By J. Powell BA, C Eng, MIERE, GradIMA

Reprinted in India by

° New Delhi-110001. Distributed by: The English Book Store The Aviation People 17-L, Connaught Circus New Delhi-110001 (India)


Preface 1


Instrument landing system Introduction 69 Basic principles 69


Historical, technical and legal context 1 Introduction 1 Historical background 1 Basic principles of radio 2 Digital systems 8 Categorization of airborne radio equipments Navigation nomenclature 13 Interference 13 Maintenance 17 Regulating and advisory bodies 18

Simplified block diagram operation Installation 74 Controls and operation 76 Characteristics 77 Ramp testing 78 6 Hyperbolic navigation systems General principles 79 83 105 79


Omega navigation system 7 Distance measuring equipment Introduction 105 Basic principles 105 X and Y channel arrangements


Communication systems 20 Introduction 20 V.h.f. communications 20 H.f. communications 29 Selcal 35 Audio integrating systems - (Intercom) 37 Testing and trouble shooting the audio systems 43 Automatic direction finding 45 Introduction 45 Basic principles 45 Simplified block diagram operation 4.7 Block diagram detail 47 Sources of system error 49 Installation 52 Controls and operation 54 Characteristics 55 Calibration and testing on the ramp 55 V.h.f. omnidirectional range (VOR) 58 Introduction 58 Basic principles 58 Doppler VOR (DVOR) Aircraft installation



The link with v.h.f. navigation 110 Installation 111 Controls and operation 112 Simplified block diagram operation 112 Range measuring and mode control 114 8 ATC transponder 121 Introduction 121 Basic principles 121 Installation 126 Controls and operation 127 128 Simplified block diagram operation Block diagram details 128 Characteristics 135 Ramp testing 136 9 Weather avoidance 139 Introduction 139 Weather radar 140 Choice of characteristics and features 140 Installation 146 Controls 147 Operation 148


61 63

Controls and operation 65 Simplified block diagram operation 65 Characteristics 65 Ramp testing 67

Block diagram operation Scanner stabilization 157


Aircraft installation delay Interface 198


Other applications for weather radar 160 Weather radar characteristics 162 Maintenance and testing 164 Ryan storniscope 168 Appendix Factors affecting weather radar performance 169 10 Doppler navigation 172 Introduction 172 Doppler effect 173 Antenna mechanization 174 Doppler spectrum 175 ` Beam geometry 175 Transmitter frequency 176 Modulation 177 Over-water errors 178 Navigation calculations 179 Block diagram operation 179 Installation 182 Controls and operation 184 Characteristics 185 Testing 185 Appendix Relationships between aircraft and earth co-ordinates 186 The Doppler shifts for a four-beam Janus configuration 187 The aircraft velocity in earth co-ordinates expressed in terms of Doppler shifts 188 Radio altimeter 189 Introduction 189 Basic principles 189 Factors affecting performance Block diagram operation Monitoring and self-test Indicat or 196 Installation 196 192 195

Multiple installations 199 Characteristics '00 Ramp testing and maintenance 20 0 Appendix Sinusoidal frequency modulation 201 12 Area navigation 202 Development of airspace organization 202 Generalized area navigation system 202 VOR/DME based RNAV. principles 204 Bendix nav. computer programmer NP-2041A 206 King KDE 566 210 Standardization 213 Testing RNAV 215 13 Current and future developments 216 Introduction 216 The state of the art 216 The flight deck 217 Multi-systern packages 219 Data link 219 ADSEL/DABS 2 21 Satcom and satnav 223 Microwave landing system 2 24 Microwave aircraft digital guidance equipment 225 Collision avoidance 2 29 The current generation of ARINC characteristics 230 Concluding remarks 231 Recommended reading 232 Glossary 234 246



Exercises Index 252


The cockpit and equipment racks of modern aircraft, large and small, are becoming filled with ever more sophisticated systems . This book attempts to describe a certain class of such systems, namely those which rely for their operation on electromagnetic radiation. The subject matter is complex and wide-ranging, hence not all aspects can be covered in one volume In deciding where the treatment should be light or perhaps non-existent, I have asked myself two questions: (1) which aspects can most usefully be covered in a book; and ( 2 ) at which group of people involved in aviation should a book covering such aspects be aimed? The answer to (1) must be `describe the theory'. One can, and indeed must, read or be told about how to operate the systems: how to navigate using the systems; how to solder, crimp and change items; how to use test equipment, etc. but proficiency is impossible without practice. On the other hand gaining an understanding of how a particular system works is more of a mental exercise which can be guided in a book such as this. This is not to say that more practical matters are neglected, since it would not help one's understanding of the theory of operation not to see, at least in words and pictures, how a particular system is controlled, presents its information, reacts to the environment, etc. Having decided the main line of attack the more difficult question of depth of treatment must be answered: in other words which group should be satisfied'.' Pilots need a superficial knowledge of how all the systems work; maintenance engineers on the ramp and in the hangar a more detailed knowledge; workshop engineers must have an understanding of the circuitry for perhaps a limited range of equipments; while designers should have the greatest depth of knowledge of a11. It is virtually impossible to draw dividing lines, but it is hoped that if enough theory is given to satisfy the aircraft radio maintenance engineer then the book might be useful to all groups mentioned. The depth of treatment varies, it being impossible to cover everything, or indeed anything, to the depth I would have liked. In particular few details of

circuitry are given since I feel most readers will be more interested in the operation of the system as a whole. Nevertheless, some circuits are given purely as examples. Should the reader need circuit knowledge, the equipment maintenance manual is the best place to find it, assuming he knows the system and he has a basic knowledge of electronics. The state of the art of the equipment described is also varied. 1 did not see the point of describing only equipment containing microprocessors, since the vast majority of systems in service do not use them as yet. On the other hand if the life of this book is not to be too severely restricted, the latest techniques must be described. Within the pages that follow, analogue, analogue/digital, hardwired digital and programmable digital equipments all find a place. As stated previously, the book is aimed primarily at the maintenance engineer. However, I hope several groups might be interested. This poses problems concerning the background knowledge required. For what I hope is a fairly substantial part of the book, any reasonably intelligent technically minded person with a basic knowledge of mathematics and a familiarity with aircraft will have no difficulty that two or perhaps three readings will not overcome. There are parts, however, where some knowledge of electronics, radio theory or more sophisticated mathematics is needed. In three chapters where the going gets a bit tough, I have relegated the offending material to an appendix. Some background material is covered in Chapter 1, in particular, basic radio theory and a discussion of digital systems in so far as coding and computers are concerned. If you are one of the few people who plough all the way through the Preface to a book, you may have decided by now that this book is concerned with theory and little else. That this is not so may be clear if I outline briefly the contents of each chapter. An introduction saying a few words about the history and function of the system is followed by a fairly thorough coverage of the basic principles. In some chapters the next item is a discussion of the installation, i.e. the units, how they are interconnected, which other systems they interface

with and any special considerations such as cooling, positioning, type of antennas and feeders, etc. This, together with a description of controls and operation, puts some practical meat on to the bare bones of the theory which continues with a consideration of the block diagram operation. In certain chapters the order: installation - controls and operation -- block diagram, is reversed where 1 thought it was perhaps to the reader's disadvantage to break up the flow of the more theoretical aspects. A brief look at characteristics, in practically all cases based on ARINC publications, and -testing / maintenance concludes each chapter. Most chapters deal with one system; none of them is exclusively military. The exceptions are, in reverse order, Chapter 13 where I look at the current scene and review some systems we should see in the next few years; Chapter 12 which is a bringing-together of some of the previously covered systems: Chapter 6 covering Omega, Decca Navigator and Loran C'; Chapter 2 which covers both radio and non -radio communications; and Chapter 1 where some chosen background material is given. I should point out that this is not a textbook in the sense that everything is examinable in accordance with some syllabus. The reader will take from the book however big a chunk he desires, depend ing on his background knowledge, his profession, the examinations he hopes to take and, of course, his inclination. Some will have, or end up with, an understanding of all that is included herein, in which case I hope the book may be seen as a source of reference.

Communications Components Corporation The Decca Navigator Company Limited Field Tech Limited Hazeltine Corporation IFR Electronics Inc King Radio Corporation Litton Systems International Inc., Aero Products Division

Marconi avionics Limited MEL Equipment Company Limited RCA Limited
Rockwell-Collins (UK) Limited Ryan Storm scope Tel-Instrument Electronics Corporation (TIC) Although I am grateful to all the above, I must reserve a special word of thanks to Mr Wayne Brown of Bendix, Mr. A. E. Crawford of King and Mr. T. C. Wood of RCA, who arranged for the dispatch of several expensive and heavy maintenance manuals in reply to my request for information. These manuals, and indeed all other information received, were used in the preparation of this book and continue to be used in the training of students at Brunel Technical College, Bristol, England. I also wish to thank all my colleagues at Br unel who have helped, often unwittingly, in conversation. In particular my thanks go to John Stokes, Clive Stratton and Peter Kemp for proof-reading some of the chapters and also Leighton Fletcher for helping with the illustrations. May I add that, although I received technical assistance from the above, any mistakes which remain are obviously mine. I would be grateful to any reader who might take the trouble to point out any errors. Finally, my thanks to Pauline Rickards, whose fingers must be sore from typing; to the publishers who displayed great patience as the deadline for the submission of the typescript came and went; and, most of all, to my wife Pat and son Adam who showed even more patience and understanding than Pitman’s. Bristol, England J. P.

Acknowledgements A number of manufacturers have given valuable assistance including the supplying of material and granting permission to reproduce data and illustrations. Without the generosity of the following, this book would have been of very limited use. Bendix Avionics Division Boeing Commercial Aero plane Company British Aerospace

I Historical, technical and legal context

This book deals with airborne systems that depend for their operation on the generation and detection of that intangible discovery the radio wave. Such systems split naturally into two parts: communications and navigation. The former provide two-way radio contact between air and ground, while the latter enables an aircraft to be flown safely from A to B along a prescribed route with a landing safely executed at B. An understanding of such systems requires a working knowledge of basic electronics, radio, computer systems and other topics. A book of this length cannot provide all that is necessary but it was thought that some readers might appreciate a review of selected background material. This is the objective of Chapter 1. It may be that on consulting the list of contents, the reader will decide to omit all or part of this chapter. On the other hand, some readers may decide that more basic information is needed, in which case, the list of recommended books will help point the way to sources of such material.
Historical Background

1904 1904 1906 1911 1912 1936 1939 1948

Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company Limited (England), later the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company Limited. Fleming's (British) discovery of the thermionic valve - the diode. First patent for a radar-like system to a German engineer, Hulsmeyer. Workable but not accepted. De Forest's (American) invention of an amplifying thermionic valve (triode). Direction-finding properties of radio waves investigated. Discovery of the oscillating properties of De Forest's valve. The first workable pulse radar. Invention of the magnetron in Britain.

In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell, Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge, proved mathematically that any electrical disturbance co uld produce an effect at a considerable distance from the point at which it occurred. He predicted that electromagnetic (e.m.) energy would travel outward from a source as waves moving at the speed of light. In 1888 Hertz, a German physicist, demonstrated ,hat Maxwell's theory was correct, at least over distances within the confines of a laboratory. It was left to the Italian physicist Marconi to generate e.m. waves and detect them at a remote receiver, as he did by bridging the Atlantic in 1901. Other notable landmarks in the development of radio include: 1897 First commercial company incorporated for the manufacture of radio apparatus: the

Invention of the transistor by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley (Bell Telephone Laboratories, USA). To bring us up to date, in the early 1970s the first microprocessor appeared from Intel (USA) leading directly to present-day microcomputers. Paralleling the progress of radio was the second of the three great developments of the twentieth century, i.e. powered flight in heavier-than-air machines. (The other two developments referred to are electronics and applications of nuclear physics; the reader is concerned with two out of three.) There can be few people who have not heard of Wilbur and Orville Wright; who designed and built the first successful powered aircraft which Orville flew for the first time at 10.35 on 17 December 1903, making a landing without damage after 12 seconds airborne. Since then landmarks in aviation, with particular reference to civil aviation, include: 1907 First fatality: Lieut. T. E. Selfridge, a passenger in a Wright Fly er. 1909 Bleriot (French) flies the English Channel. 1912 Sikorsky (Russian) builds first multi-engined (four), passenger (sixteen) aircraft. 1914 World War I. The years 1914-18 saw

advances in performance and a vast increase in number of aircraft, engines and pilots. 1919 Sustained daily scheduled flights begin in Europe. 1928 Whittle (British) publishes thesis on jet engine. 1929 First blind landing by Doolittle (American) using only aircraft instruments. 1937 Flying-boat service inaugurated from Britain to the Far East. Britain to Australia took 8 days in 1938, either by KLM or Imperial Airways. 1939 First jet -powered flight by He 178 (German). 1939 Inaugural air-mail service between Britain 1939 World War II. The years 1939 -45 saw the growth of world-wide military air transport services, and the USA established as the postwar leader in civil aviation. 1944 1945 International Civil Aviation Organisation formed at Chicago conference. American Overseas Airlines operate scheduled flights over North Atlantic with landplane (DC 4). First civil jet aircraft, the Comet 1, goes into service with BOAC. First civil turboprop aircraft, the Viscount, goes into service with BEA. Previously unknown problem of metal fatigue discovered in Comet 1. Withdrawn. 1956 Tu 104 first jet aircraft to commence sustained commercial service. First transatlantic jet service by BOAC with the Comet 4. (PAA's Boeing 707 -120 follows three weeks later.) First short -haul jet to enter service, the BAC 1 -11. Boeing 747 introduced; the first of the Jumbo Jets. First civil aircraft supersonic flights, Concorde and the Tu 144.

with the crowded skies. In 1910 the first transmission of e.m. waves from air to ground occurred. Speech was conveyed to an aircraft flying near Brook lands Airfield (England) by means of an e.m. wave in 1916. By the 1920s, radio was being used for aircraft navigation by employing rudimentary direction -finding techniques (Chapter 3). The introduction of four -course low-frequency range equipment in 1929 provided the pilot with directional guidance without the need for a direction -finder on the aircraft. Steady progress was made up to 1939, but it was

world War I I which gave the impetus to airborne Radio innovations . Apart fr om very high frequency
(v.h.f.) communications, introduced during the war, a number of radio navigation aids saw the first light of day in the period since 1939. These systems are described in the following chapters.

Basic Principles of Radio Radiation of Electromagnetic (e.m.) Waves and Antennas If a wire is fed with an alternating current, some of the power will be radiated into space. A similar wire parallel to and remote from the first will intercept some of the radiated power and as a consequence an alternating current will be induced, so that using an appropriate detector, the characteristics of the original current may be measured. This is the basis of all radio systems. The above involves a transfer of energy from one point to another by means of an e.m. wave. The wave consists of two oscillating fields mutually perpendicular t o each other and to the direction of propagation. The electric field (E) will be parallel to the wire from which the wave was transmitted, while the magnetic field (H) will be at right angles. A 'snapshot' of such a wave is shown in Fig. 1.1 where the distance shown between successive peaks is known as the wavelength. The velocity and wavelength of an e.m. wave are

1952 1953 1954


1965 1970 1970

From the time of the Wright brothers to the present day, the non -commercial side of civil aviation, known as general aviation (business and private) has grown with less spectacular firsts than its big brother, so that now by far the largest number of civil aircraft are in this category. It was inevitable that the new toys of radio and aircraft should be married early on in their history. Later the vast increase in air traffic made it essential that radio aids, in both communication and navigation, should be made full use of, to cope safely

Fig. 1.1

An electromagnetic wave

directly related through the frequency of the alternating current generating the wave. The law is: c= Y`f where : c is the speed of light (3 X 108 m/s). Y` is the wavelength in metres. f is the frequency in Hertz (cycles/s). A radiating wire is most efficient when its length is equal to half a wavelength. Thus for a frequency of 100 MHz the wire should be (3 X 10 8)/(2 X 100 X 106 ) = 1.5m long, in which case it is known as a dipole. In practice many airborne radio systems do not make use of dipole antennas since their size is prohibitively large, except at very high frequencies, and the radiation patt ern is not suited to applications where energy needs to be transmitted in or received from a certain direction. A close relative of the dipole is the unipole antenna which is a X/4 length conductor mounted vertically on the metal fuselage which acts as a ground plane in which a reflection of the unipole is `seen' to form a dipole. Thus a v.h.f. communication (comm.) unipole would be less than 60 cm long (centre frequency of the band is 127 MHz). Two unipoles are sometimes mounted back to back on the vertical stabilizer to function as a dipole antenna for use with VOR (Chapter 4) or ILS (Chapter 5). At frequencies in the region of 2-30 MHz (h.f.) a dipole would be between 5 and 75 m. Since the dimensions of aircraft fall, roughly speaking, within this range of lengths it is possible to use the aircraft as the radiating or receiving element. A notch or slot cut in a suitable part of the airframe (e.g. base of vertical stabilizer) has a large oscillating voltage applied across it, so driving current through the fuselage which in turn radiates. The notch/airframe load must be `tuned' to the correct frequency for efficient transmission. Without tuning, little energy would be radiated and a large standing wave would be set up on the connector feeding the notch. This is due to the interaction of incident and reflected energy to and from the antenna. An alternative type of antenna for this band of frequencies is a long length of wire similarly tuned, i.e. with variable reactive components. F or frequencies within the range 10-100 kHz the maximum dimension of even large aircraft is only a small fraction of a wavelength. At these frequencies capacitive type antennas maybe used. One plate of the capacitor is the airframe; the other a horizont al tube, vertical blade or a mesh (sometimes a solid plate). The aircraft causes the field to become

intensified over a limited region near its surface. The resulting comparatively strong oscillating E field between the capacitor's plates causes a current to flow in twin feeder or coaxial cable connected across the antenna. The airborne systems operating in the relevant frequency band are the receive-only systems covered in Chapter 6 (Omega, Decca and Loran C). Although ADF (Chapter 3) receives sign als in the band of frequencies immediately above those considered in this paragraph, one of its two antennas (sense) utilizes the principles discussed. An alternative to the capacitance antenna is the loop antenna which is basically a loop of wire which cuts the H field component of the e.m. wave. The field is intensified by use of a ferrite core on which several turns are wound. Use of two loops mounted at right angles provides a means of ascertaining the direction of arrival (ambiguous) of an e.m. wave. Such antennas are used for ADF (loop) and may also be used for Omega. At frequencies above, say, 3000 MHz the properties of waveguides may be used. A waveguide is a hollow metal tube, usually of rectangular cross section, along which an e.m. w ave can propagate. If the end of a waveguide is left open some energy will be radiated. To improve the efficiency, the walls of the waveguide are flared out, so providing matching to free space and hence little or no reflected energy back down the guide. Such an antenna is called a horn and may be used for radio altimeters (Chapter 11). Associated with the wave propagated along a waveguide are wall currents which flow in specific directions. A slot, about 1 em in length, cut in the waveguide so as to interrupt the current flow will act as a radiator. If several slots are cut the energy from them will combine several wavelengths from the antenna to form a directional beam. The direction depends on the spacing of the slots. Such antennas may be used for Doppler radar (Chapter 10) and weather radar (Chapter 9). The theory of some of the more esoteric antennas used on aircraft is a little sketchy and design is finalized, if not based, on empirical data. However the antenna is designed, it will only s ee service if it performs its function of transmitting and/or receiving e.m. waves in and/or from required directions. The directivity of an antenna, or the lack of directivity, is most clearly defined by means of a polar diagram. If we take a transmitting antenna and plot points of equal field strength (one value only) we have such a diagram. The same antenna used for receiving would, of course, have the same polar diagram. If the diagram is a circle centred on the antenna, as would be the case if the plot were in the plane perpendicular

to a dipole, then the antenna is said to be omnidirectional in the plane in which the measurements were made. A practical antenna cannot be omnidirectional in all planes, i.e. in three dimensions. The e.m. Spectrum and Propagation As can be seen from the previous paragraph, the frequency of the radio wave is an important consideration when considering antenna design. In addition the behavior of the wave as it propagates through the earth's atmosphere is also very much dependent on the frequency. However, before considering propagation, we will place radio waves in the spectrum of all e.m. waves (Table 1.1). In doing so we see that the range of frequencies we are concerned with is small when Table 1.1 The electro magnetic spectrum Hz Region 10 25 10 21 Cosmic rays Gamma rays

Table 1.3 Approximate bands for microwave frequencies Letter designation L S C X K Q Frequency range (GHz) 1-3 2-5-4

3.5-7.5 6-12.5 12.5 -40 33-50 Table 1.4 Airborne radio frequency utilization (exact frequencies given in relevant chapters) System Omega Decca Loran C ADF h.f. comm. Marker ILS (Localizer) VOR v.h.f. comm. ILS (Glideslope) DME SSR Radio altimeter Weather radar (C) Doppler (X) Weather radar (X) Doppler (K) Frequency band 10-14 kHz 70-130 kHz 2-25 MHz 100 kHz 75 MHz 108-112 MHz 108-118 MHz 118-136 MHz 320-340 MHz 960-1215 MHz 1030 and 1090 MHz 4.2-4.4 GHz

10' 9 X rays 10 17 Ultraviolet 10 15 Visible 10 14 Infra-red 10 11 Radio waves compared with the complete spectrum. By general agreement radio frequencies are categorized as in Table 1.2. There is less agreement about the letter designations used for the higher radio frequencies which are tabulated with approximate frequency ranges in Table 1.3. Finally, Table 1.4 lists the frequencies used for airborne radio systems by international agreement. Table 1.2
Very low frequency Low frequency Medium frequency High frequency Very high frequency Ultrahigh frequency Superhigh frequency Extremely high frequency

Radio frequency categorization
Abbreviation Frequency VIE
l.f. m.f. h.f. v.h.f. u.h.f. s.h.f. e.h.f. 3-30 30-300 300-3000 3-30 30-300 300-3000 3-30 kHz kHz kHz MHz MHz MHz GHz

30-300 GHz

In free space, all radio waves travel in straight lines at the speed of light. Such a mode of propagation is known as the space wave. In addition, two other modes of propagation are used with airborne radio equipment: the ground wave and the sky wave. A fourth mode known as tropospheric scatter is used only for fixed ground stations since elaborate and expensive. equipment must be used at both ends of the link due to the poor transmission efficiency. The ground wave follows the surface of the earth partly because of diffraction, a phenomenon associated with all wave motion which causes the wave to bend around any obstacle it passes. In addition, the wave H field cuts the earth's surface, so causing currents to flow. The required power for these currents must come from the wave, thus a flow

of energy from wave to earth takes place causing bending and attenuation. The attenuation is a limiting factor on the range of frequencies which can be used. The higher the frequency the greater the rate of change of field strength, so more attenuation is experienced in maintaining the higher currents. Ground waves are used for v.l.f. and l.f. systems. Radio waves striking the ionosphere (a s et of ionized layers lying between 50 and 500 km above the earth's surface) are refracted by an amount depending on the frequency of the incident wave. Under favourable circumstances the wave will return to the earth. The distance between the transmit ter and point of return (one hop) is known as the skip distance. Multiple hops may occur giving a very long range. Above about 30 MHz there is no sky wave since insufficient refraction occurs. Sky wave propagation is useful for h.f. comm. but can caus e problems with l.f. and m.f. navigation aids since the sky wave and ground wave may combine at the receiver in such a way as to cause fading, false direction of arrival or false propagation time measurements. At v.l.f. the ionosphere reflects, rather than refracts, with little loss; thus v.l.f. navigation aids of extremely long range may be used. Above 30 MHz, space waves, sometimes called line of sight waves, are utilized. From about 100 MHz to 3 GHz the transmission path is highly predictable and reliable, and little atmospheric attenuation occurs. Above 3 GHz attenuation and scattering occur, which become limiting factors above about 10 GHz. The fact that space waves travel in a straight line at a known speed and, furthermore, are reflected from certain objects (including thunderstorms and aircraft) makes the detection and determination of range and bearing of such objects possible. Modulation Being able to receive a remotely transmitted e.m. wave and measure its characteristics is not in itself of much use. To form a useful link, information must

be superimposed on the e.m. wave carrier. There are several ways in which the wave can carry information and all of them involve varying some characteristic of the carrier (amplitude or frequency modulation) or interrupting the carrier (pulse modulation). The simplest, and earliest, way in which a radio wave is made to carry information is by use of Morse Code. Switching the transmitter on for a short time -interval, corresponding to a dot, o r a longer time -interval, corresponding to a dash, enables a message to be transmitted. Figure 1.2 illustrates the transmission of SOS, the time-intervals shown being typical. In radar the information which must be superimposed is simply the time of t ransmission. This can easily be achieved by switching on the transmitter for a very short time to produce a pulse of e.m. energy. When transmitting complex information, such as speech, we effectively have the problem of transmitting an extremely large number of sine waves. Since the effect of each modulating sine wave on the radio frequency (r.f.) carrier is similar, we need only consider a single sine wave modulating frequency. The characteristics of the modulating signal which must be transmitted are the frequency and amplitude. Figure 1.3 shows three ways in which a pulsed carrier may be modulated by a sine wave while Figs 1.4 and 1.5 show amplitude and frequency modulation of a continuous wave (c.w.) carrier. Both amplitude modulated (a.m.) and frequency modulated (f.m.) carriers are commonly used for airborne systems. With a.m. the amplitude of the carrier represents the amplitude of the modulating signal, while the rate of change of amplitude represents the frequency. With f.m. the amplitude and frequency of the modulating signal is represented by the frequency deviation and rate of change of frequency of the carrier respectively. Both a.m. and f.m. waves have informative parameters associated with them. With a.m. if the

, Time y

x = 0 .1s, y=0 -3 s Fig. 1.2 Morse code: SOS

Radio frequency transmitted

--, Time

Fig. 1.4 Amplitude modulation

Fig. 1.3 Pulse modulation - from top to bottom: unmodulated carrier, modulating waveform, pulse amplitude modulation, pulse width modulation and pulse position modulation

carrier amplitude is Y"e and the modulating signal amplitude is V„, then the modulation factor is Vt,-,, , 'C. This fraction can be expressed as a percentage, in which case it is known as the percentage modulation or depth of modulation (note sometimes depth of modulation is quoted as a decimal fraction). Figure 1.4 shows 100 per cent modulation. With f.m. the parameter is the deviation ratio which is given by the ratio of maximum frequency deviation (fd max) to maximum modulating frequency (fm max). The ratio fd/fr„ is called the modulation index and will only be constant and equal to the deviation ratio if the modulating signal is fixed in frequency and amplitude. In Figs 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 the modulated signal is illustrated in the time domain, i.e. with time along the horizontal axis. It is instructive to look at the frequency domain representations as shown in

Fig. 1.5 Frequency modulation

Fig. 1.6 where a single sine wave of frequency fT , is the modulating signal. It can be seen that several frequencies are present, so giving rise to the idea of bandwidth of a radio information channel. The most significant difference between a.m. and f.m. is that the a.m. bandwidth is finite whereas, in theory, the f.m. bandwidth is infinite. In practice the f.m. bandwidth is regarded as finite, being limited by those extreme sidebands which are regarded as significant, say 10 per cent of amplitude of the largest frequency

frequency component is 3000 Hz we need only transmit a sample of the instantaneous amplitude every 1/6000 = 0-000 166 7 s (= 166.7 ps). Thus we have time-intervals during which we can transmit samples of other signals. The number of signals we can time multiplex on one carrier link depends on the duration and frequency of each sample. The shorter the sample duration the greater the bandwidth required, confirming the statement made earlier that more information requires wider bandwidths.
Carrier (fc ) Fig. 1.6 Amplitude modulation and frequency modulation spectrums for a pure sine wave modulating signal of frequency fm

Basic Receivers and Transmitters A much simplified transmitter block diagram is shown in Fig. 1.7. This could be called the all-purpose block diagram since it could easily be converted to a

component. The relative amplitudes of the carrier and sidebands depend on modulation factor and index for a.m. and f.m. respectively. In any information link there is a relationship between the bandwidth and the amount of information which can be carried, hence high-fidelity stereo broadcasts occupy a wide bandwidth. It is not, however, desirable to have as wide a bandwidth as possible since (a) the number of available channels is reduced; (b) electrical noise, generated at all frequencies by electrical equipment and components, and by atmospheric effects, will be present in the receiver channel at a greater power level the wider the bandwidth. The signal power to noise power ratio is a limiting factor in the performance of receiving equipment. The information in an a.m. wave is repeated in each of the sidebands; the carrier frequency component has no information content. As a consequence, at the expense of more complicated transmitting and receiving equipment, we need transmit only one sideband. Single sideband (s.s.b.) transmission conserves bandwidth, with attendant advantages, and is found in airborne h.f. comm. systems. Multiplexing In most airborne systems the required number of channels is obtained by allocating non-overlapping bands of frequencies centred on specified discrete carriers. This is known as frequency multiplexing. Shannon's sampling theory shows that a sine wave of frequency fm can be completely specified by a series of samples spaced at no more than 1/2 f m second (s). To transmit speech where the highest

Fig. 1.7

Basic radio transmitter block diagram

low-level a.m. transmitter, (little if any amplification of the carrier before modulation), a high-level a.m. transmitter (little if any amplification of the carrier after modulation), an s.s.b. transmitter (introduce a band pass filter after the modulator) or an f.m. transmitter (introduce a frequency multiplifer after the modulator). Obviously in the above examples the circuit details would vary greatly, particularly in the modulators, and if detailed block diagrams were drawn the underlying similarities in structure would be less obvious. The most basic type of receiver is a tuned radio frequency (t.r.f.), however this is rarely used. The standard receiver configuration is the superheterodyne (superhet) shown in Fig. 1.8. The desired r.f. is converted to a constant intermediate frequency by taking the difference frequency after mixing the received signal with the output from a local oscillator (Lo.). Since most of the amplification and selectivity is provided by constant frequency and bandwidth stages the design problem is eased. In both the transmitter and the receiver, r.f. oscillators have to b e tuned to different frequencies. In the transmitter it is the m.o. (master oscillator), while in the receiver it is the Lo. Modern practice is

Fig. 1.8 Basic superhetrodyne receiver block diagram

to usea frequencysynthesizer with a singlecrystal to providestability dnd accuracy.

(positive In all of the abovethe logic may be reversed logic). Thus we can represent binary and negative a digit (bit) by an electricalsignal,but if the number to is be represented largerthan l, we must combinebits into someintelligiblecode. DigitalSystems Binary code hasbeenmentioned;this is simply counting to the base2 rather than the basel0 Coding (decimalcode) aswe do normally. Unfortunately, Most of the airborne systems use are basically in binary numberssoon becomevery large,for example analogue, they dealwith signals i.e. which represent 9 l r o = I 0 I I 0 I 1 2( t h e s u b s c r i p t s i n d i c a t i n g t h e variousquantitiescontinuouslyand smoothly. For 8= so examplein DME a very smallincrease rangeresults base), octal (base 23) and hexadecimal in (basel6 = 24) may be used. The machinemay still in a corresponding increase time;we say time is an in are dealwith a 1/0 situationbut the numbers more analogue distance. With a digital system, of when written down, for example manageable information is represented a numberencodedin by given, 91 ro = l33s = 5816. Note, in the examples if somesuitableway. we split the binary number into groupsof three from Sinceit is difficult to detectmany different voltage the right (leastsignificantbit, l.s.b.)we have or current levelsonly two are used,and this leads l , 0 l l , 0 1 1 2 = 1 , 3 , 3 s , i . e .e a c hg r o u pi s t h e b i n a r y naturallyto expressing numbersto the base2 (binary code)wherethe only digits are 0 and l. It remainsto code for an octal digit. Similarly =5,816. l defineelectronicrepresentations 0 and I in an r 101,0ll2 of Binary and hexadecimal codesare usedin digital unambiguous way. Various methodsare usedwith computers,octal code is usedfor the ATC (a) beingby far the most common,in the (Chapter8). The task of frequency transponder non-exhaustive which follows. list selectionis one which lendsitself to coding,and which havebeenused,the two most amongseveral - 0 commonarebinarycodeddecimal(b.c.d.)and two (a) Voltagelevel no voltage - t from five (2/5). Both of thesecodesretain the high voltage = l decimaldigit 'flavour' of the number to be encoded (b) Pulse polarity positive = Q at the expense usingextra bits. To represent negative of 9l 16 (c) Pulse position a time interval is split in we considerthe decimaldigits 9 and I separately to two halves: give: = | pulse in first half 9lro=1001 00016.9.6., pulsein secondhalf = 0 (d) Phase at specified read time a change 9l ro=10001 11000275 sinewave: phase changes for Equivalents all the codesmentionedare givenfor = | (180"C) numbers to l5 in Table 1.5. 0 decimal . doesnot change It can be seenfrom the abovethat more bits than = Q are absolutelynecessary usedfor b.c.d. and2l5. phase are

Tabh 1.5 Variouscodeequivalents

4. conversionfrom binarYto b.c.d.; 5 . b.c.d. fed to frequencysynthesizer; code; from b.c.d. to special 6 . conversion 7 . specialcode fed to readoutdevice.

1 0 2

8 1 6


0000 0001 0010 001I 0100 0l0l 0l 10 0lll 1000 l00l 0000 0001 0010 00lt 0100 0101 0l001 l 1000 10100 0l 100 0 l0 l q l 0 0 10 00101 I 0001 10010 10001 01001 11000 10100 01100 01010 00110

0 0000 0 0 I 000r I I 2 0010 2 2 3 00ll 3 3 4 0100 4 4 5 0l0l 5 5 6 0 1 1 06 6 ? 0lll 7 I 8 1000 l0 8 9 1 0 0 1I I 9 l0 l0l0 l2 A ll l0ll l3 E 12 I 100 14 c 13 ll01 15 D 14 lll0 l6 E 15 llll l7 F

0001 0001 0001 0001 0001 0001

11000 11000 11000 11000 11000 u000

the So far we haveonly discussed coding of The ISO (lnternationalStandards numericaldata. word code alphabetNo. 5 is a seven-bit Organisation) which can be usedto encodeupper and lower case letters,punctuationmarks,decimaldigits and various and other characters control symbols' The full code may be found in most of the latest ARINC here,however' and characteristics will not be repeated are examples A = I 0 0 0 0 0 I' O I 0 0 10,etc. Aparitybitmaybeadded n=i to give a byte. Wh"r. . limited numberof actualwords needto be 'distance','speed','heading',etc' special e.g. encoded, in codesmay be designated'Suchcodesare described in fo rm ation AR INC specification 429'2 digital in transfersystem(DITS) which is discussed 13. Chapter Microcomputers The microprocessorhas brought powerful computers on to aircraft to perform a number of functions, equations,in a includingthe solution of navigation way than before' A more sophisticated and of microcomputerconsists a microprocessor integratedcircuits(chips),to help peripheral several perform its function' the microprocessor There are four basicparts to computers,micro or otherwise:memory, arithmeticlogic unit (ALU)' control unit and the input/output unit (l/O)' In a microcomputerthe ALU and control unit are usually or combinedon a singlechip, the microprocessor (CPU)' Figure l '9 illustratesa unit centralprocessing basicsystem. The memory containsboth instructionsand data in the form of binary words' Memory is of two basic (RAM)' types, ,ead only (ROM) and random access doesnot rememberany previousstate The ROM which may haveexisted;it merely definesa functional betweenits input lines and its output relationshrp lines. The RAM could be termed readand write memory; sincedata can be both readfrom memory urd written into memory, i.e. its statemay change' trnformation in RAM is usually lost when power is switched off. circuitry to allow The ALU contains the necessary such asaddition operations, it to carry out arithmetic and logicalfunctions such as Boolean and subtiaction, (combinationsof NANDs and operations algebra NORsetc.).

If the bits are transmitted serially, one after the other in time down a line, then more time is neededfor the of transmission. a number than would be neededif binary codewere used. If the bits are transmittedin parallel,one bit per line, then more lines are needed. in This hasa certain advantage that the redundancy errors, for may be usedto detect transmission I example 0 I I Ocouldnotbea2/5 codeand I 0 I 0 could not be b.c.d. Error checking can also be used with binary codes. We will alwaysbe restrictedto a certainmaximum a numberof bits, one of which can be designated we parity bit usedsolely for error detecting. Suppose eachgroup bf eight-bitswould had eightbits available, a be call-ed word of length 8 (commonly calleda bits of the word would be used byte). Ttrefirst seven to encodethe decimal digit (0 to 127) while the eighthwould be the parity bit. For odd parity we set the parity bit to 0 or I so as to make the total numberof onesin the word odd; similarly for even parity. Thus61e= 00001l0l odd parity or j 3,o oooot 100 evenparity. Error correcting(as to opposed detecting)codesexist but do not find use in airborneequiPmentasYet. To considera practicalapplicationqf the above on a Srppose particular frequencyis selected a of control unit, we may havethe following sequence events: l. information from controller: 215 code', 2. conversionfrom2l5 to binary; binary data; 3. microcomputerprocesses



FA. t.9 Basic microcomputer organization The control unit providestiming instructionsand from memory, on the data bus, to the control unit synchronization all other units. The control for whereit is decoded. The programcounter signals causethe other units to move data, manip_ulate automaticallyincrementsby one count, and after the numbers, input and output information. All this current instruction has been executedthe next instructionis fetched. This basiccvcle of: activity dependson a set of step-by-step instructions (known as the program)which residein memory. The l/O unit is the computer'sinterfacewith the fetch outsideworld. decode From Fig. 1.9 it can be seenthat the units are increment interconnected three main buses. A bus is several by execute electricalconnectionsdedicatedto a particular task. A unidirectionalbus allowsdata flow in one direction continuously. During the executionof an only, unlike a bidirectionalbus where flow is two-way. is repeated instructiondata may have to be fetched from ln a microcomputer usually we have: memory, for exampleto add two numbersthe instructionwill need to tell the CPU not only that an l. address bus: sixteenunidirectional lirfes; additionoperationis necessary, the location.in but 2. databus: eightor sixteen bidirectional lines; 3. control bus: the numberof linesvaries with the the memory,of the numbersto be added. are The rate at which instructions executed systemand may haveboth unidirectional and and the depends the complexityof the instrtrction on bidirectional lines. frequency the systern of clock. Eachpulsefrom the .: several clock initiatesthe next actionof the system; To operate, eachstep-by-step instructionmust be per actions instructionareneeded.Often the clock fetched, order,from memoryand executed the in by CPU. To keeptrack of the next stepin the program, circuitis on the CPU chip. the only external a programcounter is usedwhich incremelts eachtime component beinga crystal. The I/O data flows via logicalcircuits calledporrs. an hstruction is fetched. Before an instruction can be executed.it must be decodedin the CPU to Theseports may be openedin a similar way to that in determinehow it is to be accomplished. In the I/O which memory is addressed. somesystems On switch-on,the programcounter is set to the ports are treated as if they were RAM - an address (location) of this opensa particularport and data flows in or out of first storedinstruction. The address first instruction is placedon the address by the bus that port dependingon whether a read or write signal pro$am counter causingthe instruction to be fetched is present. A variety of chips are used for l/O, some 10

of whi_ch very basic; others (programmable ports) are more flexible. The program which is resident in ROM is srbdividedinto routines. Someroutineswill be runningcontinuouslyunlessstopped;others may only be called for when the need ariseJ. For example, a navigationcomputer will continuously compute the aircraft position by running the mainioufini (or bop) which instructs the ALU as to which calculationsmust be carried out using data available in memory. This data must be updated periodically by acceptinginformation from, siy, u ,"dio navigationsensor. When data is available from the extemalequipment,an interrupt sigral is generated and fed to the microcomputer on an interiupt line. Such a signalcauses the computer to abandon the main routine and commencea serviceroutine which will supervisethe transfer of the new data into rrrmory. After transfer the main routine will rccommenceat the next step, rememberedby a CpU register. The topics discussed the paragraphsabove can in all be classifiedashardware or softwaie. The hardware the sum total of actual components is up the computer: chips,active and passive T"king discrete components, and interwiring. Software comprises_programs, procedures and the languages or codesusedfor internal and external commu-nication. Softwaredeterminesthe stateof the hardwarear any particulartime. In an airbornecomputer both the software and hardware are fixed Uy itre designer. The operatordoesnot haveto program the computer in the sense that he must write a routine; however, he plays his part in how the computer will function b1,,for example,selecting switChposition which a will cause certain data to be preseniedto him by the computer,insertingatard (hardware),on which codedinstructionsor data (software)havebeen *Titten, into a cardreader, etc. Examples the use of microcomputersare of coruidered someof the chaptersto follow. These in applications, and the abovebrief discussion. should givethe readera basicidea on how computerswork; for detailsof circuitry and programminj consult the readily availablespecialistliteriture.

which it operates(seeTables1.2 and 1.3) and as being pulsed, a.m. or f.m. From both the desigr and maintenancepoint of view, the frequency at which equipmentoperates perhaps is more important than the modulation used, at least in so far ai the choice of componentsand test equipmentis concerned. The higher the frequency the greaterthe effect of stray capacitanceand inductance, sigral transit time and skin effect in conductors. In thi microwave region(s.h.f. and the high end of u.h.f.) wavezuide replaces co-axialcable,certainly above5 GHz] and special components whosedimensions play a critical part in their operationareintroduced(klystrons, magnetrons, etc.). Analogue-Digital Theseterms have alreadybeen mentioned and certain aspects digital systems of havebeendiscussed. In modern airborne systemsthe information in the radio and intermediatefrequencystages, including the 'wireless' r.f. link, is usually in analogueform (the exception being secondarysurveillan rcdar (see ce Chapter8), to be joined in future by microwave gtail8 systems, data link and the replacement for SSR(seeChapter l3)). In addition Commonlyused transducers such as synchros, potentiometers, microphones,telephonesand speakers all analogue are devices.Not all transducers in the analogue are Tlegory, a shaft angleencoderused in encoding altimetersis basicallyan analogue digital converter. to With the exception of the above almost everything . elsein current equipmentis digital, whereas previouslysystems were all analogue.There is a further subdivisionwithin digitaliquipment into thoseusinga combinationof hardwareand software (computer-controlled) and thoseusingonly hardware (hardwiredlogic). The trend is towardsthl former. Function The two basic categorieswith regardto function are communications and navigation. If navigationis definedin its widest sense safe,economicalpassage as from A to B via selected points (waypoints) then communications systems eould be considered as belongingto the navigationcategory. If, however, communications systems regarded those are as systems capableof transmittingspeech over radio or wire links, and all other systems navigation,we iue as obeyinga sensible convention. The introduction of data links will requiresomeamendmentto the definition of communications systems, since , non-navigational data will be transmittedbut not as a speech pattern. Navigationsystems may be subdividedinto radio

CaGgorization of Airborne Radio Eqripments Frcqucy and Modulation involvedvary greatlywith the T* 9" techniques r.f. andtypeof modulation used, ofien useful itls to crtegonze equipment to the bandof frequencies as in


concemls systems but andnon'radio, only the radio posit i on-t txmg division is sub ;;;":'-A;;ih.i possible

category; belongto the landing-aids systems landing of subdivisions the category these itfr*t?i',vpes of in Chapters will systems be considered lf nuuigution ui9: "^.,. systems r'ndlnc, 111 Position-fixing S. f f uiO 5 respectively' ffi; ;;rfieiiht-nndrng, latter we nave d ntaine and For the d into self'co environment-monitoring' I ^"' u.'i" t,ft.i subtlivide dead while radio a]tim,etlrs systems' Theformeruses -l.i-ghlri"olng weatheravoidance rument ilffi;;,i"t-tutta' go cate rv andinst

fi "* ; ;it






navigationsystem Fh. l.l0 KNS 80 integrated Radio CorP') (JurtesY King


reckoning to compute the aircraft's position while the latter usesa variety of methods:rho'theta, rho-rho, rho-rho-rho,theta-thetaand hyperbolic. The Greeklettersp (rho) and 0 (theta) areusedto (range)and angle(bearing)to a distance represent fixed point of known location. The pilot can determine(fix) his positionif he knows: (a) p and 0 to one fixed Point: (b) p to three distinct fixed Points; (c) 0 to two distinct fixed Points. A rho-rho systemgivesan ambiguousfix unlessthe aircraft is at the midpoint of the line joining the two stationsto which the rangeis known. With by position-fixingis achieved hyperbolicsystems in differences range;ambiguitymay be measuring (Chapter6). avoidedby varioustechniques the equipmentoverlaps One item of navigation betweenthe different methodsof positionboundhries fixing, namelyOmega;this usesdeadreckoningin conjunctionwith rho-rho, rho-rho'rhoor hyperbolic VOR (Chapter4) andDME methods. Two systems, (Chapter7) are usedtogetherto gfuea rho-thetafix. With miniaturizationof circuitry, it is now possible which were previously systems, to houseseveral into one box' It is still possible physicallyseparate, by to categorize function, but we must bearin mind that the circuit implementationmay be intimately connected.Suchan exampleis givenby the system(Fig. I ' l0) King KNS 80 integratednavigation 4, VOR, DME and ILS (Chapters which incorporates 7 and 5) aswell as areanavigationfacilities(Chapter systems may grouptogether l2). Other equipment such operatingwithin the sameband of frequencies asv.h.f.comm.and v.h.f.nav.(VOR and ILS). in systems use Figure l.l I illustratesthe navigation on a Boeing747 with a typical fit; different operators may takeop different options. This diagramincludes non-radio(mainly in the top half) aswell as radio the and illustrates interrelationships systems, with regardto display betweenthem especially (right-handside). A similardiagramfor the is systems includedin Chapter2 communications (Fig. 2.15). The largenumberof radionavigation systems, someduplicatedor eventriplicated for safety,presentthe problem of whereto position the antennas.The solution for the Boeing747 is shown i n F i g .1 . 1 2 .

usedterms in aircraft navigation. All of the quantities can be found defined,with the exceptionof heading, or usingradio systems, areinput by the pilot at some stageof the flight, usually prior to take off.

