriqnou ponOofv petepdvouq rori Btew<itrr.lUuxo0eponewig anol"yelpcttxti
er<ncr6eup6vorvo oxouv neprypagCqov0pdrnrvng6uonxiog, ouxvd 6ev owixouv vo oxo0oouv rrg gplKTiS oenyiosls rov ovopvrioer,rv 6oov i(noov xdttoto yevortovfo. Kor ov or exnot6eupdvor enol"ye.Lpotfeq6ev pnoporiv vo ro owi{ouv, notoq pnopei
vo xotnyopioer ro orrtrd Korv6 TrouopvsiTor vo oKofoar;
flopotnprime rrq owr6pdoerq rori Robert lay Lifton, ev6q
opepxovoti rpundtpou nou eixe f6n oprerri epnerpio ond ern(oweq oxpoi<,rvxatcor<ioeov npororl ;rd,rioer pe em(tiweq on6
tn piqrnrnq a'roprriq B6pBoqorn Xrpoofpo:
<...trirpo,owi vo xerpi(oporto "updplnpo rng otoprxrig BdpBoq",Bproxdpouvowrpitonog pe trq xtnvciderq.Lerrro;:ipereq
nou
rrovnpopotrrriv epnerprovrtq onoieqpirooovor <ivOponor
r<i0owov ouvowi pou. H o).oxfuipoon xo0epiog on6 exeiveq
'rrqupdrreqquvowriolqpr <ignve
Bo0riroto ooxopropivoxor

IE MAYPO KAI A:NPO

KoroBsB.LnpCvo
ouvqro0nForlKd.llo.Lr.iofwopo 6poq -pdoo
oe liyeg npipeq,yrornv orpipero-, 6rcuim<ooc<itror owr6p<ioerqpou <iMo(ov.'Axouyotrq (6reggprnoorrrig nprypo(pdq,
o.Lld n rri6poorirouq u<ivo pou eixe opBluv0ei. H ri.ln epuerp(o
ouotetrorioe pro olixoorn eni6er{n tou 'rlruxrKori pou8rtiopotoq" uou 8ronrorcivoq-re
6tt xoporrnpi(er rd0e 6yn tnq ir0eonq ornv oropxri F,tt F" I...lr.
Tl ElAoy: rENoKroNtE:ANAMENoNTAT
Ano rov Homo sapiensmo
pdl).ov; Yn<ipxouv ndpno-tr-Lorfipogavsis ].<iyoryto vo gcvoripe onoror66o{or.O r6opoq ppi0eron6 upoBfurponxdqneproxdq
arprpeqYrorn 6r<inpo{nyevortovrov: n N6rla AgprKti,n B6pslo
Iplov6fo, n f ror,-yxoo.LcBio,n Xpl AdvKo, n Nio Koln6ovio rcar
n Mion Avotofui, yro vo avogCpoups pplKdq.Or o.Lox-lnprotrxig xuBepvrioergnou 0o pnoporioov vc 6ronpdlow yevoKroyieq
gow<i(ouv oorop<itnteq. To o(ryxpovo ontrom<ioro elrrpdrrorw
vo e{owriroerg oLoivc xor peyo.l,ureponhigoq or<ipov, va yivsrs
6ologdvog pe Koufiofpr Kor ypapdro, ox6pn xor vo npor<o.1,6orqrnv Ko0o.LrKri
yevortovio rou ov0p6mvou ei6ouq.
Tnv i6ro orryp6, 6roxpivrotrdyouq yro rouq ono(ouq pnopi Kovsiq vo vrciOeroulxpctnp6vo oro166o{o9dtr to pdMov
6ev xperd(eror vo govei e{ioou 6ologovrrd trrero nope-LO<iv.
Xripepo,<iv0ponorond 6rotpopetxdgguldq, 0pnoxeieqd Ovonxiq opd6eg ouvr-'rrdpxouvoe noM6g xrirpeg,<iMore rmd xoi.rirepeq Kor dMore tmd xep6tepeq ouv0rlr<egr<otvovxriq 6rxoroouvnq, cnogeriyowoq trq onporci).r,nrreqpc(rxig 6o.Logov(eg;
ornv E).pedo, oro Bi.trpo, mnv flonorlo Ndo lourvio, oro Nnod
<DirQ,or<6pnror mrq pet<iJshi Hvropdvegflo.lneieq. Opropfveg
yevorrovfeq dxouv amtrxtirq ovooxeOei opBLuv0e(f onotponei
xripn mrq evipyereqri nq 6raplen6peveq cwr8pdoerq rpitov.
Mixpr xor n ef6w<oontov Eppoiov on6 rouq No(i, nou 0er,lpeiror n nl,6ov onortroporrKrixor ovorr6tpentn yevoxtovro,
porcr<iOnxemn Aovio, tn Boulycp(o, ror oe xtiOeKorxdpsvn xrirpo tinou n xegofui tng rupfopxnq Exxlnoioq onoxripu{e
6npoofog rnv ond.Loon rov Eppofr,:v p6trrq {exivnoe ri nporof