Interference The e.m. environment of an aircraft radio system is suchthat it may suffer from interferingsignals-and/or interference or noise,man-made natural,ind cause may be either itself to other systems.Interference radiatedor conducted. it As the aircraft fliei through the atmosphere, due to frictional contact picks up electricalcharge (precipitationstatic) and particles with atmospheric alsowhile flying through cloud formations,within which very strongelectricfieldsexist (electrostatic will induction). An unevendistribution of charge currentsto flow in the aircraft skin; possiblyin cause the form of a spark,betweenparts of unequal potential. Any sparkresultsin a wide band of radiatedr.f. which will be picked up by radio systems asnoiseand possiblymaskwantedsigrals. To avoid this type ofinterference,a bondingsystemis used numerousmetal stripswhich presentvery comprising links betweenall parts of the aircraft. low iesistance within the aitcraft,a In addition to discharges if occur to atmosphere a sufficiently will discharge largedifferencein potential exists. The discharge but in an attempt to keep the cannotbe avoided, static as activity as far from antennas possible, fitted to the trailing edgeof the are dischaigers in tailplaneand verticalstabilizer order to mainplane, providean easypath for it. By providinga numberof the points at eachdischarger voltageis kept discharge bondingsystemcarriesthe largecurrents low. The involvedto thoseparts of the airframewherethe are static dischargers fitted. Lightningconductors, of such ason the insidesurface the non-conducting to connected noseradome,and lightningdischargers and somenotch the lead-inof wire antennas help conduct any strike to the bulk of the antennas, to damage equipment. A wire airframe,so preventing path between a high resistance antennawill alsohave of and the airframeto allow leakage any static it build-up on the antenna. enginc Sparksoccur in d.c. motors and generators, are etc. Capacitors usedto provide igrition systems, commutators brushes, r.f. a low resistance path across and contacts, a form of protection known as nrppression. and Another form ofinterferenceis capacitive pick-up and cross-talkbetween adjacent inductive

Nomenclature Navigation
Figure I .13 and Table I .6 definethe most commonly


Wcathcr radar systcm Loran indicetors Radio rnag indic6tors


dircctor in.


3yst. I


lbcacon ird.l

Fig. l.l I Boeing747: typical navigationsystemsfit (courtesyBoeingComntrcial AeroplaneCo.)

cables. Pick-up is the term usedwhen the interfering source a.c.power (400 Hz in aircraft),while is cross-talkis interferencefrom a nearby signal-carrying cable. The problem arisesout of the capacitance and mutual inductancewhich edsts betweenthe cables.A pair of wiresmay be twisted togetherto reduceboth types ofinterference- the pick-up or cross-talk adjacent on loops,formed by the twist, tendingto cancelout. An earthedmetallic screenor shield will provide an effective reduction in capacitiveinterferencebut low-frequency inductive 14

pick-up is not appreciably affected by the non-magneticscreen. At high frequenciesskin effect confines the magneticfields of co-axial cablesto their cablesareboth screened interior. Most signal-carrying and twisted;some,whereintegrity is especially important, e.g. radio altimeteroutput, may have double screening. around a wire must be earthedin order The screen to be effective. Howeverif both endsof the screen are earthed,an earth loop may be formed sincethe remoteearth completecircuit through the screen,

Wirthor ndu Locrlizrr No.
Locrlizcr No. 1 end tlo. 2

Loft tnd right AFT nos. 9e8r door glidc slopo tracl end capturr antcnna sy3tams Ccntor .furolegcJ aqulpment cantcr

Low rmgc rrdio altimotrr
ADf loop No. 1

l{rrtrr batcon ADF loop llo. 2 ADF srnse entcnnaNo. 2

ADF rns. antoma t{o. 1

VORNo.1 VOR No. 2

Fig.l.l2 Boeing747.. typical navigation systems aerial (courtesy locations Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co.) points and the airframe is of non-zero resistance. As a consequence, interferingsources may causea potential differenceto edst betweenthe endsof the screen.The resultingcurrent flow and its associated H field would cause interference the inner in conductor. Earth loops are a particularproblem in audio systems and must be avoided. The earth pointsfor screened cables and a.c.power must be remote from one another. If a screen wereto be connecteddirectly to an a.c. power earth, conductedmainsinterference may result. Another form of conductedinterference cross-talk is where a number of signalcarryiqg wires are brought together, e.g.audio signals beingfed to an interphoneamplifier. potential divider networkskeep Suitably designed this conducted cross-talkto a minimum (Chapter 2). Adequateseparation antennas of operatingwithin the samefrequencyband is necessary prevent to mutual interferenceby radiation. Frequency and time domain filtering may be usedin helping to avoid suchinterference, former in c.w. systems, the the latter in pulsedsystems.Different polarization(E field direction) will assistin preventing cross-coupling betweenantennas.



\Mnd dircction dnd velocatY

On tnck \Mnd dircction and velocity


Fit; l.l3 Navigationnomenclature(courtesyLitton Systems lnternational lnc., Aero hoducts Division)


Navigation nomenclature - abbreviations electrical equipment will interfere with the magnetic compass. Units are marked with their 'compasssafe distance' as appropriate but care should also be taken Abbreviation Meaning particularlyfor d.c. power. with cables, Table 1.6
HDG Heading - angle,measured clockwise betweenNorth and the direction in which the aircraft is pointing, Track - direction in which the aircraft is moving. Desired'Track- direction in which the pilot wishesthe aircraft to move. Drift Angle - anglebetweenhcadingand track measured port (left) or starboard to (right). Track Angle Error - angle bctween track and desiredtrack, usually quoted as left or rght. Ground Speed - spdedof the aircraft in the directionof the track.in the'plane' parallel to the earth's surface(map speed). . Comparewith air speedwhich is the speed of the aircraft relative to the air mass through which it is moving. Position. Waypoint - a significant point on the route which may t c usedfor reporting to Air Traffic Control, turning or landing. Distanceto go from position to waypoint, CrossTrack - the perpendiculardistance from the aircraft to the line joining the two waypoints betweenwhich the aircraft is flying. Estimated time of arrival



This is not the placeto go into greatdetail on this important practicaltopic but somenotesof a general DA natureare in order to supplement notes included the in most of the following chapters.In practicethe maintenance engineer relieson his training and TAE experience and also regulations, schedules and procedures laid down or approved national bodies by responsible aviationin generaland safetyin for GS particular. The aircraft maintenance enginber, whatever of specialism, responsible regularinspections for is of equipmentas laid down in the aircraft schedule.For the radio engineeran inspection will consist of a POS thorough examination of all equipment comprising WPT the radio installationfor cracks,dents,chafing,dirt, oil, grease, moisture,buming, arcing,brittleness, breakage, corrosion,mechanical bonding, freedomof DIS movement,springtension,etc" as applicable. In XTK carrying out specific tasks the engineershould look for damage parts of the airframeor its equipment to which are not directly his or her responsibility. Vigilance is the key to flight safety. ETA Carrying out functional tests when called for in th0 schedule, when a fault hasbeen reported,should or be done in accordance with the procedurelaid down Adjacent channel interference occurs when a in the aircraft maintenance manual. A word of receiver's bandwidth is not sufficiently narrow to waming should be givenhere,sinceprocedures not are attenuate unwantedsigralscloseto the required alwayswhat they shouldbe: often testingof certain sigtal. Secondor imagechannelinterferencemay aspects a system'sfunction are omitted and, of occurin superhetreceivers when an unwantedsigral rarely, there m.aybe errors in the procedure. froin the required sigrralby twice the A thorough knbwledge of the system is the best { separated intermediate frequencyand lies on the oppositeside guardagainst mistakesor omissions which, if noticed, of the local oscillatorfrequency. A high intermediate strouldbe amendedthrough the proper channels. frequency will help reduce secondchannel Modern equipmentusuallyhassufficient built-in interferencesince the image will be outside the r.f. test equipment(BITE) and.monitoringcircuits to bandwidth,the separation beinggreater. carry out a comprehensive check of the system. With Unfortunatelyfor a given Q factor, the bandwidth of portable test radio systems, however,special the intermediate frequency amplifiers will be wide for equipmentmust be usedin addition to BITE in order this solutionto the secondchannelproblem. to be in a position to certify the system asserviceable. Increasing channelseparation not really acceptable Test setsshouldbe capableof testingby radiationand is sincedemand for more channelsis forever rising. of simulating the appropriate sigrals to test all Somereceivers employ two intermediatefrequencies functionsnot coveredby BITE. producedby two mixer stages and two local The r.f. circuits,includingantennas and feeders, oscillators;this can give good adjacent and second are often neglectedwhen functional tests are carried drannel rejection. shouldbe out. In particulartest set antennas Magrretic fields associated with electronic and correctly positioned if a false impressionof the

receiver sensitivityor power output is to be avoided. Whenfault-firtdhg a completefunctional test shouldbe carriedout as far as posible in order to obtain a full list of symptoms. Naturally symptoms suchasa smell of burning or no supply must call a halt to the procedure. Fault-findingchartsin maintenance manualsare usefulbut there is no substitutefor knowledgeof the system. One shouldnot forget the possible effects of non-radiosystems and equipmentwhen investigating reported defects.Poorbonding, brokenstatic dischargers, open circuit suppression capacitors, low or inadequately filtered d.c. supplies, low voltageor etc. will all give rise lincorrectfrequencya.c. supplies, \o symptomswhich will be reportedby the pilot as radiodefects. Sometimes symptomsare only presentwhen the aircraft is airborneand the systemis subjectto vibration, pressure temperature and changes, etc. A functional test during engineruns will gc part way to reproducingthe conditionsof flight. One should mention the obvioushazardof loose articles;so obviousthat many aircraft accidents have beencaused the past by carelessness. in Tools and test equipment,including leads,must all be accounted for when a job is finished. A well-run store with signing-in and signing-out equipmentis an added of safeguard personalresponsibility. to Installationof equipmentshouldbe in accordance with the manufacturer's instructionswhich will cover the following, l. Weight of units: centre of gravity may be affected. 2. Current drawn: loadingof supplies should be carefully considered and the correct choiceof circuit-breaker made. 3. Cooling: more than adequate clearance should be left and forced air-cooling employedif appropriate. Overheating a major cause is of failure. 4. Mounting: anti-vibrationmounts may be necessary which, if non-metallic, give rise to a need for bonding straps. 5. Cables:length and type specified. Usually maximum length must be observed but in some particularlengthsarenecessairy. cases Types of .' cableusedmust provideprotection against interference and be ablerohandle current drawn or supplied. Current capabiltiesare reduced for cablesin bunches. 6. Antenna: approvedpositionsfor particular types of antenna or particular types of aircraft are laid down by aviation authorities. t8

Strengthening the structurearound the of antenna the form of a doublerplatewill in probablybe necessary. groundplaneis A essential and must not be forgotten if the antenna to be mountedon a non-conducting is surface. If the antennais movable,adequate should be left. Any alignment clearance requirements must be met. 7. Interface: qompatibility with other systems/ units must be ensured. Both impedance matching(including allowing for capacitive and inductive effects) and signalcharacteristics should be considered. Loading of outputs should be within limits. Particularcareshould be taken in decidingwhere synchro devices obtain their reference supplies. Programming pins for choiceof outputs and/or inputs must be correctlyconnected. 8. Compass: safedistance. 9. Radiation hazards. The last item in the abovenon-exhaustivelist raises the topic of safety. Electric shock is an obvious hazardw'ren working on aircraft and it shouldbe remembered that one is liable to receivea shockfrom radiatingantennas, particularly h.f. antennas. A radiation hazardexistswith all transmitting thus the operator should ensureno-oneis antennas, working, particularly doping or painting, near an antennawhen the associated transmitter is on. The particularhazardsof microwaveradiation are considered Chapter9. It is up to all personnel in working on aircraft to becomeawareof the dangers of harmful substances, use(and position) of fire the extinguishers, dangers mixing oil or grease the of with oxygen,elementaryfirst aid, warning symbols,etc.

Regulating and Advisory Bodaes
All countriesset up bodieswhich are responsible for mattersconcernedwith aviatione.g. CAA (UK), FAA (USA), BureauVeritas (France),etc. These bodiesdraft air law and issueregulations concerned with the hcensingof engineers and aircrew,aircraft operations, aircraft and equipment manufacture, minimum equipment fits (including radio), air traffic control, etc. They are also the bodiescharged with seeing, meansof examinationsand inspections, by that the law is obeyed. Aviation is an international activity and betweencountriesis essential.This co-operation co-operation achieved is mainly through the ICAO, an agencyaffiliated to the United Nations. All

nationswhich are signatories the Chicago to Conventionon Civil Aviation 1944 aremember-srates of the ICAO which was an outgrowth of that convention. Table 1.7 Organizations, ordersand conference concerned with aircraft radio systems
Abbreviation ARINC ATA AEEC CAA CAP FAA Orsanization Aeronautical Radio lnc. Air TransportAssociation AirlinesElectronicEngineering Committee Civil Aviation Authority Civil Aviation Publication FederalAviation Agency InternationalCivil Aviation Organization InternationalFrequencyRegistration Board InternationalRadioConsultative Committee InternationalTelecommunications Union TechnicalStandard Order World AdministrativeRadioConference


The ICAO issues annexes the convention. to Annex l0 beingof particularsignificance aircraft to radio engineers sinceit is concernedwith aeronautical telecommunications and, amongother things,lays down a minimum specificationfor airborne radio systems.The materialpublishedby the ICAO does not automaticallybecomethe law or regulations all in member-states; ratification is necessary and may not take placewithout considerable amendment,if at all. In particular,systemspecifications emergdin forms considerably different from Annex 10, although similar in content. In the USA specifications issuedin the are form of TSOswhile in the UK there is CAP 208. Volume I with its companionVolume 2 listing approved equipmentunder variousclassifications. Licensing engineers one areain which, as yet, of is there is little internationalstandardization in accordance with Annex l. The licensedaircraft radio maintenance engipeer unknown in the USA but, is of course, organizations operatingwith the approval of the FAA do so only if they employ suitably qualifiedpersonnel. In the UK the [censed engineer reignssupreme, except in the certification of jets and supersonic wide-bodied transportswhere a systemof companyapprovalof personnelexists,the companyitself being approvedby the CAA for the operationand maintenance such aircraft. France of hasno systemof statelicensing, being left to the it operators assess compettncy of its maintenance to the personnel under the watchful eye of officials. Of further interestto those concernedwith aircraft

radio, the Chicagoconvration provides that aircraft registered contractingstates in may carry radio transmitting apparatusonly if a licence to install and operatesuch apparatus beenissued the has by appropriateauthoritiesof the statein which the aircraft is registered.Furthermore,radio transmitting apparatus may only be usedover the territory of contractingstates,other than the one in which the aircraft is registered, suitably licensed by flight crew. Various non-regulatory bodies exist with a view to extendingco-operation across national boundaries in respectto aircraft equipmentand maintenance. ARINC is one such organization. It is a corporation the stockholders of which are drawn from airlines and manufacturers, mostly from the USA. As well as operatinga systemof aeronautical land radio stations ARINC sponsors AEEC, which formulates the standards electronicequipmentand systems for designed usein airlinersasopposedto general for aviation. Characteristics specifications and published by ARINC do not havethe force of law but nevertheless in the main, adheredto by are, manufacturers who wish to sell their equipmentto the airlines. A specificationrelatingto the presentation of maintenance information is the ATA 100. A standard Iayout for technicalpublicationsrelatingto aircraft hasbeen promulgatedand widely adopted. Of particularinterestto readers Chapters and34 are 23 of the maintenance manualwhich cover communications and navigationrespectively.In addition to prescribing layout, a set ofstandard symbolsfor electricalwiring diagrams beenissued. has So far, bodiesconcerned with aircraft and their equipmenthavebeenconsidered; addition in organizations concerned with telecommunications strouldbe mentioned. The ITU is an agencyof the United Nations which existsto encourage internationalco-operation the useand development in of telecommunications.The CCIR is a committeeset up by the ITU to deal with radio communications. Among topics of interestto the CCIR arespectrum utilization and aeronautical mobile services.The IFRB has alsobeen set up.by the ITU for the assignment and registrationof radio frequencies in a masterfrequencylist. In November 1979 an internationalconference (WARC '79), with representatives from 154 countries,met in Geneva to considerradio regulations and re-allocate frequencies.The resultsof WARC '79 will not be publishedwhile this book is beingwritten but it is unlikely that the frequenciesallocated to aeronautical mobile services will suffer significant amendment the cost would be too great.



sYstems 2 Communication

on v.h.f. lrequenciesis often found; unfortunately are satellites not to be aeronauticaliommunications found (1979). There is a fundamental need for communication The audio integrating system (AIS) complexity beiweenaircrewand ground controllers,amongthe on depends the type of aircraft. A light aircraft External aircrew and between aircrew and passengers. for channels ,yrt.* may provide two transmit/receive of by is communication achieved means dual u.h.f.iomms and receiveonly for dual v'h'f' (R/T) link while internal radio-telephone nav.,ADF, DME and marker. Each receivechannel or communication'(intercom audio integratingsystem) hasa speakeroff'phoneswitch while the microphone is by wire as opposedto wireless.Although intercom' canbe switchedbitween v'h.f. comms I and v'h'f' is not a radio system,it is includedin this chapter comms 2. A multi-crew large airliner has very many of because its intimate relationship with the aircraft later. more facilities,as described and in-flight radio systems.Voice recorders sincethey are systems also considered entertainment ofthe aircraft radio areusually the responsibility V.H.F. Gommunications technician/engineerThe first items of radio equipmentto appearon Basic Principles aircraftwerelow-frequency(l'f.) communications of is gap transmitters. An aircraft u.h.f. comrnstransceiver comprised setsin the World War I daysof spark double conversionsuperhetreceiver either a singleor tube' lntercom was by meansof a Gosport(speaking) and an a.m. transmitter' A modern set provides720 By the 1930sthe early keyed continuouswave(c'w') between I l8 MHz and at channels 25 kHrzspacing by was (radio-telegraphy) beginningto be replaced was 50 kHz 'key-bashing'had placeaslong as 135'975MHz; until recently the spacing its R/T although The mode of operationis givingonly 360 channels. aircraft carriedradio operators. Early R/T was within i.e. iinglJ.itutntl simplex(s,c.s.), one frequencyand the l.f. and h.f. bands,the setsoperatingon only one onJ antennafor both receiverand transmitter' If With airfieldswidely spaced or very few frequencies. provision for satellite communication is included in there was little transmission, and low-powered iccordancewith ARINC 566 then in addition to did and so the need for many channels interference we a.m. s.c.s. will have f.m' double channelsimplex not arise. for (d.c.s.),i.e. different frequencies transmit and The situation has drastically changedsinceWorld receive.. with the War II; air traffic and facilities have increased 'line of Communicationby v.h.f. is essentially which cannot demandfor extra channels consequent can wave. The rangeavailable sight'by direct (space) be providedin the Lf., m.f. or h.f. bands. by I '23 (\/.\ + y'ft1)nm where ftt is be approximated Fortunatelyv.h.f. equipmenthasbeensuccessfully *re trilght, in feet, abovesealevel of the receiver developedfrom early beginningsin World Wu II while ftl.is the samefor the transmitter' Thus, with figtrtercontrol. the ground station at sealevel, the approximate The current situation is the v.h.f. is used for ,nr*I*urn range for aircraft at l0 000 and 1000 ft *tort-range communication while h'f. is used for (30 000 and 3000 m) would be 123 and 40 nm long-range. A large airliner, such as aBoeing74T , respectivelY. in such three v.h.f.sand dual h'f. In addition, carries (Selcal)facilities are aircraft, selectivecalling ' trstallation provided by a dual installation such that a ground A singlev.h.f. installationconsistsof three parts' station can call aircraft either singly or in groups and antenna' In namJy control unit, transceiver without the need for constant monitoring by the are connected to the v'h'f' via crew. Provision for satellite communication (Satcom) addition crew phones



Frg.2.1 KY 196 v.h.f. comm.transceiver (courtesyKing Radio Corp.)

Fi& a2 CN-201I v.h.f.comm./nav. equipment (courtesy BendixAvionics Division) selection switches the AIS. Light aircraft v.h.f.s in usuallyhavea panel-mounted combinedtransceiver and control unit, an examplebeingthe King KY 196 illustratedin Fig. 2.1. The current trend is for combinedCOM/NAV/RNAV; Fig. 2.2 illustratesthe BendixCN-2011, general panel-mounted a aviation unit comprising two commstransceivers, nav. two receivers, glidepathreceiver, marker receiver, frequency control for internal circuits and d.m.e. and switches.Such last but not least,audio selection in equipmentwill be considered Chapter12. Figure2.3 showsone of a triple v.h.f. comms installationas might be fitted to a largepassenger transportaircraft: VHF2 and VHF3 are similarto VHFI but aresuppliedfrom a different 28 V d.c. bus bar and feed different selectionswitchesin the AIS.









FWD MTR PWR REF oFF-\ \ t t . / fPwa


P.t.t. Rcv Audio Sidetone

28 V d.c. Stby Bus

l \



fo Aerial

v.h.f. No. 2

v.h.f No.

Rcv Audio To Selcal

v.h.f.l installation Fig.2.3 Typical by Frequencycontrol is achieved concentricknobs, the outer one of which variesthe tens and units while the inner pne variesthe tenths and hundredths. An is alternative shownin Fig. 2.1 wherethere is one frequencycontrol and two displays' On rotating the the frequencyknobs clockwiseor anticlockwise, standbyfrequencyonly will incrementor decrement respectively.Standbymay then becomein-useby operationof the transferswitch. Thereare many with only in-useselection. controllersin service may Someor all of the following switches/controls on be providedby manufacturers request. which allows Volume Control A potentiometer, variableattenuationof audio,prior to feedingthe AIS control or as a concentric may be fitted asa separate knob on the frequencyselector(s).Sucha volume coupledthrough it on control may havesidetone transmit. $uelch Control A squelchcircuit disablesthe so output when no sigralsare beingreceived receiver preventing noisebeingfed to the crew headsets The squelchcontrol is betweenground transmissions. which allowsthe pilot to set the level a potentiometer at which the squelchopens,so allowingaudio output from the receiver.Whenthe control is set to minimum squelch(fully clockwise) the Hi and l,o brought to the control unit leads, squelch-disable shouldbe shorted,so givinga from the transceiver, definite squelchdisable.

which is rack-mounted,contains The transceiver. all the electroniccircuitry and hasprovisionfor the to technician connectmic. and tels maintenance VSWR. and measure direct, disablethe squelch, for Theseprovisions testingareby no meansuniversal but if the systemconformsto ARINC 566 a plug is providedto which automatictest equipment(ATE) canbe connected.A protectivecoverfor the ATE plug is fitted when the unit is not in the workshop. The antennacan take variousforms: whip, blade In or suppressed. a triple vl.f. commsinstallation and thesemay be two top-mountedbladeantennas onebottom-mounted:an altemativewould be two within the fincap dielectric. bladeand one suppressed is The whip antenna to be found on smalleraircraft. and are All antennas mountedso asto receive transmitverticallypolarizedwaves. The blade antennamay be quite cornplex. It will nearthe centreofthe band with be self-resonant providedby a short'circuited bandwidthimprovement stub acrossthe feed terminal or a more complicated reactivenetwork built in which will permit height and hencedrag reduction. Controls and Operation It is common to have in-useand standby frequencies available,the former controlling the transceiver frequency. This is the situationin Fig.2.3 wherewe have two setsof frequency controls and two displays, the in-useone being selectedby the transfer switch and annunciatedby a lamp abovethe display.


Mode Selector Control Providesselectionof normal range a.m.or Satcom.If the Satcom a.m.,extended antenna has switchable lobessuchswitchingmay be in included the mode switch,or couldbe separate.

ReceiverThe riceiver is a singleconversionsuperhet. The r.f. stage employsvaractordiode tuning, utilizing the tuning voltagefrom the stabilized master oscillator(s.m.o.). Both the r.f. amplifier and mixer (f.e.t.). The r.f. are dual gatefield-effecttransistors amplifier f.e.t. has the input signalappliedto gate I master power relay in On-Off Switch Energizes The switch may be separate, incorporated while the a.g.c.voltageis appliedto gate2. The transceiver. are: gate l, signal;gate s.m.o. 2, in mode selectorswitch as an extra switch position, or mixer connections ganged The differencefrequencyfrom the mixer, I l'4 MHz, with the volume or squelchcontrol. is passed a crystalfilter, providingthe desired by to of narrow bandpass, the i.f. amplifiers. Two stages ReceiverSelectivity Switch Normal or sharp i.f. sharpselectivity a.g.c.-controlled amplificationareused;the first of selectivity. WhenSatcomis selected which is a linear integrated circuit. automaticallyapplies. The detectorand squelchgateutilize transistors on an integratedcircuit transistorarray. A further array Block Diagram Operation (KY 196) is usedfor the squelch-control circuitry. Noiseat Ftgure2.4 is a simplifiedblock diagramof the King 8 kHz from the detectoroutput is sampled and used v.h.f.comm.transceiver. KY 196 panel-mounted to closethe squelchgateif its amplitudeis as aviation equipment,intendedfor the general This expected from the receiveroperating at full gain. transceivers since market, is not typical of in-service When a sigral is received,the noise output from the with the aid frequencyand displaycontrol is achieved action;asa detectordecreases to the a.g.c. due within the lifetime of of a microprocessor;however the consequence squelchgate opensallowing the this book suchimplementationwill become audio signalto pass. The squelchcap be disabledby commonplace.

display Frequency 118.70 Use 1 121.90 Standby


t ;:



MHz Code P.t.t. Fig. 2.4 King KY 196 simplified block diagram lncremenV Decrement


kHz Codc

t F A(
F F,

R.F. Input

Tuning Volts {s.m.o.}

Fig.2.5 KingKY 196simplified receiver blockdiagram

meansof a switch incorporated in the volume control. When the receivedsigral has excessive noise on the carrier,the noise-operated squelchwould keep the squelchgate closedwere it not for carrier-operated backupsquelch. As the carrier or levelincreases, point is reached a where the squelch gate is opened regardless the noise level. of The meandetectoroutput voltageis usedto determine i.f. a.g.c.voltage. As the i.f. a.g.c. the voltage exceeds set reference r.f. a.g.c.voltage a the decreases. The detectedaudio is fed via the squelchgate, low-pass lilter, volume control and audio amplifier to the rearpanelconnector. A minimum of 100 mW -audio power into a 500 O load is provided. Tiansmitter The transmitter(Fig. 2.6) feeds l6 W of a.m. r.f. to the antenna. Modulationis achieved bv superimposing amplified mic. audio on the the transmitter chain supply. The carrier frequency corresponds the in-usedisplay. to Radio frequency is fed from the s.m;o. to an r.f. amplifier. This input drive is switched by the transmit receiveswitching circuits, the drive being effectively shorted to earth when the pressto transmit(p.t.t.) button is not depressed. The 24

transmitter chain comprisesa pre-driver, driver and final stageall broad band tuned, operated in ClassC and with modulatedcollectors. The a.m. r.f. is fedvia harmonics,to the filter, which attenuates a low-pass the antenna. On receive t.r. diode is forward biased to feed the receivedsignalfrom the antenna through r.f. filter to the receive amplifier. the low-pass microphone The modulator chain comprises pre-amplifier, diode limiting, an f.e.t. switchingstage, integratedcircuit modulator driver and two modulator in connected parallel. The pre-ampoutput transistors is sufficient to subsequentlygive at least 85 per cent the modulation,the limiter preventing depth of 100 per cent. The mic. audio modulation exceeding line is broken by Jhe f.e.t. switch during receive. Stabilized Master Oscillator The s.m.o. is a conventional phaselocked loop with the codesfor the by programmable dividerbeinggenerated a Discrete components usedfor are microprocessor. the voltagecontrolledoscillator(v.c.o.)and buffers circuits(i.c.) areusedelsewhere. while integrated The referencesigrralof 25 kHz is provided by an oscillatordivideri.c. which utilizesa 3'2 MHz crystal of to give the necessary stability. Only sevenstages a ripple-carry binary counter are used to fourteen-stage

R.F. {s.m.o.}


Fig. 2.6 King KY 196 simplified transmitter block diagram

Phase detector


MHz cont. lrom pp

MHz cont. lrom gp

Fig. 2.7 King Ky 196 simplifiedprogrammabte divider bkrck diagram gtve the necessarydivision of 21 = l2g. This reference, is made;i.e. zeros after the displayed decimalpoint.

with the outpur of the programmable l9e9lner divider,is fed to the phasedetecior-whichis part of an i.c., the rest of which is unused. The pulsating d.c. on the output of the phasedetectortrasa a.O. componentwhich after filtering is used to control the frequencyof the v.c.o. by varactortuning. If there is a synthesizer malfunction, an out-ofloclisignal from "s.m.o. the phase detectoris usedto switch off the feedto the transmitter. The programmable divider consists basicallyof . thrce setsof countersas shownin Fig. 2.7. Tie v.c.o.output is first dividedUy "ittrei+O o, !r1f!rea41, the former being so when a discreti MHz selection

The prescaler which perlbrmsthis division is a u.h.f. programmable divider(+ l0/l l) followedby a divide-by-four The wholeMHz divicler i.c. uses a 7 4 L S l 6 2 b . c . d . e c a d e o u n t e r n d a 7 4 L S l 6 3b i n a r y d c a counterwhich togethercan be programmed divide to by an integerbetweenI l8 and 145,hencethe prescaler and whole MHz divider give a total division o,t^llSO (40 X I l8) to 5800 (40 X 145)in steps of 40. Thus a requiredv.c.o.output of, say, t IO.OO UHz would be achieved with a divisionof 5200 (40 X 130) since130 MHz + 5200 = 25 kHz = reference frequency. The 25 kHz stepsareobtainedby forcing the


prescaler divide by 41, the requirednumber of to timesin the count sequence.Each time the division ratio is 41, one extra cycleof the v.c.o.frequency is to needed achievean output of 25 kHz from the programmable divider. To seethat this is so, consider the previousexamplewherewe had a division ratio of 5200 to give 130'00MHz, i.e. 5200 cyclesat 130'00MHz occupies ps = periodof 25 kHz. 40 Now a prescaler divisionratio of 4l once during 40 ps 5201 cyclesof the v.c.o.output occupy40 ps means so the frequency 5201/(40X 10-6) = 130.025MHz is asrequired. The prescaler ratio is controlled by the fractionalMHz divider, againemploying a 7 4LS| 62 and 74LS163. The numberof divide-by-41 events in 40 ps is determinedby the kHz control code from the microprocessor can be anywherefrom 0 to 39 and times. Thereforeeachwhole megacycle have can N X 25 kHz addedwhereN ranges from 0 to 39. This produces kHz stepsfrom 0 kHz to 975 kHz. 25

Microprocessorand Display The microprocessor used,an 8048, containssufficientmemory for the programand data requiredin this applicationto be storedon the chip. In addition to this memory and, of course,an eight-bit c.p.u.,we havean eight-bit timer/counterand a clock on board. Through twenty-seven linesthe 8048 interfaces I/O with the programmable divider, displaydrive circuits and non-volatilememory.


1024 words program memory

64 words data memory

8-bir CPU

__JI___J 'l
8-bit Timer/ evont counter

27 I/g lines

Fig. 2.8 8048 eieht-bit microcornputcr (courtery King Radio Corp.)

The 8048 has been programmed to generatea 'use' and 'standby' frequencies. binary code for the The code,aswell asbeing storedin the 8048, is also storedin a l40o-bit electricallyalterablereadonly memory (EAROM). This external memory is effectively a non-volatileRAM, the data and address being communicated in serial form via a one-pin mode being bidirectionalbus, the read/write/erase controlledby a three-bit code. When power is readsthe last frequencies appliedthe microprocessor stored in the EAROM which are then utilized as the 'use'and 'standby' frequencies.In the eventof initial will failure of the EAROM the microprocessor display 120'00 MHz as its initial frequencies.The EAROM will store data for an indefinite period without power. by The 'standby'frequency is changed clockwise or counterclockwise detent rotation of the frequency can selectknobs. I MHz, 50 kHz and 25 kHz changes a be made with two knobs, one of which incorporates push-pull switch for 50125kHz step changes.The is microprocessor programmedto incrementor 'standby'frequency by the appropriate decrementthe the stepwheneverit senses operation of one of the knobs. frequency-select The code for the frequency in use is fed to the programmable dividersfrom the microprocessor. 'standby' 'Use' on frequencies exchanged are and operationof the momentary transferswitch. When the transceiveris in the receivemode the 'us€' frcquency microprocessoradds I l'4 MHz to the code since the local oscillator signal fed to the receivermixer should be this amount higher than the desiredreceivedcarrier in order to give a difference frequency equal to the i.f. 'standby'codesare fed to the Both luse'and the display drivers. The'use'code represents by frequency and is not increased I l'4 MHz transmit in the receive mode. Each digit is fed in tum to the cathode decoder/driver, an i.c. containing a sevensegmentdecoder, decimal point and comma drives and programmable current sinks. The decimal point and comma outputs (i and h) are used to drive the '.'and 'T' (seeFig. 2.10). segments displaying'l', 'T'is The illumfrrated when in the transmit mode. The display is a gasdischargetype with its intensity controlled by a photocell located in the display window. As the light reaching the photocell the decreases current being supplied to the programming pin of the cathode decoder/driverfrom so the display dimmer circuit decreases, dimming the display. Time multiplexing of the display dri'res is achieved to by a clock sipal being fed from the microprocessor



n s

t d d

llrito?y array IOO x 14

C2 C3

e s s LSB


Fig. 2.9 Electrically alterableread only memory, e.a.r.o.m. (courtesy King Radio Corp.) Display







Anode' driver


",, lf"
A8 Dimming current


f l h l



Cathode decoder/driver A B C D

o h T h

Multiplexer Anode drive B.C.D. code

I l T I T
B.C.D. code



I l


l-l l-1.

l-ll-ll-t ll

t_-t ll U. U


l/1lo sec. Fig.2.l0 King KY 195 simplifieddisplaydrive block diagram



(Al to A8) are switched scquentially. As the anode b.c.d. information drivesare switchedthe appropriate from the microprocessor beingdecodedby the is the cathodedecodery'driver, result being that the of necessary segments eachdigit are lighted one digit at a time at approximatelyI l0 times per second. pulseis sent to the multiplexer A synchronization from the microprocessor every 8 cyclesto maintain display synchronization.

audiooutput shallnot ttrc signal, resultant dcsired -10 dB with reference the output prcduced to exceed 30 sigralonly whenmodulated per cent by a desired (under resonance conditions). sigtallevel/off specified UndesiredResponses MHzshall be responses band108-135 in All spurious image, including downat least100dB otherwise, at least80 dB down. Audio Output

The selectedcharacteristics which follow are drawn from ARINC Characteristic 566 coveringairbome v.h.f. communications and SatcomMark l. Details of Satcomand extendedrangea.m. are not included. System Units l. V.h.f. transceiver; 2. modulation adaptor/modem f.m. provision for Satcom; 3. power'amplifier- Satcomand extendedrange; 4. pre-amplifier- Satcomand extendedrange; 5. control panel; 6. remote frequencyreadoutindicator - optional; 7. antennas separate Satcomantenna. Note: I and 2 may be incorporatedin one line replaceable unit (l.r.u.). Frequenry Selection 720 channels from I l8 through 135.975MHz, 25 kHz spacing. Receiver muting and p.t.t. de-energization during channelling. 2i 5 channelselection. Channelling time: ( 60ms. Recciver Sensitivity 3 pV, 30 per cent modulation at 1000 Hz to give S+N/N>6d8. Selectivity Minimum 6 dB points at I l5 kHz (t 8 kHz sharp). Maximum60 dB pointsat I 31.5 kHz (t l5 kHz sharp). Maximum 100 dB points at i 40 kHz (t l8'5 kHz -sharp). Qoss Modulation With simultaneous receiver input of 30 per cent 2A

Gain at A 3 pV a.m.sigralwith 30 per centmodulation Q 100 1000 will produce mWin a 200-500 load. Hz Frequmcy Response Audio poweroutput levelshallnot vary morethan Hz. range 300-2500 6 dB overfrequency by > Frequencies 5750Hz mustbe attenuated at 20 least dB. HarmonicDistortion [.ess than 7'5 percentwith 30 per centmodulation. Irss than2Opercentwith 90 per centmodulation. AGC from No morethan 3 dB variationwith input signals 5 gV to 100mV. Transmitter Stability within t 0'005 per cent under Carrierfrequency prescribed conditions. PowerOutput W 25-40 into a 52 O loadat theendof a 5 ft transmission line. Sidetone output With90 per centa.m.at 1000Hz the sidetone strall at least100mWinto eithera 200 or 500O be load. Mic. Input of Mic.audioinput circuitto havean impedance mic. mic.or a transistor 150O for usewith a carbon mic. from the (approx.) V d.c.carbon 20 operating supply. Antenna polarized omnidirectional. Vertically and





To match 52 O with VSWR ( l'5 : l. Ramp Testing After checking for condition and assemblyand making availablethe appropriate power suppliesthe following (typical)'checks shouldbe madeat each stationusingeachv.h.f. l. Disablesquelch, checkbackground noiseand operationof volume control. 2. On an unusedchannelrotate squelchcontrol just closes noise). Press until squelch (no p.t.t. button, speakinto mic. and checksidetone. 3. Establish two-way communicationwith a remotestation usingboth setsof frequency control knobs,in conjunctionwith transfer switch,if appropriate.Checkstrengthand quality of signal.


The current and future norm is to use single (s.s.b.) sideband mode of operationfor h.f. communications,although setsin servicemay have provisionfor compatibleor normal a.m.,i.e. carrier and one or two sidebands being transmitted respectively.This s.s.b. transmission reception and hasbeen described briefly in ChapterI and extensively many textbooks. A featureofaircraft in h.f. systems that coverage a wide band of r.f. and is of useof a resonantantennarequires efficient antenna tuning arrangements which must operate automatically on changingchannelin order to reduce the VSWR to an acceptable level.

Installation A typical large aircraft h.f. installation consistsof two systems, eachof which comprises transceiver, a controller, antennatuning unit and antenna. Eachof NB . Do not transmiton I 2l '5 MHz (Emergency). the transceivers connected the AIS for mic.. tel. are to Do not transmitif refuellingin progress. and p.t.t. provision. In addition outputs to Selcal. Do not interrupt ATC-aircraftcommunications. decoders provided. Suchan installationis shown are i n F i g .2 . 1l . The transceivers contain the receiver, transmitter, H.F. Communicataons power amplifier and power supply circuitry. They are mounted on the radio rack and providedwith a flow BasicPrinciples of cooling air, possibly augmentedby a fan. A The useof h.f. (2-30 MHz) carriersfor communication transceiver rated at 200 W p.e.p.needs dissipate to purposesgreatly extends the rangeat which aircrew 300 W when operatedon s.s.b. while on a.m. this canestablish contact with AeronauticalMobile figure risesto 500 W. Telephoneand microphone Service jacks may be providedon the front panel,asmight a stations. This beingso, we find that h.f. comm.systems fitted to aircraft flying routes are meter and associated switch which will provide a which are,for somepart of the flight, out of rangeof meansof monitoring variousvoltages and currents. v}t.f. service.Such aircraft obviouslyinclude public Coupling to the antennais achievedvia the transportaircraft flying intercontinentalroutes,but antennatuning unit (ATU). Somesystems may thereis alsoa market for general employ an antennacouplerand a separate aviationaircraft. antenna The long rangeis achieved useof sky waves couplercontrol unit. The ATU provides, by which arerefractedby the ionosphere suchan automatically,a match from the antennato the 50 Q to extent that they arebent sufficiently to return to transmission line. Closed-loop control of matching earth. The h.f. ground wavesuffersquite rapid elements reduces standingwaveratio to l'3 : I the attenuationwith distance (ARINC 559A). or less from the transmitter. Ionospheric attenuationalsotakesplace,being Since the match must be achievedbetween line and greatest the lower h.f. frequencies.A significant at antennathe ATU is invariablymountedadjacentto featureof long-range transmission that it is part of the the antennalead-in,in an unpressurized h.f. is zubjectto selective fadingovernarrow bandwidths airframe. For high-flyinga'ircraft(most jets) the ATU (tensof cycles). possiblywith nitrogen. Someunits is pressurized, The type of modulation used,and associated may contain a pressure switch which will be closed detailssuchas channelspacing and frequency wheneverthe pressurization within the tuner is channelling increments, havebeenthe subjectof adequate. The pressure switch may be used for many papers and ordersfrom users, both civil and ohmmeter checksor, providingswitch reliability is military, and regulating bodies. ARINC Characteristic adequate, may be connected series with the key in No. 559A makesinteresting reading,in that it reveals line thus preventing transmissionin the event of a how conflictingproposals from variousauthorities leak. Altematively an attenuatormay be swit;hed in (in both the legaland expert opinion sense) exist to reducepower. can at the sametime. Light aircraft h.f. systemsin serviceare likely, for


Mic. Tcl.


No. 1 Xmit

No. I


No. I p.t.t. No. 2 interlock No. I interlock No. 2 p.t.t.



Mic. Tel.

28vl ruo z




Fig 2.1I Typical dualh.f. installatbn financial reasons, have a fixed antennacoupler. to on Sucha systemoperates a restrictednumber of (say twenty). As a particular channelis channels selected,appropriate switching takesplace in the coupler to ensurethe r.f. feed to the antennais via previously adjusted,reactivecomponents,which make the effective antennalength equal to a quarter of a wavelength, thus presenting impedance an of approximately 50 O. The required final manual adjustmentmust be carried out by maintenance personnelon the aircraft. The antennaused variesgreatly, dependingon the type of aircraft. For low-speedaircraft a long wire antennais popular although whip antennasmay be found on somelight aircraft employing low-powered h.f. systems. The aerodynamicproblemsof wire antennason aircraft which fly faster than, say, 400 knots, haveled to the useofnotch and probe antennaswhich effectively excite the airframe so that a it becomes radiatingelement. of are Modernwire antennas constructed steelor phosphorbronze,givinga reduced copper-clad with earlierstainless.steel compared r.f. resistance the ofpolythene reduces effectsof wires. A covering is precipitationstatic. Positioning normally a single spanbetween forward fuselageand vertical stabilizer. I:rger aircraft will have twin antennaswhile a single 'V' is configuration, more installation,possiblyin a for smalleraircraft. The r.f. feed is usually common at the forward attachment via an antennamast. The unit. of rear tetheringis by means a tensioning The aniennamaqtis subjectto pitting and erosion


of the leadingedge;a neoprpnecoveringwill provide someprotection,nevertheless regularinspections are called for. Protection againstcondensationwithin the mastmay be providedby containers silicagel of which shouldbe periodicallyinspected a change for in colour from blue to pink, indicatingsaturation. Hollow mastsare usuallyprovidedwith a water-drain path which shouldbe kept free from obstruction. The two most important featuresof the rear tetheringpoint are that the wire is kept under tension and that a weak link is providedso asto ensurethat any break occursat the rear,so preventingthe wire wrappingitself around the verticalstabilizerand rudder. On light aircraft a very simplearrangement of a spring,or rubber bungee, and hook may be used. The springmaintainsthe tensionbut if this becomes excessive hook will open and the wire will be free the at the rearend. On largeraircraft a spring-tensioning unit will be usedto copewith the more severe conditionsencountered due to higherspeeds and fuselageflexing. The unit loads the wire by meansof a metal spring,usuallyenclosed a barrelhousing. in A serrated rod is attachedto the tetheringpoint tail on the aircraft and insertedinto the barrelwhereit is by secured a springcollet, the grip of which increases with tension. The wire is attachedto a chuck unit which incorporates copperpin serving a weaklink a as desigredto shearwhen the tensionexceeds about protection 180 lbf. Someunits incorporatetwo-stage overload. Two pins of different strengths are against (3/ used;shouldthe first shear, smallextension 16 in.) a of overalllength results,thus reducingtensionand exposinga yellow warningband on the unit. Notch antennas consistof a slot cut into the aircraft structure.often at the baseof the vertical o stabilizer. The inductanceof the notch is series-resonated a high-voltage variablecapacitor by driven by a phase-sensing servo. Signalinjection is via matching circuitry driven by a SWR sensing servo. 'Q' Since the notch is high the input is transformed to a voltageacross notch which is ofthe order of the thousandsofvolts. This largevoltageprovides the driving force for current flow in the airframe which serves the radiator. as A probe antenna, which is aerodynamically acceptable, may be fitted at either of the wing-tipsor on top of the verticalstabilizer. Againseries tuning providesthe necessary driving force for radiation. The probe antenna,aswell as the wire antenna,is liable to suffer lightningstrikes,so protection in the (sparkgap)is fitted. form of a lightning arrester Any voltagein excess approximatelyl6 kV on the of antennawill cause arc across electrodes the an the of hydrogen-iilled sparkgap,thus preventing discharge

through the h.f. equipment. Build-up of precipitation particularlyprobes, dealt with static on antennas, is by providinga high resistance static drain (about 6 MSl) path to earth connected betweenthe antenna feed point and the ATU. It is important in dual installations that only one h.f. systemcan transmit at any one time;this is achieved means an interlock circuit. This basic by of requirement illustratedin Fig. 2.11 whereit canbe is seenthat the No. I p.t.t. line is routed via a contact of the No. 2 interlock relay, similarlywith No. 2 p.t.t. The interlock relayswill be externalto the transceivers often fitted in an h.f. accessory box. While one of the h.f. systems transmittingthe other is systemmust be protectedagainst inducedvoltages from the keyedsystem.In addition, with some installations, may havea probe usedas a we transmitting antennafor both systemsand as a receiving antennafor, say,No. I system. The No. 2 receiving antennamight be a notch. It follows that on keying either systemwe will havea sequence of eventswhich might proceedas follows. HF I keyed: l. HF 2 keyline broken by a contactof HF I interlock relay; 2. HF 2 antennagrounded; 3. HF 2ATU input and output feedsgounded and feed to receiver broken. HF 2 keyed: l. HF I keyline broken by a contactof HF 2 interlock relay; from HF l; transferred 2. HF I probe antenna ATU to HF 2 ATU; 3. HF 2 notch antennafeed grounded; 4. HF I ATU input and output feedsgrounded broken. and feed to receiver C,ontrols and Operation Separatecontrollers are employed in dual installations, eachhaving'in-use'frequencyselection only. Older systemsand some light aircraft systemshave limited channelselectionwhere dialling a particular channel number tunesthe system,includingATU, to a pre-assigned frequency,a channel/frequency chart is required in such cases.With modern sets,indication ofthe frequency selectedis given directly on the controller. The controlsshownin Fig. 2.1 I arethosereferred to in ARINC 559A; variations common and will are be listed below. Mode Selector Switch. OFF-AM-SSB Thc'turn off' function may be a separate switch or indeed may not


be crnployed at all; snritchingon and offbeing achieved with the masterradio switch. The 'AM' 'AME'(AM positionmay be designated equivalentor compatible) and is selected whenever transmission and receptionis requiredusinga.m. or s.s.b.plus full carrier(a.m.e.). The 'SSB'position providesfor transmissionand reception of upper sidebandonly. Although useof the upper sidebandis the norm for aeronautical communications h.f. somecontrollers 'USB' 'LSB'positions. have and In addition 'DATA' and 'CW'modesmay be available.The former is for possiblefuture use of data links by h.f. using the uppersideband the receiver operatedat is maximumgain. The latter is for c.w. transmission and reception, morsecode,by 'key bashing', being the information-carrying medium. Flequency SelectorsFrequency selecton consist of, typically, four controls which allow selectionof frequencies between 2.8 and 24MHz in I kHz steps (ARINC 559A). Military requirements for a are frequencycoverage 2 to 30 MHz in 0.1 kHz steps, of consequentlyone will find systemsoffering 280 000 'channels'meeting theserequirements full or in 28 000 channels meetingthe extendedrangebut not the 0'l kHz steprequirement. When a new frequency is selectedthe ATU must adjustitselfsincethe antennacharacteristics will change.For this purposethe transmitteris keyed momentarily in order that SWR and phasecan be measured usedto drive the ATU servos. and

Indicator A meter mounted on the front panel of the controller may be providedin order to give an indication of radiatedpower. Block Dhgram Operation Tlansceiver Figure 2.12 is a simplified block diagram of an a.m./s.s.b. transceiver.The operationwill be described function. by Amplitude Mo dulated Transm issio The frequency n on selected the controller determines output from the the frequencysynthesizer the r.f. translatorwhich to shifts the frequency up and provides sufficient drive for the power amplifier(p.a.). The mic. input, after amptfication, feedsthe modulator which produces high-level amplitudemodulation of the r.f. amplified by the p.a. The r.f. signalis fed to the ATU via the antennatransferrelay contact. The PA output signalis sampled the sidetone by detectorwhich feedssidetoneaudio via the contact of the deenergized sidetonerelay and the sidetone adjustpotentiometerto the audio output amplifier.

Single Sideband Transmission Low-level modulation is necessary sincethere is no carrierto modulateat the p.a. stage, hencethe mic. input, /n., is fed to a balancedmodulator togetherwith a fixed carrier frequency,/., from the frequencysynthesizer.The balanced modulator output consists both sidebands of f" + f^ andf" - f^, the carrierbeingsuppressed. The requiredsideband passed a filter to the r.f. is by SquelchControl Normel control of squelch translatorafter further amplification. threshold may be provided. As an alternativean r.f. Ifwe consideran audio response from 300 to sensitivity control may be used,but where Selcalis 3000 Hz we seethat the separation betweenthe utilizedit is important that the receiver operates at lowestEs.b. frequencyand the highestl.s.b. full sensitivityat all timeswith a squelchcircuit being frequencyis only 600 Hz. It follows that the filter employedonly for aural monitoring and not affecting usedmust havevery steepskirts and a flat bandpass. the output to the Selcaldecoder. A mechanicalfilter can be usedin which an input transducer convertsthe electricalsignalinto Audio Volume Control Providesfor adjustment of vibrations,theseare transmittedby mechanical audiolevel. Sucha control may be locatedelsewhere, mechanically resonant metal discsand coupling rods suchas on an audio selectorpanel, part of the AIS. and finally converted back to an electricalsignalby an output transducer. C:lanfter This control is to be found on some h.f. Frequencytranslationis by a mixing process controllers. With s.s.b.signalswhile the phaseof thc rather than a multiplicativeprocess sinceif the re-inserted carrier is of little consequence its u.s.b./, + /n' were multiplied by try' would we frequency shouldbe accurate.Should the frequency radiatea frequencyof//(/c + /n,') rather than be inconect by, say,in excess t 20 Hz of ft + f " + /.. The amount by which the u.s.b.is deterioration of the quality of speechwill result. translated, is determinedby the frequencyselected fi, A clarifier allows for manual adjustment of the on the controller. Final amplification takes place in re-inserted carrier frequency. Use of highly accurate the p.a. prior to feedingthe r.f. to the ATU. md stablefrequency synthesizers make the provision To obtain sidetonefrom the p.a. stagea carrier of such a control unnecessary. would needto be re-inserted.A simplermethod, 32

Sidetonc relay

To r.f./i.f. stages


Fq.2.l2 Typicalh.f. a.m./s.s.b. trmsceiver blockdiagram

which nevertheless confirms that a sigral has reached the p.a.,is to usethe rectified r.f. to operatea sidetonerelay. When energizedthe contact of this relay connectsthe amplified mic. audio to the output audio amplifier. Amplitude Modulated Reception The receivedsignal passes from the ATU via the de+nergized antenna transferrelay contact to an r.f. amplifier and thence to the r.f. translator. After the translatornormal.a.m. detection takes place, the audio so obtained being fed to the output stage. A variety ofa.g.c. and squelch circuitsmay be employed.

signal,which is dealt with in the sameway as before. Antenna Tuning Unit Figure 2.13 illustrates an automatic ATU simplified block diagram. On selectinga new frequency a retune sigrralis sent to the ATU control circuits which then: l. keys the transmitter; 2. insertsan attenuatorin transceiver output line (Fig.2.t2); 3. switcheson the tuning tone sigral generator (Fig.2.l2) and drivesa tune warninglamp (optional); 4. switcheson referencephases servo motors. for The r.f. signalon the input feed is monitored by a loading servosystem and a phasingservo system. If the load impedanceis high then the line current, /L, is low and the line voltage ZL is high. This is dctected by the loading s€rvodiscriminator which


Single Sideband Reception The circrit action on s.s.b. similarto that on a.m. until after the is translatorwhen the translated r.f. is fed t6 the product detector along with the re-inserted'carrier' /". The output ofthe product detector is the required audio




Tune Tx Rctunc tone keY


p;g.2.13 Typical a.t.u. h.f. blockdiagrarn

appL:: the appropriate amplitude and polarity d.c. sigral to a chopper/amplifier which in turn provides the control phasefor the loading servomotor. The auto transformertap is drivenuntil the load impedrnceis 50 O. Should Iy and Vynot be in phasethis is detected by the phasingservodiscriminator which appliesthe approp:iateamplitudeand polarity d.c. signalto a chopper/amplifier which in turn provides the control phasefor the phasingservomotor. The reactive elemenis, inductanceand capacitance, adjusted are untri.Il and Vy are in phase. As a result of the action of the two servo systemsa resistiveload of 50 O is presentedto the co-axial feed from the transceiver. When both servosreach their null positions the control circuits removethe signals listedpreviously. Ctaracteristics The following brief list of characteristics those of are a systemwhich conformswith ARINC 559A. frequency Selection An r.f. nnge of 2'8-24 MHz coveredin I kHz increments. Method: reentrant frequency selectionsystem. Orannelling time lessthan I s. Mode of Operation Singlechannel simplex, upper singlesideband. g

Tlansmitter Poweroutput: 400 W p.e.p.(200 W p.e.p. operatiohal). Absolutemaximum power output: 650 W p.e.p. Mic. input circuit frequencyresponse: more than not I 6 dB variation from 1000 Hz levelthrough therange 350 Hz to 2500 Hz. Spectrumcontrol: components or below at /" -100 Hz and at or abovef" +29O0Hz shouldbe attenuated at least30 dB. by Frequencystability: ! 2OHz. Shop adjustmentno more often than vearly. Pilot control (e.g.clarifier) not acceptable. lnterlock: only one transmitter in a dual system 'first-come, strouldoperateat a time on a first-served' basis, this includestransmittingfor tuning purposes. Receiver Sensitivity:4 pV max.; 30 per cent modulation a.m. (l pV s.s.b.) l0 dB signal for and noiseto noise ratio. A.g.c.: audio output increase more than 6 dB for not input signalincrease from 5 to I 000 000 pV and no more than an additional 2 dB up to I V input signal level. Selectivity: s.s.b.,6 points atf"+ 300 Hz and /. + 3100 Hz, d-B t 35 dB pointsat f"andf" + 3500 Hz. A.m.: toensureproper receiveroperation(no adjacent assuming operations ch4nnelinterference) on a.m. channels. 6 kHz spaced

giving a total of sixteen tones betwecn 312'6 and 1479.1Hz. The tonesare desigrated lettes A to S by omitting I, N and O so a typical code might b,: AK-DM. The re ue 297Ocodesavailablefor assigrmentusing the first twelve tones, the addition of tonesP, Q, R and S (1976) bring the total to on 10920. Codesor blocks ofcodes are assigned Ramp Testing ard Maintenance Whilst regularinspection of all aircraft antennasis requestto air carrier organizationswho in turn assigt called for, it is particularly important in the caseof codesto their aircraft'either on a flight number or h.f. antennasand associated components. Any aircraft registration-related basis. maintenancescheduleshould require frequent Figure 2.14 illustrates a singleSelcalsystem inspection ofantenna tensioning units and tethering transport aircraft would norma,ly' large passenger points in the caseof wire antennas,while for both carry two identical systems. The decoder will probe and wire antennasthe spark gap should be recognizea receivedcombination of tones on rny of in3pectedfor signsof lightning strikes (cracking five channelswhich correspondsto that combrnation . and/or discolouring). selectedon the code selectand annunciator pa:;el. A functional test is similar to that for vh.f. in that When the correct code is recogrized the chime switch two-way communication should be establishedwith a and appropriate lamp switch is made. The lamp .witch remote station: all controls should be checked for supply is by way of an interrupter circuit so that the lamp will flash. A constant supply to the chime satisfactoryoperation and meter indications, if any, svitch causes chimes to sound once. Each lanrp the strouldbe within limits. Safety precautions are a particularly important sincevery high voltagesare HF holder, designated I , HF I I etc. incorporates reset will release latched the presenton the antenna systemwith the resulting switch which when depressed lamp switch and chime switch. The tone filters in the danger ofelectric shock or arcing. No personnel decoderwill typically be mechanicallyresonant should be in the vicinity of the antenna when devices. transmitting, nor should fuelling operations be in Variations in the arrangement a shown and progress.Remember with many h.f. systems change describedare possible. Mechanicallythe control and of frequency could result in transmissionto allow annunciator panel may be separate units. Should the automaticantennatuning. operatorrequireaircraft registration-related codes there will be no need for code selectswitches.the appropriatecodebeingselected jumper leadson by Selcal the rear connectorofthe decoder. Although five resetleadswill be provided they The selectivecalling (Selcal.) system allows a ground may be connectedindividually, all in parallel to a group of aircraft using station to call an aircraft or singleresetswitch or to the p.t.t. circuit of the h.f. or vir.f. commswithout the flight crew having transmitter. In this latter case isolation associated continuously to monitor the station frequency. diodes(within the decoder)prevent'sneak'circuits, A coded sigral is transmitted from the ground and one or more i.e. keying one transmittercausing rcceivedby the v.h.f. or h.f. receivertuned to the othersto be keyed. appropriate frequency. The output code is fed to a The lamp and chime srrpplies shown can be Selcaldecoderwhich activatesaural and visual alerts at are changed the operator'soption. Possibilities to to if and only if the receivedcode'corresponds the reverse situation and havesteady lights and the the aircraft. code selectedin multi-stroke chimes,or havesteady lights and Each transmitted code is made up of two r.f. single-stroke chime, in which casethe interrgpt by eachof-l t 0'25 s separated a bursts(pulses) circuit is not used. period of 0.2 t 0'l s. During eachpulsethe The Selcalsystemswhich do not comply with transmitted carrier is 90 per cent modulated with two ARINC 596 may not providefacilitiesfor decodingof tones, thus there are a total of four tones per call; . five channelssimultaneously. A switch is provided on the frequenciesof the tones determine the code. the control panel with which the singledesired The tones available are given by the formula channelcan be selected;in this caseonly Selcalcodes receivedon the correspondingreceiverwill be fed to = antilog (0'054(/V- t) + 2O), [y

Overall response:compatible with selectivity but in addition no more than 3 dB variation between anv two frequenciesin the range300-1500 Hz (for satisfactory Selcaloperation). Audio output: two-wire circuit isolated from ground, 300 O (or less)output impedancesupplying 100 mW (0'5 Selcal)into a 600 O load.

w h e r e N= 1 2 ,1 3 . . . 2 7 ,

b L*-ntgs


Sslf test

[amp drive (5 wiresl


v.H.F. 2

V.H.F. 3


Fig. 2.f4 Typical Selcalblock diagram

the decodcr. Only one annunciator lamp is required. Codeselection an ARINC 596 systemis achieved in by means a 'b.c.d.' format. Eachof the four tone of selectors with it; for any has four wires associated particular tone an appropriate combination of the wires will be open circuit, the rest grounded. If the

tones A to S arc numbered I to 16 (0) the open wires will be as given by the correspondingbinary number; e.g.tone M-12-l l(X), so with the wires designated 8,4,2 and I we see8 and 4 will be open. Note this is termed so. not really b.c.d. but is nevertheless Testing of Selcalis quite straightforward. If


possiblea test rig,consistingofa tone generatorin conjunctionwith a v.h.f. and h.f. transmittershould he used,otherwisepermission utilize a to Selcalequipped ground station shouldbe sought. G

(AlS) - lntercom Audio Integrating Systems Introduction
All the systems this book exhibit a variety of in characteristics none more so than AIS. In a light. but aircraft the function of the audio systemis to provide an interfacebetweenthe pilot's mic. and tel. and the selected receiver and transmitter;sucha 'system' might be little more than a locally manufactured junction box with a built-in audio panel-mounted amplifier and appropriateswitching. ln contraSta largemulti-crewpassenger aircrafthasseveral

sub-systems making up the total audio system. The remainder this chapterwill be concerned of with the AIS on aBoeing747. It is unusual to considerall the systemsand sub-systems which follow as part of AIS, a term which should perhapsbe restricted to the system which provides for the selectionof radio system audio outputs and inpuis and crew intercommunications. Howevera brief descriptionof all systems which generate, process recordaudio signals or will be given. The following services comprisethe complete audio system: l. flight interphone: allows flight deck crew to communicatewith eachother or with ground stations; 2. cabin interphone: allows flight deck and cabin crew to communicate:

Attendant's chime call

PA bverride NAV VOR/ILS systom Markerbsacon systom Low range radioaltimeter systom ATC system DMEsystom ADFsystem
HF comnr un ication system

Visual Pass. ent. audio (motionpic.) system

lSatcom I sysrem


Headsets and microph,

Fig. 2.15 Boeing747: typical communications fit (courtesy Boeing Aeroplane Commdrcial Co.)


3. serviceinterphone: allows ground staff to communicatewith each other and also with the flight crew; 4. passenger address(PA): allows announcements to be made by the crew to the passengers; 5. passenger entertainment system: allows the showing of movies and the piping of music; 6. gound crew call system: allows flight and ground crew to attract each other's attention; 7. cockpit voice recorder: meets regulatory requirementsfor the recording of flight crew audio for subsequentaccident investigation if necessary. It *rould be noted that the aboveare not completely separate sysrems illustratedin Fig. 2.15 and as describedbelow. The dividing lines between zub-systems the total audio system are somewhat of arbitrary, and terminologl is varied; however the facilities describedare commonplace. Flight Interphone This is really the basic and most esential part of the audio system. All radio equipments having mic. inputs or tel. outputs, aswell asvirtually all other audio systems,interface with the flight interphone which may, in itself, be termed the AIS. A large number of units and componentsmake up the totd systemas in Table 2.1 with abbreviated termsaslisted in Table 2.2. Figuie 2.16 showsthe flight interphone block diagram,simplified to the extent that only one audio selectionpanel(ASP), jack panel etc. is shown. An ASP is shown in F i g .2 . 1 7 . A crew member selectsthe tel. and mic. signals required by useof the appropriate controls/switches on an ASP. The various audio signalsentering an ASp a.ie'selected twelve combined push selectand by volume controls. Each ASP has an audio bus feeding a built-in isolationamplifier. The v.h.f. and h.f. comm. ADF, interphone and marker audio signalsare fed to the bus via the appropriate selectbuttons and -volume controls. The vh.f. nav. and DME audio is fed to the bus when voice and rangeare selectedwith the Voice pushbutton; with voice only selectedthe DME audio is disconnectedwhile the vJr.f. nav. audio is pased through a sharp 1020 Hz bandstop filter (FLl) before feeding the bus. With the flii-normal switch in the fail position only one audio channel can be selected(bypassingthe amplificr) and the pA audio is fed direct to the audioout lines. Radio altimeter audio is fed direct tb the audio-out lincs. The above audio switching arrangementsare illustrated h Fig. 2.18. Note the sericsresistorsin the input

Table 2.1

Flight interphone facilities UPT FlO FIE OBSI OBS2 M.E.

ASP Jack panel Int - R-T p.Lt. Handheld mic. llcrdrct Boom mic. headset Oxygen mask mic. lnterphone speaker

x x x x

x x

x i

x x

x x x x
Jack Jac*

X Jack

Jack Jack Jrct Iack

feck hck


trck lack Jrck J.ct


A'X'indicates the particular unit or component is fitted at that station (column), 'Jack' indicatesa jack plug b fitted to enableuseof the appropriatemic. and/or tel.

Table2.2 Abbreviations
CAPT F/O OBS m.e. Captain First Officer Observer Main Equipment Centre mic. - Microphone a.s.p.int. rlt p.t.t. tel. Audio SelectorPanel Interphone Radiotelephone hes to Transmit

- Telephone

a\dio lines which,together with loading in resistors the interphone accessory form an anti-cross box, talk network; onecrewmember say,h.f.l selected if has, on his ASPthen the resistive networkwill greatly attenuate h.f.2 whidr would otherwise audible say be shouldanothercrewmember haveselected h.f.l and h.f.2. Six mic. select buttonsareprovided an ASP; on threevJr.f. @mm.,two h.f. cornm. andPA. Additiond sritchesasociated with mic. select and transmission aretheboom-mask r.t.-int.p.t.t. on each and ASPand alsop.t.t. buttonson the hand-held microphones. jack panels the captain's and controlwheel (R/T-int.). To speak orrer interphone crewmember a should selectinterphone usingthe r.t..int. switchon the a.s.p. which will connect mic. high(boom or mask)


r^.&rEr.@*ccrd 'Eg-B

lr. s lucu




i I

l ir r t l


l l l

- - - - l


+= :l---+i

n ti !r

t t u g rrr,r l:JJ


| I

#--i il'F.'Li"ri-i


i---r'"* T------1 ij-#S-.i i

| 1,.i,..*. L-re'g!'e$!sret-l :i i
i i

i + Il s # - . " I

(courtcsy Boeiru Fi& 2.lt Ardb signel selectbn Aeroplane Commercial Co.)


Fig. 2.16 Boeirg ?4?: night intqphonc (courtcry Boeirg Aeroplane Commercial Co.)

tr trtr trtrtr
I t

,r'i El


ooooo. l-oo'l l-"i"_.] s o ooCI --fio,,

l l t l l





F .
l l f' IC'Off hIGN


Fig.l.l7 Audioselection (c€urtesy panel Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co.) to the interphone mic. high output feeding the flight interphoneamplifier in the interphoneaccessory box. Alternativelythe captaincan seiectinterphoneon his control wheel p.t.t. switch which will energize relay K2 thus making the mic. higft connectionas before. Note that the ASP r.t.-int.p.t.t. switchdoesnot rely on power reaching ASP for relay operation (see the



r|rrrftsa ro rLrcir

{rcaet{d rrtat,da


r.Mro s* *rcx


Fi& 2.19 Microphone signalselection(courtesy Bocing CommercialAeroplaneCo.)


Fig. 2.19). Interphone mic. signalsfrom all ASh are fed to the flight interphone amplifier which combines them and feedsthe amplified interphone audio to all as ASPsfor selection required. Pressing mic. selectbutton on the ASP will a systemmic. input lines to connectthe corresponding relayK2 and to contactson the ASP r.t.-int. p.t.t. the switch. Thus when a p.t.t. switch is pressed, mic. lineswill be madeby either the contactsof K2 or by the ASPp.t.t. switchin the r.t. position. In Fig. 2.19 the h.f.2 selectswitch is shown as typical of all comni. selectswitches.Whenthe PA selectswitch is pressed the flight interphonemic. circuit is interruptedand PA audio is applied to the fail-normal switch; in additionthe mic. linesto the PA systemare made. Operationof any p.t.t. switch mutesboth interphone speakers preventacousticfeedback. to Cabin Interphonc The cabin interphoneis a miniatureautomatic several subscribers: telephone exchange servicing and the captain. In addition the cabin attendants the systeminterfaceswith the PA to allow to announcements be made. on Numbersaredialledby pushbuttons the telephone type handsets on the pilot's control or unit. Eleventwo-figurenumbersare allocatedto the plus subscribers, additionalnumbersfor PA in 'all-attendants' variousor all compartments, call an 'all-call'. and an Two dialling codesconsistof letters: P-Pis usedby an attendantto alert the pilot (call light flashes control unit and chime soundsonce) on while PA-PAis usedby the pilot to gain absolute priority over all other users the PA system. The of directory is listed on the push-to-talk switch incorporated eachhandsetto minimizeambient in noise. trunk All diallingcode decodingand the necessary switchingis carriedout in the centralswitchingunit, CSU(automaticexchange).The CSU also contains three amplifiers, one of which is permanently allocated the pilot on what is effectivelya private to trunks, two are trunk. Of the five other available two to the PA systemand allocated the attendants, to -onefor dialling. (Note a trunk is simply a circuit which can connecttwo subscribers.) interphone The cabin interphoneand service qystems may be combinedinto a common network by appropriate selectionon the flight engineer's interphoneswitch panel,captain'sASP and cabin interphonecontrol unit. Any handset may then be into the network (dial'all-call'). lifted and connected In a similarway the flight interphonecircuits may be usedto make specificcallsover.thecabin interphone system.

Crll light

Attondrnt's .t tion3 (typrcrl)

Itntcrphonc I lrudio acccrl lbox I
Ft. 2.20 Boeing 7rt7: cabin interphonc (courtcsy Boeitg Commercial Aeroplane Co.) .** --o;*

The systemis more complex than has been abovebut a basic description has been given, suggested zupportedby Fi1.2.20. ServiceInterphone jacks arelocatedin A total of twenty-two handset variousparts of the airframein order that ground with one anotherusingthe crew can communicate service interphonesystem. The systemis rather above. Mic. audio from simplerthan thoseconsidered are with 'pressto talk' depressed, all handsets, interphone combinedin and amplifiedby the service box. amplifier in the interphoneaudio accessory The amplified signalis fed to all handsettels. Volume control adjustmentis providedby a preset potentiometer. interphoneswitch With the flight engineer's to selected ON the input summingnetworks for both are and flight interphonesystems combined. service All mic. inputs from either systemare amplified and fed to both systems. Address' PassengQr three PA amplifiers,tape deck, The systemcomprises panel,attendant'spanel,PA accessory annunciator switch paneland speaker box, control assemblies, The variousPA messages fifty-three loudspeakers. to havean order of priority assigred them: pilot's announcements, ts, announcemen attendant's and finally boarding prerecordedannouncements over the speaker music. All PA audio is broadcast systemand also,except for boardingmusic,overrides



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' i''' *llF^*.; ; *,,*,* ^*' l;n:'6--'"'""
L____r (courtesy Boeing address ?4?:passenger Boeing F1g.2.22 Co') AeroPlane Commercial


interphone(courtesyBoeing Fig,2.2l Boeing?47: service Co.) AeroPlane Commercial

stethoscope audio fed to the passenger entertainment announcement emergency A headsets. prerecorded may be initiated by the pilot or an attendant,or in automatically the event of cabin decompression' 'fasten when the pilot tums on A chimeis generated 'no smoking' siglts. or seat-belt' amplifiersare fed via the address The passenger for flight or cabininterphone systems pilot orrespectively.Distribution atiendantannouncements in of audio from the amplifiersto the speakers various on zonesdepends the classconfiguration,sincesome *noun.itntnts may be intended for only a certain of class passengers. by distribution is achieved meansof The necessaiy on switches the speakerswitchingpanel. Audio is also fed to the flight interphonesystemfor sidetone purposes. Number 2 and number 3 ampliliers ere slavedto Should number I for all'classannouncements. be classannouncements requiredthe parallel separate the so control relay is energized, separating number I audio from that of number 2 and 3. The control box contain in assemblies the PA accessory potentiometersused to set the gain of the PA

amplifiers. When the aircraft is on the ground with ;;;i;g gearlocked down and ground powgl applied audio is reducedby 6 dB' the lev-efofspeaker The tape deck containsup to five tape cartridges tape'{rive mechanism' apart from the necessary piaybackhead and a pre-amplifier' Boarding musicis Ltectea at an attendint'spanelwhile prerecorded by are imnouncements selected meansof twelve the annunciatorpanel' pushbuttonson Entertainment SYstem Passenger entertainmentsystemof the Boeing The pa-ssenger 747 andan! other modern largeairliner is perhaps also the mmt complex of 3ll airbome systems'lt is and, most trouble the systemliklly to caus€ the fortunatelv, teait litcelyto affect the safety of leadsto a fire or ^ aircraft unlessbad servicing hazard. Evenon the sametype ol loose-article will be availablesince a variety of services aircraft different op.r"iott will offer different entertainment the in a bid to capturemore customers' In view of following description is abovecomments, the particularlybrief and doesnot do justice to the complexitY involved.


Movie audio

P.A. override

Other submultiplexers Seats 1 2 3 Channel select Other seat colurnns Other seat demultiolexers

Fig.2.23 Boeing 747: simplified passengerentertainment system

2 3 Seats

'system', Both moviesand music are provided,the movie as can be seenfrom the schematicdiagram audio being fed to individual seats the music via n Fig.2.?4. The horn and flight-deck call button are portion of the system.Ten tape-deck channels, four locatedin the nosewheel bay while tl'reground-crew movieaudio channels one p.a.channel and (total call(with illumination)and auralwarningbox areon fifteen) are provided usingtime multiplexing. A time the flight deck. Operation is self-explanatory from interval,ternreda liame, is divided into fifteen the diagram. Should horn or chinte sound, the ground channel timesduringwhich the signal amplitudeof crew, or flight crew respectively, will contact each eachchannel sampled.The audiosigrral is amplitudes other usingone of the interphonesystems. arebinary coded(twelve bits) and transmitted, togetherwith channelidentification, clock and sync. pulses, over a co-axialcablerunning throughout the aircraft. The music channels (five stereo,ten monauralor a mixture)aremultiplexed the main multiplexer,the in resulting digitalsignal beingfed to six submultiplexers CFO CiCW CALL +. in series, final one being terminatedwith a suitable the load resistor. Movie and PA audio are multiplexed with the musicchannels the zonesubmuliiplexers, in Fig.2.24 Boeing 747:ground crewcall(courtesy Boeing eachof which feedsthree or four columnsof seat Aeroplane Conrmercial Co.) demultiplexers. Channel selection madeby the is passenger who hearsthe appropriateaudio over his headset after digital to analogue Cockpit Voice Recorder - stethoscope conversion the demultiplexer. Alternate zone in An endless tape provides30 niin recordingtime for submultiplexers usedasback-upin the event of are audio signals input on four separate channels.The prime submultiplexerfailure (classpriorities exist if channelinputs are captain's,first officer's and flight failuresmean somepassengers must havethe engineer's transmitted and received audio and cockpit entertainmentservice discontinued). areaconversation.Passenger address audio may be The controls necessary activationof the for substitutedfor the flight engineer's audio in an entertainments system locatedon attendants' are aircraft certified to fly with two crew members. control panels. The microphoneinputs should be from so-called 'hot mics', i.e. microphoneswhich are permanently Ground Crew Call Syrtem live regardless the setting of ASP or control of Ground crew call is hardly worthy of the title column switches. The areamicrophone(which may


Flt. eng. hot mic. tel. Record head

lst. off. hot mic. tel.

Area Mic.


Q Playback I head parking

Erase Jack





Essontirl flt. inst. bus bar

Ft1.2.25 Typical cockpit voice rccorder blockdiagram

be s.eparate from the control panel) is strategically situatedso that it can pick up night crew speechand general cockpit sounds. While the control panelis situatedin the cockpit, ., the recorderunit (CVR) is locatedat .:heother end of the aircraft where it is leastlikely to suffer damage in the event of an accident. The CVR is constructedso asto withstand shock and fire damage,and additionally is paintedin a fire-resistant orangepaint to assist in recoveryfrom a wreck. The recorded audio may be erasedproviding the landinggearand parking brake interloik relav' contactsare closed. As a further safeguard aiainst accidental erasure delay is incorporited in the bulk a erase circuit which requiresthp operator to depress the 'erase'switch for two secondibefore "r"a*" commences. Test facilities are provided for all four channels,

separately all together. A playbackhead and or monitor amplifier allowsa satisfactorytest to be observed metersor heardover a headsetviajack on plug sockets. Pressing test button on the control the panel or the all-testbutton on the CVR causes the channels be monitored sequentially. to The power supply for the system should be from a sourcewhich provideqmaximum reliabilitv. Sincethe tape is subjectto wear and thus has a limiied life, the CVR should be switchedoff when nqt in use. A suitable method would be to remove power to the CVR wheneverexternalground power is connected.

Testingand Trouble Shootingthe Audio Systems Various self-test facilities beprovided which may by

tonesmay be generated heardover headsets. and However, testproperlyall switches to shouldbe operated and all mic. and tel.jacks,aswell as shouldbe checkedfor the requiredaudio. speakers, This shouldbe sufficiently loud, clearand noise-free. Amplifier gainpresets accessory in boxesmay needto be adjusted. A full functional test is best done by two men, althoughit is not impossible one man for with two headsets an extensionlead to establish and two-way contact betweenvariousstations. Faults can be quite difficult to find owing to the Howeverthe complicated switchingarrangements. wide rangeof switchingcan be usedto advantage in order to isolatesuspect units or interconnections. Disconnecting units providesa good method of

finding short circuits or howls due to coffee-induced (i.e. spilt liquid providinga feedback tel.-mic. path betweentel. and mic. circuits). conducting e.g. Whereone has a number of units in series, in demultiplexers an entertainmentsystem, can disconnecting be a particularly rapid method of best to split the run in half, fault-finding;it is usually. then in half again,and so on until the faulty unit or connectionis found. Continuity checkson very long by cablescan be achieved shorting to earth at one end to the and then measuring resistance earth at the to other. The resistance earth should also be with the short removedin casea natural measured short exists.


3 Automaticdirectionfinding

Most readers will havecome across principle on the which ADF is basedwhen listeningto a transistor radio. As the radio is rotated the signalbecomes weakeror stronger, depending its orientation with on respectto the distant transmitter. Of courseit is the antenna which is directionaland this fact has been known sincethe early days of radio. In the 1920sa simpleloop antennawas usedwhich could be rotated by hand. The pilot would position the loop so that there was a null in the signal from the station to which he was tuned. The bearingof the stationcould then be readoff a scaleon the loop. Tuning into anotherstation gaverise to another bearingand consequently fix. Apart from a position-fixingthe direction-finding loop could be usedfor homing on to a particularstation. This primitive equipmentrepresented first use of radio the for navigationpurposesand came to be known as the radio compass. The systemhas been much developedsince those early daysand in particularits operationhasbeen simplified. Within the band 100-2000kHz (I.f./m.f.) thereare many broadcast stationsand non-directional (NDB). An aircraft today would have twin beacons

receivers which, when tuned to two distinct stations or beacons, would automaticallydrive two pointerson an instrumentcalleda radio magneticindicator (RMI) so that eachpointer gavethe bearingof the station. The aircraft position is where corresponding the two directionsintersect. Sincesucha system requiresthe minimum of pilot involvementthe name by radio compass come to be replaced automatic has direction finder (ADF).