O TPITO:XIN4NANTZH:

'Evo
Kov qsKrvrior.
npolripo elnr6og6po onp<i6reivor drt n
orllxpor.n 6uvor6rnro to{r6uirv, n tn-}.e6poonxor n gotoyporpio
p<iqenrrpinouv vo 6oripe d'n .Looinou (ow xrhd6eq xri.r6petpo poxprti eivor xor ereivor tiv0ponor, dnoq epeiq.'Oooxor ov
ovc0rpori(oupernv rexvo,\oyio1ou qrovq poq, tivor ytyovdq
orr 0o..r,rver
rn 6r<irpronovcipcooor "rpds" Kql "rKaivouq-,Tov
Oepi-holi0o rnq yevortovioq. Av xor n yevoxtovio 0eopoirwov
rorv<ovrxtiono6e<rri ri r<oro{ro0ofpomn mov rrpo rnq rrpornq
enoEriqxdopo, n oiryxpovnefdnkron rou 6re0vofqno).rtropori
ror n efoxeioorl pcq pe porprvofq .Looriqro0rmoriv o.Lodvo6uoro-trdrepn rn 6rxoroi.6l'nori tnq
IIop' dtro otrr<i,ro g<iopo tng yevor<tovicg0o poq owrpogerier6oo onog:riyoupa vo rnv Korovoriooupexcr doo Tpgoupe owontiteg nog p6vo couvri0rmor,8rempoppivor tiv0ponot
0c pnoporioovvo npopotiv mn 6rtinpo{ri mq. Eivor ovop<pipo-Lo66oxo-trovo 6roBd(erqyro yevoxtovieqxopiq vo pou6rci(erq.
Eivor 6foxo-Lovo gowomofpa n6g 0o pnoporioopeepeig,xor
<iMor r<o.Loior.rvnOrqrivor riv0pronorroug onoioug lvr,lpi(oqre,
vo xorr<i(oupeoBori0nrouqovOponouqmo p<irrornv t'lponou
rouq oror<irvoule.Xxe66v pn6peoo vo to gowomdr dtov ivog
gi,Loq,tov onoio yvopr(o no.l.rixorp6, pou ognyri0nxe pro yevoxrorrnriogcyd mnv onoio prrrur toqOrhnq.
O Kariniga eivcr ivoq euyevrx6qTon'rtiyoua nou epy<imnr<e
po(i pou mn Nio fourvio. Znaol:,x1:,o((xmxivOuveqrorom<ioerg,96pouq xor Oprdppouq'tovoupno0o xor tov 0oulci(r,r.'Evo
pp<i6u,niwe xp6no oEdtou tov eixo yvopioet, o Kariniga por-i
pilnoe yro dvo neprototxd tnq vrdrnq rou. Or ouyxpofoetqpetoff rrlv Tourn<iyouKar rns yertovrxriggu].ng rov Nropiprrl
eixov poxp<i rotopio. Xto 6u<tipou pd'no, or Nropipnr 6;roro(ov i6ror pe toug Touwdyoue, dpog o Kariniga eixe roto)ui{er
'Enerro
on6 no-tr-Ligev6vo roug Oearpeiovein<otoer6ex0e(g.
6peq,or Ntopipnr rotdrpepov rehx<i vo orottiroouv opxetofq
Touw<iyoue,oupneprLcppovopivou tou notdpo torl Kariniga,
'Ooor
eio0rowoq touq em(oweq Toul'r<iyouemnv oue.Luroiq.
xov orropeiverneprxfr<-Looovtn vrfrro ro xroprdtov Ntopipnt