TheLoop Antenna

he first requirementof any ADF is a directional were able to be rotated antenna. Early loop antennas by first by hand and subsequently motor, of automatically. The obviousadvantage havingno antennahas moving partsin the aircraft skin-mounted use led to the universal of a fixed loop and goniometer althoughsomeolder types are in modern equipments, still in service. of The loop antennaconsists an orthogonalpair of coils wound on a single flat ferrite core which the concentrates magnetic(H) field componentof the e.m. waveradiatedfrom a distant station. The plane

Athwartships loop Forc and aft loop Fb.3.l Loop entcnnaand goniometcr

Rotot (sctrch coil)


ol one coil is aligned with the aircraftlongitudinal axiswhile the other is alignedwith the lateralaxis. The currentinducedin eachcoil will dependon the directidnof the nragnetic field. Whenthe plane of the loop is perpendicular the directionof to propagation, voltage inducedin the loop since no is the linesof flux do not link with it. lt canbe seen that if one loop doesnot link with the magnetic field the other will havemaximumlinkage. Figure3.1 showsthat the loop currentsflow through the stator (resolver) windingof a gonionreter where.providing circuitareidentical, the characteristics o1'each the magnetic field detected the loop will be recreated by We in so far asdirectionis concerned. now effectivelyhavea rotating loop antennain the form rotor or search coil. As the rotor of the eoniometer and two turnstf,rough360otherewill be two peaks inducedin it. The output of the nullsof the voltage which thus sees rotor is the input to the ADF receiver is the rotor asthe antenna.Suchan arrangement system. known asa Bellini-Tosi backwith a rotatingloop Sincewe areeffectively we the of situation shouldconsider polardiagram in as suchan antenna we areinterested its directional properties. polarized t.e.m. In Fig. 3.2 we havea vertically wavefrom the direction shown. Tl.ratcomponentof the H field linking with the loop will be H sin 0, so a plot of the loop current against produces sine I a curveasshown. The polar diagramof such an will be asin Fig. 3.3. It canbe seenthat antenna natureof the plot the nulls of because the sinusoidal arefar more sharplydefinedthan the peaks. a The abovehasassumed verticallypolarizedwave which is in fact the casewith NDBs and most

polardiagram Fig,3.3 Loopaerial polarized stations.However vertically a broadcast travelling overnon-homogeneous earth and signal objects, includingthe ionosphere, strikingreflecting can arriveat the loop with an appreciable horizontallypolarized component.The currentin the loop will then be due to two sources, vertical the give which will in general and horizontal cornponents, in a non-zeroresultarrt null, not necessarily the direction of the plane of the antenna. This polarization errordictates that ADF ihould only be which in the l.f./m.f. usedwith groundwavesignals hundredmiles. However. bandsare usefulfor several polarized they arecontaminated non-vertically by sky waves beyond,say,200m at 200 kHz and 50 m at 1600 kHz, the effect beingmuch worseat night (night effect) $*o read , The SenseAntenna The polar diagramof the loop (Fig. 3.3) showsthat the bearingof the NDB will be givenas one of twtr

Plane of looP

Direction of propagatron -------------+



H field



E fieldO


F8. 3.2 To illustrate degrccof coupling of loop acrbl


figures,l80o apart, sincethere are two nulls. In althoughnot as clearlydefinedas the nulls for the order to determinethe correctbearingfurther figure-of-eight (Fig. 3.4). information is neededand this is providedby an omnidirectionalsense antenna. In a verticaliv polarizedfield an antennawhich is omnidireitional in Simplified Block Diagram Operation the horizontal plarreshouldbe of a type which is excited by the electric(E) field of the t.e.m. wave Automatic direction finding (ADF) is achievedby i.e. a capacitance antenna. The output of suchan meansof a servoloop. The search coil is driven ro a antennawill vary with the instantaneous field stablenull position,a secondnull beingunstable. strengthwhile the output of a loop antennavariesas coil o-utput,after amplification,is the instantaneous - The search rate of change field strength of phase-shifted 90" so as to be either in phaseor out by (Faraday's law of inducede.m.f.). As a of phasewith the sense antennaoutput, dipending on consequence, regardless the direction of the t.e.m. of the direction of the NDB. prior to addingto the wave,the sense antenna output will be in phase r.f. sense signalthe phase-shifted loop signalis switched quadraturewith respect the search to coil r.f.butput. in phasein a balanced modulator at a rate determined In order to sense direction of the NDB the two the by a switchingoscillator,usuallysomewhere between antennaoutputs must be combinedin such a way as a 50 Hz and 250 Hz rate. Whenthe compositesignal either to cancelor reinforce,and so either the sense is formed in a summingamplifier it will be or the loop signalmust be phaseshifted by 90.. amplitude-modulated the switchingfrequencysince at A compositesignalmadeup of the searchcoil for one half period the two input signals will be in output phaseshifted by 90' and the sense antenna phasewhile for the next half period they will be in output would appearas if it camefrom an antenna antiphase (seeFigure3.6). the polar diagramof which was the sum of thosefor The amplitude modulation is,detected the last in the individual antennas.Now the figure-of-eight polar stageof a superhetreceiver. The detectedoutput will diagramfor the loop can be thought of asbeing be either in phase, in antiphase, or with the switching generated we considerthe output of a fixed search as oscillatoroutput and so a further 90" phase-shift is coil for various n.d.b.bearings the output of a or required orderto providea suitable in controlphase rotatingsearch coil for a fixed n.d.b.beaiing, either for the servomotor. The motor will drive either separate halves the figure-of+ightwill be of clockwiseor anticlockwise 1v%the towardsthe stablenull. rdu out ot phase.As a consequence sense the When the null is reached therewill be no search coil antennapolar diagramwill add to the loop polar output henceno amplitude modulation the of diagramfor somebearings, and subtractfoiothers. compositesignalso the reference phasedrive will be The resultantdiagramis a cardiodwith only one null, zero and the motor will stop. Should the servomotor Le in sucha position that the searchcoil is at the unstablenull the sliehtest -a--\. disturbance will cause the motor to drive aiay fiom / t / \ \ \ \ , / l \ \ this position towardsthe stablenull. The senieof the / t l \ connections throughoutthe systemmust be correct / t l \ for the stablenull to give the bearing. / \ t (STTx),mountedon . A synchrotorquetransmitter the searchcoil shaft, transmitsthe bearineto a remote indicator.





/ z'


\ ./


Block Diagram Detail Tuning Modern ADFs employ so-called digital tuning wherebyspot frequencies selected, opposedto are as older setswherecontinuoustuning *.s usurl. A conventionalfrequencysynthesizer usedto is generate local oscillator(first l.o. if double the superhet)frequency. The tuning voltagefed to the v.c.o.in the phaselock loop is alsousedfor varicap

Fig. 3.4 Compositepolar diagram


Loop antenne Synchro.torque Tx o l P

S u m m i n ga m P .

blockdiagram Fig.3.5 An ADF simplified

tuning in the r.f. stages.Remoteselectionis by b.c'd. (ARINC 570) or someother codesuchas 215. BalancedModulator modulator usedin the Figure3.7 showsthe balanced CR 1 l3 and CR I l4 areturned King KR 85. Diodes on and off by the switchingoscillator(Q 3l I and Q 312) so alternatelyswitchingthe loop signalto one transformerT I 16. The of two sidesof the balanced output of Tl l6 is thus the loop sigral with its phase rate. 0o swiiched between and 180" at the oscillator Receiver A conventionalsuperhet receiveris usedwith an i.f. frequencyof 14l kHz in the caseof the KR 85 ; i.f. andr.f. gain may be manuallycontrolledbut in any case a.g.c.is used. An audio amp, with normal gain control, amplifiesthe detectsdsignaland feedsthe AIS for identificationpurposes.A beat frequency oscillator (b.f.o.) can be switched in to facilitate the identificationof NDBs transmittingkeyed c.w- The /t8

b.f.o. output is mixed with the i.f. so asto produce an audio differencefrequency. Good sensitivityis requiredsincethe effectiveheight of modern givesa low levelof signalpick-up' low-dragantennas Good selectivityis requiredto avoid adjacentchannel in interference the crowdedI'f./m.f. band. Indication of Bearing In all indicatorsthe pointer is alignedin the direction of the NDB. The angleof rotation clockwisefrom a lubber line at the top of the indicator givesthe relative bearingof the NDB. If the instrumenthas a fixed scaleii is known as a relativebearingindicator (RBD' More common is a radio magneticindicator (RMI) to which hasa rotating scaleslaved the compass heading. An RMI will give the magretic bearingof as the NDB on the scale well as the relativebearingby the amount of rotation of the pointer from the lubber on line. Figure3.8 illustratesthe readings RBI and RMI for a givenNDB relativebearingand aircraft heading. An RMI normally providesfor indication of



from a combinationof two two magneticheadings and two VOR receivers.Figure 3.9 ADF receivers showsa typical RMI while Fig.3.l0 showsthe RMI which may circuit and typical switchingarrangements be internal or external to the RMIs.

Assumesearchcoil aligned with zero bearing

NDB 1 to left

NDB 2 to right

of Sources SystemError
Automatic direction finding is subjectto a number of sources error, asbriefly outlined below. of


r.t. Switching voltage Balanced mod. O/P Sense r.f.


\A/\A I





Composite signal Detected Rx out Reference phase


r i r R.M.l. Fig. 3.8 Diagramof RMI and RBI readings R.B.I

N.8. Waveshapes and relative time scalesare not exactly as shown. Fig. 3.6 DiagramshowingADF phaserelationships

Astable multivibrator o311-312

Fig. 3.7 King KR 85 balancedmodulator - simplified


Night Effect This is the polarizationerror mentio,ned previously under the heading the loop antenna. of The effect is most noticeable sunrise sunset at clr when the ionosphere changing is most rapidly. Bearing errorsand instabilityareleastwhen tunedto an NDB at the low end of the frequency rangeof the ADF. Refraction The differing propertiesof land Coastal and waterwith regardto e.m.groundwaveabsorption leads refractionof the NDB transmission. to The effectis to change directionof traveland so give the riseto an indicatedbearingdifferent from the actual bearingof the transmitter. Mountain Effect If the wave is reflected by hills or largestructures, ADF may the mountains, the measure direction of arrivalof the reflectedwave. The nearerthe reflectingobject is to the aircraft the greater error by the geometry the situation. the of
Fig.3.9 KNI 581 RMI (courtesy King RadioCorp.) ADF No. 1 ADF No

Stotic Interference Static build-up on the airframe

VOR No.l

VOR No. 2.


No. 2.



No. 2. R.M.l

26V 4OO Hz Ref.

t ---/ / Red

No'1 R'M'l' ,/tr\ (w E) \9/ A_-A

Fig. 3.10 Radio magneticindicator: simplified circuit


and the consequent discharge reducesthe effective rangeand accuracyof an ADF. Thunderstormsare alsoa sourceof static interference which may give rise to largebearingerrors. The ability of ADF to pick up thunderstorms beenusedby one has manufacturer give directionalwarning of storm to activity (Ryan Stormscope). Vertical or Antenna Effect The vertical limbs of the crossed loopshavevoltages inducedin them by the electric component the e.m.wave. If the planeof of a loop is perpendicular the direction of arrivalof to the signalthere will be no H field coupling and the E field will induce equalvoltages both vertical limbs in so we will havea null as required. Should, however, the two halvesof the loop be unbalanced, current the inducedby the E field will not sum to zero and so the direction of arrival to give a null will not be perpendicular the plane of the loop. An to imbalance may be due to unequalstray capacitance to earth either sideof the loop; howeverin a well-designed Bellini-Tosisystem,where eachloop is balanced a centretap to earth, this is not a severe by problem. Station Interference When a number of NDBs and broadcast stationsare operatingin a given areaat closelyspaced frequencies station interferencemay

result. As previouslymentionedhigh selectivityis requiredfor adequate adjacentchannelrejection. Quadrantal Enor (QE) It is obvious that the two fixed loops must be identicalin electrical characteristics, must the stator coils of the as goniometer. If the signalarrivesat an angle0 to the planeof loop A in Fig. 3.1I the voltageinducedin loop A will be proportionalto cos0 and in loop B to cos(90-d)= sin0. If now the search coil makesan angled with the stator P then the voltageinducedin the search coil will be proportionalto (cosOX cos@) (sinOX sin@) providedthere is no mutual couplingbetweenthe interconnecting leads. So when the search coil voltageis zero: cosOXcos@=sinOXsin@ or: cot0 = tan0 and: 0=6+ 90+ifX 180 wherey'y' 0 or any integer. This is simply a is mathematical model of the situationpreviously ddscribed under the headingof the loop antenna. Now considerthe two loopsnot electrically identicalso that the ratio of the maximum voltages inducpd in the two loops by a given signalis r. The condition for zero voltagein the search coil is now:

Direction of arrival

Fig. 3. I I Diagram showingsearchcoil signalas a function of direction of arrival


cotO=rXtan@' when 0=O therefore cotp=o

circuits and the loop connectionswill lead to errorsin the searchcoil Position.


A typical transport aircraft ADF installationis shown N o in Fig.3.l2; No. 1 system nly isshown, o' 2 being sirnilir except that different power bus barswill be when used. Main power is 28 V d.c', the 26 V, 400 Hz cot0=0 0=90 being usedto supply the synchros' lt is vital that the 26 V 400 Hz fed to the ADF receiveris from the therefore samesourceas that fed to the RMI' tan6'=0 so 0'=0+NXl80 The loop antennaand its connectingcableform and so must g = 180 or 270) we part of the input circuit of the receiver (alsowhen two cases In these (C) p = 0 ' s t tn o a fixed known capacitance and inductance irave a s t h a v e h e s a m e i t u a t i o n sb c l o r el . e . (L). This being so the length and type of loop cableis error. therewill be an error' so the ipecified by the manufacturerof the loop. The angles At intermediate but it can be coil will be incorrect' length specifiedmust not be exceeded, by indicated the search bearing C valuetlneein madeshorter provided compensating and L are Sincethis type of errorhasa maximum correctly placedin the circuit. error' it eachquadrant is calledquadrantal r'f' The QE corrector loop equalizercontainsthe t.e.m.wavefrom the NDB will cause Now the for reactivecomponentsto compensate a of to currents flow in the metalstructure the aircraft' necessary from the short loop cableand to provide QE correction' A direct signals Eachof the loops will receive typicalciicuit is givenin Fig. 3.13. Cl,C2,Ll,L2 trom the airframe' signals NDB and alsore-radiated (loop una C:, C4,L3, L4 providecompensation and Sincethe aspectratio of the aircraft fuselage while L5, L6,L7 provide QE correction equalization) energy wingsis not I : I the effect of the re-radiated by attenuatingthe current in the appropriatestator of on th. t*o loopswill be different:this is equivalent is the goniometer.The QE correctorloop equalizer loopselectrically identical to makingtwo physically error could be up mounted closeto the IooP. quadrantal The resulting dissimilar. antenna apply to the sense Similar considerations to 20" maximum. to by usinga which is required to presenta specifiedcapacitance can compensation be nrade Fortunately, the receiver. Again we havea givenlength of cable and possibly QE loop equalizer QE corrector but can be madeshorter the built into the loop. Nt>rrnaliy combined which must not be exceeded correction an iqualizeris fitted. Often both an in voltage the longitudinal proviclecl a r.f. field produces gleater are and a suscepti-former usedto achieve loop than in the lateralloop if the loopsareidentical' equalizer to the statetlinput capacitance the receiver'The havemore antennas someloop This beingthe case which matchingdevice is locp, susceptlformer a passive turnson the lateralloop than the longitudinal the to auto transformer increase effective utilizesan typical correctionUelngt Z|' in the middle of the antenna.Typicalunitsare of capacitance the sense quadrants. the shbwnin Fig. 3.14. As an alternative necessary in may be achieved a single Loop Alignment Error If the longitudinalloop plane matchingand equalization coupler. The matching/equalizing antenna sense is not parallelto the aircraft longttudinalaxis then a unit(s) are mounted closeto the antenna' errorwill exist. loop alignment constant coils Tire loop antennawill consistof the crossed in slab and encapsulated a wound on a ferrite Field Alignment Error If the loop antennais offset aircraft the loop will low-draghousing. On high-speed from the aircraft centreline the maxima of the be flush with the skin but on slower aircraft the aswill the zeros' quadrintal error will be shifted, housingmay protrude slightly, givingbetter signal the Consequently situation wherethe NDB is at a pick-up. relativebearingof 0, 90, 180pr 2?0o will not give The senseantenna can take many forms' On large zeroerror. is c-apacitiveplate Ft transport aircraft a suppressed 'towel rail' aircraft a comrnon,whereason slower Loop Connector Stmy Coupling Reactive coupling type of antennamay be used. Generalaviation or the loop connections betweenexternal between t a n @ ' = es o Q'=90+NXl80 52

N o .1 2 8 V d . c .


Panel lights supply

Corrector box



From No. 2 ADF or No. 2 VOR

Compass hdg

Sense aerial Fig.3.l2 TypicalADF installation

o i -cc

Fig. 3.13 Quadrantal error corector/loop equalizer (straight-through connections shown) not

aircraft might usea wire antennaor, asan alternative, now producea a whip antenna. Somemanufacturers antennafor the general combinedloop and sense market. aviation is The position of both antennas important. The loop shouldbe mounted on, and parallelto, thecenire line of the aircraft with nomore than 0'25" alignmenterror. While the loop may be on top or

Sense ae. cable equalizer lnsulated sense ae. terminal

lnner screen Fig; 3.t4 Sense aerial matchin!


bottom of the fuselage shouldnot be mountednear it the nose,tail, largeor movable protuberances near or othersystem antennae. Similarconsiderations apply to the sense antenna, although beingomnidirectional alignment not a problem. Ideallythe sense is antenna will be mountedat the electrical centreof the aircraft in orderto giveaccurate over-station turn-around of the bearingpointer. The interconnections the systemmust take into in Fig. 3.15 ARINC 570 control panel (typical) account that the phasing voltages of produced by sense and loop antennas will be different for top and bottom mounting. The methodusedwill dependon the manufacturer if the system but conformsto Functiort Switch. OFF-ANT-ADF In the antenna ARINC 570 the synchrorepeater connections be will position(ANT) the receiver operates fronr the sense asin Table3.1. If, asin somelight aircraft a n t e n n a n l y , t h e b e a L i n p o i n t e rb e i n gp a r k e d t 9 0 " o g a r e l a t i v e e a r i n g . h i : p o s i r i o n a y b e u s e dl b r b T m Table3.1 Synchroconnections alternate for aerial t u n i n ga n d N D B , l s t l t i o nd e n t i f i c a t i o nI.n t h e A D F i locations.Indicatorsynchroreceiver corrections positionsignals frorn both loop and sense antenna p r o v i d e o l n r a l D F o p e r a t i o nt,h e R M I i n d i c a t i n g n A Aerial position Bottom Bottorn Top Top t h e b e a r i n g l ' t h es t a t i o n . o loop, loop, loop,


bottorn sense

top scnse

top sense

loop, bottom sense S3

SI Synchro 52 transmitter S3 corrections Rl R2

sl s2 s3

sl s2
S3 R2 RI

S3 S2

s2 sl

Fretluenq,St,/ecl(rrobs Threeknobsareused; one is nrorrnted co-ariallywith the functionswitch,to s e l e c f r e q u e n c yn 0 . 5 , l 0 a n d 1 0 0k H z i n c r e m e n t s . t i, D i g i t r l t v p e t ' r e q u e n e i s p l a y e g m e n ti s d i c a t e h e yd s n t selected flr'qrrencv. The informationis passed the to r e c e i r eu sp l r l l k ' l b . c . t i . r

Ilcat F-requt'rtct' Oscillatr'r Sx,itch Selects BFO the installations, goniometeris in the indicator and the lirr useu'henthe NDB selec:ted identifiedby is the bearing presented is directlyratherthan by synchro t ' r n - o lk i -r i n g o l ' t h e ea r ri e r . -e feed then the following correctionsare necessary: A nurrrber other su,itches of nraybe found on v a r i o u s o r r t r o l l e r a sb L i e l l yd c s c r i b eb e l o w . c s. d l. loop from top to bottom: longitudinal coil connections goniometer to statorreversed: Ftur<'tit,rr Srt,irclr. OFI-'-ANT-ADI:-l.OOPAn extra 2. sense from top to bottom: search coil p o s i t i o n r l ' t l r e u n c t i o t r w i t c hn t a l b e p r o v i d e do r f s t conneCtionS reverSed. ()pr'rilethe receiver fronr the loop ;rc.rial only. This Obviouslyone must check fcrrwhich positior.r. (rr t()p p o s i t i o n L O O P . o u l db e u s e di n c o n i u n c t i o n i t h a . w w bottom, the connections rnadt- tht supplicd are in I o o pc o n t r o l . unit. Protection from interference of vital intportance. is Ittop Corttrol Springloadedto ot'f. Whenop!'rated and to this end adequate screening cables of shouldbe clockwise anticlockwise search or the coil rotates in employed.ARINC 570 callsfor four individually t h e s e l e c t e d i r e . c t i o nT h i s c o n t r o lc l n b r .u s e d o r . f shielded co-axial cables insulated and twisted.then n r a n u ad i r e c t i o n - l i n d i n t h e s e a L cc o i l b e i n g o t a t e d l g. h r jacketed.The sense antenna connector shoulduse until an audionull is achit'ved il'pr,rvidcd. visual or. I doubleshielding (tri-axial)cable. Thc.cableruns t u n i n gi n d i c a t o rn d i c a t eu n u l l . A l t h o t r g h t o t u s e d i s r shouldbe clearof any high-level trlnsrrritting cables in most rnodern equipments this doeshuvethe or a.c.powercables. advantage overADF that the nulls arr.sharper; ADF operation would lraveto be usedto scnse correct the null. Controls and Operation Gain Cotttntl An auiliogaincontrol is usually A standard ARINC 570 control prrrcirsillustrated irr providedand rnayhe annolated volume. On at least F i g .3 . 1 5 . one svstr'nr gain0f'tht' R.F. ampsis manually the 54

adjustable wherrANT or LOOP is selected, whereas audio gain is controlled on ADF. Beat Frequency Oscillator Tone A rotary switch, givingb.f.o. on-off,and a potentiometer may be mounted on the sameshaft turned by the b.f.o. control. Whenswitchetlon the frequencyof the b.f.o. canbe adjusted, varyingthe tone in the so headset. heselect Frequency Capability Provision can be madefor in useand standby frequencies sele'cted by means a transfer of switch. Whenfrequency selection is madeonly the standbyfrequency changes. Switchingthe transferswitch (TFR) will now reverse the rolesof in-useand standby frequencies.Both frequencies displayedand clearannunciationof are which is in useis required.

Sensilivity Signal+ noiseto noiseratio 6 dB or better with 35 pV/m field strength moduiated per cent at 30 = 1000Hz and l.ri-root-cap l'0. Station Interference An undesired signalfrom a source90o to that ofthe. desiredsignalat the frequencies and relativcsignal levelslisted in Table 3.2 shallnot cause change in a indicated bearing more than 3". of Receiver Selectivity Passband leastl'9 kHz at -6 dB pointsnot more at than 7 kHz at -60 dB points. Resonantfrequency within 1 175 Hz of selected frequencv.

Calibration and Testing the Ramp on
Loop Swing The procedurefor determiningthe signand sizeof errorsin an ADF installationis known as a loop swing. On initial installation swingshouldbe a ;arriedout at l5o heading intervals.Checkswings should be carriedout whenever calledfor in the maintenance schedule, after a lightning strike, when an airframemodification closeto the ADF antennais completedor when a new avionicsystemis installed. The checkswingis carriedout at 45o intervals. A sving should not be carriedout within + 2 h of sunset or sunriseto avoid night effect. The loop swingmay be carriedout in the air dr on the ground. The advantage an air swingis that the of aircraft is operatingin its nclrmalenvironmentaway from external disturbances but, in someways, a ground swingis to be preferred,sincereadings may be taken more accurately. If the loop is mounted on the bottom of the t'uselage swingmay be affectedby the the closeproximity of the ground,in which casean air swing should be carriedout. An installation should be checkedby air test after q.e.shavebeen corrected. Ground Swing A groun{ loop swing must be carried out at a site known not to introduce bearingerrors. A basesuitablefor compass swingswill not necessarily be suitable for loop swings. A survey using portable direction finding (D/F) equipmentmust be carried out if the site is doubtful. The loop may be swung with referenceto true or magneticnorth. Using true north hasthe advantage that the loop swingingbasemay be permanently marked out. If the swing is with referenceto magretic north the loop should be calibrated using a

The following characteristics selected are and summarized from the ADF SystemMark 3 ARINC 570. Frequency Selection Range:190-1750 kHz; spacing: kHz; channelling 0.5 time less than 4 s; parallel b.c.d.frequency selection with provision serial for b.c.d. ADF Accuracv + 2o excludingq.e. for any field strengthfrom 50 !V/m to 100000 pV/m, assuming sense a aerial quality factor of 1.0. (Sense aerialquality factor = effectiveheight X squareroot of capacitance, i.e.ii-root-cap). 13- excluding q.e.for a field strength low as as 25 pYlm. + 3" after q.e.correction. ADF Hunting k s s t h a nI 1 " . Table 3.2 Station interferenceconditions.with reference desiredfrequency to Undesiredfrequency Unde sired sig stre ngth nal

t2kHz t3kHz t6kHz t7 kHz

-4 dB -10 dB -55 dB -70 dB


suchas the medium landingcompass' datum compass, whic,hshouldbe alignedwith the longitudinalaxis of the aircraft and positionedabout 100 ft from the aircraft. To sight the longitudinalais, sightingrods or clearlyvisibleplumb linesmay be fixed to the aircraft centreline. Use of an upright nose'mounted propellerand the verticalstabilizermay suffice providingsightingis carriedout carefullyfrom a suitabledistance. For a checkswingthe aircraft gyro may be usedprovidedthis hasbeen magneticcompass recentlyswung,correctedand a calibrationchart madeout. The aircraft must contain its full complementof equipment. Doors and panelsin the vicirfity of the must be closed. Internal power ADF antennas sincethe shouldbe usedwheneverpossible supplies errorsin the generator and lead may cause external readings. The ADF is tuned to a station or NDB within rangeand of a known magneticbearingfrom the site. With the aircraft on the requirednumber of headings the ADF readingand the aircraft magneticheading

are recordedon a loop swingrecord chart, a specimen of which is shownasTable3.3. The correction(D) is the sigred anglewhich must be addedto the indicatedmagneticbearingof the station (B + C) in order to give the true ma^gnetic adding-5'5o to 41" + bearing ie). So, for example, 389'5' = 29'5oasrequired. 354' gives When completedthe valuesobtainedin the final column shouldbe plotted as a q.e- correctioncurve, of asshownin Fig. 3.16. The average the absolute of the peaksgivesthe amount of correction values required.the polarity being givenby the sign of the correctionin the first quadrant. So in the example givenwe have: 12.5+ 12.5+ 16 + l7'5 = +14'625" 4

asthe requiredcorrection. The correctionis made by in suitablechoiceof components the QE corrector equalizeras instructedby the manufacturer. loop The correctionshouldbe more or lessthe samefor in identicalinstallations a particularaircraft type. Once the prototype hashad a calibrationswingand swings subsequent the componentvaluesare chosen, Table 3.3 Loop swing recordchart aircraft shouldshow the error boundedby on series I A/CType............-..3" asrequired. A/CTailNo ............. of Loop alignmenterror is givenby the average the Time10.00 Base'..'...........-......'. Date....................,.... - Droitwich Freq.200kHz Mag'Brg(A)029'5 peaks. So in the examPle have: we Station
Autornattc direction linding relative bearing Correction (D)

Magneticheading datum compass

028 041 054.5 073 089 105'5 r22 135 153 t72 184 198 213 230 242 257 271.5 286 302 317 332 34s 358


l2'5 - 16+ l2'5 - l7'5 = -2'125 4 of Sincethis is in excess t 0'25o this error should be of taken out by re-alignment the loop. The line correction= -2'125 has beendrawn on this line curveshouldcross Fiq. 3.16. The correction atb, gO, 180 urd 270' if thereis no field alignment error. Within the limits of the accuracyof the plot and the scalewe can seethat this is the casein our error it example.If therewerea field alignment alongthe horizontal axis. would be measured Air Swing An *ir swing should be carried out in smooth air conditionsin order to eliminatedrift errors. There are variousmethodswhich may be employedbut all involveflying a particular pattern over a clearly definedpoint or points sgmedistance from the transmitterwhich is to be usedfor the swing' Magneticheadingand ADF relativebearingare noted every 10" or I 5o,depending forl number of headings, on the pattern flown. The aircraft should be inland are of the transmitterwhen readings taken to avoid coastalrefractionproblems' Recordingand plotting is as for the ground swing.

001.5 354 346 333 318 298 272 247 224 206 197 187 179 169 160 r48 134 115 088 063

032 02l

0 -5.5 -l1.0 - l6'5 - 17.5 -14.0 -4.5 7-5 12.5 I1.5 8.5 4.5 -2.5 -9.5 -12.5 - 15.5 - 16.0 -11.5 -0.5 9'5 12.5 t2'5 ' 10.5


various headinp when overhead of the referenoe point. SenseAntenna CapacitanceCheck of antennaand feeder The total capacitance the sense shouldbe checkedwhen calledfor in the maintenance whenever sense the antennaor feederis schedule. fault upon initial installationor if a possible changed, bridgeor Q condition is suspected.A capacitance meter operatingat 650 kHz shouldbe usedfor the measurement. Functional Test Ideally there will be at leastone station or NDB within rangein each quadrant; in busy regionsthis will ccrtainly be so, for example,at London Heathrow under good can be received more than twenty beacons The true magneticbearingof those conditions. to beacons be usedmust be known. An accuracy checkis performedby tuning into a beaconin each quadrantand ensuringthat for eachthe pointer Fig.3.16 Quadrantal correction error curve Table for 3.3 indicatesthe bearingto within the limits laid down in say t 5o. The figure givenwill only be the procedure, if achievable the aircraft is well away from largemetal Two possible methodsare position-lineswinging objects,and if the test is not carriedout within 2 h of and single-point swinging. With the first method a give a ground reference or series landmarkswhich of line sunrise sunset. Useof externalpower may also giveerroneous readings. aligned with a distant transmitterare chosen. A zig-zag pattern is flown, both toward and away from All controls shouldbe operatedto ensurecorrect if the transmitter,the readings functioning. In particular a loop control is^ being taken'asthe aircraft crosses line at variousheadings.With the providedthe pointer shouldbe displaced170" first the from the correct second method a clearly defined point, some distance clockwiseand then anticlockwise from the transmitter,is chosen. A cloverleaf pattern reading,to which the pointer shouldreturn without hunting. is flown centredon this point, readings being takenon excessive



4 V.h.f.omnidirectional range

Prior to World War II it was realizedthat the propagation anomalies with low- and experienced medium-frequency navigation aidslimited their usefulnes3 standard as systems a sky which was for evermore crowded. A systemcalled becoming four-course low-frequency waswidely range in implenrented the United States duringthe 1930s; this gavefour courses or from eachgroundstation to and fltted in quite nicelywith a system fixed of with the four-course airways.A problenr systemis that eachstationonly provides two intersecting for airways; more complexjunction requires a rnore The above, courses. coupledwith increased altitude of flying rnaking lineof-sightfrequencies usefulat longerranges, the developtnent v.h.f. comms, and of led to the adoptionof v.h.f.omnidirectional range ( V O R ) a ss t a n d a r d t h e U n i t e dS t a t e sn 1 9 4 6a n d in i internationally 1949. The competitionftrr an in international was fierce,the leading standard system after VOR beingDecca contender Navigator.lt is whetherthe technically debatable superiorsvstem waschosen, certainlyVOR wascheaper. but had the advantage a largehome market,and hasdone the of job adequately eversince. The VOR system operates the 108-l !8 MHz in band with channels spiced at sO kHiffiT[ with ILS localizer ffiing shared tt. allocated to 160of the 200 available channels. these160 Of 12O cfrannels areallocated VOR stations to intended for en route navigation while the other forty are for tClrn!ryLYQR statim!_(TVORL The output porver o f a n e n r o u t es t a t i o n i l l b e a b o u t2 0 0 W p r o v i d i n s w up a service tL49-laulieal n,iles.itTfleouency wilf b e w i t h i n t l r eb a n d I l 2 - l l 8 M H z . A T V O R w i l l h a v e an output power of Ebgnl5)-t{-providing a service of up to about ]5_!sg.l[sal miles,its frequency will be

to, or departure from, a stationon a particular bearing, steering informationcanbe derivedfrom the received VOR signals.It is this latter facility which VOR so usefulin airways flying, stations can makes Victor airways alongso-called be placedstrategically of and the pilot can then, by selection the appropriate fly radials, from stationto stationeitherby obeying or steering commands by feedingthe sameto the autopilot. To obtain a position fix liom VOR one needs when usedin this stationst bearings two separate to way VOR can be considered theta-tl-reta system.If a a VOR stationis colocated with a DME stationan \ i aircraftcan obtain a fix usingthe pair asa rho-theta VOR/DME system system.The ircurrentliTil international short-range standard.ln navigation recentyearsthis systenr becomeevenmore has u'ith the adventof airborneequipment which versatile an caneffectivelyreposition existingVOR/DME s t a t i o nt o g i v ea ' p h a n t o mb e a c o n ' c o m p l e tw i t h e radials which can be flown usingVOR-derived steering inforrnation. This development considered is i n C h a p t e r1 2 .

Basic Principles

A sinrpleanalogyto VOR is givenby imagining a which enritsan omnidirectional pulseof lig;hthouse light everytime the beam is pointingdue north. If the speed rotation of the beamis known, a distant of observer could recordthe time intervalbetweerr the seeing onrnidirectional flashand seeing beam, the and l'rence calculate bearing the lighthouse. the of v.h.f. energy In realitya VOR stationradiates with a retbrence phase modulated signal- the light - and a variable phase omnidirectional signal of the rotatingbeam. The bearing the aircraft within the bundI9&I2_I4I&, thisbelngthe part of depends the phasedifference on betweenreference -thetotalbandshared with ILS localizer. phases time difference between light and variable The crew of an approp.iately equippedaircraftcan a n db e a m . tune into a VOR stationwithin range and readthe The radiation frorn a qgnventionalVOR (CVOR) to bearing the stationand the relative bearing the of v.h.f.wave stationis a horizontallypolarized station. Should the flight plan call for an approach as modulated follows:



Sin pt coc


Cos nt
Cos qrt


rcos I



2r.3OHz 2n.1"MHz

Fig.4.l Ground station blockdiagram, v.o.r,

modulatedat 30 Hz with a deviation of 1480 Hz. The 30 Hz signalis the reference phase' 3 . l02Q Fz a'm': identification signalkeyed to providemorse code identification at least threegjnes each39-s. Wherea voR and5ffitreco-located identificationtransmissions the are synchronized (associated identity,see Chapter7). 4. Voice a.m.: the VOR systemcan be usedas a ground-to-air communicationchannelas long as this doesnot interfere with its basicnavisational function. The frequency rangeof the vo]ce modulation is limited to SQOXZ-

t . 30 Hz a.m.: the variablephasesignal. at Xo magneticbearing/roz the station the variable 2 . 9 9 6 0 H 2 a . m . : t h i s i s a z u b c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y , p h a s e w i l l / a g t h e r e f e r " e n c e p n u t " u y i ;r.i g u r e s + . t ,
4.2 and4.3 illustrate th. b.ii" priniiples. The airborneequipmentreceives composite the signalradiatedby ihe station to which the receiver is tuned. After deiection the variousmodulatingsignals are separated filters. The 30 Hz reference by iigrul is
Variabled 3O Hz a.m.

The 30 Hz variablephaseis spacemodulated in that the necessary amplitude variation in the received signalat the aircraft is achieved radiatinga cardioid by patternrotatingat 1800 r.p.m. The frequency modulated9960 Hz sub-carrier amplitude modulates the r.f. at sourcebefore radiation. It is arransedthat an aircraft due north of the beaconrryillreceiie variableand referencesignalsin phase,for an aircraft Flg 4.2 Frequency spectrum:CVOR spacesignals





V A R I A E L €P H A S E S I G N A L( A M )





I O oR A D i A L I

996otsr SU8CAnRIER FR€O MOO AT 3oxt


+sEcoro -"2to'




-rr tttono


R E f E R E T C EP H A S € V O L T A G E I A F T E Rf X O E T E C T I O N )


= ' .
c < l Z a




King Radio CVOR (courtesy relationships, Fig 4.3 Phase Corp.)

Figure 4'4 to station ian be presented the pilot' phasecomparedwith the variablesignal,the difference to bearing the stationis the 'ln itfurt*t.t thatihe relative the station ohaseeivinethe bearingfrom the station' The Aiii.r.n.. betweenthe magneticbearing-to to to actualreiding presented the pilot is the bearing An RMI is usedto.display .na tn. aircraftheading. in in the station ralher than from, so if the difference are the information. Suchinstruments considered is 135' signal and reference by bet*een variable ohase the 3. In this application cardis driven 'to' bearing would be 135 + 180 = 315", asshown air;;i.r at ift" reading th. .n*putt, asnormal,so that the card in Fig.4.4. -heading' At the same lubber line is the aircraft information (heading)is combinedwith ttre liio.p*s by titnt u pointtr is driven to a position determined of the the VORderived bearingthe relativebearing 60

fly-left or fly-right signalsare derived and presentedto the pilot. A complicationis that radial information depends 135"(Froml only on the phasedifferencebetweenmodulating and is independent ofheading; hencethe signals fly-right or fly-left information may sendthe aircraft 'long way the round'. Further, when an aircraft is on commandis nulled, the course,i.e. the steering aircraft may be headingeither toward or away from radial. A TO/FROM the station on the selected the indication removes ambiguity. With the aircraft heading,roughly, towards(away from) the station and the TO/FROM indicator indicatingTO (FROM), the steeringinformation givesthe most direct path in radial. order to intercept the selected (R) is phaseshiftedby the phase If the reference with the selected course(C) and then compared bearing Fig.4.4 To/frommagnetic bearings relative and variablephase,a fly-right indicationwill be givenif R + C lagsV, while if R + C leadsV, the command will be fly-left. If we now add 180 to the the differenceb€tweenthe bearingto the station and phase haveR + C + 180 we relbrence is the heading. A differentialsynchroor resolver used phase-shifted which will, on addition, either cancelV, partially or to give the requiredangulardifference. Figure4.5 completely,in whict casea TO indicationwill be to strows RMI presentation the corresponding the situationdiagramshownin Fig.4.4. Only one pointer given,or reinforceV, partially or completely,in which casea FROM indication will be given. is shown,for clarity. 'automatic' situations. ln both Figure4.6 showstwo possible The previoustwo paragraphs refer to the courseis 042,i.e. the pilot wishes cases selected VOR, so calledsincethe pilot needdo no more than to fly towardsthe station on the 222 radial or away svitch on and tune in to an in-range station in order 'Manual'VOR from the station on the 042 radial. With aircraft A to obtainbearing information. we havea fly-left and a TO indication;with aircraft B requires the pilot to selecta particularradial on which we havea fly-right and a FROM indication. Note that he wants to positionhis aircraft. The actual radial on the of if the headings the aircraft were reversed, with the which the aircraft is flying is compared so indicationswould be the satne, sendingthem the desiredradial. If the two are different the appropriate 'long way round'. Figure4.7 showsan electronic to deviationindicator corresponding aircraft B. The indication at top right showsthe aircraft to be on the 022 radialfrom a secondVOR station.

VOR (DVOR) Doppler
site The useof CVOR leadsto considerable errors where the station is installedin the vicinity of obstructionsor where aircraft are requiredto fly over mountainousterrain while usingthe station. The by error is caused multi-path receptiondue to and givesrise to reflectionsfrom the obstructions, and/or bendswhen the roughness coursescalloping, commands.The aircraft is flown to follow steering the courseunder these terms useddescribing conditionsrefer to the nature of the departurefrom a to straightline course. DVOR is relativelyinsensitive siting effectswhich would renderCVOR unusable. Although the method of modulationis completely different DVOR is compatiblewith CVOR in that

Fig. 4.5 RMI presentation


Flv right
O42 (Froml

Fly left



v.From fly right (R + 42' lags V) R+1800t42'


il, :;ii ,'i'

O42 (To)

To fly left (R + 42' leads V)

R+1800+42" Fig' 4.6 Fly'left/flv-right and'to/from' situation diagram

,i*: aroundthe ring of antennas. at 30 Hz anticlockwise airbome equipment will give the correct indications as remote from the site,it appears if the To a receiver, when usedwith stationsof either type. In the DVOR and and receding, are signalsources approaching is 30 Hz a.m. while the variable sigrral the reference hencethe receivedsigral suffers a Doppler shift sigrral 30 Hz f.m. on a 9960 Hz sub-carrier.Since is (seeChapter l0). -With a diameterof l3'5 m and with respect the rolesof the a.m. and f.m. are reversed of rotation speed 30 r.p.s.the tangentialspeedat the to CVOR the variablephaseis arrangedto lead the is periphery n X l3'5 X 30 = 1272m.p.s. At the phase X" for an aircraft at X" magtetic by reference centrefrequencyof the v.h.f. band, I l3 MHz, one bearingfrom the station (cf. CVOR). approximately2'65 m, thus the rycle occupies In a double sidebandDVOR (DSB'DVOR) the = maximum Dopplershift is 127212'65 480 Hz. carrier,/", with 30 Hz (and identification)a.m. is mix with the the ln the airbornereceiver sidebands antenna. Two radiatedfrom an omnidirectional sigrals,one 9960 Hz above carrierat /. to produce9960 t 480 Hz. Single unmodulatedr.f. sideband DVOR are possible, and altematesideband sideband /c, the other 9960 Hz below /", are radiatedfrom of the but sincethey compromise performance the in a ring of about diametricallyopposite antennas systemthey will not be discussed. fifty antennas. Theselatter sigtals are commutated 62

Fig.4.7 IN-2014electronic course deviationindicator (courtesy BendixAvionicsDivision) ry' Reference 30 Hz a.m.

instrumentson which VOR information is displayed aremulti-function hencequite complexswitching arrangements involved. Figure4.9 showsone are VOR/ILS systemof a typical dual instatlation;only thoseoutputs from VOR are shown. The antennamay serve ILS aswell asVOR but someaircraft haveseparate particularlyif antennas, all-weather landingis a requirement when the. optimum position for the localizerantennamay not suit VOR. If separate antennas usedwith a are common r.f. feed to the receiver switchinglogic the will be derivedfrom the channelselectionmadeat the control unit. The VOR antenna employs horizontal polarizationwith an omnidirectional radiationpattern. A horizontal dipole is often used with the dipole elements forming a 'V' shapeto givea more nearly omnidirectionalpattern. Sincethe dipole is a balanced load and the co-ax.feederis (with respect earth) a balun (balanced unbalanced to to unbalanced line transformer) used. The dipole is may be mounted on the verticalstabilizeror on a stand-offmast, top-mountedon the fuselage. The VOR/ILS receivercontainsa conventional superhet, filter for separation signiils a of and a converterto providethe requiredoutputs which aro l. 2. 3. 4. 5. audioto AIS; bearinginformation to two RMIs; deviationfrom selected radial; TO/FROMsignal; flag or,warningsignal.

The RMI feed is the result of the automaticVOR operation. Sincethe pointer on the RMI movesto a position givingrelativebearingwith respect the to lubber line the magneticbearing(omnibearing) must be combinedwith headinginformation aspreviously 9960 t +8oHz described.The necessary differentialsynchroor resolver will be in the receiver in the caseof or, Fig.4.8 Frequency spectrum- DVOR space signals equipmentconformingwith ARINC 579,in the RMl. ln the former case magneticbearing(mag.)is required by the receiver, this beingobtainedfrom the compass Aircraft lnstallation systemvia the RMI. The necessary switchingfor VOR as opposed ADF information, on to displaying SinceVOR and ILS localizers occupythe same either or both of the pointers,is on the RMI. band of frequencies they invariablyshare samereceiver the are The deviationand TO/FROM signals the result which will alsocontain the necessary circuits to of manualVOR operation. Thesesteering commands extractthe required information. It is not aredisplayedon a coursedeviationindicator(CDI) an uncommonfor v.h.f. comm. and v.h.f. nav. to share electronicversionof which is shownin Fig.4.7. The the samereceiver, particularlywith general aviation CDI, however,may not be a stand-alone unit; it is equipment.It is expected that the 'all v.h.f.in one likely to be part of a multi-function indicator known box' trendwill continueby a variety of namessuchashorizontal situation A largeairliner,and indeedmost aircraft from indicator(HSl) or pictorial navigation indicator PNL twins up, hasa dual v.h.f. nav.installation. The In the installationshownin Fis. 4.9 an HSI is used


Captain'scontrol panel

DME1 Comprss


Norm S/byt ) Test DME

Captain RMI


N o .1 V O R / I L S R x

Audio ,.

ight interohone


To From




transfer relay


Captain'sVOR/ILS transfer relay lentral nstrumenl rarning panel


Captain'sRAD/INS relay


Fig 4.9 TypicalVOR installation

indicator Fig.4.l0 KPI 552 pictorialnavigation (courtesy King RadioCorp.) il

(o.b.s.- omnibearing with remote courseselection director fitted, say,on an autopilot/flight selection) the panel. Figure4.10 illustrates mode select King KPI 552 PNI wherethe built-ino.b:s., knob),hasbeensetto 335", a iniolporated(course fly-right commandis beinggivenby the deviationbar and we havea TO indication(largearrow'headabove aircraft symbol). those are arrangements possible; Variousswitching choiceof VOR/lLS I ' the shownillustrate captain's (lNS) system VOR/lLS2 or inertialnavigation on displayed his HSI. Switching informationbeing of by VOR/lLS I or 2 is achieved means the between relay(TFR/RLY) while VOR/lLS or INS transfer of is switching by means the radio/lNS(R.AD/lNS) relay. The first officer (F/O) hasa similar from at arrangement his disposal.Deviationsignals to numberI system F/O'sHSI and from number2 systemto captain'sHSI may be via isolation amplifiers. The flag signalis of vital importance since it gives


warningof unreliabledata from the VOR/ILS receiver. will be fed to all instruments It selected to displayVOR/ILS information and often to a central instrument warningsystem (CIWS). Shouldthe deviationsignalbe fed to the automatic flight control system (AFCS),then obviouslyso must the flag or warningsignal.

Controls and Operation The controller not particularly is complicated. Frequency selection achievetl roiation of two is by knobs,mountedco-axially separately, or so determining appropriate2/5 code fed to the the receiver.It is normal for DME frequencyselection to be madefrom the sarne controller with DMg standby,normal and test switchingalsoprovided (s-ee Chapter7). Self-testswitchingfaciities for the YOR/ILSareprovided. Additiona]controls,other than thoseshown in Fig. 4.9, may be provided, namelyVOR/lLS on-off and audio vo-lume. The locationof displayswitches and the course . selector beentnentioned has previously, has the as interpretationof indicationsgiven to itre pilot.

Simplified Block Diagram Operation Received signals selected, are amplified and detected by a conventional singleor doubie superhetreceiver. The detectedoutput is a compositesignalwhich must be separated its cornponent into partsby means of appropriate ring circuits. filte The audiosignal,1020Hz identification, routed is . via an amplifier and possiblya volume contiol on the v.h.f. nav.controller to the flight interphone sub-system the AIS. The associated of audio filter may be switchable give a passband 300-3000Hz to of when the VOR systemis being usedas a ground-to-air communication link. phasechannel(CVOR) consistsof a ^^ lh9_reference 9960 Hz filter, a discriminatorto deteci the 30 Hz not l.m. and,- shown, amplifier circuits. Limiting of the signaltakesplace before the discriminatorto remove unwantedamplitude variatipns. The 30 Hz reference signal(R) then undergoes variousphaseshifts. For manualVOR operation,as previously mentioned, need to shift R by the selectld we course.This is achieved the phase-strift by resolver, the rotor of which is coupledtqthe courseor OBS knob. A digital readoutof the selected courseis provided. The phase-shifted is now comparedwith R the variablephasesigrral. If they are in phaseor lg0"

out of phasethere is no lateralmovementof the deviationbar. Sinceit is simplerto determinewhen two signals in phasequadrature 90.) a 90" are (at phaseshifter may be inclutledin the reference channel prior to feedingthe phasecomparatorwhere detectionof phasequadrature will giveno movement ofthe deviation bar. In the absenci ofeither or both of the signals flag will be in view. the 'To'or 'from' informationis derived comparing by the variablephasewith the reference phaseshifted bi the OBSsettingplus l80o It follows-thar the if reference phasehas beenshifted by 90o before feedingthe deviationphasecomparatorwe only reqrrirea further 90" phaseshift before feedingthe 'to/from'phase comparator ratherthan a lgOdphase shift asillustrated Fig. 4.1l. If the inputs to the in 'to/from' phase comparator within, say,+ g0o of are beingin phasethen a TO indicationis given;if within t 80'of being in anri-phase FROM intication is a given;otherwiseneither a TO nor a FROM indication is given. For automaticVOR operationthe reference channelis phase-shifted compared and with the variable phase.If the two inputsarein phase quadraturethere is no drive to the motor, otherwise the motor will turn, changing amount by which the the reference phaseis shifted until phasequadrature is achieved.The motor connections arranged that are so the stablenull of the loop givesthe requirei shaft position which represents magneticbearingto the the station. Compass informationis fed to a differential synchro,the rotor of which is turned by the motor following station magneticbearing. ThL difference signalrepresents relativebearingwhich positionsthe appropriateRMI pointer via.asynchrorepeater. The RMI card is positionedby compass information.

Characteristics The following characteristics selected are and summarized from ARINC characteristic 579-1 li . shouldbe noted that there are radicaldifferences in outputs,between ARII{C 579-l and the older ARINC 547 with which many in-servicesystems conform. Frequency Selection 160 channels, kHz spacing, 50 range108-117.95MHz. Standard2/5 selectionsystem. Channelling time lessthan 60 ms. Receiver Satisfactory operationwith 1.5 pV sigral.



Ref. channel

Deviation bar




VOR blockdiagram' Fig.4.lI Simplified


nat "t '5 f 60 attenuatio 31 kHz' reastdB


"t:mmfll i"pr1""l'it'-i: fri?:n|;Tfii:"' is requtrt station

outputs . ^^n .nn Q , of 200-500 Audio:at least100mWinto a load per ..nt'lt -:- "' 30 I modulated from a 3 pV input ,ignuirnoaututed t:: Hz. it 1000 blli:'fo'*

of of which ananalogue the 'Tt;digh-leutl is o*'' the spaiing give2 V across outputshould ffiil; within adjustable i ziio ii r*a.fo'?"ou'* deviation corresponding miles' rhe ;;;; t s to t lb nautical

in digital omni-bearing: ouJputfractional

io*i'u'r ":f:;.'lfi1.Ti;:'%tti\;b"o*;l*"

:J"'i,*:::i1!";;;;;:;r'.'^'n3-n1 flightcontrolsystem by the automatic #:'fi:iJffift,:ft1,;Tlsts":lT{::usedmoi.iocprt' In theeventof lossof ""'"' of the bearing, i;;; ;t -ih. oneproportiori?,rr."rt. voltages,
Gat-l 19 .nulogu.ou,puti, DMEthe deviation theotherto its cosine. iistanctinfotmationfrom the t*o OBS;i;l''"'*irnu*'of revertto an angular to automatically desiened feed"t 'r^6-*-'- o;tp"t should. v nr'" friiJn'.;. not lnt"r.t uigruute purau.lconnected er-vi1g^z for 10" off atui'tion *"d;;'f;;;;'n outputs . to ARINC579deviation Wts usedwith ARINC 547' *i*, "out"' (Note:iti"i ani'f-.*-i**f d'c' voltage a Deviation: trigh-levef 66

Fig.4.l2 Ttc T-308VOR/ILS set(courtesy test Tel-lnstrument Electronics Corp.)

represented angular displacenrent.) TO/FROM:groundreferenced providing2 mA for eachof two 200 Q loadsin parallel. In additiona lowlevel output of 200 gA may be provided to feed olderinstruments. Warning:high level,28 V d.c. valid, absentinvalid. low level,between300 and 900 rnV valid, lessthan 100 mV invalid. The low level signalshould be capable driving frorn one to five 1000 Sl parallel of loads. The VOR digital output should also include warningbits. Ramp Testing Testing VOR shouldalways carriedout with a of be ramp test set capableof being tuned to any VOR frequency,radiatingsufficient energyto allow satisfactory operationof the VOR and providing a means simulatingvariousVOR radials. Most test of setsincludeprovisionfor testingILS aswell as VOR. Among thoseavailable the CossorCRM 555. are IFR NAV4OIL.

The CRM 555 operates any of the 160 VOR on channels with a frequencyaccuracy of 10.0035 per cent(--10'C to +30oC).Modulationof the carrieris suchthat the simulatedbearingmay be set to any readingbetween0 and 360o with a calibrationaccuracvof t l" or mav be switchedin 45o steps with an u..uru.y of t 0.3". Carrierpower canbe attenuated I dB steps in between dBm and 0 -120 dBm (0 dBm corresponds an output of to I mW). A self-testfacility is provided. The NAV-401L offers similarfacilitiesbut is more 'state of the art' and so offersStighttymore in the way of performance. The TIC T-278 is part of the T-308 test set illustrated Fig.4.12. The facilities not as in are 'extensive either of the previouslymentionedtest as setsbut it has the advantage ofeaseof operationand less cost. It is FCCtype accepted. Operation on is 108'00MHz radiatedfrom a telescopic antenna. Bearings 0,90, 180 and 270" canbesimulated of both TO and FROM, alternately variation, 90-l l0' 'to' or270-290o'from', is available. J lo switch A



givesa usefulsticky needlecheck. Actual testingshouldbe carriedout in accordance with the procedures laid down, but briefly it would involvecorrectly positioningthe test set antennaand radiatingon sufficient frequencies test frequency to selection the VOR. Sensitivitymay be checkedby of reducingthe r.f. levelreceived either by use of the test

set attenuatoror moving the test set antennafurther shouldbe simulated(check away. Various bearings 'to'or 'from' whether they are station), the appropriatereadingshouldbe checkedon the RMI and the OBS operatedso as to check the manual mode of VOR.


5 lnstrument landingsystem

In order to be able to land the aircraft safelyunder visualflight rules(VFR), i.e. without any indication from instrumentsasto the aircraft'sposition relative to the desiredapproachpath, the pilot must haveat least3 mileshorizontal visibility with a ceilingnot lessthan 1000 ft. Although most landingsare carried out under theseconditionsa significantnumber are not; consequently, wereit not for instrument aidsto landinga considerable amount of revenue would be lost due to flight cancellations diversions. and One method of aidingthe pilot in the approachto an airport is to usea precisionapproachradar(PAR) systemwhereby the air traffic controller,havingthe aircraft 'on radar',can giveguidance over the v.h.f.-r.t. The alternative method is to provide instrumentation the cockpitgivingsteering in information to the pilot which, if obeyed,will cause the aircraft to make an accurate and safedescentand touchdown. The latter, which may be complemented/monitored PAR, is the method by which concerns here. us Early ILS date back to beforeWorld War II; the GermanLorentz beingan example. During the war the currentILS wasdeveloped standardized and in the United States. The basicsystemhasremained unchanged eversincebut increased accuracyand reliability haveresultedin landing-minimum visibilityconditions beingreduced. The ICAO havedefinedthree catesories of visibility.the third of which is subdivided All . categories definedin termsof runway visualrange are (RVR) (seeICAO Annex 14) and,exceptCategory III, decision height(DH), belowwhich the pilot must havevisual contactwith the runwayor aboit the landing(seeICAO PANS-OPS). The various categories definedin Table 5.1 where the are standards givenin metreswith approximate are equivalents feet (in parentheses). in Sometimes categories and B arecalled'see land'and IIIA to 'see to taxi'. The ILS equipmentis categorized usingthe same Romanirumerals and lettersaccording its to

Table5.1 ICAOvisibility categories Category

r.v.r. 8 0 0 m 2 600ft) ( 400 m l 200ft) 200m 700 ft) 3 0 m l 50 ft) Zerc

60 m (200ft) 30 m (100ft)

operationalcapabilities.Thus if the ILS facility is categoryII, the pilot would be able to land the aircraft in conditionswhich corresponded those to quotedin Table5.1. An obvious extension the of idea of a pilot manuallyguidingthe aircraft with no extemal visualreference to havean autopilot which is 'flies' the aircraft in accordance with signals fronr the ILS (and other sensors includingradioaltimeter) i.e. automaticlanding.

Drectional radio beams, modulatedso€s to enable airborne equipment identify the beamcentres, to define the correct approachpath to a particular runway. In addition verticaldirectionalbeams providespot checksofdistance to go on the approach. The total systemcomprises three parts,eachwith a transmitteron the ground and receiverand signal processor the aircraft. Lateralsteering provided in is by the localizerfor both front-course and back-course approaches; glideslope provides the vertical steering the front courseonly while for markerbeacons givethe distance checks. [,ocalizer Forty channels allocated 50 kHz spacing the in are at band I 08' 10-l I I .95 MHz usingoniy thoseliequencies wherethe tenthsof a megacycle count is odd; so,for example108'I0 and 108.I 5 MHz arelocalizer channels while 108.20and 108'25MHz arenot. Thosechannels the band not usedfor localizerare in


allocatedto VOR. The coverage the beaconwill of normally be asshownby the hatchedparts of Fig. 5.1,but topographical features may dictatea wherebythe ! 10" sectormay be restricted coverage to milesrange. reduced l8 nautical

(extendedcentreline) and limited by the lineson which thereis a d.d.m.of 0'155. The change in d.d.m.is linearfor I 105 m alongthe line perpendicular the course to through line and passing the IIS datum point on the runway threshold;these points 105 m fronr the course line lie on the 0'155 is d.d.m.lines,asshownin Fig. 5.2. The beacon Azimuth situatedsuch that the abovecriterion is met and the course sectoris lessthan 6'. Outsidethe course t n t s e c t o r h e d . d . m . ' i s o t l e s s h a n0 ' 1 5 5 . The ICAO Annex 10 specification the for pattern is more complicatedthan localizer-radiated the descriptionaboveindicates,in particularin the various tolerances category II and iII facilities; for I, points for our howeverwe havecoveredthe essential purposes. equipment the The airborne detects 90 and 150 Hz tonesandhencecauses deviation a indicatorto show deflection a fly-left or fly-right command. Full-scale when the d.d.m.is 0'155, i.e. the aircraft is achieved and is 2-3ooff course.Figure5.3 showsa mechanical electronicdeviationindicator both showingslightly overhalf-scale deflectionof a fly-right command. Providedthe pilot flies to keep the commandbar at zero,or the autopilotfliesto keepthe d.d.m.zero, Fig.5.l Localizer frontbeam coverage the aircraft will approachthe runway thresholdalong the courseline. The horizontally polarizedradiatedcarrieris In addition to the 90 and 150 Hz tonesthe modulated tonesof 90 and 150 Hz suchthat an by localizercarrieris modulatedwith an identification aircraft to the left of the extendedcentreline will be tone of 1020 Hz and possibly(exceptionallycategory in a regionwherethe 90 Hz modulation predominates. III) voicemodulationfor ground-to-air Along the centreline an airbornelocalizerreceiver communication. The identification a beacon of will receive carriermodulated a depth of 20 the to consists two or threeletterstransmitted keying of by per centby both 90 and 150 Hz tones. Deviation the 1020 Hz tone so as to give a Morsecode from the centreline is givenin d.d.m.(difference representation. The identification is transmittednot in depthof modulation), the percentage i.e. modulation lessthan six times per minute when the localizeris of the largersignalminus the percentage modulation operational. of the smaller signal dividedby 100. The localizercoursesectoris definedas that sector Glideslope in the horizontal planecontaining course Glideslope channels in the u.h.f. band, are the line
15OHz > 90 Hz

DDM 0.155 Bercon
Course sector < 6o ILS datum point

0 ' 1 5 5D D M
150 Hz < 9O Hz

Fig. 52

Localizer ooursc,lelector


Fig. 5.3 Electromechanical and electronic course deviatron indicators (courtesy Bendix Avionics Division)

s p e c i f i c a l l3 2 8 . 6 - 3 3 5 .M H z a t 1 5 0k H z s p a c i n g . y 4 Eachof the forty frequencies allocated ihe to glideslope system pairedwith a localizer is frequency, the arrangement beingthat localizer and glidesiope beacons serving sarne the runway. will haveliequencies takenfrom Table5.2. pilot selection ol'the required localizer frequency the controllerwill cause'both on localizer and glideslope receivers tune to the to appropriate pairedfrequencies. Table5.2 Localizer/glideslope frequency priring (MHz)
Lot'alizer ()li<lepatlt



1 0 9 .5 5 l0e 70 109.75 109.90 109.95 I10.10 l 10.15 110.30 I10.35 I l0'50 I 10.55 l10.70 110.7s I10.90 l10.95 ll l.l0 lll'15 I I 1.30 l l 1.35 I I 1.50 l I 1.55 I I1.70 I I1.75 I I 1.90 I l l.9s

108.10 1 0 8 .5 1 t08.30 r08.35 r0 8 ' s 0

r0u.55 r0 8 . 7 0
108.75 108.90 108.95 109'10 109.15 109'30 109.35

334.70 -r,r4.55 3 3 4 .0 r 33.r.95 329.90 329.7 5 330.50 330.35 329.30 329.15 33r .40 . 3 3 12 5 332.00 . 33185


332.60 332.3s 333.20 333.05 333.80 333.65 334.40 334.25 335.00 334.85 329.60 329.45 330.20 330.05 330.80 330.65 . 3 3 17 0 331.55 332.30 332'15 332'90 332.75 333.s0 3 33 . 3 5 3 3l . 1 0 330.95 71

The principle of glideslopeoperation is similar to that of localizerin that the carrieris modulatedwith 90 and 150 Hz tones. Above the correctglidepath while on the the 90 Hz modulationpredominates correctglidepaththe d.d.m. is zero,both tonesgiving and a 40 per cent depth ofmodulation. The coverage shown in Figs 5.4 and 5.5 are beamcharacteristics givenin termsof the glidepathangle,typically 2|-3'. CategoryI facilitiesmay haveasymmetrical the upperand lower sectors, figure of 0'0875 d.d-mof to corresponding an angulardisplacement betweert III a 0'070 and 0'140 0. By contrast category facility of is asshownin Fig. 5.5 with a tolerance + 0'02 0 on the 0'12 0 lines. Althoughd.d.m.= 0lines occur al2 0,30 and4 0 that if the pilot obeys thev are not stablein the sense

the steeringcommandshe will not maintain the of angles descent.The first stablenull corresponding o".un at S 0 wtrich for a glidepathof 3" is at l5o. This is sufficiently different from the desireddescent to angleto createfew problems;however avoid 'captured' beamshouldbe confusionthe glideslope from below. Oncein the correctbeam fly'up and fly-down are signals indicatedto the pilot in much the same *-uVur with the localizer. Figure5.3 illustratesa deflection. fly-up commandof just over half-scale than localizer is more sensitive output The glideslope typically a |' off the glidepathwill give in that (about0'175 d'd.m.) compared deflection full-scale with about 2t off the courseline for full'scale deflection. Marker Beacons directly upwardsusinga A marker beaconradiates carrierfrequencyof 75 MHz. The modulatingsignal on depends the function of the marker. An airways,fan or'Z'marker is a position aid for locatedon airwaysor at holding en-routenavigation points. As suchit is not part of ILS. The carrieris a modulatedwith a 3000 Hz signalwhich causes white lamp to flashin the aircraftwhile station identificationin Morsecode is fed to the AIS. The outer marker is normally located4f miles from the runway threshold. The carrieris by amplitude-modulated 400 Hz keyed to give two which can be heardvia the AIS and per dashes second a causes blue (or purple) lamp to flash. The middle marker is located3500 ft from the runway threshold. The carrieris amplitude'modulated pair 95 timesper by 1300Hz keyedto givea dot-dash an minute which can be heardvia the AIS and causes amberlamp to flash. The ILS markerbeamwidths are sufficiently wide to in the planeperpendicular the courseline to cover the coursesector.


t o n 'n


Course line Azimuth

Fi;. 5.4 Glideslopecoverage

DDM : 0.0875

SimplifiedBlock DiagramOperation

Fig. 55


occupy the Sincethe localizerand VOR frequencies sameband it is normal to havea v.h.f. navigation and which selects,.amplifies detectssignals receiver on either aid, depending the frequencyselected. from Figure 5.6 illustratesthe basicblock diagramof a singleor double localizerreceiver.A conventional o.0875 is superhet employed.A.g.c.is importantsincean by in increase the 90 and 150 Hz output signals the the samefactor would increase magnitudeof the difference,so givingmore deflectionof the deviation



I Deviation indicator Fig. 5.5 Localizer simplified block diagram

r__ _ ___:=___


Fig.5.7 KingKN 72 bandpass filter,simplified

indicator for the samed.d.m. Sigral separation is achieved threefilters:audio,90 and 150 Hz. The by audio signal,identification and possiblyvoice,is passed audio amplifiers(incorporatinga noise via limiter)to the AIS. The 90 and 150 Hz iignalsare full waverectified, the differencebetween-the rectifieroutputsdrivingthe deviation indication while the sum drivesthe flag out of view. The 90 and 150 Hz filters,together with the rectifienand any associated circuitry.are often part of the so-calied VORi LOC converter which may be within the v.h.f.navigation receiver a separaie or unit. A combined converter will usually enrployactive filters which serve either 30 Hz bandpissfilters for as VOR operation 90/ I 50 Hz bandpassfiltersfor or

localizeroperation. Figure5.7 showsthe circuit used in the King KN 72 VOR/LOC converter. Whena VOR frequencyis selected ILS Hi line is low, so the turning off Ql which effectivelydisconnects from R2 the circuit, the centrefrequencyof 30 Hz is set by R3. Selection ofa localizer frequency causes ILS the Hi line to go high,so turningon Ql and placingR2 in parallel with R3. R2 is setto givea centrefrequency of 90 or 150 Hz asappropriate. The glidepathreceiver converterblock diaeramis similarto that of the localizer exceptthat the-audio channel not required.A separate is receiver may be usedor all navigationcircuitry may be within the same unit. In any eventseparate antennas used are for localizerand glidepath.

White Blue

5 :t



blockdiagram simplified Fig.5.8 Marker The marker is fixed tuned to 7 5 MHzand may employ a t.r.f. (tuned radio frequency)or superhet to .r..iu.r. The detectedaudio is t-ed three filters for alsoamplifiedand fed to the AIS' and tone separation the The filtir which givesen output causes circuit to give an - . lamp-switching appropriate lamp' d.c. output to drivethe associated interrupted to Hi the sensitivityof the receiver When sq'itched to is such that it responds airwaysmarker beacons eventhough the iircraft is at a relativelyhigh altitude. Wittr trigtrsensitivitythere is a dangerthat when at lower altitudes,for examplewhen flying over the outer and middle markerson approach,the lamps is may be lit for longerthan the maximumof 10 s' It outer and middle marker lamps for evenpossible the to be lit simultaneously.To avoid this, low sensitivity in (i0 dB) is piaced wherebyan attenuator is selected, may take input. Switching line with the receiver placeat 10000 ft.
"l*': J'

Typical attitude director indicator

the and scaleconventionallyon the left-handsideof tn the ADI the localizerdrivesa rising instrument. runway laterally tc displaydeviation(vertical. in Chapter4 an installationincorporatinga radio altitude) while the movementrepresenting and was discussed illustrated VOR/IiS receiver drivesa pointer over a scale,againon the glideslope in ILS (Fig. a.9). In considering we areinterested left-handside of the instrument' derivedfrom the localizer'glidepath ouiputs itro"se are and marker signals also Localizer,glideslope glideslope and marker receivers.Localizerand when fitted' The localizer fed to an autolandsystem deviation(fly-leftifly-right, fly-up/fly-down deviationwill be usedto supply the appropriate or be fed to a conventional will respectively) signalto the roll (aileron) and yaw (rudder) HSI ciemand an Lt.it.onic ieviation indicator (Fig' 5 '3) and/or will respond channel ihe pitch (elevator) channels. (Fig.a.l0) and an attitudedirectorindicator'ADI touchdown aircraft approaches to glideslope.As the localizerdrivesa iateral ieii. s.sl. In the HSI the of the pitch channelto glideslope while thJresponie aril.tion bar right and left of the coursearrow reduced;this is deviatiln signals progressively deviationis givenby a deviationpointer glideslope Installation 74

reductionis triggeredby the outer marker and thence deviationoutput circuit hasan output impedance of controlledin accordance with the radio altimeter 200 O and suppliesthe required current to five output. A modern ILS will provide dual parallel indicators in parallel then when lessthan five outputsfor both localizerand glidepathdeviationin indicatorsare usedthe deflectionwill not properly orderthat the AFCS.may acceptinformation only correspond the d.d.m. Consider d.d.m.of 0.155, to a when the samesignalappears eachfeed of a on then 750 pA must be suppliedfor five loadsin parallelpair. parallelfrom a generated deviationvoltageof A general aviationinstallationis illustratedin 300 mV. Now considerfour loadsfed from a 300mV, Fig. 5.10 incorporatingKing equipment. The 200 Cl source,the total current will be KX 175Bis panel-mounted and containsa 300 x 103(200 + 250) = 666.7ptA divided equally 720-channel v.h.f. comms receiver, 2O0-channel a amongthe four loadsso that eachload has v.h.f. nav. receiver and all necessary controls with 666'7 = 166'7 pA, i.e. the indicatorswill over-read l4 digitalreadoutof comm. and nav. frequencies the on by about I I per cent. Unless the receiveroutput is a front panel. The KX 175B alsoprovidestuning constantvoltagefor a variety of loads(ARINC hformation for the DME and glideslope receiver. 578-3)we must comp€nsate loadingvariations. for Various methodshavebeenusedfor loading in compensation the past. One possibilityis to output impedances choosedifferent receiver on depending the numberof loads;inthis case the receiver and the mounting rack shouldbe suitably labelled. Another possibilityis to fit a shunt resistor in an aircraftjunction box throughwhich the deviation signalis fed. With two indicatorsa 330 O shunt would be neededgivinga 330 O and two 1000 Q i.e. loadsin parallel, total load of 200 (-). Finally, the five separate but not exhausting possibilities, buffered outputs may be provided,eachindicator beingfed from one of the buffer amplifiers. Similar considerations apply to flag circuitswhere using procedure. four 1000Q loadsin parallel standard is F8. 5.10 Kirg general aviation comm./nav. system vary betweendifferent Antenna arrangements VOR/ typesof aircraft. Mentionof combined The KN 72 andKN 75 are remote-mounted VOR/LOC converterand glideslope receiver respectively. KN 72 gles localizer The deviationand flagsignals well asVOR deviation, (as TO/FROM and flag),while the KN 75 givesglideslope deviationand flag. The KMA 20 is an audio control console providingspeaker/phone selectionfor sevenreceive channels mic. selectionfor two transmit channels and aswell as containinga marker receiverplus its controls Phillip3 hcad scrcw andlamps.The indicator,Kl 206, showslocalizer (16 pt.ccs) deviation(verticalbar) and glideslope deviation (horizontalbar) aswell as showingVOR deviation and TO/FROM indication if a VOR frequencyis selected, deviationrelatingto the OBS setting also the on the KI 206. lf a Kl 204 is usedinsteadof the Lo[r l@rlirct antennt KI 206 then the KN 72 may be omitted sincea VOR/LOCconverter built in. is Typically a deviationindicator movementwill be of 1000S) impedance require150 pA for and Fig. 5.t I Boeing747 localizer aerials (note Bendix weather full-scale deflection(f.s.d.), thereforethe voltage radar scanner with spoiler grid on parabolic reflector for across deviationoutput of the receivershould be the mapping purposes - see Chapter 9). (Courtesy Boeing 1 5 0m V f o r a d . d . m .o f 0 . 1 5 5 . I f t h e r e c e i v e r C o m m e r c i a l A e r o p l a n eC o . )


has localizer antennas beenmadein Chapter4 but will alwaysbe and marker antennas the glideslope aircraft, separate.As an exampleof a largepassenger considerthe Boeing747. ThreeVOR/ILS receivers areinstalledfed by one V-type VOR antennaat the top of the verticalstabilizer,two dual localizbr in antennas the noseand a total of six glideslope doors. One marker in antennas the nose-wheel is beaconreceiver instalied,fed by a flush-mounted of antennaon the bottom centreline the aircraft. are The localizerantennas mounted aboveand below the weatherradarscanner.The lower antenna I feedsreceivers and 2 while receiver3 is fed from the upper antenna. Antenna switchingbetweenVOR by is and localizeraerials achieved either solid stateor mounted behind the switches electromechanical VOR/ILS receivers. antennas split into two are The six glideslope door. groupsof three,one group in eachnose-wheel slot (track antenna)dual unit is A non-tunable

installed in each door leading edgewhile two tunable of are arrays(captureantennas) mounted on the sides eachdoor. A total of four hybrid antennacouplers antennas combinethe r.f. outputs of the glideslope matching. suitableimpedance providing

Controlsand Operation
Normallya combinedVOR/ILS/DME controlleris employed(Fig. a.9). Such a controller is briefly in described Chapter4. The marker receiver switchingis likely to be remote from the combined above. controllerand its action hasbeendescribed In usethe glidepathshouldbe capturedfrom by from a direction determined below, approaching for the approachprocedures the particular airfield. The marker sensitivityshouldbe on low for the approach.The appropriateselectionshould be made on the audio control panel.

VOR/ILS receiver No. 3 Glide slope antenna hybrids 8554 and 8555 and att€nuators 8582 and 8583 Trrck antenna coaxial cable Capture antcnna coaxial cable { Coaxial recbiver No. 2 cable 9uard Antcnna coaxial connectors D8558

G/S track antenna B 561
Antenna coaxial connector D8561

G/S capture a n t e n n a8 5 5 8 G/S capture antenna hyg49-{-\ -8560 c/S;;t';; \ .antennaarray . \\ t \

G/S capturc a n t e n n a8 5 5 8

Right aft nose gear door

Tuning "trg, .

t -]\'*. -.\\ . .\\.

Attachins (5 screws places)

S rwo

Aft door shown in retraciedposition (6t

(courtcsyBoeing aerials Fig.5.l2 Boeing?47 glideslope Co.) Aeroplane Commercial


Track antennas

Capture antonnas

Right door

Track aerials

Fig.5.l3 Boeing747 simplified glideslopeaerial coupling alrangements

Characteristics The basisfor the following is ARINC Characteristic 578-3 althoughmuch of the detail hasbeenomitted and not all sectionscovered. Units Tlte receivershouldcontain all the electronic circuitry necessary providedeviationand flag to signals both localizerand glideslope.The control for unit should provide for frequencyselectionof ILS, VOR and DME using2/5 coding.

carrierwithin I l2 kHz of tuned frequency. Sensitivityis such that the flag shouldclearwith a 5 pV 'hard' input sigral ('hard' pV: the output of a signalgeneratorcalibratedin terms of open circuit load). The receivershouldbe protectedagainst undesired localizersignals, VOR sigralsand v.h.f. comm. signals.The a.g.c.shouldbe such that the receiver output shouldnot vary by more than 3 dB with an input signallevel rangeof l5-100 mV.

Gli<leslope Receiver Forty channels 150 kHz at spacing, 328'6-335.4MHz. Channels be paired to for Antennas Separate localizerand glideslope antennas with localizerchannels frequencyselection purposes.The selectivityis specifiedin a similarway shouldbe provided coveringthe appropriate to localizerbut the 60 dB points are at + 80 kHz frequency bands(108.00-l12.00 MHz and while the 6 dB points are at t 2l kHz. The flag should 328'6-335.4MHz respectively) and both having clearwith a20 pY'hard'.sigral. Protectionagainst characteristic impedances 50 O with a VSWR of of unwanted glideslope l e s s h a n5 : l . t sigralsmust be guaranteed.The a.g.c.should be suchthat the input signallevel to the Power Supply I l5 V, 400 Hz, singlephase. tone filters shouldnot vary by more 163n+| to -2 dB for an increase input from 200 to in Localizer Receiver Forty channels 50 kHz spacing 20 000 pV and should not vary by more than *3, at 108'00-l I l'95 MHz. Maximum channeltime 60 ms. -2 dB thereafterup to an input of 100 000 pV. Selectivityis such that a carriermodulated30 per c€nt at 1000 Hz shouldprovidean output at least Deviation Outputs 60 dB down when separated from tuned frequency Localizer:.high-level2 for 0.155 d.d.m.,low-level V by t 3l'5 kHz; response shouldbe within 6 dB when 150 mV for 0.155 d.d.m. Dual outputsin parallel for


shouldnot vary for AFCS. Output characteristics between200 Q and no load. When90 Hz loadS 'hot' sideof all deviationoutputs the predominates 'common' side; shouldbe positivewith respectto the 'fly-left'is given. in this case similarto localizerbut high- and lowlevel Glideslope: for outputsare2Y and 150 mV respectively 0 ' 1 7 5d . d . m . (super Flag Outpu* Two highJevelwarningsignals flag) and one lowlevel waming signalshould be providedby both localizerand glidepathreceiversis flag characteristic 28 V d.c. for valid The high-level 25 statuswith current capabilities; mA for AFCS wamings.The waming;250 mA for instrument low-levelflag shouldprovidea voltageof between 300 and 900 mV into up to five parallel1000 Q loads. Monitoring when: no r.f., either90 or 150 Hz Warning sigtals o1'composite total depthof modulation missing, than 28 per cent,etc. is 90/150 Hz signal less

e.g.: beingmarkedin decibels, 6'6 dB fly-right(+ 0'1549 d.d.m.)' 4 ' 0 d B f l y - l e f t ( - 0 ' 0 9 2 ed . d . m . ) ' ' 3 ' 7 6d B f l y - u p ( + 0 ' 1 7 5d ' d . m ' ) e t c . Further switch positionson the d.d.m. switch allow one or other of the tones. ln additiona for deleting Stepped is 0 to 1 150gA deviation available. variable between variable provideoutput levels attenuators in 0 dBm and - 120 dBm in I dBrn steps, orderthat (testsetaerial may be checked sensitivity receiver tones will affectthis check). Modulating positioning fbr of 400. 1300and 3000 Hz are available marker for checks.Finally, l0l0 l-lzmodulationis available 4 the in audiochecks.As menticlned Chapter CRM 555 canalsobe usedto checkVOR. signal IFR NAV402 AP Conttinsa modtrlated and glideslope VOR, localizer, generator marker, for e o u t p u t< - r l ' t hte s ts e ti s T ts c o m m u n i c a t i o ne s t i n g . h e between 7 and - I l0 dBnron all frecluencies variable at t y s e tb y a v a r i a b l e) e q u e n c c o n t r o l( p h a s e - l o c k e d whcre 25 kHt.on eacltblnd exceptfor glidepatlt can deviatitln be is irrterval 50 kt-lz). The localiz-er . 0 ' 1 5 5 o r 0 ' 1 0 0 d . d . n rw h i l e t s w i t c h e do 0 ' 0 9 - 1 . a 0 d. . g l i d e s l o p e d . t no f l e r s ' 0 9 1 , 0 ' 1 7 5 n d0 ' 4 0 0 ' . c T o n ed e i e t i o n a nb e s e l e c t e dA l l t l r r e cr t t a r k ctro n c s . a r ea v l i l a b l ea si s 1 0 2 0t l z .f o r l u d i o c h c c k '

testsetmustbe usedwith a basic A radiating capabilityof simulatingoff-glidepathsignals.In on additionthe testsetshouldoperate one or more for and accurate spot frequettcies providefacilitics frequencies. deleting eitherof the modulating TIC T-308 This test set wasmentionedin Chapter4 with VOR testing.In additionto the in connection VOR testset modulewe havethe T-268,T-288 and and glideslope T-298 for testing marker,localizer the at The receivers respectively. T-268 provides least for 7Cper centmodulation the 400, 1300and on 3000Hz tones. The T-28Boperates 108'I MHz d 0 a n dc a ns i m u l a t e d . d . m . , 0 ' 1 5 5 . d . m . l e f ta n dr i g , h t The (switched) 0 to t 0'199 d.d.m.(variable). or on T-298 ooerates 334'7 MHz and cansimulate ) b a . a . m . , 0 . 1 7 5 . d . m .u p a n dd o w n( s w i t c h e do r d 0 to t 0'280 d.d.m.(variable).Eitherthe 90 or the with both the T-28B 150Hz tonesmay be deleted and the T-298.


F r c r 6 + -,' ; - , , .