IE MAYPOKAIA:NPO

441

Kol rnv ouyf 6po.Lovgorld mlq Kotr0peg.Ko0drqor xorpropdvor


Ntopfpm r<ot6porvcvrpex.lf(owcg ro oxol.rd tov xordpevcrvr<otruBr,lvrouq, or Tor.n'r<iyoueroug -L61xr(ov.Opropivor Ntopipm
6r6guyov mo 6tioog, 6nou or Torrw<iyousroug oro.Lof0noov,
xor xotri tn 6r<iprcero
rov en<ipevovep6opti6ov xor6p0ooov
vo oxotriroouv touq neproo6tepouq. H nopdppoon dpog tnq oumpohcvriq xuBipvnonq i0eoe riloq mnv roto6ior{n nporori o
Karinigamcioerro govr<irou nordpo tou.
Tmepo ond ereivo ro pp<i6u,ouxvd ipproro rov eow6 pou
vo avotprxrti(er xo06q cvoloyr(6pouv trg .LerrropdperCq
rou: rn
l<ipryn mo trr<inotori Kariniga dtov ;rou drnyo(rwov tnv rrporui
ogoyri' rrq onyyiq iwormg rxovonoinonq d'rov rei.rxri 6ronpooe pa ro 66pu rou pepxofq on6 roug 8otrogrivouqrng gu).riq
rou' xor ro 6dxpuo .L(mnqxor oyovrixtnonq po rn 6roEuyri tou
6o.Logdvourou notdpc tou, rov onoio flnr(e ox6pn vc orot<'ioer xrinore pe 6n-lnripro. Ere(vo ro Bp<i6u,vop(o 6rr pn6peoo
enrr6.Lougvo roro-Ldpcl nrilg roufuixrmov ivoq ro-L<iqriv0ponog
dgrooe mo onpafo vo orotriroer. H npo6rd0eonyro 6r<inpofn
yevorrov(oq,mnv onoio or neprmdoarge{r,l0noovtov Kariniga,
evrmdpxer oe 6.louq pca. Ka0og n noyr6otrlc nlnOuotrncrui c0r<ioo mo eooraprx6 rov xorvor{non el'rrivcr rrg ouyr<porioerg
vrrirv rioo xor perolri toug, or <ivOponor0o prr,lvouv ri.lo Kol rraproodtepo tnv oppri vo oxotooow o ivog tov dMov, r<ar0c 6ro0itouv oloivo onoretreoparrKdTepc
dulc yro vo ro rrpdqorrv.
To vo ororlre lq neprypoEdq<loov Biooov ond nporo xipr pro
yevorrovio e(vor oBdoroxro encl6wo. Av 6pa4 efoxo.trou0iooupr vo onomprigoupr ro p,\dppopog xor vo onogrtiyory vo rnv
xotovoriooupe, ndte <ipcye0o dp0ei n 6rxri pog oerp<ivc yivoupe
or 6o-Log6vor-ri to Orlpcro;
AIIO'I'EI' MEPIKON
AIA'HMONAMEPIKANON
TIATO INAIANIKOZHTHMA
GeorgeWashington,np66po|ro1/HnA. <Or<ipeooror6xor Foq sivor
n ou<jtrwn rotoorpogri xcr roonC6oonrov xotouhoprov touq.