Fig. 5.14 NAV402 AI' tcst sct (cotrrlcsyllrR l'llcctrontcs lnc.)

htrcedure The prdredure for a lunctional checkis of if straightforward the operation ILS is understood of and full details the testset areknown. In practice, will the procedure be listedin the aircrllt nlaintcnance manual. Carefulattentionmust be paid to testsct with low sensitivity if positioning receivers CossorCRM 555 Forty localizer and forty glideslope antenna facilities Self-test as arenot to be passed serviceable. all channelsmay be selected, crystalcontrolled. should Thereare seven d.d.m. settingsfor localizer-simulated on both the testset and the aircraftinstallation be usedif available. deviationand five for glidepath,the d.d.m. switch


navigation systems 6 Hyperbolic

Principles General
The needfor a co-ordinatesystemfor navigation purposes self-evident, most important being the the is geat circlelinesof longitudeand the linesof latitude parallel the equator, itself a greatcircle. Figure6. I to suitablefor usein illustratestwo alternativesvstems ndio navieation.

we be discussed usethe terms circularl.o.p. (lines of position)and hyperbolic l.o.p.are The patternsconsidered not suitablefor position fixing sincetwo circularLo.p. intersectat two places whilst knowing the differencein rangeto two points simply places one anywhereon one of two hvperbolic l.o.p. Knowing the startingposition and subsequently track and ground speed(or heading the will make it possible usethe to and true airspeed) by rho-rho system,sincea position caiculated dead reckoningwill identify at which of the intersections l.o.p.we must the aircraftis. To usethe hyperbolic generate anotherfamily of linesby taking a third system fi;red point, we then havethe co-ordinate shown in Fig.6.2. A fix is givenby the unique point wheretwo hyperbolic the l.o.p.cross.Of course use of three fixed points givesthe possibilityof a rho-rho-rhosystemwhere three rangecircles intersect a uniquepoint. at

Fig.6.l Circular hyperbolic and co-ordinate systems of If two fixed pointson earthhavea sequence concentriccirclesdrawn around them, eachcircle representing particularrangefrom the fixed centre, a then points of intersectionare definedbut ambiguous excepton the line joining the two points (baseline) where they areuniquely defined. Sucha systern is (rho) measurements calledrho-rhosincetwo distance areinvolved. We can usethe concentriccirclesto define hyperboliclines. Whereany two circlesintersectwe will havea differencein rangedefined;for example, the rangeto point A lessthe rangeto point B. I,he locusof points which havethe samedifferencein range will describe ahyperbola. Thusin Fig. 6.1 the hyperbolic line hh' is the locusof the point X such that AX - BX = constant.By plottingthe linesfor several different constants obtain a family of we hyperboliclines. In the radio navigation to systems

position (courtesy Litton fix Fig.6.2 Hyperbolic navigation Division) Inc., Systems International AeroProducts patternsdescribed aboveare The co-ordinate equipments, currently usedin three radio navigation Navigator and Omega. namelyLoranC, Decca Predecessors thesesystems include GEE, a British of to World War II hyperbolicsystemdeveloped navigate to bomberson missions Germany.


It shouldbe clearby now that the requirementof difference a hyperbolicsystemis that it can measure in rangewhile a rho-rho-rhosystemmust nleasure absoluterange. Two methodsare in use: time for differencemeasurements Loran C and phase for measurements Deccaand Omega. Thesemethods dictatethat Loran C is a pulsedsystemwhile the wave(c.w.). other two arecontinuous is phasemeasuring systems A basicproblem with that rangecan only be determinedif the whole the between of numberof cycles e.m. radiation aircraft and the transmittingstation are know. This is the illustratedin Fig. 6.3. An aircraft at X measures phase the signalfrom station,4 which is of

'r" r"l



navigation uiave Fig.6.4 Continuous hyperbolic Inc., (courtesrInternational AeroProducts LittonSystelns Division)

( into say.centilanes| / l00th of a lane) subdivided on and so determining which l.o.p.the aircraftis counting llying is sirnplya matterof laneand centilane a known point. A lix requires separate liorrrsonre between and centilanes of count to be rnade the lanes nlay be onc anotherpair of transnlitters. transmitter to conlrnor.r the two pairs. The two l.o.p' will position. ai intersect the aircraft's I i.e. of The possibility laneslipexists; missing lane Fig. 6.3 Received signal phase measurement the in the count. lf this happens correctlanetttttstbe laning. beingterrned this established, prt'rcess are wlten liures widcr. laningis easier Obviously A of of the transmitting a frequency l0 kllz. The at Suppose frequency transmitter is l0 kHz wavelength, is givenby C/ I 0 000 where C is the L, while that of B is l5 kHz. tltenwe havea dit'ference to of ot'5 kt{z which corresponds a lanewidth speed light; thustr = l 6 nauticalnriles.lf the frequency to phase nreasured sayt)0", the distancc,4X is. is 30 000 nr asopposed l5 000 m for l0 kHz and of ( l6// + 4) nauticalrniles whereN is the nurnberof l0 000 m for l5 kHz. In this way lanewidth canbe low occupying space lhe betwccn andX. A wlrolecycles madewide without havingto transmitimpossibly is and While the useof wide lanes of Wc- that thc lanewidth is l6 nauticalrniles sav fiequencies. of l'ronrA. for thc lircr:rl'tis (N + i-) l:rnes inrportance tlte purposes laning.narrowlanes potential and hencegreater givegreater resolution ContinuousWaveHyperbolic Principles accuracy. signals between in W i t l rl h y p c L t r o l iscv s t c nw c a r cc o n c e r n ew i t h the r d Measuring dift-erence phase if will in rurge: dil'lr'rcrrcc nrngcnrthcr than ubsolute from two transntitters only be nreaningful the tlrt' uirlrornc' crluiirrnent rnustnleasure transnrissions a knowtrand t'ixedphase ltave consctyrrcrrtly exist: in fronr two relationship. thc'rlil'li'rcrrcc phlsc bt'twcenrrdio waves Tyo possibilities l e l n r n s r r r i t l i rg go t r n ts t a t i o r r sl." ' i g u r6 . 4 s h o w s l t a t rr t the can zcrrrplrlsedil'lert'ncc tlrcrcrvill br.' bctwcen l. one of'tl'retransntitters be tlesignated which. clnreceivittg svrrchltlrt izctl t nrnsrrtissions ry lrll [' l wavelength. r'vc the master, other the slave will ensulc frotrttltc'ntaster. An lircrll'i nrcusuring phlsc dil'ti'rcncc a olthe transnrission is b its own transtnissiott synchronized: d l | c o r r l d c o n u n y o l ' t h c d r s l r r dl . o . p . .i . e .i n 0A to are a n y o l ' t l r c I l n c sl r c t w e e rl r a r r s r r r i l t cA s n d l l . e a c h ra 2. both transntittcrs synchr-oniz-edsotrre suchasprovidedby an tinrescale h standard o l ' w h i c hi s h l l l ' a w u v c l c n g tw i d c a t t l r eb l s c l i n e . a tl atontic lock. c S i n c c ' c v c rly n ci s i t l c r r t i c a o t l r r 'r e c c i v eo n t h e r luircrll't lunt'corrntnruslbc cstlblishcd a citlrcr ll'orn p a PrrlsedHyperbolic PrinciPles l h c l i r c r u l ' t ' s t l r t i r r g o i n l o r , t l u r i n gl l i g h t .l ' r o n r n a laningis.rrot problclttsitrcc' positionlix. lilch lanerrray be lrr suchsystertts indcpcndt'rrt 80


T = 2t+d

Extended base line

-Master Slave

Extended-----t:o base line

L.O.P.= line of constant time ' difference.T

Fig.6.5 Pulsed hyperbolic navigation

unambiguous l.o.p.sare obtained. Considerthe two transmitters A and B in Fig. 6.5. One is designated at the master;this transmitspulsesof energyat a fixed published p.r.f. On receiptof the masterpulsethe will transmit, usually after somefixed delay,say slave d ps. If the propagationtime from masterto slaveis I gs then we c.ul seethat an airCraftat the master stationposition, or anywhereon the extendedbase a line outward from the master,will measure time differenceof (2t + d) gs when comparingthe tinre of An arrivalof the masterand slavetransmissions. aircrafton the extendedbaseline outward from the slave would record a time differenceof d ps. Should an aircraftbe anywhereother than on the extended baseline the time differencewill be someunique reading betweend and (2t + d) ps. Disadvantages hyperbolic systems that lane of are width varieswith distancefrom baseline and that signalgeometryis important. With a hyperbolic co-ordinate systemthe angleof cut betweentwo l.o.p. canbe suchthat the tangentsto the lines at the aircraftposition are almostparallel;for other aircraft positions hyperbolicI.o.p.may cut almostat the right angles.Of courseif more than two l.o.p. are available geometryproblem is of little the consequence sincea most probableposition can be computed. Figure6.6 illustratesthe variousl.o.p. geometries. Continuous Wave Rho-Rho and Rho-Rho-Rho Systems To measurethe phaseof a receivedsigral a suitable reference generated within the must be available, receiver.Let the phaseofthe reference signalbe @r, the phaseof the receivedsignal be @"when the aircraft is at point A and fu when the aircraft is at

3 L.O.P.

).P.2 L.O.P. Best geometry very accurate L . O . PI.

Worst geometry poor accuracy
Fig. 6.6

Multiple L.O.P. good accuracy due to redundancY

Various geometrics for hyperbolic systenrs

tlre will tncasurc point B. The airborne equipment and signal the receivcd in between difference phase signal, i.e.: the reference Q^=Qr-Qr when the aircraft is at point A, while: Qm=h-Q, in when the aircraft is at point B. The change phasc of asthe aircraft moveswill providea measure the in change range,we have:

@.:(0" -Q)=Qa-Qb

( 0 b- 0 ' )

Theseideasare illustratedin Fig. 6.7. that the reference The aboveworking hasassumed doesnot drift in the time it takesfor the sigrral phase aircraft to travel from A to B. If the reference when the aircraft is at point A and B is @r.and @16 respectively, then equation(6.1) must be modified



+ 0 ^ : Q a- 6 u phasewith afucraftmoveinnenl Fig. 6.7 Changein measured

to accountfor this drift, it becomes:



3. estimate the phaseoffset throughout flight by utilizing signalsfrom more than two transmitters(this is the rho-rho-rhoapproach)' The operation of a rho-rho system is illustrated in Fig. 6.8. As the aircraft flies from I to 2 the phase A receivedfrom transmitters in changes the signals this allowsthe andB are continuously measured; airborneequipment to count the number of range with respectto both traversed lanesand centilanes sincereference Equation(6.1) applies, transmitters. oscillatordrift is negligible. Thus if the aircraft position at point I is known it can be computedat 2.

Thus an equipmentcontinuouslymonitoring the phasein order to calculatechange in change measured in rangewill be in error by an amount dependingon oscillatordrift. the reference signal At the moment of switch-onthe reference to on board the aircraft is not phaseJocked the gound transmitter'sfrequency. Further, sincethere path, is a signalphaseshift due to the transmission between therewill be a phaseor clock offset (@o) signaland the local reference.If at received switch-onboth the transmitterand receiverpositions and if at subsequent areknown @ocan be calculated, aircraft positions this phaseoffset remainsthe same phasedifferenceas described then by measuring in earlierthe change rangefrom the known starting oscillatordrift point may be computed. Reference in as can be considered a change phaseoffset' Errors arisingdue to a changein phaseoffset can be minimized in three ways: l. usc difference in phasebetween synchronized in from two remote transmitters, which sigrrals any changein referencephasecancelsout case (this is the hyperbolic approach); oscillatorof atomic clock 2. a precisionreference standardcan be carried on the aircraft, in which cas€drift is negligible over the duration of the flight (this is the rho-rho approach); 82


- l c l 1 1- d s 6 1 )

l 6 M O ' l d 3 2 - O ! O 2 l- t o g l - C 1 g 1 ; -tc62-ca1l-16192-{1611

.t.'12-6A1t-{6192-cLg1) rclE LGAL mnLUrOn OrrFt ' t6LO2 - 6LOtl

Fig. 6.8 Rho-rho navigation (courtesy Litton Systems International Inc., Aero ProductsDivisio')

With a rho-rho.rho s),stenltwo range(circular) l.o.p. givea position fix while a third can be usedto eliminate error in phase offset,@". ln Fig.6.9 it can be seenthat a non-zero@,givesus the situation where at threel.o.p.do not intersect one point but-form a trianglewithin which the aircraft is positioned.

hyperbolic and rho-rho-rho methods require three ground transmittersfor a fix but the geonretryof the will degrade accuracy the of aircraft and transmitters the hyperbolicsystem moreso than eitherrho-rho-rho or rho-rho. A hyperbolic systenr the most has complexcomputerprogram, is nevertheless but

Transmitter 2

True position




True position


- -

P. P^ P.

Kncwn points

--- Calculatcd L.O.P. - T r u eL . O . P . Fig.6.9 Rho-rho-rho navigation of Consideration this positiontrianglcshou.s that the probably the leastcostly sinceits local oscillator p e r p e n d i e u l d irs t a n c elso r r rt l r c t r u e p o s i t i o nt o t h e a i ' stabilityrequirenrents less are stringent than eventhe . c a l c u l a t eldo . p .u r ee q u a lt o e l c h o t h r . -l r d g i v ea n rho-rho-rho system. n l c e s u ro f 'f " . S u l ' l i c i c nitr r t i r r n r a t i oi r ra v a i l a b l e c s l i o n r t h e t h r e el . c l . p t o e v a l u a t p " . a s s u n t i nte a t . e h rr-fercnce oscillator drift is the orrlv sorrrce t'rror. of Omega Navigation System (ONS) S h o u l d t h e re r r o r s o n t r i b u t e o t h e c a l c u l a t e d o c t a l . o . p .t h e p e r p e n d i c r r ld irs t a n c elsr o mt h e t r u e ' is Omega a very low-frequency. c.w.,long-range p , o s i t i otn t h e c a l c u l a td l . o . p .w i l l n o l n c c e s s a r i b e navigation o e h, system.Threetime-multiplexed signals of L-qual an approxinrate and solutionnrustbe sought. l 0 ' 2 , I l ' 3 3 a n d l 3 ' 6 k H z a r et r a n s n - r i t t e d omnidirectionally from eachof eight stations Cdmparison Systems of strategically locatedaroundthe world. Althoughthe Thereis no clear-cut bestsystemto enrploy,and in conceptwaspatented 1923it wasnot until the in fact all are in useas follows: mid 1960sthat the US Navy established first the experimental stations.By 1968it wasestablished pulsed hyperbolic I-oranC that ONS was t'easible the setting-up a and of c.w. hyperbolic DeccaNavigator,Omega worldwidenetwork commenced. The USA is c.w. rho-rho Omega responsible the stations North Dakota,Hawaii, for in c.w. rho-rho-rho Omega Liberiaand a temporarystationin Trinidad,while It is interestingto observethat manufacturers of stations Norway,Japan, in Argentina, Reunion La Omeganavigationsystems haveopted for different and,by 1980,Australia the responsibility are of methods calculating of position,illustrating that nationswhich haveestablished bilateral agreements thereis no universally accepted bestmethod. with the USA. Although the responsibilityfor The rho-rhomethodis certainlythe simplest of co-ordination wasoriginallyallocated the US Navy to the three,needing only two qroundtransmitters and it hasnow beentaken overby the US CoastGuard. employinga relativelysimplecornputerprogram. 'The Omega Stations and Broadcast Patterns It does, however, havethe costlydisadvantage of requiringa very stablereference oscillator. Both Eachstationhasa transmitter Dowerof l0 kW with


5.1 Sigralformat,o.n.s. Table


0 ' 9s <---' A B C D E F G H

1 ' 0s

l'l s H


I'I s <----}

0 ' 9s e

1 - 2s H

I'0 s <'_}

Norway Liberia Hawaii North Dakota [: Reunion fugentina Trinidad/Australia Japan


r3 ' 6 t0.2

I1.33 13.6 to.2

I 1.33 13.6 10.2

I l-33 13.6

I 1.33 r3.6 l 1.33

I1.33 13.6 to.2

I 1.33 13.6 10.2

I I '33 13.6 10.2

the exceptionof the temporarystation in Trinklad which hasa I kW transmitter. Radiationis from an antennawhich takesthe form either omnidirectional 16 NM 9 CYCLES of a verticaltower, approximately450 m high, or supportingan umbrellaof transmittingelements, a valleyspantypically 3500 m in length. Equipment redundancy ensures reliableoperation99 per cent of the time. As mentionedabdveeachstation transmitsthree 1 4{ N M lo cYcrts pattern which is frequencies a time-multiplexed in uniqueand provides identification. The transmission formatis shownin Table6.1. It canbe seenthat at any one time only three stationswill be transmitting, eachon a different frequency. There are short (0'2 s) betweentransmission bursts. The intervals (courtesyLitton pattern is repeated every l0 s. Fig. 6.10 Omegafrequencyrelationships to All transmitters phase-locked a nearly are InternationalInc., Aero ProductsDivision) Systems providedby the useof atomic absolute time standard clocksat eachof the station locations. The result is that the three frequencies all transmitters in simultaneously crosszero with positiveslopeat precise times every l5/ l Tths of a millisecond. This phase is in relationship illustrated Fig. 6.10. The net resultis that the timing error betweenstationsis at most I ps, leadingto a maximum error in position fix of 300m. (courtesy Litton waveguide Fig.5.1I Earth-.Ionosphere Division) Inc., hopagation Interpational AeroProducts Systems The band of frequencies l0-14 kHz is an appropriate since predictabilityof the changes phase. in s1)'stem choicefor a phase-measuring navigation e.m. radiationat thesefrequencies travel can A requirementof the systemis that four or more everywher€.Account must thousands mileswith predictablephase-change of stationscanbe received is A characteristics. natural waveguide formed by the be taken of the attenuation of the signalwhich varies the with direction due to the rotation of the earth. earth'ssurfaceand the D layer ofthe ionosphere, travellingin an easterlydirection suffer dimensions which are suitablefor.propagationof of Signals while 2 approximately dB/1000 km attenuation, the ONS frequencies.This mode of propagation and the thoseon a westerlypath suffei approximately accounts the rangeof the signals for 84

4 dB/1000km. North and southattenuation the is same 3 dB/1000km. A further consideration at is that signals cannot be usedcloseto the sourcesince the phase variationsare unpredictable this region. in The implementation ONS with eightstations, of which arenot equi-spaced around the world, leadsto a situation where,undernormalconditions, between four and seven on stationsare usabledepending the receiver location.

meansthat a conductivity map can be stored in the computer,so enablinga propagation-correction factor to be calculated the path betweenthe receiver for and the known stationlocation. A complicationarises that it is possible in to receive direct sigral and one which hasgonethe a 'long way round', in which case havea mutual we problem. Automatic deselection interference of stationsat ranges excess in ofsay 8000 nauticalmiles is usedto minimize this effect. 3. Geomagnetic FieA The earth'smagnetic(H) field altersthe motion of ions and electrons the lower regionof the in ionosphere, thus affectingv.l.f. propagation. Again the equipmentsoftwaremay be usedto apply corrections. 4. Norspheroidal Effects The computationof aircraft position must take into accountthat the signalpath from transmittingstation to aircraft receiver not on the surfaceof a sphere. is Further, pressure differences variouslatitudes at effect the height of the ionosphere compensation so must be made for the effect on phase velocity.

5. Modal Interference There are variousmodesof propagation the in waveguide.If one mode is earth.ionosphere dominant the phasegrid producedwill be regular; howeverin practicea competingmode can be almost Fig,6.12 Typical usable coverage equal to the dominant mode in which case irregularities appearin the phasepattern. The most serious caseoccurswhen one mode is dominant at Factors Affecting Propagation night and a secondduring the day. It follows that during sunrise and sunsetthe two modeswill be l. Diurnal Effect equal. SomeOmegareceivers automaticallydeselect The height of the ionosphere from variesby approximately station B (Liberia) at critical times sincesignals 20 km from day to night, beinghighestat night. The this station are particularlysusceptible modal to phase velocity of the propagated wavewill be greatest interference night. at during the day when the dimensions the 'waveguide' of areleast;this leadsto phase variations which 6. Solar Effects fortunately predictable cyclic. Corrections are and to A solar flare givesriseto a largeemission X-rays of compensate diurnai effect may be implemented for which causes short-termdisturbance a limited a in by means a software of part of the ionosphere.Suih an eventis calleda routine. The entry of GMT anddateat switch-on required the routine. (SID) or a sudden is bv suddenionospheric disturbance phaseanomaly(SPA) and may last for I h or more; 2. Ground Conductivity may be shifted by up to l.o.p. in the affectedregions The different attenuating effectsof the oceans and say 5 nauticalmiles. TheseSIDsoccur about 7 to l0 varioustypes of landmass the changes phasevelocity times per month, but during the peak of the I l-year of the v.l.f. signal.The greatest of signal loss strength sunspotcycle a major solarflare may product a shift occursin the ice-capregions wherethe change in in l.o.p.by up to 15 nautical miles. This latter event phase velocityis significant. Waterhasleasteffect. and warningsmay be issued. is predictable, The effect of ground conductivitybeingwell known Infrequently largequantitiesof protons are 85

polar cap from the sun,producinga so-called released (p.c.d.).The effectof a p.c.d.,which is disturbance to shift l.o.p. from say 6 to 8 nauticalnriles,may last paths days. Only thosetransmission for several passing overthe polesareaffected.Sincethe p.c.d.is warningmessages be may of long duration navigation broadcast. Position Fixing ONS may usehyperbolic, As previouslydiscussed rho-rhoor rho-rho-rhomethods,a root meansquare with milesbeingobtainable accuracy l-2 nautical of all methodsprovidingthe computersoftwarecorrects errors. for predictable Whatever method is usedthe lane in which the Lane widths for aircraft is flying must be established. and are the basicfrequencies differencefrequencies given Table6.2. It canbe seenthat the broadest in lane for the direct rangingmethodsis 144 nautical mileswhile that for the hyperbolicmethod is 72 nauticalmiles. If it is known which broad lane the to lane aircraftis in thenit is possible resolve lanes automatically, as ambiguityfor the narrower it shownin Fig.6.l3. In this example is known in and Table6.2 Frequencies lanewidths,o.n.s. (lanewidthsin nm)
Dircct ronging ltltperbolic

which 3.4 kHz lanethe aircraft is flying. Phase of measurement the l0'2 kHz signalgivesthree possible tbur l.o.p.while the l3'6 kHz signalgives possible Lo.p. from Lo.p. Only one of the possible this eachgroupis coincident, beingthe uniquel.o.p. on which the aircraftis positioned. Rate Aiding patternextends overa period The ONS transmission of signals are of l0 s. If the phases all usable overthis periodand then l.o.p. are measured generated positionfixing.an error will result. for informationwill be up to sincesomeof the phase information l0 s old. Aircraft directionand speed lor inforrnation niay be usedto updatethe phase this beingknown as rate l.o.p.calculations, process than we l.o.p.at less aiding. In practice cangenerate say l0 s intervals, everyI s, thusONS can be with system as considered a deadreckoning position-fixing everysecond so. or updates informationcan comefrom a Directionand speed and heading for compass numberof sources, example or from an Air DataConrputer track true air speed tiom Doppleror INS. SomeOmega and groundspeed generate trackand groundspeed equipments positionchanges. internallyfrom computed dead thereis a lossof signal If for any reason inputsot dataon directionand speed reckoning, generated track and ground internally last-known the calculate can be usedto continuously speed position. that on receipt sufficient of so aircraft's is laneambiguity easilyresolved. signals, usable track last-known if Obviously the internallygenerated are and groundspeed usedduringdeadreckoning cause duringtlrisphase.may then aircraftmanoeuvre aglrin. lre when signals receiveti laningproblems

Basic frequ encies

1 3 . 6 - 1 0 =2 . I l3'6-1 3 = = I1.3-10.2

k 10.2 Hz k 11.3 Hz k 13.6 l'lz 3.4 kHz 2.3 kHz l.l ktlz

16 14.4 12 4ti '12 114

8 7.2 6 24 36 i2

'13 6 KHZ lanes

Broad lane

10.2KHZ lanes


10-2 KHZ LOP
Unique LOP

Fig: 6.13 Resolvinglane ambiguity (courtesyLitton Systems lnternational Inc., Aero ProductsDivision) 86

Fig. 6.14. The ONS consists a receiver processor of unit (RPU), control displayunit (CDU) and antenna . couplerunit (ACU). Sucha break-downof 'black boxes' conformsto ARINC Characteristic but 599 Most Probable Position somemanufacturers to choose separate receiver the Thereis a redundancy the Omegasystemin that in and computerand alsothe antennaand couplingunit. will be received than are normally more signals The RPU is fitted in a convenient location. the necessary computethe two l.o.p. neededfor a fix. to most important consideration beingcooling ln this case, data from all receivable stations,and as a or many frequencies possible, as may be usedto generate arrangements, forced downdraught integal be a numberof l.o.p. If all frequencies received are from blower being typical. The CDU must of course mounted in view, and in reach,of the pilot; = 24 phase all stationstherewould be 3 X 8 normally special coolingarrangements not are every l0 s, givingup to twenty-four measurements required. l.o.p.for a single fix. The multiplel.o.p.will not The antenna usedmay be of H field or E field crossat a point but will definea smallpolygon type, the latter possiblyemployinga separate coupler within which the aircraft is positioned. The computer unit with a suppliedinterconnecting cable. An E the will calculate aircraft'smost probableposition field systemis sensitive precipitationstatic to within this polygon. discharge, thus good bondingand sufficient In practicetherewill be far fewer than twenty-four spaced staticwicks are essential.An H phase available.Automatic deselection strategically measurements field systemis sensitive magnetic(a.c.)noise to placefor reasons poor signalto noise will take of and a skin mappingshouldbe carriedout on sources to ratio, poor geometry,susceptibility modal initial installationto determinethe optimum location or interference outsideusablerange(too closeor too for the antenna which may be on the top or bottom far). Manualdeselection be accomplished a will as of the fuselage. resultof pre-flightor in-flight information received stationstatusor unusualionospheric concerning Skin Mapping Detailed procedureis given in activity. manufacturer's the literature,but basically aircraft shouldbe parkedaway from all powerlines,both Communication Stations, v.l.f. aboveand below ground,and away from all A worldwide high-power military communications obstructions. Ambient signalplus noiseis then network operatingin the band l5-25 kHz is approximately100 ft from the purpose initially recorded maintained the US Navy. As a secondary by aircraftwith a spectrum analyser at l0'2, I l'3 and set to provideworldwide of the network is are synchronization time standards, carriersignals l3'6 kHz. Similarmeasurements madewith an of the by areprecisely timed, and so may be usedfornavigation ACU secured tape at variousairframelocations. Comparison ambientand airframemeasurements of purposes. Sincecontrolof the stations out of the is possible positions. The optimum eithernationalor international, will identify several handsof thosebodies, position(s)can then be found by repeating the responsible civil aircraft navigation, of the for use measurements undervariouson and off conditions network for navigation as can only be considered ofengines,lighting,electronics and fans. The final supplementary other forms of navigation. to position shouldbe checked out for signalto noise Hyperbolicnavigation not suitablefor usewith is runningat 90 per cent minimum. v.l.f. commsstationssinceabsolutephase differences ratio with engines betweentwo received signals cannotbe determined Brief Description of Units due to eachstation operatingon an unrelated The descriptions which lollow arebasedon the Litton frequency. A further disadvantage that the diurnal is LTN-2 I l; other systems havesimilarunits which vary phase for shifts are not aspredictable v.l.f. signals as in detail. they are for ONS sigrals. Several manufacturers offer equipmentwith v.l.f. and Omega in v.l.f. is optional: capability; somecases Receiver hocessor Unit The RPU is the major part providethe primary In suchequipmentOmegasignals from the ACU signals of any ONS. Omega broadcast provide navigation information while v.1.f.signals are processed togetherwith inputs from other sensors back-upshouldinsufficientOmegasignals usable. to give present be as parameters position and guidance required. The major partsof a RPU will typically be: Installation A typical simplifiedinstallatibndiagramis shownin r.f. circuitry;

In sucha caseaircraft approximatepositionwould haveto be enteredby the pilot.



H.S.t. Installation Program

F.D.t. Aircraft Data Bus

Speed Source

Aircraft Instrumentation

Fig. 6.14 Litton LTN-21I ONS installation (courtesyLitton Systems International Inc., Aero ProductsDivision)


central processorfor computing function; scratch-pad RAM for temporary data storage; specialRAM in which pilot-entered data is saved during power interrupt; ROM to store program which will incorporate corrections; power supply assembly; analogue interface; digital interface;

2. 26V a.c. 400 Hz reference:from external equipment acceptingsynchro feedsfrom ONS; 3. aircraft data bus: interfacewith digital air data syst€m(DADS), inertial reference system(lRS), flight muragementcomputersystem,etc. In stalla tio n Programming Various receiver processor unit connectorpins, termed 'programdiscretepins' are groundedby means a link to earth in order to select: of l. Speedinput format; 2. frequencystandard; 3.magnetic/trueheading input/output; 4. oleo strut logic; 5. synchrooutput; 6. gid mode: local, Greenwich or t$ro alternatives; 7. antenna mount: top/bottom. System Outputs Analogue/Discrete l. Track angle; 2. crosstrack deviation; 3. track angleerror; 4. drift angle; 5. track angleerror plus drift angle; 6. true heading: 7. desiredtrack angle; 8. track changealert; 9. track leg change; 10. steeringsigral (roll command); I l. To/from. Digital position (lat./long.); 12. Present (mag./true); 13. heading 14. track angle; 15. ground peed; s 16. distanceto waypoint; 17. time to GO; 18. wind angle; 19. wind speed; 20. crosstrack distance: error; 21. track angle 22. drift angle; 23. desiredtrack. Warning 24. Cros track deviationfailure; 25. true headingwarning; 26. steering signalwarning. Figure l.l3 definespictorially thoseoutputs relating to angleand distance.

antennaswitching; .chassis. bnnol Display Unit T\e CDU provides the interface between the flight crew and the ONS. Data transmissionbetween CDU and RPU is via two one-wayserial digital data buses. The RPU transmits four 32-bit words to the CDU while the CDU transmits one 32-bit word to the RPU. The d.c. voltagesfor the CDU are provided by the RPU. The CDU annunciators driven by signals are from the RPU. Antenna Coupler Unit Two H field bidirectional loop antennas wound on ferrite rods arranged are at right angles eachother. Pre-amplification the to of signaltakes place in the ACU. Provision is made for the injection of a test signalto eachloop. ONS Interface Operator Inputs l. Present position latitude and longitude: entered duringinitialization, i.e. during preparationof the systemprior to take off; 2. waypoint latitude and longitude: rrp to nine enteredas requiredduring initialization; editing facility availablefor in-flight entry; 3. Greenwich Mean Time/date: enteredduring initialization. Extemal SensorInputs l. Speed:from air data computer(ADC) or Doppler radarin a variety of sigral formats; 2. heading:from compass system; 3. drift angle:from Doppler radar,optional; 4. speed valid sigral; 5. heading valid signal; 6. compass free/slaved input; 7. oleo strut switch input; 8. drift anglevalid signal. Other Inputs l. Frequencystandard:rho-rho opti6n;


Dim control

Right numerical display

Alcrt ann (amber) Dead reckoning ann (amber) Sync ann (amber)

From/to and waypoint display Waypoint soloctor switch Track change pushbutton (green) Mode switch Entcr pushbutton

Ambiguity ann (amber) Warn ann (red) M a n u a la n n (amber)



rrME ..ors

Hold pushbutton (greenl Clcar pushbutton (green)



Data keyboard pushbuttons Litton Systerns Fig. 5.15 Litton LTN-21I CDU (courtesy Division) lnternationalInc., Aero Products

C-ontrols and Operation The following information may be displayedby Figure6.15 showsthe Litton LTN-21I CDU which is appropriate positioningof the displayselectorswitch: similarto thoseof other manufacturers.A very rangeof controlsand displayeddata is GMT/DAT GreenwichMeanTime and date comprehensive Track angleand ground speed TK'GS available.Brief detailsonly are givenhere. HDG/DA Heading and drift angle The pilot is able to enter his presentposition and and track angleerror navigation XTK/TKE Crosstrack distance up to nine waypointsdefininga great-circle position Present POS flight plan which can be updatedduring flight' Waypoint (selected) WPf Information displayedto the pilot helpshim to fly and time (to'go') DIS.TIME Distance the specifiedroute from waypoint to waypoint or fly Windditection and velocity WIND parallel offsets from the flight plan. If the autopilot the DTK/STS Desiredtrack and status(malfunction) steeringinformation from ONS causes is engaged plan, in Magneticheadingand true airspeed MH/TAS aircraft to automatically follow the flight Station status STA which casethe display is used for monitoring FROM/TO From and to waypoints for current leg. purposes. The system also demandsentry of GMT and date. System Softward A keyboardis usedfor all dataentry which is The major tasks for the software employed in a error, in which casea coded checkedfor operator briefly rho-rho-rhoOmegasystemare described warning is given. System failure waping is given by below. the WRN annunciatorwhen malfunction and action other annunciators codesmay be displayed. Several Synchronization The transmissioripattern must be imminent (ALR), givewaming of track leg change 'identified in order that the ONS will know when each systemin deadreckoningmode (DR), synchronization of systemwith transmittedsignalformat taking place stationis broadcasting.Sincethe Omegatransmission is every l0 s synchronization attempted patiern repeats (SYN),lane ambiguity(AMB) and manuallyent;red by ampling l0 s of data in order to try and find the crosstrack offset magneticheadingor true airspeed, stait time (station A transmitting lO'2 kHz burst). being displayed(MAN). 90

a is If synchronization not successful further l0 s periodis sampledand so on. is Sincebefore synchronization completesignal directionis not known, the antennais set to an mode. omnidirectional The idea of the synchronization routine is to look from sample for correlationin phasemeasurements frequencies.Noise to samplefor the three broadcast not alonewill of courseappearwith random phase, betweensamples. correlated Measuremenrs The phase Phase and Signal-to-Noise signaland a local betweenthe received difference is reference sampledat regularintervalsthroughout the burst. Forming sineand cosinesumsof the sampledphaseangleswill allow a burst phase (averageof samples)and signal-to-noise measurement to measurement be made. If no signalis being receivedduring the samplethen no contribution will be made to either the sine or cosine sums. We have:

stations; l. eliminatemanuallydeselected 2. eliminatestationsfor which the aircraft is not (seeFig.6.l2); within areacovered 3. eliminatestationswith known modal problem at night in certain areas interference (Liberia); 4. eliminatestationson the basisof poors.n.r.; from particularstations 5. eliminatefrequencies whosephasedifferencebetweencomputedand exceeds certainfigure. a measured All qualifying frequenciesare used for position determination. If lessthan minimurn number of the stationsare available, deadreckoningmode is entered. hopagation Conection The computer must calculate a propagationcorrection0p, the valueof which will dependon the path from station to aircraft, the timg of day and the date. Factorsaffectingpropagation earlierand while complete havebeendiscussed

. t \\ =tan-r / phase f bursr /r t'urg ) )- antennashiftHllT::lx'L: ilir:",,Ti::TlT;:ii'"illfo*' (6'J) cosd

// \lJ l R burst= (rrin o\' * /> .o, p\' / \-N \-T-/


and storage computation ti,nitin.a in orderto save include: tim;' simplifications pathto say along integationstepsize l. increasing
earth memory map, i.e. subdividing 2. usingcoarse into, say,4" x 4" block and assigtinga to conductivity index to eachcorresponding conductivity in that area; average which computesbearing 3. simplifyingsub-routine field. of signalpath to earth'smagrretic

over the are wherethe summations of the samples burst, @is the phaseangleand R, which lies between of 0 and l, givesa measure sigral to noise ratio (s.n.r.). The valuesof @burst and R burst are fed to a trackingfilter in order to give smooth values@andR. Thereare a total of twenty-four tracking filters (threefrequencies eight stations). Rate aidingis X for appliedto @to compensate known aircraft motion. Each tracking filter is updatedafter the appropriate burst, i.e. every 10 s, rate aiding values every 0'l s. arecalculated Antenna Selection Every l0 s the bearing to the eight stationsis computedand stored. Every second the differencebetweenbearingand headingis computedand usedto selectthe longitudinal loop, lateralloop or combinationof loops to make the antenna directional,the main lobe being in the direction of the station to be received.. Station Selection For Omegarho-rho-rho navigation to threestationsmust be received calculatethe three unknowns(latitude, longitudeand clock or phase offset). Various criteria areusedin the selectionof stationsto be employed:

of Computercomparisons simplihedand more modelshavebeencarriedout and show accurate excellentagreement. Cunent Least-SquaresEnor Cabulttton The phase@is correctedfor propagationshifts, measured 0p, and estimatedclock offset, f., and then compared with the phase, derivedfrom the current calculated @r, rangebetween aircraft.and station to give A 0, we have LQ=(Q-Op-QJ-Qr


There is one A@for eachstation frequency so there will be at most twenty-four. If thereis no error, that is 0p, 0. and @,are all correct,then A0 will be zero. will exist,so the purposeof the In practiceeqrors error estimationroutine is to find least-squares to corrections @.,and the computedposition to in minimizeAd for the stations/frequencies use.


Since mostreliable the informationcomes from the strongest signal each is weighted its s.n.r. A@ by (smoothed from equation R (6.4)). Thesquares of theA@ computed prevent are to cancellation the in sum.Wehave: minimize>R(AO)2

is wind (north and east),latitude and longitude. The wind is not computed when the aircraft is on the ground,asindicatedby the oleo strut switch. Summary The above notes on system softwaveare by havenot been mentionedalthoughhavebeen implied elsewhere the chapter. The major navigationtasks in and their implementationare best summarized a by flowchart (seeFig. 6.16). The Program The actualprogramusedin any ONS is proprietary and will vary greatly depending the type of on microprocessor used,the method of navigationand the ingenuity ofthe author. In generalthere will be a main loop which checks for power interrupts, computespropagation correction,carriesout self-testing, etc. The main loop will be interruptedwhen 10.2, I l'3 or 13.6kHz information is availablefor processing and alsowhen the CDU is ready to input or output data. In the LTN-21I the phasedata interrupts for the three frequencies occur regularlyat 6.25 ms intervals. The I I '3 and I 3'6 kHz interrupt loops simply serve to read the appropriatephasedata while the

(6.6) no meanscomplete;somefunctions of the softwave

where the sum is taken over all the stations and frequencies use. in The phasedifference,LQ, canbe expressed in termso(A@., AN, AE and B where the first three termsare the correctionsin clock offset. north position and eastposition respectivelywhile B is the bearingto the station. If we considerthe signal received from station I on frequencyJ, we have: A0(l,J) = Adc - AN . cosB(l) - AE . sin B(l) (6.7) Thus equation(6.7) is usedin (6.6), the minimization of the weighted sum of squares,giving a least-squares estimateof the current error which enables correctionof clock offset and position. The correctionvectorX = (A0., AN, AE)T is smoothedby clock and position filters, rate aidingof speed, resolved north and eastabout aircraft heading, beingappliedto thesefilters. The output of the filters


Omegr signal

Phase | detector


-lSin/Cosine look up

SinI C"t C

Burst processing

C o u'sr(1,J) R - "il' J)


Clock offset estimator Least AN AE estrmator


Tracking filter

t(r, J)
R (r,Jl



GMT Lat./Long.

Rate aid

Propagation prediction


Position f ilter



Rangeto station


Expected phase


Rrtc rid north

Ratc aid oast

Fig.6.16 Softwareflow chart

amplified and limited sigrals are comparedin phase with referencesigrals derived from a 4.896 MHz clock. A real-time interrupt is generatedon completion of a phasemeasurement each of the for Omegafrequencies.The l0'2, I l'3 and 13'6 kHz interruptsareeachgenerated 160 timesper secondto rate aid computation inform the computer that phasedata is availablefor check synchronization 368 gs, during which time the appropriate interrupt antennaselection routine is entered and the data read. The sensor burst processing phasedata forms word I in a four-word, l6-bit serveCDU digital multiplexer. I s loop: horizontal steeringcommands Heading and speedinputs enter the system in the l0 s loop: estimator least-squares form of three-wire synchro feeds. Scott-T savekev data transformersresolvethis input into the sine and cosinecomponentswhich are then demodulated and Hardware filtered to provide d.c. signalsto an analogue multiplexer controlled by the computer. After C.omputo Inputs Figure 6.17 showsa simplified systemblock diagramof the LTN.2I l. Omegasignals analogueto digital conversionthe headingand speed from the ACU are fed via an anteniraswitching matrix sine and cosine componentsare multiplexed asword 2 in the digital multiplexer. Words 3 and 4 contain to three narrow-band receivers. one for each of the programpins, data relatingto variousdiscretes, three Omegafrequencies. Antenna switching is validities and sourceselectors. derived from the computed relative bearingof the ARINC 575 data from the CDU is converted to station being receivedat that particular time. The

l0'2 kHz interruptloop processes phase all dataand if drecksto see it is time to startloopswhich occur regularly performvarious and computations and drecks.Brieflyu,ehave: 'update lfl) msloop: clock

l?u?*^ss'-s I
l ; -

I sTtiltNG rNTtttAct



Fq. 6.17 Litton LTN-21I block diagram(courtesy Lftton Systems International Inc,, Aero Products Division)


logic) levelsand shifted into TTL (transistor-transistor a serialto parallelshift register.When the input data and the contentsof is ready an interrupt is generated the registerare readby the computer. A digital interfacecard,part of the steering interface.is a link betweenthe ONS and other for systems.Thereare four ARINC 575 receivers DADS TAS (digital air data systemtrue air speed), system) IRS (inertial reference flight management, b.c.d. or binary bus for interface and an inter-system with anotherONS or possiblyanothertype system. bus The address from the computeridentifiesthe which storesthe particularinput requiredreceiver an word in a registerand generates interrupt. The a this computeracknowledges interrupt, so requesting transferofdata onto the l6-bit paralleldata bus via a tri-stateregister. Sincethe ARINC 575 serial-parallel word is 32-bitslong, transfertakesplacein two sections. Memory The navigation computer program is stored in a 20K X l6-bit word (K = 1024) UVEROM (ultravioleterasable ROM) which can be programmed adapter. The tapeusinga programming from cassette datais retainedin the WEROM for an estimated100 yearsunless erased exposingall twenty chips to by ultravioletlight. Additional memory is providedon the card in the form of a 2K word computer/processor scratchpad RAM for temporary storageand a 128-worddata savememory usedto store present position,time/date,waypointsand additional data after a requiredto resumenormal operations temporarypower failure. Back-uppower for data saveis provided by a 4500 pF capacitor for at least 7 min. The Computer The computer usesthe input and to storeddata referredto in the aboveparagraphs navigationproblem carry out the necessary computations and to output the resulting employedis a information. The microprocessor unit) TMS-9900,a l6-bit CPU (centralprocessing 32K words of length l6 bits. of addressing capable Input/output (l/O) functionsare treatedin the purposes,the sameway as memory for addressing twelve address map beingsplit into sixteensectio,ns, of which are assigredto WEROM and two each to interfaceI/O and RAM, savedata memory, steering other I/O. As an example F A 0 0 hexadecimal= 1 5x 1 6 3+ l 0 x 1 6 2+ 0 x 1 6 r + 0 x 1 6 ' = 6 4 0 0 0 1 e , is the addres of the digitd multiplexer phasesensor word which will contain phasemeasurementdata to corresponding l0'2, I I '3 or l3'6 kHz depending 94

on which interrupt is beingserviced.Not all the are in addresses assigned the LTN-21l. available sixteeninterrupt The computercan recognize levelswith the highestpriority level0 and the lowest priority level 15. An interrupt maskis containedin a statusregisterand continuouslycomparedwith the interruptcode. Whenthe levelof system-generated the pendinginterrupt is lessthan or equal to the interrupt masklevel(higher or equal current-enabling the recognizes interrupt. On priority) the processor recognitionthe current instructionis completed, detailsof the position in current programstoreo, routine started,and the appropriateinterrupt service the interrupt mask forced to a levelthat is one less than the level of the interrupt beingserviced.When the interrupt routine is completethe interrupted whereit left off. In the LTN-21I programcontinues interrupt levelsare impiemented: seven 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 reset(power on)l pendingpower fail or programcycle fail; data input; lO'2 kHz sensor datainput; l3'6 kHz sensor datainput; 1 l'3 kHz sensor data input; for reserved a sensor CDU ARINC data ready; dataready. ARINC receiver

Cttmputer Outputs A l6-bit word is transmittedto the receiver module for control of the matrix and the antenna-calibrate antenna-switching functions. Various output functions respondonly to the address stateand do not requirespecificdata to bus be placedon the output bus. Thesefunctions,with addresses : are hexadecimal resetprogramcycle fail (F100), selectanalogue (F2X0), start analogueto multiplexer address c.d.u. digital converter(F300), acknowledge ARINC Rx (F600) and ARINC interrupt (CFAO). acknowledgement 'X' in address F2X0 can be any number from 0 The to 7 dependingonthe funption, e.g.headingsine, headingcosine,speedsine,etc. with other systems and Sigralsassociated instrumentsare output from the computer via the steeringinterfacewhich is dividedinto three main functions;(2) digital sections:(l) analogue (3) communications; discreteflag drivers. The analogueinterface card provides four three-wire synchrooutputs and both high- and lowlevel two-wire deviation. Digital data is fed to the d.c. cross-track analogue card on the data bus and convertedto d.c:

in a digital to analogue converter. The analogue d.c. of an ONS is suchthat comprehensive monitoring and sipal is fed in parallelto sampleand hold circuits self-testroutinesmay be incorporatedin the system addressed the computervia a decoder. Each of by software. Monitoring of systemperformance takes the synchrochannels a modulator for the sine and placevirtually continuouslyduring flight. In has cosined.c. inputs followed by a Scott-T transformer addition, operatorerror detectionaidssmooth which providesthe three-wiresynchrooutput. The operationand a reductionin reporteddefectsdue to 'finger particularoutputs are determinedby the stateof two trouble'. With a malfunction code readoutand synchrooutput selectprogrampins, ground or open. self-testdisplay,turn-rounddelaysfor ONS. In this way synchronumber I will giveheadingor installationdefect investigation and repair are track, synchronumber 2 will give 1 drift angleor minimized. track angleerror, synchronumber 3 will give track angleerror + drift angle,track angleerror or desired track anglewhile synchronumber 4 will give aircraft The Decca Navigator steering track angleerror. or The digital interfacecard hasbeenreferredto above Introduction in connectionwith its input function. In addition Deccanavigatorwasinventedin Americaby there are ARINC 575 and ARINC 561 serialdigital W. J. O'Brienbut first usedby the Britishin the outputs,two-wireb.c.d./binary the 575 and for closingstages World War II. Sincethen a number of six-wire(clock, sync and data) for the 561. The of marks of the equipmenthaveemerged from the ARINC transmittersare selected when the continuous development this, the most accurate of of appropriatedata is on the data bus by suitable all the radio navigationaids. The systemcamesecond addressing from the computer. The output word is in the two-horseracefor adoption by the ICAO as 32 bits long, and so must be enteredinto a registerin the standardshort-range navigationsystem. That it two parts under the control of the address bus. survivedis a credit to the DeccaNavigatorCompany Parallelto serialconversion takesplacewhen the whoseconfidencein the basicmerits of the system word is assembled the register. in were such that it continuedits airbornedevelopment Flag signals TTL levelsare output from the at programdespitethe setbackin 1949. computerand latchedvia drivers. The signals then are Deccais a low-frequency c.w. hyperbolic buffered,scaledand/or levelshifted befoie output. navigationsystem. The service providedfor is suitably equippedaircraft, shipsand land vehicles by Characteristics . chainsof transmittingstations. Each chain comprises Much of this sectionon ONS hasbeenbasedon the a masterstation and normally three slavestations,all Litton-21I which is an ARINC 599 system.'This at known geographical locations(typically 70 miles being so, what follows is a particularlybrief apart), radiatingphase-locked signals.The choiceof summaryof the ARINC Mark 2 ONS sincedetails frequencycould givea ground wavecoverage of zuchasinput and output havealreadybeencovered. l0O0 nauticalmilesbut c.w. operationpreventsthe The systemcomprises three units: a receiver separation ground and sky wavesignals the of so processor, control/displayand antenna/coupler unit wable rangeis limited to about 240 nauticalmiles which, togetherare capable receiving of and by night and about twice that by day. There are processing Omegaground station signals (v.l.f. not chainsin variousparts of the world, in particular precluded)so as to provideminimum functional north-westEuropeand the northeast seaboard of capabilities ofpresept position readoutand North America. horizontal track navigation.The systemshould Phase differences betweenthe masterstation and operateworldwide with a presentposition error of eachof its slaves displayqdto the pilot on three are lessthan 7 nauticalmiles. phasemetersor Decometers.The observed phase The power supply for the systemis I 15 V 400 Hz differences identify hyperboliclinesmarked on singlephasefed via a circuit breaker. In addition a speciallypreparedcharts. By noting at leasttwo 26 V zt00Hz reference accordance in with ARINC phasereadingsthe pilot can plot his position as the 4134 will needto be suppliedvia a circuit breaker intersectionof the corresponding of lines. For ease from the appropriateinstrumentationbus for use the charts are printed with the three different excitation of synchros. familiesof hyperboliclinesin purple, red and green, hencethe red slavestation and the greenDecometer, Rmp Testing etc. Decometers still usedbut for airborne are Uttle needsto be said here since the computing po*er systems, automaticand computer-based methods


are uzually found, with aircraft position being shown on a roller map (flight log display)' The Radiated Signals a Each chain is assigned fundamental frequenry / in the range 14-14'33kHz. The stationseachradiatea harmonicof /, namely6/from the masterznd 5f,8f and 9/from the purple, red and greenslaves respeitively. Thus with f = 14kHz we haveradiated = of frequencies 6f = 84 kHz, 5f = 70 kHz, 8/ l.l2'ktlz for 126 kHz. Usingdifferent frequencies andg/= in the stationsin a chain allowsseparation the airbornereceiver. by Deccachains are designed an alphanumeric are code. The basiccodes 08, lB, . . ., l0B' the being fundamentalfrequencies corresponding is by separated a nominal 30 Hz (separation 29'17, of 30 or 30'83 Hz). A subdivision this basic 'half allocation is provided by the so'called 0E, frequencies' lE, . . ',98 which havea nomind frequencies. of spacing l5 Hz from the B fundamental Additional subdivisionis achievedby the use of 516Hz aboveand below the B and E frequencies Co' (courtesy Decca Navigator the Fig.6.l8 Zonepatterns tb frEquencies givegroupsof six frequencies Ltd) number and the letters by designated the appropriate of A, B, C, D, E, F. An examPle a grouPof is frequencies givenin Table 6.3 showingcode, fundamental and master (6/) frequencies;the slave fundamental frequency of the chain. in are frequencies pro-rata. The zonesare subdivided two ways' depending usedin the the method of phasecomparison on cannotbe compared aircraft. The transmittedsignals - numerical group 5 Table 5.3 Deccafrequencies in phasedirectly sincethey are of different frequency multiplication or division may Master frequerrcies; Fundamental Chain frequency' to 6f (Hz) be usedto bring the signals a common lf (Hz) code are Sincethe transmittedfrequencies relatedto the 5,6,8 and 9 (purple' by 84 995 fundamental multipliers 1 41 6 5 . 8 3 5A comparisoncan 85 000 master,red and greenrespectively) t4166.67 5B the l.c.m. of any two of the multipliers 85 005 take placeat l4 167.50 5C 8s08s which include 6, Thus purple and master l4 18c.83 5D at compared 30/, i'e' at can 85 090 transmissions be'phase 1 41 8 1 . 6 7 5E 85 095 between 420 and 429'9 kHz. Similarly the red and l4 182.50 5F are frequencies 24f and l8f greencomparison A lane is definedasthe regionbetween respectively. hyperbolic lines with zero phasedifference,at the PositionFixing frequency,i.e. everyhalf'wavelength lines comperison two system hyperbolic Aswith anyhyperbolic (pig. O.+). Thus there are 30 purple,24 ted and given by the mustbe identified, fix being of position widths of i8 gtt.n lanesper zonewith baseline the wherethey intersect.With Decca hyperbolic m,440 m and 587 m respectively' are app-roximately-352 and into zones lanes.Zones patterns divided are end Lane numberingstartsfrom the masterand runs at A by designated letters to J starting the master purple' of base of the master/slave line. Thesequence letters 0-23 for red,3O'47for greenand 50-79for be readto one or two hundredthsof can Decometers to as repeats necessary coverthe wholepattern a a lane. Figure6.19 illustrates position fix in terms havea line,zones (Fig.6.18). Alongthebase zone I (bottom oflanes: the red Decometerreads l0'71 km, 10'47and width of between constant lane fraction 0'30 window), lane l6 (outer scale), at to haff a wavelength the corresponding


z InEiaEcTtoIlot ndt totmox LtxEs ts./ . at oF Potntox / - osl

DEccA co ORDTNAT€ RtD I ro i0\

DECQA CO-OnDttrATC dar:l O rs.O

FB 6.19 Plotting a position fix from Decometerreadings (courtesy DeccaNavigatorCo. Ltd) the

Although the dividing type receiverdoes not measure lanesthere is still ambiguitywithin a zone by caused the divisionprocess.For exampledividing the mastersignalby six givesriseto an output which can start on any of six cycles,only one of which is cyclesare known as notches. correct. The ambiguous in The resultingambiguity is the sameasdescribed the previousparagraph since,for example,an error of*l notch in the masterdivider output givesan error in the zone fraction readingof 1/6 while an error of -l notch in the red divider output givesan error in the zone fraction readingofl/8. The net error in the red zone fraction readingwould be ll6 - l18 = ll24 zone Resolvinglane Ambiguities or I lane. Sinceeach lane appearsto be the same,in so far as To resolvelane ambiguitiesmost Decca chains phase differencemeasurement concerned,the pilot is operatein the MP (multipulse)mode (an older V $rould know where he is, to within half a lane, in here). Eachstation in mode will not be discussed order to initially set the appropriateDecometerby tum, startingwith the master,transmitsall four hand. Thereafter,sincethrough gearingthe lane A (5f,6f,8f ,9f) simultaneously. frequencies fraction pointer drivesthe lane pointer and zone read- s€quence transmissions lasts20 s during which of out, the Decometer will recordthe correctco-ordinate time eachstation transmitsthe MP signals 0'45 s. for by an integratipnprocess.Any interruption in are ln the receiverthe four frequencies summed, receptionwould require a resettingof the Decometers. producinga compositewaveformwhich has a

(inner scale)while the green Decometer reads zone D, lane35,lane fraction0.80. Thus the Decca co-ordinates I 16.30 and D 35.80, intersectingas are $town. The accuracyobtained by using frcquency rnultiplicationis often not required for air navigation; furthermorea better s.n.r.can be achieved by dividing the receivedsigrals down to the fundamental. Sincephasecomparisonis at / the zonesare the 'lanes' for a dividing type receiver. Fractionsof a zonearemeasured a resolutionof I llO24, i.e.just to over l0 m.




predominant spike or pulse occurring at the fundamentalrate (Fig. 6.20). In a receiveremploying the multiplying method, with readout on Decometers,lane ambiguity is resolvedby feeding a lane identification meter such vernierpointer, identified that one arm of a six-armed by a rotating sector,indicatesthe correct lane. The sector is driven in accordancewith the phase differencebetween l/6 of the mastertransmission (remembered by during the MP transmission a phase-locked oscillator)and the fundamentalderived from an MP transmission.The vernierpointer is with the phasedifference drivenin accordance and six times tne betweenthe mastertransmission the fundamentalderivedfrom an MP transmission, drive being through I : 6 gearing. During the master the MP transmission lane identification meter should readzero and may be adjustedto do so if in error.

Fig. 6.20 Multipulsetransmission summatibn(courtesy Co. Ltd) the DeccaNavigator

System(courtesythe Fig. 6.21 Mk 19 DeccaNavigation Co. Ltd) Navigator Decca


As eachMP trafismission occursthe appropriate Decometerlane readingshould correspondto the lane identification meter readingand may be adjusted if necessary. The current lane identification may be held to assist checkingbut will only be valid for a few seconds due to aircraft movement. ln a receiver employing the dividing method the MP transmissions provide a referencefrequency/ with which the phaseof eachdivider output can be compared. The phaseconrparison and subsequent correctiontakesplace automaticallywithin the divider circuits. This process, known as notching, removes ambiguity from the zone fraction data. ResolvingZone Ambiguity We haveseen how the particular lane (within a zone) in which the aircraftis flying can be identifiedbut the porsibilityof an incorrectzonereading still exists since zones, like lanes, indistinguishable the are by normalphase nreasurements. zoneidentification A meterresolves zoneambiguity,not completely the but to *'itlrin a group of five zones, a distance i.e. of over50 km on the baseline. An 8'2/signal is transmitted with the MP signals from eachstationin turn. A beat note betweenthe 8f and8.2f components an MP transmission of is producedhavinga frequencyof fl5. The masterbeat frequency 'remembered' compared is and with each slave beat tiequencyin turn. The resulting hyperbolic pattern haszero phasedifferences lines five zones on apart,givingthe required resolution. hstallation Different options are available two of which are strownin Figs6.2 I and 6.22. The Mk 19 receiveris capable drivingDecometers digitalieadout) of (or and/ora l1ightlog; the multiplyingmethod is usedto drive the Deconreters while the dividing method is usedto drive the flight log through a computer unit. The Mk l5 receiver usesthe dividingmethod only with readouton a flight log. Wherespace at a premium,a Dectracposition is fixing unit (PFU) may be installed conjunction in with eithera Mk 15 or Nlk l9 receiver.The Dectrac PFU contains one indicatorwith four scales and a singlepointer, effectively replacingthe Decometers but not allowingthe samedegree accuracy of in reading. althoughthis may be recovered the by additionof anothersmallunit. A zoneidentity readingcan be taken from the singleindicator. A capacitive type antenna used,comprising is a coppermeshwithin a fibreglass plate mounted flush with the aircraft skin. The meshis at least2 ft2 in area. A pre-amplifier/matching allowsa long unit

Fig.6,22 Decca l5/Danac Mk (courtesy navigation system theDecca Navigator Ltd) Co. feederrun. The antennashould be mounted as near to the centre of the aircraft aspossible, either above or below the fuselage.If below a fixed I 80" phase shift is appliedin the pre-amplifier. Mk lS/Danac Block DiagramOperation Figure6.23 showsa sirnplified block diagram a of Mk l5i Danacinstallation.A significant featureof the systemis the degree automaticcontrol of achieved. The receiver output is fed to the computer as four pulsetrainsrepresenting received the master, red, greenand purple signals divideddown to the fundamentalfrequency,f. .Themaster/slave phase differences f aredigitallymeasured the computer, at in thus givingthreehyperbolic linesof positioneach derived a l0-bit binarynumberrepresentinglll}2a as of a zone. The computer convertsthe Deccaco-ordinates into for X and Y demandsignals the servos driving the laterallymoving stylus and the verticallymoving chart respectively. The major computing effort is carried out oft'-lineon a more powerful computer which calculates to constants be usedin the hyperbolicto X-lz conversion. These constants written on a are 99

Fast/normal lock

Low signal Flightlog warning

P/E cclls Warning lamp Decca Navigator Mark 15 Receiver

#r; L- l ffil I control I r|*'r |Irl
\ \v_-/ ./


Danac controller
F i g . 6 . 2 3 D e c c a M k 1 S / D a n a cn a v i g a t i o ns y s t e m b l o c k diagram (courtesy the Decca Navigator Co. Ltd)

part of the chart,amongother data,in the non-visible form of a black and white ten-trackdigital Gray code cells. readby a line of ten photoelectric The )/ servoposition feedbacksignalis in the form of a 9-bit word derivedfrom nine of the digital tracks referredto above. The X servoposition feedback is sigrral a 9-bit word derivedfrom printed circuit mountedon the stylus tracksreadby wiper contacts the The servodrivesare,of course, carriage. differences betweenthe demandand feedbacksisnals. chainis of Selection the correctDecca by automaticallyachieved includingthe code read the represenling frequencyamongthe constants cells. Otherdata amongthe by the photoelectric are constants the zone valuesfor one or two checkpointson the chart (to which the stylus goes initially) and the chart scale. Settingup is largelyautomatic. If the required takesplace chart is in view the following sequence when the systemis switchedon: l. pushbutton lampslight for checkingpurposes, are and the chart constants read into the computerl 2. the stylus movesto a checkpoint and receiver locks on to requiredsignals; 100

3. zone fraction computation takesplaceusing for MP transmissions notching; 4. stylus takesup a position within a zone on the to chartcorresponding the aircraftposition within the true zone. If the zone is correctthe and the OP button is pressed thereafter stylus and chart shouldmove so as to foilow the movements.lf the stylusis in the aircraft's wrongzoneit may be manuallysetby pressing the SET and operating pressure-sensitive control. slewing The correctzoneis known from the zone identification indicator and the pilot's knowledgeof his positionto within five zonewidths. Whenthe 'flies off'-the current chart and on to the next aircraft (on the samechart roll) the stylus goesstraightto the aircraft position on the new chart except under in e.g.chainchange, which case conditions, certain the aboveinitial procedurerelatingto zone identificationand slewingis cariied out. The pilot may bring anotherchart into view by the pressing LOOK AHEAD and operating slewing the control. Pressing LOOK AHEAD button a second the time causes new chart to remainin view,otherwise the stylusis returned io the aircraft'spresentposition

(still calculated during LOOK AHEAD) on the previous chart. to the Pressing INT button causes system go the MP only modewhere.the and into the integration off. It may facilities switched are zoneidentification to be desirable selectINT when flying in a fringe area may sincespuriousor imperfect notching signals a the cause warninglamp to comeon, indicating positionand receiver displayed between discrepancy or output. On somechartscoveringfringe areas INT without MP transmissions, is selected chains automaticallyby a suitablechart constant. functions, one of The LOCK button hasseveral phase-locked oscillator which is to put the receiver hto a fast lock condition, providingthe warning lamp is on. It may alsobe usedto initiatethe automatic setting-uproutine when a new chart, brought into view by LOOK AHEAD, doesnot havethe same chart. coloursasthe previous from marking the The stylus may be prevented WRITE off, otherwisethe track of chart by selecting the aircraft will be tracedout on the ghart. The switchis the only control not TEST-DIM-BRIL previously it mentioned, may be usedfor lamp test level of the lamps. or to selectthe brightness but to description sketchy saythe least, is Theabove an I hopeit will givethe reader ideaof how one Decca performs function. its system configuration Navigator

W, designated X, with it, up to four slavetransmitters a Y and Z. The masteroccupies centralposition so by surrounded the slaves far as the geography linesareof the orderof 500-1000 allows. Base overland. but arereduced nauticalmilesoversea The rangeof the systemis about 1000 nautical and miles(from master)usinggroundwaves up to about 2000 nauticalmilesusingskywaves.The of on accuracy depends the geometry the chainbut may be in the orderof about400 ft at 350 nautical miles rangeto 1700 ft at 1000 nauticalmiles range the are providedgroundwaves used. With skywaves would be in the orderof l0 nauticalmiles accuracy at 1500nauticalmilesrange. The Radiated Signals Pulses 100 kHz r.f. are transmittedfrom all of are stations. The slavetransmissions synchronized with thoseof the mastereither directly (triggeredby groundwave) by useof atomicclocks. The or master of delaybetweenthe time of transmission the master and eachslave(codingdelay) is fixed so that is whereverthe aircraft receiver locatedin the area will alwaysarrivein the same signals the covered, slave order after the master. Sinceall chainstransmit the samer.f., mutual by must be avoided useof differentpulse interference (p.r.p.)for eachchain. Therearea repetitionperiods eachof which have basicrates, total of six so-called as rates givenin Table6.4. The chains eightspecific areidentifiedby their p.r.p.,thus chainSS7(Eastern has of seaboard North America) a basicrateperiodof the by 100000 ps (SS)which is reduced 700 ps since rateis 7, hencethe periodbetween specific from the master(and from eachslave) transmissions per over l0 transmissions i.e. is 99 300 1,rs, fractionally

Loran C

lntroduction l.oran A was proposedin the USA in 1940, hdd trials overmuch of the north n 1942andwasimplemented has and westAtlantic in 1943. Sincethen coverage to air beenextended many of the oceanic routesof the world, but sometime in 1980the last Loran A Table 6.4 Basicand specificratesfor off. Sincethe transmitter shouldbe switched Loran C implementationof Loran A the family hasbeen extended B, C and D. Loran B wasfound to be to Specific Basic impracticaland Loran D is a short-range, periods repetition low-altitude system intendedfor usewhereline-of-sight ( subtract peiod ) is systemcoverage inadequate (tts) (tts) pulsed LoranC is a long-range" hyperbolic navigation with accuracy aid approaching of that 0 0 30 000 H It Deccaunderfavourable circumstances. was 100 I 40 000 L introduced 1960and now provides valuable in a 200 2 s0 000 S the service rpanypartsof the world, in particular in 300 3 60 000 SH is. north andeastPacificand Atlantic. The system 400 4 80 000 SL to usedby many shipsand aircraftandwould appear 500 5 100 000 SS havean indefinite future. (hain Layout A transmitter, designated master, associated the has

6 7 8

600 700 800


second. Not all the basicratesare in useand indeed somemay neverbe usedsince6 X 8 = 48 chainsare unlikely to be needed. Groupsof eight pulsesof r.f. are transmittedfrom eachstation once during a repetition period. With synchronous detectionin the receiverthe eight pulses are combinedto give a much better s.n.r.than one would obtain with a singlepulse. The spacing betweenpulses within a group is I ms. The master transmitsa ninth pulsein its group, 2 ms after the eighth, for identification. Sometypes of interference (e.g.skywave contamination)can be discriminated against use of by phasecoding. The r.f. of certainpulseswithin a group hasits phasereversed; unlessthis is properly decoded in the receiversynchronous detectionwill give a loss of sigral power. Additionally, sincemasterand slave phase coding is different for a particularchain, decodingcan be usedto separate received the master signalsfrom the slavesignals.

To measure time differencebetweenmasterand the slavetransmissions corresponding'events' must be identified in each. Obviouslyfrom Fig. 6.24 it is impracticalto measure from leadingedgeto leading edgeor evento usethe lagging edges, consequently one of the cyclesmust be chosenin masterand slave transmissions the time betweenthem measured. and Such a process known as cycle matchingor is indexing. From the point of view of s.n.r.the eighth cycle is the obviousone for indexing;howeverit may be subjectto skywavecontaminationand therefore difficult to identify. The minimum differencein propagationtimesbetweenskywaveand groundwave is 30 prs, up to and includingthe third cycle the so pulseis clear. For this reasonthe third cycle is usuallychosenfor indexing,particularlyin fully automatic equipment. An automaticreceiver would selectthe third cycle by looking for the unique change amplitude of betweenthe secondand fourth cycle; in this way the indedng circuitsare able to lock on. The transmission of the first eight pulses must be accurate and consistent sincean error in indexing of one cycle would give a l0 ps time differenceerror. If indexingis carriedout manuallyusinga c.r.t. to display the pulses, time-bases decreasing on of durationasthe process proceeds, ofup to the use eighth cycle may.bepossible with a skilled operator.

Installation A Loran C systemmay consistof up to five units, namely antenna,antennacoupler,receiver, c.r.t. indicatorand controlunit. A c.r.t. displayis used where the indexingprocedure manualor where, is if automatic,it is thought necessary provide the to operatorwith monitoring of the procedure. On some systems indexingis manualbut thereafterthe third Fig 6.24 Loran C pulseand pulse format cycle is trackedautomatically. Figure6.25 showsthe DeccaADL-S1 Loran C/D The pulseduration is approximately270 ps, i.e. a receiver and control indicator; an aerialand coupler total of about 27 cyclesof r.f. in eachpulse. To would be neededto completethe installation. The radiatea pulseof short rise-timeleadsto problemsin ADL-8 I is fully automaticprovidingdigital time frequencyspectrumspreading and transmittingantennadifferencereadoutswith a resolutionof 100 ns on the designat the low carrierfrequencyinvolved. In fact control indicator and 50 ns via a computer interface. -indexing 99 per cent of the radiatedenergy must be in the band Synchronization providesthird cycle in 90'l l0 kHz, hencethe slow rise and dbcaytime goundwave covdrand optimum cycle indexiig during illustrated\n Fig. 6.24 (in which the signalformat, iky*au. working. Three time-difierences are m:Nterand three slaves, alsoshown). The maximum computed,two of which may be displayed. Tunable is amplitudeoccursby the eighth cycle. automaticnotch filters providerejeition of the strongest interferingsignals.Overallsystem Principlesof Operation performimcechecksmay be performedusingbuilt in . The basicprinciplesof a pulsedhyperbolic iest equipment(BITE). navigationaid havebeengivenearlierin the chapter. The antennais usuallya capacitive type, sometimes 102

Fig.6.25 ADL-81 Loran C/D (courtesy Decca the Navigator Co.Ltd) serving both ADF sense and Loran, in which casean antennacouplerwould providethe necessary impedance matchingand isolationlor the two receivers served.A pre-amplifier may be included for the Loran feed. Block Diagram Operation The received sigralsare separated into n:asterand groupsby the phasedecodecircuits,the groups slave beingfed to the appropriatemasterand slavephase lock loops(p.l.l.). In Fig. 6.26 only one slave p.l.l. is shownbqt in practicethere will be a minimum of two to providethe two hyperbolicl.o.p. requiredfor a fix. p.l.l.swould enable automatic Threeslave an system to selectthe two which gavethe bestangleof cut, althoughthe calculations involvedwould probably be carriedout by a computerto which the three would be fed. readings time-difference of Gatepulseformersfeedthe p.l.l.swith a series by eight pulses spaced I ms and of, say,5 ps duration. The object of the p.l.i. is to providea signalto the gate the oscillator,.driving corresponding appropriate pulseformer, so that the phaseof the oscillator,and hencetiming of the gatepulse,is alteredsuchthat eachgatepulseis coincidentwith somespecificpoint pulse. The rate at on the third cycle in any received is which the gatepulsegroupsaregenerated set to equalthe rateof the required chain. The basicideaof indexing,as carriedout by the p.l.l.s, asfollows. ln Fig. 6.27 line I is a is pulse. edgeof a received of representation the leading of the leadingedgeof a Line 2 is a representation



Fig.6.26 LoranC simplified block diagram






5O rrs

Fig.6.27 A methodof indexing

pulseafter it hasbeendelayedby l0 ps and received amplifiedby a factor of 1.5. It can be seenthat lines I and 2 crossat a time 30 ps after the pulseleading 104 ,

edge. Line 3 is a representation the result of of subtracting delayedand amplifiedreceived the pulse from the received pulse. Sincethe crossover point of this differencesignalis at 30 ps it can be usedasa servosignalto set the gatepulsetiming for with the tlfrd cycle. The futl bandu,idth coincidence of 20 kHz is required preserve pulseshape to during the indexingprocess, althoughinitial signal acquisition may take place with a restricted bandwidthin orderto improvethe s.n.r. Oncephase lock is established, time-difference rcadoutis easily achieved starting b1i and stopping a counterwith the master and 4ppropriate gate slave pulsegrouprespectively. Acquisition the received of frasterand slave pulses. the initial aligrmentto a point wherethe i.e. p.l.l. can takeover,may be carried out by the operator automatically. or With manualacquisition pulses gatepulses displayed both received and are on a c.r.t.;a slewing controlallowsthe operator align to the gatepulses with the third cycleof the received pulses useof diff'erenttime-base by selections the for (time-base A-typedisplay horizontal deflection, signal vertical deflection).With automatic acquisition the gatepulsegroups mustbe slewed swept or autolnatically until the p.l.l. cantrack successfully.

7 Distance measuring equipment

VOR in fact providethe standardICAO short-range navigationsystem. A DME beaconmay also be (DME) is a secondary locatedon an airfield equippedwith ILS, thus giving equipment Distance measuring while on an ILS readout slantrange continuous radarpulsedrangingsystemoperatingin the band approach, suchuseof DME is limitedat present. MHz. The originsof this equipmentdate 978-1213 I'ACAN is a military systemwhich givesboth systemdevelopedin back to the Rebecca-Eureka to War II. International agreement rangeand bearingwith respect a fixed beacon. BritainduringWorld The rangingpart of TACAN has the same of on the characteristics the current systemwas not as has characteristics civil DME. Thereare,however,more reached until 1959but sincethen implementation with TACAN sinceit utilizes an channels available beenrapid. range 962-1213 of MHz. Thusa extended frequency The systemprovidesslantrangeto a beaconat a civil aircraft equippedwith DME can obtain range between fixed point on the ground. The dift-erence from a TACAN beaconprovidedthe measurement slantrangeand ground range,which is neededfor frequency the of DME canbe tunedto the operating purposes, srnallunle5s aircraft is very the is navigation Many civil aircraftcarry a DME TACAN concerned. high or closeto the beacon. Figure7.1 showsthe which coversthe full frequencyrange. relationship betweenslant range,ground rangeand heightto be:


s2 = G2+ (r46oso)2




igroring the curvatureof the earth. To seethe effect an of this consider error in rangeof I per cent, i.e. and S = l'01G. Substitutingfor G, rearranging we evaluating have:

s +/t8s3
for a I per cent error. Thus at 30 000 ft if the DME readoutis greaterthan about 35 nauticalmiles the error is lessthan I per cent,while at 5000 ft greater than about 6 nauticalmiles readoutwill similarlv givean error lessthan I per cent. Givingrange,DME alonecan only be used for three readings position fixing in a rho-rho scheme, beingneededto removeambiguity. With the additionof bearinginformation, suchas that derived DME and from VOR, we havea rho-thetascherne;
Frg.7.2 The d.m.e.sYstem

coded r.f. pulse The airborneinterrogatorradiates within the band978-1213MHz pairsat a frequency antenna.A ground from an omnidirectional (the beacon), within rangeof the aircraft transponder and operatingon the channelto which the interrogator the receives interrogationand is selected, the automaticallytriggers beacontransmitterafter a radiation fixed delayof 50 irs. The omnidirectional from the beaconis codedr.f. pulsepairsat a frequency frequency. the 63 MHz below or above interrogation by This reply is received the suitablytuned is and after processing fed to the intenogator receiver

Gnm Fig. 7.1 Slantrange/ground r?ngetriangle


rangecircuits where the round trip travel time is ccmputed. Rangeis givenby:

beaconif there are reflectingobjectsinconveniently placedwith respectto the aircraft and the beacon. This possibilityarises sincethe antennas both ends at (7.2) R = (r - so)lt2'3s9 of the link areomnidirectional. Shouldsucha 'dog where:R is the slant rangedistancein nautical leg'path occur.the round-triptraveltime Z in milesto or from the beacon;I is the time in equation(.7 may be that for the long way round .2\ transmission the microseconds between of furs) and thus lead to a readoutin excess true short of interrogationand receptionof the reply. The range. constants the equation are 50 prs in corresponding To describethe way in which the systemdesign to the fixed beacon delay,l2'359 prs beingthe with this it is necessary introduceseveral copes to time taken for r.f. energyto travel I nautical mile new termswhich aredefinedand explained below. and return. Jitter Dellberaterandom variationof the time intervalbetween successive interrogations. Each 5 ( i n t e r r o g a t op r t r d l l g sa J i t t e r i n g u l s e p a i r ) r p (p.r.f.)'which,overa periodof repetitionl-requency several interrogations, describes uniquepattern a sincethc variations random. With an are interrogation rate of, say, 100,the average interval between interrogations be l0 ms,with any will particular intervalbeingbetween say9 and I I ms. patternenables DME to The uniqueiuterrogation the repliesto its own interrogationby recognize techniques. stroboscopic

Both beaconand transponder a single use omnidirectional antenna shared between transmitter and receiverin eachcase. This is possible sincethe systemis pulsed,and diplexingis simplesincethe transmit and receive frequencies different. are Onceevery30 s the beacon transmits identity its which is detected the pilot asa Morsecodeburst by of threelettersat an audiotone of I 350 Hz. It should from the beacondurine be noted that the r.f. radiated identification of the samelorm aswhen is transmitting repiies,i.e.pulsepairs. The difference is that when replyingthereare randomintervals transmissions between whereas duringidentification the intervals constant l/l350th of a second. are at

Automatic Stattdby Often rei'erred as to signal-activated search.Whenthe aircraftis out of range the beaconto rvhichthe airborne of DNIEis Further Principles and Terminology tuned,no signals will be received. This stateinhibits By now the reader may haveidentifiedseveral interrogations until suchtime as the aircraftis within problems with the principles system of operationas range and signals received. are described. With DME, many aircraftwill be asking 'what The implementation this featuredetermines of the beacon is my range?', beacon the will reply whetherinterrogations commence a resultof mean as to all of them,the problembeinghow eachis to signal levelexceeding somepredetermined levelor the identify its own reply. Anotherproblemis how to rateof signals beingreceived exceeds some preventthe airborneDME interrogatingan predetermined rate. The two alternatives equivalent are out-of-range beaconsincethis would be wastefulof asthe aircraft approaches beaconfrom beyond the equipment life. It is obvious that the DME operationmust be in at maximum range,and typically interrogations commence when the received signalcount is in excess leasttwo phases sincewe cannot expect an of 300-400per second.They arenot equivalent when instantaneous readoutof the correctrange the the aircraft is closeto the beaconsincethe mean momentwe select beacon.Theremust be some a periodwhen the DME is acquiringthe rangefollowbd signallevelwill be raiseddue to signalstrength; the by a period, hopefully much longer,during which the consequently requiredrate is much reducedfor the former altei'native.This is of littie consequence indicatorcontinuoushdisplays correctreading. the In this latter period rvemust considerthe eventuality when the aircraft is well within range;one would not of a temporary lossof reply suchasoccursduringthe expect the DME to be on auto standby. When however, auto standbycircuit an (ident)signal the gound testing, transmission the identiflcation by of which monitors mean signallevel-can give unexpected, all beacon, perhaps or during'manoeuvre'when but not unexplainable, results sincethe test set might be iost. signals (beacon sirnulator) will normallyoutput We haveassumed that the r.f. anergywill travelin constant-strength signais regardless rangesimulated. of a straightline from aircraft to beaconand back. This of coursewill be the caseunlessthere are any Squitter The auto standbycircuit will not allow that however,it is possible obstructions intervening; interrogations commence to until it detects signals theremay be more than one path to or from the


from the beacon. When a sufficient number of Should more than 2700 interrogations secondbe per intenogatingaircraft are within rangeof the beacon received sensitivityis reducedstill further, thus the thereis no problem, sinceanother aircraft coming maintainingthe service thoseaircraft closestro for within rangewill receiveall the replies and thus bigin the beacon. to interrogate. If, however,we considerthe beacon In fact the nominal madmum of 100 aircraft is havingjust come on line or the first flight, after a exceeded sinceinterrogationrateson track (see quiet period, approaching beacon,we havea the below) are considerably than twenty-seven less for -chicken-and-egg situation: the beaconwill not reply modernequipment,and further the interrogatordoes unless interrogated; the interrogatorwill not not need 100 per cent repliesin order to maintarn interrogate unlessit receives signals. readout ofrange. The beacon capability 100 of From the explanation thus far there are in fact aircraft may be reducedif peak traffic is much less sigralsavailable, than this figure. namely ident, but this meansan aircraft may haveto wait 30 s, perhapsmore in weak signalareas, before coming out of auto standby. This Search During searchthe range-measuring circuits of is unacceptable; the interrogatorhavenot recognized consequently beaconis made to the those pulses transmit pulse pairs even in the absence arnongstthe total receivedwhich have the same of interrogations.Such transmissions jittering pattern as the interrogation. The from the ground beaconare known collectivelyas lsquitter' to interrogationrate is high so as to decrease search time, distinguish them from replies. When the random the maximum rate allowedbeing 150 s-r. The search squitterpulsepairs are received time in a modern equipmentis typically lessthan I s. the airborne equipment startsto interrogate. A p.r.f. of 135 is avoided since may cause it A beaconmust transmit randomly distributed interference with the bearingmeasurement function pulsepairsat a repetition rate of at least700; this of TACAN. The readoutwill be obscuredby a .flag' minimum rate includesdistancerepliesas well as if of the mechanical type, or will be blankedif squitter. Beacons which supply a full TACAN service, electronic.The counterdrumsof an electroi.e. rangeand bearing,must maintain a rate of 21.00 mechanical indicator can be seento be rotating when pulsepairsper second. In order to achievethis during the interrogatoris searching; electronicindicator an ident an equalizing pair of pulsesis transmitted may havea lamp or Le.d.which illuminatesduring 100ps aftereachidentity pair. A range-only search. DME beaconat a constantduty cycle of 27OO It is an ICAO recommendation puisepairs that if after l5 000 per second not ruled out. pairsof pulses is havebeentransmittedwithout Ifwe considerthe caseof a beaconwith a constant acquiringindication of distancethen the p.r.f. should duty cyclein a quiet period all transmittedpulsepairs not exceed60 until a change operatingchannelis in aresquitter,apart from during the dots and dashes madeor a successful search completed. In practice is of the ident signaltransmission.With one aircraft using useof automaticstandbycircuitsand searchp.r.f.s as the beaconinterrogatingat a rate of, say, 27 then the low as,say,40 in modernequipments makesthis numberof squitter pulsepairswill be recommendation redundant. 2700 - 21 = 2673 s-r while the reply pulse pairswill number27 s-t. Two aircraftwould Gad to isquitter Track Dunng track the range-measuring circuits, rate of 2646 s-t and a reply rate of 54 s-r andio on havingacquiredthe reply pulses, follow their early or until we arriveat a condition of beaconsaturation late arrivalas the aircraft movestowardsor away from with a nominalmaximumof 100 aircraft the beacon.Continuous range readoutis givenwith interrogating.We can seethat all the squitter pulse. the'flag'out of view. The p.r.f. is low. In order to pairshavebecomesynchronized optimize beaconcapabilitya maximum average with received p.r.f. interrogations.From the interrogator'spoint of view of 30 is laid down. This assumes 95 per -ent that of all received pulsepairs appearto be squiiter except the time is occupiedby tracking,thus: thoseidentified by the rangecircuits as being ,rp-lim 9sr+ss < 3000 to its own interrogations. Q3) where:7is the track p.r.f. andS the search p.r.f. Maintaininga constantduty cycle for the beaconis achieved varying the receiver by sensitivity. When no In practicemodernequipments may havetrack p.r.f.s interrogations received are sensitivityis sufficiently of lesshan 10. t high for noiseto trigger the beaconmodulator 2700 In someequipments transitionfrom search the to timesper second. As interrogations receivedthe are track, during which the rangemeasuring circuits check sensitivitydecreases maintainingthe duty cycle. so they havein fact acquiredthe correctsignals, is


ttl known asacquisition.lt is convenient identity terntsinceit takesa llnite. this eventby a separate is short.time and the equipntcnt neither thoupilr s e a r c l t i rng r t r a c k i n g . ro

a simulates rangeof zero,or nearzero,nauticalmiles. 'lhus commences after self-testthe outbound search or nearzero. fiorn at