442

O TPITO: XIMNANTZH:

@o xperoorei vo rotompiqroqre oLoK-\npcotx<i ro ouoprd rouq


Ko1vo rous epuo6iooul:e vo onipouv vio>.
Benjamin Franklin, and tovg 9eyefur'negtou apeprcaurot rpdrovg. <Av
oxi6to mq Oeiog llp6votoq eivor vo e{c}.eig0o{'v qL"roi or Aypror
uporerpivou vo 6nproupl'n0ei xropoq po rouq KcMrepl'ntig tnq
fnq, t6re iooq ror<illn-Lo pioo ouo6ex0ei to por!1ur.
ThomasJeffersoq llpdedpoc r@yHIA. <'forirn n or,xrig guiui, yro tnv
orroio dxor,l 16oo pox0ioer npoxerpivou vo ociroouperor vc
exnotrtdooupe, irer pe tnv onp6oper.n owopo].fo Kqr rrq dypleq
pror6tnt6q tnq 6xoro-Loploer tnv e{6wroon ror ntriov ovopiver
Tny qrrdEooi FoS !'ro rnv Tfxn TnS).
John Quincy Adams, npdedpoc ray HIIA. <Tr 6xoi<opo 6xer o xr.rvny6q
n<ivo mo on6powo 6dooq crro orroio ruxoio uLovri0nxe ovo(ntrirwoq r<inoro 0ripopo;',.
lames Monro7 llpdedpog rav HIIA. <H rordoroon tou rtn'nyof ri tou
oypiou ouorrei yro rn 6rctfpnoi tnq peyo-Lrrrepndxroon yng
o1166oo puopei vo oupprpcmef pc mv updo6o xor trg dixouq
onoruioerq rnq rro.trrrlopivng (<orig[...] ror oqeiler vc tmoroxOei oe owiw.
Andrew lackson, Ilpde5poE rcv HIIA. <Ltepoin"ror rnv euguio, tnv epyotrx6tnto, trq n0txig ouui0ereq ror mv enrOupic yrc Be).rioon
nou upoouorto(rwor po onoro8rinote 0errrri oMoyri rng ror<ioroorig touq. Eyxoreornpivor xoropeoriq proq <il-lnq, cv<otepng
qutrrig, xcopiq vo owr.Lo;rp<ivowor ro oirro rnq rototepdrnt<iq
rouq ri vo Ernxrpoiw vo ro etriyfow, 0o rmoxfEouv ovou6Eeurto orrq rmoyopeuocrqrov ncprmcioer'rvxor, nporod ncp<iocr
uo-Lrigxorpdq, 0o etoEcrrmorJu.
lohn Marshall, Ilpde'poc rov Aydutou Aftaornpiou ta! HIIA. <Or gv-Liq Iv6r<iv<ovuou (o0oov oe owri lnv fuepo onore-Lo(rwov crr<l

TE MAYPO KAI AINPO

oypious or orroior em8i6owov oe no).6poug, ror n 6upi<,rori rouq


e{optr6rov ond ro 6<ioog.[...] O v6poq exeivoguou puOpi(er,rcr
nou 0c dqeri,e ev y6ver vo pu0pi(er, trg oxioerq peroff ro, crrnti ror Korqrrnpivou, 6ev FTropsi vo rox6oer yro ivov riroro
.loti. H ovoxriLuEn [tnq Apeprxriq qrrd rouq Euprouoiouq] poq
nopi8ooe to cnoxleronx6 6rroiropo e{<i,\etqnqrou rv8rovrxof
tittrou r6roxrnoioq, eire pdoo oyoprig ei, e pioct xot<irrnong>.
William Henry Harrison, IIp6e6poE tatt HIIA. <AEikr qa ivo qrr6 ro
opcrdrepo pipn rou u.Lovritn vo nopoFsivsr orn rpuorrri ror<iorcon, .lnpdpr -Liyov o{roOprivnrrovoypi<ov,6Tov gowd(er npooplqpivo qrr6 rov Anproupy6 vc woornpi{er dvov pey<i-Loni.n0uop6 xot vo ouore).ioer i6po nohnopori;>.
Theodore Roosettelt,np66poc ra! HnA. nO dlorroq xor o movipoq
eixqv xord pciOogro 6ino pe to ;rdpoq rouq' n peydi.n ourri
rinerpoq 6ev pnopofoe vo nopopeiver dnote ueptoo6repo cu6
rotog(ryo 0npop<ir<lvpo e{oxprknpivouq oypiouq>.
ZtpamydE Philip Sheridan.<<Otytovol:lr.oixo-troilv6rdvor nou yv6proo rrori riToy ysKpoi).