PcrcentageRepll' rNecan seefrom the abovethat not evenif the will all interrogations giveriseto replies will not are Mennry If replies lost an interrogator is or revertto search auto standbybut will aircraftconcerned well within range.lt may immediately duringthe arrives that an interrogation happen enterits memorycondition;this rrtaybe one of two of groundreceiver deadtirne. Other causes lossof W i t h s t a t i cm e n l o r y o t y p e s e i t h e rs t a t i c r v e l o c i t y . , from the beaconand repliesare ident transmission with whereas steady, is maintained the readout by recbiver other of suppression the interrogator at to velocitymemorythe readoutcontinttes change L band equipment.Everytime an L band airborne its lastknown rate. Mentorytime will norrnallylie or i.e. equipment, ATC transponder DME 4 between and 12 s. pulseis senton a transmits, suppression interrogator, the are If, duringmemory,replies re-acquired, a commonline to all other L band equipment.This thus the pilot will will continuetracking: equipment may well be when a reply would otherwisehavebeen a havebeenspared falsewarning. At the end of received. at if nremory, tltereareho signals all beingreceived, from Ignoring,for the moment, ident transmission will the autostandbywill ensue;otherwise equipment due to ATC transponder the ground and suppression searching. commence reply percentage replieswe can calculatea worst-case a figure. Assuming beacondeadtime of 60 ps and Echo Protection The possibilityof the interrogator maximum capability operatingconditionsof 21OO reflection must which havesuffered replies tracking per interrogations second,we havea total deadtime both on the ground,for the against, be guarded = 6 0 X 2 7 0 O 1 6 20 0 0 p s s - r ; i . e .d e a dt i m e path,and in the air, for the reply path. o f interrogation 16'2 percent of total time. The of on On the ground,depending the geography the constitutes of will arrive maximump.r.f. (average) No. 2 DME is 30 with or terrain,the reflected echointerrogation pulse width of not greaterthan 60 ps; interrogation'Thus a suppression after the line-of'sight a short time for thus No. I DME will be suppressed at most for is if the ground receiver suppressed long enough 3 0 X 6 0 = l 8 0 Op s s - r ; i . e .0 ' 1 8 p e r c e n to f t h e t i m e . the of reception an interrogation echowill not a{'ter Thuswe areleft with 100 - l6'38 = 83'62 per cent period,or trigge.r reply. Normallya suppression a exceptionally asthe reply rate exPectation. time, of up to 60 gs is sufficient; deacl occursonce every 30 s The ident transmission up to 150ps may be necessarY. than 4 s. when the total key-downtime will be less A similarsituationexistsin the air but a different of and The code group transrnittedconsists dots and solutionis normallyemployed.The line-of-sight 'dashes s 0 o f t i m e d u r a t i o n ' l - 0 ' 1 2 5 s a n d0 ' 3 - 0 ' 3 7 5 jittering the echo replieswill both exhibit the same is The time betweendots and dashes respectively. the however, line-of-sight p.r.f. asthe interrogator; uuullubl.for replies. We havethe situation where echo' To beforethe corresponding reply arrives is arranged about three replieswill be lost during a dot, and echo protection the interrogator achieve a at commences zero aboutten duringa dash,assuming track p.r.f. of outbound. If the search to search with a lower a modernequipment about2l . For nauticalmilesand movesout, then the first set of will be evenless. Under these p.r.f., reply losses for repliessatisfyingthe rangecircuit's search the the to it circumstances is not sensible calculate to jitter patternwill be thosecorresponding the true reply sincethe effect of the percentage exp'ected on echoprotection changing To guarantee iung.. ident is possibiyto make the interrogatorgo into after memory search channelor before commencing memory, particularlywhen a dashis transmitted' or auto standby,the rangecircuitsshouldbe miles condition. This is Sincethe memory time is at leastaslong as the returnedto the zero nautical total key-downtime the momentaryswitch between wherethe reverse done in someequipments will not be movementtowards zero may be known as a reciprocal track and memory and back to track noticedbY the Pilot. place. In althoughno interrogationtakes search, engineer It shouldbe noted by the maintenance is wheresearch outbound from the other equipments, that in simulatingident durlrg a ramp test the ident last reading,echoprotection is likely but not ratherthan keyed,aslong will be continuous, guaranteed.In this latter situationuseof the self-test sigpal asthe appropriateswitch on the test set is held on. since svitch or button will givefull echo protection facility which Thus if ident is simulatedfor longerthan the memory havea self-test virtually all interrogators 108

a circularpath centredon the beaconwould register time the interrogatorwill start to search,This is ground speedof zero on the DME indicator! one switch on the test set usefulsinceoperationof gound If the airborneequipmenthas calculated allowsthe checkingof ident tone with its associated it is a simplematter to give time to station speed, p.r.f. volume control, memory time and search = replies,and hence (beacon)sinceTTS DST/KTS whereTTS is time to produces The ATC transponder station.DST is slant rangeand KTS (knots) is the pulses, only when interrogated. If an suppression Again this is only a usefulindication aiiciaft is wilhin rangeof one interrogatorit will only gound speed. ttrJ aircraftis on courseto/from the beaconand wtren be interrogatedabout thirty timesper sweep' With a from it. somedistance rateof say 12 r.p.m.and a beamwidth of say sweep The time constantof the ground speedmeasuring will occur during a time 5o thesethirty interrogations circuitis longbut cancopewith aircraftacceleration' interval givenby the product of 5/360 and 60112, one mustwait sometime however, ln groundtesting. the i.e. aboui 0'07 s. For thirty interrogations p.r.f' - 430 which is closeto the foithe groundspeedreadingto take up the simulated would needto be 30/0'07 on the ramp testset,slnce maximum p.r.f. of 450. We havea similarsituationto valueof velocityselected a in switching-in velocity one is simulatingan infinite i.e' lossduring ident transmission, the the reply acceleration. o..uti.n". is relativelyinfrequent;for example0'07 in 5 s. If the aircraftis within rangeof more than one interrogatorthe total interrogationtime in, say, 5 s is Interrogation increased. the Considering effect on DME only during the is The full TACAN interrogationfrequencyrangeis time the ATC transponder replyingwe have, t s . rateof 450 and a 1 0 2 5 - l1 5 0M H z w i t h 1 N { H z p a c i n gT } r u s h e an assuming ATC interrogation frequencit's will interrogation be one of 116 possible pulsedurationof 30 ps, percentage suppression The r'f is keyed selected. on tlepending the channel iime = 450 X 30 X 100/I 000 000 = l'35 suppression 'rn worst'case by pulsepairs. The timing,which is dcpendenl per cent. If we alsotakeinto accountthe in X of 83'62per selection, or Y' is illustrated Fig' 7'-1' cirannel reply for the DME system percentage ..nt *. haveduring this short time 83'62 1'35, 3'5trs 82 per cent replies.In fact the DME interrogator - 1 l l x .op. *ith this and remainon track' stroutO J The aboveis not quite the whole story. The who, on intention is to allay the fearsof students I I l2irs can findingout how manywaysreplies be lost, wonder how on earthDME worksat all. The few simplecalculationsgivenshowthat the situationis in fact be It quitesatisfactory. can,however, worsethan sugthat only requires the ICAO specification gested since havea 70 per centreplyefficiency; iit. OVf beacon pulse Fig.7.3 Interrogation spacing being mentioned, not one of the reasons, previously Even for that time mustbe allorved self-monitoring' of on The p.r.f. is dependent the nlodeof operation will DME interrogators copewith percentage so most theDME: lower than 50 per cent' as replies iow as.or Search 40-I 50 Average l0-30 Track Ground Speedand Time To Station The interrogator -Average to monitorsthe slantrange the beacon continuously design equipment on The actualp.r.f.depends tl-re as will which,of course, change the aircraftflies given. There than minimutrlligures and may be lower of or awayfrom the beacon.Measurement p.r.f. due to in ' towards will be a smallvariation the average of gives. speed the of the rateof change slantrange that p.r.f.,assuming 95 per centof jitter. The average to or approach departure the beacon.Such than 30' The the time is spenton track' must be less DMEs out by most airborne is measurement carried polarization' with vertical is radiation omnidirectional groundspeed.tt is as and presenteci so-called that the readoutcan importantthat the pilot realizes as only be considered ground speedwhen the aircraft R e p l y is flying directly towardsor away from the beacon 962 and between The r.f. at one of 252 frequencies from it. An aircraft flying a and is somedistance



in the full _.._. IA!{I-fr.guency range.The-repty trequency 63 MHzabove belowtheintiriogating is or Table7.1 Frequency pairing as in fre.quency, shown Fig.7.4. fne chann.ispacing is I MHzfor bothinterrogation reply. The' and v.h.f. nav.freq. v.h.f. allocation TACANchannels numbered are lX,ly,'. . . liOX, r26Y. r08.00 VOR Using Fig.7.4we see that channel , say, 20X 108.05 VOR corresponds aninterrogation 1044 to at M;Hz';nd a r08.10 ILS replyat 981MHz,whilechannel I16I,, say, 1 0 8 51 . ILS correspondsaninterrogation I140 MHzand to at a replyat 1077MHz.

conjunction with VOR and, largely as a future requirement,ILS. To achieve ttris,OUe Uru.on, "r. co-located wirh VOR or ILS beaconr,in1r" i.j"g prescribed maximum separation fi.its 1a"nr"'i to the conventionon InternationalCivil A'v",j"rl. Wherewe havecoJocation constituting sinele a X and Y Channel Arrangements fapility the two systems should;;;il ""'"ii""o"ra frequency pairing (Table7.1).r,i rr."r1nii r""'' and identity signal. Jh...rr1.-..lZ!^i1t-elryCation 252 replyfrequenciesassociated

l2l3 MHz isteyed by pulse pairs the timing of which is similar to that given in f ig. I .5, the differince being e1l f channelspacing 30 prs, is not 36 pr. ffrc radiationis omnidirectionalwith verticalpoiarization.

TACAN channel



l7x t7Y l8x t8Y

Eeacon reply

Aircraft interrogation

Beacon reply X

63Y 1 1 5 0 I Y 1c|aR r26Y 1087 64Y 1025

I r50


1213 126X 1't51 d4x 112.25


l I 1.95 I12.00 l12.05

56Y 57X 57Y 58x 59Y 70x t26y


t088 -'f-'-r1 0 8 7 -*__\l\_ 1 0 2 5 -_|.__\a

to24 63X 962 t x



With standardfrequehcypairingthe need for separate DME and v.h.f.nav.contiol unitsis eliminated.It is normalpractice u .o.Uin"O For civil DME beacons 52 channels for the l-16, X controllerto be used, selected and the nd 60-69, andy,are avoided frequency X i"it*. indicationbeinggivenin termsof tne v.h.f. reasons.Firstly DME is meant to be used nav. in frequency.Thusa selection 10g.05 coniunction of with VOR and ILS, which occupy200 Uffr-woufO tune the v.h.f. nav. receiver that frequency channels to ratherthan 252. Secondly, und the having h'fty_two DME to the pairedchannell7y. redundantchannels, gapsare chosen the to-overlap Someequipments havea hold facility whereby, fre[uencies l0i0;;;' . "f lle lTC transponder when engaged. change the selectea a 1090MHz to avoid any p-ossible in ".fr.f."u". interference, lrequencywill not cause DME channel althoughdifferent codesand ,nr,u.i ,"iprJrJion the to change. "r" W.hen.using hold, rangeand bearinginfo.rn"iion i, also usedfor this purpose. givenbut not to a common point. The useof_thefifty+wo missingchannels This could lead to is, howpilot navigationerror, to .uoid ttris ever,not precluded the ICAO;they a warninf tr*nr r, by may be alloc- illuminat ed when hold is sele areoon a nationalbasis.The fact that cted; n.*rtf,.i."rr,'ror. civii aircraft national authoritiesfrown upon the availabilit rnay wish to useTACAN beacons of means thai many sucha faciliry. DME interrogators havethe full ZSi.f,.""rfr.' In Table 7.1 the frequencypairingarrangements shown.i Uring"uiio.ut.O lt1:Lo*n. The frequencies to-ILS are,ofcourse, localizer frrqu.n.irrit. tigtrrt The Link With v.h.f. Navigation of which is I I I .95 MHz. The gfi.iepatfr/ioJirel frequencypairingis not affectel tV IUE p.iri"g. As stated previously DMEis meant beused to in ThoseTACAN channels pairedwith not v.h.f. nav.

Fig,7.4 .Y/y channel arrangements


dnnnels may nevertheless be required. In this still v.h.f. nav. controllers. The RNAV facility (see casethe pairingsfor channels to I 6Y are lX Chapter l2) nray not be available, which caseslant in 134.40-135.95 MHz and for channels 60X to 69Y are rangewould be fed direct to the HSI or often, a 133'30-134'25MHz solely lor the purposeof separate DME indicator in which speedand time is selection combined on controllers.Selection one of computed. wirh a DME indicator fitted the HSI may ol thesechinnelswould only give rangeinformation still act asa repeater slant range. for ro an aircraftnot equipped with full TACAN. Associated identity is the term givenfor qynchronization ofthe ident signals from co-located beacons. Each30 s intervalis dividedinto lbur or rnoreequalpartswith the DME beacon ident transn'ritted duringone periodonly and the associated v.h.f.facility ident duringthe renraining periods. Associated identity would alsobe usedwith a Vortac beacon which provides bearing and range information to both civil and military aircraft. A TACAN (or DME) beacon not co-located with VOR would use ndependent identity. .

Instattation The DME interrogatorcomesin rrranyforms; airline standard equipment rack-mounted is general whereas aviation interrogators rriaybe panel-rnounted with integral controlsand digrtalreadout. King havegone one betterwith their KNS 80 integrated nav.system sinceone panel-rnounted containsthe DME box interrogator: v.h.f.nav.recejver converter, and glideslope receiver,RNAV computerplus integral controlsand readout range, groundspeed, of and (courtesy Fig.7.6 KPI 533pictorial navigation indicator time to station (seeFig. I .10). KingRadio Corp.) Figure7.5 showsa singleDME installationwith a combinedv.h.f. nav./DMEcontroller,an output to an Co-axialcables usedfor antennafeederand are suppression. With a dual ATC transponder and dual DME installationall four setswill be connected in parallelfor suppression purposes, that when one so transmitsthey are all suppressed. The antennais mounted on the underside the fuselage an of in approvedposition. Sufficientspacing betweenall Lband equipmentantennas must be allowedto help preven mutual interference, t althoughsuppression, different frequencies, p.r.f.s and pulsespacing all contribute to this. Tuning information to both DME and the v.h.f. nav. receiver likely to be 215,althoughb.c.d. and is Fig.7.5 DMEinstallation RNAVtie-in with slip codesmay be found. Screened preferably cables, twisted and screened, usedfor transferof are RNAV computer/controller and with slant rangeand analogue digital data and alsofor audio or groundspeedor time to station displayedon an HSI identificationto the audio integratingsystem. The (Fig. 7.6). All largeraircraft would havea dual audio may be routed through the controllerif a installation, possiblywith changeover relaysfor HSI volume control is irrcorporated the system. Other in feeds. A combinedcontrolleris usuallyfound, but it controller/DMEinterconnections for self-test, are off, is possibie (not advised) haveseparate to DME and standbyand on.


Controls and Operation A drawingof a combinedcontrolleris shown in for a Chapter (Fig.4.9). Controls DME areminimal. is Frequencyselection usuallyby rotary click stop knobs,the digitat readoutof frequencyon the e'g. beingthe v.h.f.nav.frequency, controller 108'00 MHz. The DME on/off switchingmay 'standby' incorporatea standbyposition. Usually that VOR/ILS is on, while DME is on indicates disabled.Sucha switchis i.e. transmitter standby 'off'-v.h.f. nav, and DME off; often marked 'receive' v.h.f.nav.on, DME standby; 'transmit' - both v.h.f. nav.and DME on. A self-test switch will be providedon the controlleror, rarely, be panel-mounted.Further switchingtakesplaceon (KTS or SPD)or the indicatorfor groundspeed (TTS or MIN). A hold switchmay time-to-station note on'hold'). alsobe found (seeprevious just switchon, tune to is Operation simple; lock-on after a brief requiredbeaconand ensure driven search.lf the indicator employsa mechanically will obscurethe readingduring digital readouta flag digitalreadoutthe with an electronic whereas search, displaywill be blanked. Whentuning to a different beaconthe ident signalshouldbe checkedto ensure Also if the has the correctchannel beenselected. out is of a type which searches from its DME must be operatedto last-knownreadingthe self-test return the dialsto near zeroso that an outbound reply will resultin lock'on to a line-of-sight search not an echo. Evenwith DMEswhich and out from zero af'tera channel automaticallysearch shouldbe operatedoccasionally' the change self-test Simplified Block Diagram Operation diagramof Fig. 7 .7 canbe usedto explain The bl<rck of the operation virtuallyall DME interrogators. will occur when comparingtypes Naturallyvariations will circuits the of DME; in particular range'measuring and further. as reflect the ingenuityof the designer madethe havein recentyears one rvouldexpect, to from analogue digrtaltechniques. transition the divides p.r.f. of a timing A jitter generator oscillatoroutput by a variabledivisor. For example p.r.f. of 400 a divisorof approximately with a basic providea track p.r.f' of 20, while a divisor 20 would p.r.f. of 4 of approximately would providea search of to 100. Of vital importance the operation DME is so randomly, that if on track that the divisorvaries may occur say, l5 and 25 timingpulses thenbetween, /s output pulses from the jitter betweensuccessive generator. 112

ts The pulses are fed to the modulator and thus The modulator decidethe time of transmission. which spacing pulsepairsof the appropriate produces key the transmitterpower amplifiers. The r.f. in turn the by is generated a frequencysynthesizer output of local oscillatoraswell as as which serves receiver transmittermasteroscillator. The amplifiedr.f. is fed antenna. to and radiatedfrom an omnidirectional The peak power output of a modem airline standard DME will be about 700-800W nominal. mixer via a pulsesare fed to the receiver Received givesimagerejectionand which tuned preselector someprotection from the transmittedsignal. In addition duplexingaction will normally be employed mixer protection during to ensurereceiver Sincethe transmit and received transmission. are frequencies always63 MHz apart,the frequency aboveand the i.f. can synthesizer be usedasdescribed may is amplifier tunedto 63 MHz. A dual superhet output will be the be employed. The receiver detectedvideo signal. The decodergivesan output pulsefor each output pair of pulses.The decoder correctlyspaced aircraft plus of consists repliesto all interrogating p.r.f. of at squitteror pulses the identification a filter gives a Hz, in which case bandpass 1350 system. 1350Hz tone output to the audiointegrating coming The auto standbycircuitcountsthe pulses a and if the rateexceeds from the decoder the figure(say400 per second)euables predeternrined jitter generator. the rateis low therewill be no If A andhenceno interrogation. third modulatortrigger gate. is fed to the range output decoder /o The zero time pulses are effectivelydelayedand in stretched the variabledelay which is controlled or eitherby the search track circuits' The output of the variabledelay,often termedthe rangeSate gate?'ps after every the opens range waveform, If interrogation. a reply or squitterpulseis received gateis open.a pulseis fed to at a time when the range counter' Assumethe DME is the cr.rirrcidence rate with an interrogation of 100,and searching gatingpulses gatewavelorm the further,assume range duringa period then on average are20 ps in'duration, gatewill be openfor the of l/100 = 10000 prs range o n l y 2 0 p s ,i . e . l / 5 0 0 t h o r 0 ' 2 p e r c e n to f t h e t i m e ' occurrandomly replies Now squitterand unwanted at so the chanceof full coincidence the rangegateis output roughly I in 500 for eachof the decoder pulsepairsper puises.Sincethere are2700 received i'e. 2700/500, on we second will have, average' per 5-6 pulses secondfrom the rangegate. the During search variabledelay is continuously to at increased a rate corresponding anythingfrom

Suppression pulse gen. PRF change


I I r l

to ind.

l l _ll I I

Range. measunng circuits


Rx supprcssion Frg.7 .7 Interrogator block diagram

liming gen.


i li l i l l i l i l i l l l l l ll ll ll ll ll l l l l l l l ll ll l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

Jittcr gcn.





Rengo gate YVtVCtOrm



l|nec g!r. otP



F3 7.8 Stroboscopicprinciple

zero crossings the delayedsine wave turn on of (Q = l)a bistablewhich is turned otr (Q = 0) by the zero time pulsesfrom the jitter generator. The bistableoutput is connectedto the positive-going triggerinput of a monostable; this way the in resulting30 ps pulsesoccur at a time determined by those delayed timing pulseswhich occur I ps after transmission.The elapsed time I represents the rangereadout which will be obscured'by a flag during search. In the logic employed in Fig. 7.9 a low rate output from the rangegate will give a logic zero output from the coincidencecounter, so enabling the search circuit but disablingthe early and late gates.When Zps corresponds the actualslant rangeofthe to beaconthe rangegateoutput rate is high, hencethe search circuit is disabled and a logic one is fed to the early and late gates. The other inputs to the earlyand late gatesare the decodedpulses and a ramp waveformsymnietricalabout zero volts and coincident with a 30 ps rangegatewaveformpulse. The ramp input to the late gateis invertedso that the late gate is open for almost all of the latter half of the 30 ps period,while the early gateis open for almostall of the first half. The slopeof the ramp waveformis chosen as there is a period (equalin duration to the so decoderoutput pulsewidth) when neither early nor late gateis open. Thus when on track the wanted repliesare steeredto the decrease increase or range circuits,dependingon whether the repliesarriveearly or late within the rangegatewaveformpulse respectively. The motor drive circuits supply the motor so that when in search the readoutand delay progressively increases. While in track the motor will turn in a Range Measuring ModeGontrol direction dependenton which of the decrease and and increase circuits givesan output. It can be seenthat Analogue in track we havea servosystemwhich maintainsthe Typically in an older analogueDME the variable delay wantedrepliesin the centreof the rangegate takesthe form ofa phaseshifter resolver, rotor of waveform the pulses. which is fed from the timing oscillator and is The memory circuit is enabledwith the early and mechanically coupledto a distance measuring shaft. late gates when it clearsthe flag. Subsequently, should The trackingcircuitsin suchequipmentoften employ therebe a lossof replies,search will be inhibited and a ramp generatoi. Figure7.9 illustrates block a the motor held (staticmemory)or madeto continue diagramand waveformswhich may be used to explain rotating with the samesense and speed(velocity the operationof sucha DME but is not meant to memory) for the memory time. any particularequipment. represent The timing generator output is sinusoidal and so Digital must be fed to a pulseformer (zero crossing detector) What follows is an explanationof the principlesof a beforethe jitter generator.The timing signalis also first-generation digital DME basedon, but not fed to a phaseshift resolver whereit is phase-shifted accurately representing, RCA AVQ 85. Currently the (delayed) by an angledependingon the position of the trend is to usea special-purpose chip to l.s.i. the distance-measuring shaft which also drives the perform the rangemeasurement mode control and coincidentwith the positive-going readout. Pulses tasks. 114

20 to 400 nautical miles per second,dependingon the vintageof the design. While in searchthe rangegate, output rate, as detectedby the coincidence counter, is low. When the delay lps is equalto the round trip travel time plus the 50 ps beacondelay the range by Bateoutput rate increases a sigrificant amount. Assumingas abovea searchp.r.f. of 100, and also a 50 per cent reply rate, then the output.of the range gatewill jump from say 5 pulsesper secondto 50 pulsesper second. This is the situation shown in Fig. 7.8. Whenthis easilydetectedincrease rate in occursthe mode control circuit will: (a) enablethe tracking circuit; (b) inhibit the searchcircuit; (c) senda p.r.f. change sigral to the jitter generator; and (d) lift the indicator blanking or flag as appropriate. During track the variabledelay is controlled by the trackingcircuitsso as to keepeachwanted reply in the centreof the corresponding rangegatewaveform pulse. Should the aircraft be flying towards the beacon,successive replieswill appearearly within the gatepulse,so causing delay to be reduced. The the opposite occurswhen the aircraft is flying away from the beacon. The variabledelay represents slant the rangeand so a signalproportionalto or representing this delayis fed to the indicator and/or RNAV computer. Ifwanted repliesare lost, the coincidence counter output registers zero tate and hencethe mode a control switches memory. With static memory the to trackingcircuits are 'frozen', whereas with velocity memory the trackingcircuitscontinueto change the variabledelay at the last known rate.







roln ming en.

I I I I I I I I i I

Delayed timing pulses

I t \ ; i____



o T o

Ranoe oat""


ro Delayed tlmrng pulses Bistable

+iTe '







Mono^stabre o

h l


so r,s



Ramp gen. Earlv Decoder o/P n Late

and rangemeasuring mode control block Fig. 7.9 Analogue diasram

p.r.f. of 40, a track p.r.f. The AVQ 85 hasa search of of l2 and a maximumrange 400 nauticalmiles, to which corresponds a two-way travel time of 5000ps. Duringthis time the nuntberof pulsepairs will be, on average: from a beacon received 5000x10-6x2700=13.5. one Of the thirteen or fourteenpulsepairsreceived will, hopefully,be a wantedrepiy. time between mode the elapsed During the search f6 and the time arrival of a particulardecodedpulse

after the If is measured. rn is the time measured is then /1111 the time to the first nth interrogation pulseto arrivesuchthat tn+1) tr, where decoded r,l= 0, L . ., and /o = 0. Whenwe haveequality,i.e. the tn+L = /r, then /r, is, subjectto further checking, trip traveltime to the beacon.It can be seen round we range shallneed, that if the aircraftis at rnaximunl to interrogations complete l3-14 successive on average, rate of 40 this will take time- At a search the search of sayl3'5/40 s,i.e.about one-third a second.The than I s. time of the AVQ 85 is quotedasless acquisition 115

Int.rrogatiorl lst mcesurornont

2nd measuremart 3rd measurement 4ttl melsurc|tranl

Sth mcaermont 6th measuremetrt 7th- moasurotnctrt

Valid reply

Fig.7.l0 Digital rangemeasurement search

With the aboveoperationonly one time measurement needsto be storedin a register. With a modestamount of memory the wanted reply could be identified within two successive interrogations, providedthat sucha reply was received after eachof the interrogations.If we assume 50 per cent reply a rate then four interrogations would be needed. During a 5000 ps interval lessthan eighty-fourpulse pairswill be received, of assuming minimum spacing a 60 ps betweenbeaconsquittertransmissions and allowingfor a 60 ps deadtime. Eachtime of measurement would need l2 bits if a resolution one-tenthof a nauticalmile is required. Thus'a faster search time could be achieved a RAM of if 12 X 84 X 4 = 4032 bits were provided. A practical circuit would consistof 4 X lK bit (lK = 1024\ RAMs, the pulsearrivaltimes,expressed distances, as being recorded dfter eachof four interrogations successively eachRAM chip. The first chip would in thus record the arrival times after the first, fifth, similarly for the second, ninth, etc. interrogations, third and fourth chips. Of courseonly one 4K bit providedit can be organized into four drip is needed, p.r.f. of linear arraysof l2-bit words. With a search 40 thereis a periodof 30000 ss (= l/40) less 5000 ps in which to checkfor equal arrivaltimes 116

which, when detected,signalthe end of search. per In Fig. 7.1I we return to the one measurement interrogationsituation. Initially the distance are circuit countersand registers cleared. measuring from /6 is carriedout by the Time measurement distance counter which counts809 kHz clock pulses, thus givinga rangeresolutionof one-tenthof a mile. of The sequence eventsfollowing the (r + I )th cycle is as follows: interrogationof a search l. te+20ps countgrciears. Distance Blankingcounter loadedwith contentsof = register rn. storage distance + 47 tts 2. ts bounterstartsto count down. Blanking 3. ls + 50 r/s Distancecounter startsto count up towards maximum range. 4. to+tn zero and hence Blankingcounter reaches blanking gateand triggersrangegate enables waveformgenerator. 5. ts + tral through A decodedpulsearrivesand passes enabledblanking gateto stop distancecounter

tlccodcd pulsos Distance to lnd 8O9kHz



PRF chang€

Ind enable


809 kHz
F!. ?.ll diagram and mode control block Digital rarge measuring

Range gate wavaform gen.

Decoded pulsss

and trigger transfer of data to distancestorage n register; becomes + I and circuit waits for n next to. is The abovesequence repeatedafter each fourteen interrogation. Within, on average, the interrogations time to a wanted reply will be counted and the distancestorageregisterwill contain the number of tenthsof a nauticalmile actualrange. After the next interrogationthe blanking counter will enable the blanking gate 3 prsbefore the arrival ofthe wanted reply, sincethe blankingcounterstart is counter start is 47 ps after re while the distance 50 ps after fe. It thereforefollows that the distance subjectto counterwill recordthe samed'.stance, aircraft movement.thereafter. The pulse from the rangegate waveform generator is of 6 ps duration,its leadingedgebeingX ps after te whereX is the time of arrivalof the previously decodedpulseless47 ps. This gatingpulse measured is fed to the rangegatetogetherwith the decoder indicatesthat the two latest output. Coincidence pulses be measured to havearrivedwith the sametime with respect /s and are thus probably to delay t 3 prs reply checkingcircuit wanted replies. The percentage then checksthat two of the next eight interrogations giverise to a decodedpulsewithin the track gateand to if so the mode switches track. On track the p.r.f. is reducedand the indicator givesa readoutofthe range by asmeasured the distancecounter. After switching to track, at leastfour of any sixteensuccessive

interrogations rrtust give rise to a rangeSateoutput; failure initiates a switch to memory. Five seconds after memory is entered the mode will revert to search,subject to auto standby, unlessthe four-from' in sixteen check indicatessuccess, which casetrack resumes.

Characteristics fromtheARINC is summary drawn Thefollowing
568-5for the Mk 3 airborneDME, it is Characteristic not completeand doesnot detail all the conditions under which the following should be met. Channels selected 215switching. by 252 channels hise Spacing mode X Interrogationl2 r 0'5 ps modeX;36 x 0'5 prs modeX; 30 i 0'5 tts Decoderoutput if lZ ! 0'5 1rs mode Y. Decoder: no output ifspaeing of receivedpulse pain more than I 5 ps from that required. Range 0-200 nauticalmileswith overrideto extend to 300 nauticalmiles. TmckW Sped 0-2000 knots.


AcquisitionTime I s or less. Memory 4-12s velocity memory. r.f. PowerOutput > 25 dBWinto 50 O load.

:r i : i: Intenogation Rote Overalllessthan 30, assuming track 95 per cent of on time, searching per cent of time. 5 Auto Standby At least650 pulsepairsper second received before interrogations allowed.

Fig.7.l2 TIC T-24A (courtesy Tel-Instrument Elcctronics Corp.)


Tx Frequency Stability Better than t 0.007 per cent. Rx Sensitivity -90 dBm lock-on sensitivity. Suppressiort PulseDurat ion Blanket: l9 prs modeX;43 ttsmodeL Pulsefor pulse: 7 gs. Antenna v,s.w.r. l'5: I over 962-1213 MHz referredto 50 O. Antenna Isolotion > 40 dB betweenL-bandantennas. Outputs l. Digital: 32-bit serial b.c.d.word at leastfive times per second, resolution 0.01 nauticalmiles. Buffers in utilization equipment. 2. Analogue: pulsephirs5-30 timesper second with spacing, ps, 50 + l2'359d (d beingslant in range). Eachload l2K in parallel with lessthan I 00 pF.

3. Rangerate pulsetransmittedfor each0.01 nautical mile change range. in 4. Audio ) 75 mW into 200-500Q load. 5. Output impedance 200 st. < 6. Warning flag( I V d.c. for warning, 2i.S y d.c. satisfactory operation. RangeOutput Accuracy From t 0.1 to t 0.3 nauticalmiles,depending on sigral strengthand time sinceacquisition.

Ramp Testing
A DME installationshouldbe testedusinga ramp test set which will test by radiation,simulatevarious ranges and velocities. operateon at leastone spot frequencyfor mode X and mode I/, and provide for simulationof identification. Two suchtest setsare the TIC T-24A (Fig. 7.12) andthe IFR ATC"600A ( F i g .8 . 2 3 ) . TIC T.24A A battery-operated, one-mantest set operatedfrom

a{{dtir-ril /! *,











{i *. * { r t f * @ r f

^ nl'


: 4*. .. :a.r/:{ . a


-.** e
,. ..:;,..




ciil, .,") ;

. t. *.r& tlq nfr _ft i*+ffi 4,frwa.:r .s,:,ai: d; :i {


e a



Fig. 7.13 TIC T-50A (courtesy Tel-lnstrument Elcctronrcs Corp.) '!19

the cockpit and testingby radiation. ChannelslTX (108.00 and 108.05MHz VOR and 17Y are available frequencies) with rangesimulationftom 0 to 399.9 nauticalmilesin 0.1 nauticalmile increments. The velocity, inbound or outbound, can be selected in lO-knot incrementsfrom 0 to 9990 knots. Squitter is selectable 700 or 2700 pulsepairsper second. at Identity is available 1350 or equalized1350 pulse as pairsper second. An additionalpulsepair l0 nauticalmilesafter the reply pulsepair can be selected, enablea checkof echo protection. The to p.r.f. meterhastwo ranges 0-30 and 0-150. Finally the percentage reply may be selected l0 per cent in incrementsfrom l0 to 100 per cent. ATC 600A This test set doesnot have all the facilities ofthe T-24A but doesoffer comprehensive testingability for the ATC transponder (Chapter8). Like the T-24Athe ATC 600A operates channelsl7X and on l7Y. The rangecan be set from 0 to 399 nautical milesin I nauticalmile steps. Twelvedifferent rrelocities may be simulatedin the range

50-2400knots inbound or outbound. The identity is equalized1350 pulsepairsper second. The percentage reply is either50 or 100 per cent by selection. Features the ATC 600A not available of with the T-24A arean interrogatorpeak r.f. power readout, accuracyt 3 dB (t 50 per cent) and interrogation liequency check.

Bench Testing Various test setsexist for the benchtestingof DME, one of these the TIC T-50A (Fig. 7.13) which also is providesfacilitiesfor ATC transponder bench testing. This is not the placeto detail all the featuresof sucha complex test set; sufficeit to say that the test set is madeup of optional modulesso that the customer can choosethe most suitablepackage.One feature which must be mentionedis the ability to measure the pulsedr.f. from the DME interrogatorwith a resolutionof l0 kHz. TIC havefound that many units change their output frequency,sometimes beyond allowablelimits, when a change pulse in occurs;i.e. X to I/ mode or vice versa. spacing


I ATC transponder

in Recognitionof thesedisadvantages, particular of No. 3, led to the development a military secondary radar (SSR)known as identification surveillance With the rapid build-up of international and domestic friend or foe (lFF). With this systemonly specially civil air transportsinceWorld War II, control of air equippedtargetsgive a return to the ground. This traffic by meansof primary surveillance radar (PSR) and extended has sincebeenfurther developed and procedures not adequateto ensuresafetyin the system is to covercivil aswell asmilitary air traffic; the special air. equipmentcarriedon the aircraft is the air traffic control (ATC) transponder. lntroduction




radar forms part of the ATC Secondary surveillance system:the other part being PSR. radarsurveillance one for PSR,the other for SSR,are Two antennas, Fig E.l Primary surveillance radar mounted co-axiallyand rotate together,radiating of directionally.The SSRitselfis capable giving A PSRdoesnot rely on the activeco-operationof rangeand bearinginformation and would thus appear (e.m.) radiation is pulsed to make PSR redundant:howeverwe must allow for the target. Electromagnetic from a directionalantennaon the ground. Provided fitted or a possible aircraft without ATC transponder they arenot transparent the wavelength to used, failure. targetsin tine with the radiation will reflect energy We can briefly explain SSRin terms of Fig. 8.2. the back to the PSR. By measuring time taken, and pulsesof energyfrom a The SSR transmitterradiates noting the direction of radiation, the rangeand antenna.The directionand timing of the directional bearingof the target are found. Display is by means SSRtransmission synchronized with that of the is of a plan position indicator (seeChapter9). Such a in PSR. An aircraft equippedwith a transponder the qystem hasthe following disadvantages: path of the radiatedenergywill reply with specially the it codedpulsedr.f. provided recognizes l. Sufficient energymust be radiatedto ensurethe interrogationasbeing valid. The aircraft antennais minimum detectablelevel of energyis received omnidirectional. b! the p.s.r.after a round trip to a wanted by The coded reply received the ground is decoded, targetat the maximum range. Rangeis and an appropriateindication givento the air traffic ,' proportional to the 4th root of the radiated The reply will give controlleron a p.p.i..display. energy. information relatingto identity, altitude or one of Figure8.3 showsa messages. 2. Targetsother than aircraft will be displayed emerElency several (clutter). This can be much reducedby using presentation.As can be seen,a variety of typical data the Doppler effect (seeChapter l0) to detect only symbolsand labelsare usedto,ease task of the controller. moving targets. 3. Individual aircraft cannot be identified except manoeuvre. by requested Interrogation of 4. An aircraft's altitude is unknown unlessa One interrogationconsists a pair of pulsesof r.f' being one of betweenthe pulses energy,the spacing separate height-findingradaris used. four time intervals. Different modesof interrogation 5. No information link is set up.


Fig 8.2 Secondarysurveillance radar

The maximum interrogationrate is 450 although, in order to avoid fruiting (seebelow - FalseTargets), the rate is as low as possibleconsistentwith each targetbeing interrogatedtwenty to forty times per sweep. The pulsesof r.f. are 0.8 ps wide and at a frequencyof 1030 MHz (L band) this being the same for all interrogations. Reply A transponder will reply to a valid interrogation,the form of the reply dependingon the mode of interrogation. A valid interrogationis one received from the interrogator mainlobe(seebelow,- Side I-obe Suppression), time interval betweenpulses the beingequal to the mode spacingselected the pilot. by In every reply two pulsesof r.f. 1090 MHz, spaced ^20.3 ps apart are transmitted,theseare the frame or bracketpulses, and F2. Between and F2 there Fl Fl are up to twelve code pulsesdesignated and spaced as shown in Fig. 8.5; a thirteenth pulse,the X pulse, may be utilized in a future expandedsystem. The presence a code pulsein a reply is of determinedby the settingof code selectorswitches on the pilot's controller when the reply is in response to a mode A (orts) interrogation.If the interrosation is mode C the codc pulsestransmittedare autoriaticallv determinedby an encodingaltimeter. A pulse4.35 gs after F2 may be transmitted. This is the specialposition indicator (Spl) pulse.otherwise known as the indicateposition (I/p) or simply ident pulse. lf the reply is in response a mode A to interrogationthe SPI pulseis selected a by spring-loaded switch or button on the pilot's controller. A brief depression the switch will causethe Spl of pulseto be radiatedwith every reply to a mode A interrogation received within l5-30 s. Someolder transponders will transmit a SpI pulsein reply to a mode C interrogationwhen the reply code containsa D4 pulse;this corresponds an altitudein excess to of 30 700 ft.

Fig. 8.3 Typical data presentation



lre codedby the different time intervals,eachmode .question'. corresponding +different ground-to-air to For examplemode A - 'what is your identity'? Figure 8.4 illustratesthe modesof interrogation. Many transponders haveonly mode A ind C capability;this is sufficient to respondto an interrogatoroperatingon mode interlacewhereby mode A and C interrogations transmittedin are sequence, thus demanding identification and altitude information. Mode D hasyet to be uti[zed. 122





: .




o Altitude


Fig 8.4 Interrogation pulse spacing

Fr cl

A1 c2 A2 C4 A4 'X'

8r _Dr 82 d2 84 D4 F2

r,t-l l*z.s

Fig 8.5 Replytrainformat

Coding: Identification The codepulsestransmitteddependon four code each of which controls a group of selector switches, threepulsesin the reply and may be set to one of eight position,0-7. The code groupsare designated A, B, C and D, the pulseswithin eachgroup having suffixes4,2 and I (seeFig- 8.5). The resultingcode is binary codedoctal, the most significantoctal digit beingdetermined.bythe group A pulses, the least significantby the group D. givesthe familiar binary Selectionof the A pulses code,asshown in Table 8.1. Similarly with selection of the B, C and D pulses. The number of possiblecode combinationsis easilyarrivedat sincewe havefour octal digits giving 8a = 4096. Someof the code combinationsare siven significance; have: we special '7600 Radio failure 77OO Emergency Thereis also a specialcode for hijack. Coding: Altitude The flight level of the aircraft referencedto a pressure

Table 8.1 Group A codeselection(similarly for groupsB, C and D)

A4 0 0 0 0

A2 0 0 I I 0 0 I I



0 I 0 I 0 I : 0 I

0 I 2 3 4 5 6

il ,o,o
Fig. 8.6 Examples of pulse trains lbr particular selected codes


of 1013.25mbar(29.92 inHg) is encoded Table8.2 100-Footincrementcoding automatically increments 100 ft, the codeused in of beinglaid down by the ICAO. The maximumencodedMod,o(A) cr c2 c4 range from -1000 to 126700 ft inclusive.With is 100 ft increments this requires 8 1278differentcode 0 I combinations, with 4096 available seethereis 9 we 0 I considerable redundancy.It is impractical usemore 0 to 0 0 of the available codessincethe aciuracy of I I 0 barometric altimeters suchthat it is not sensible is I to 2 0 have,say,50 ft increments; any case in the objective Reflection is to indicateflight levels which arein hundreds I of 0 feet. 4 I 0 To accommodate redundancythe Dl pulseis ) the 0 0 not usedand, further,at leastone C pulseis 6 0 I transmitted but neverCl and C4 togetherin a single 1 0 I reply. Thus for eacheightpossible group A combinations pulses haveeight B group,five C of we goup and four D group,giving8 X 8 X 5 X 4 = 1280 The A, B and D pulsesform a Gray code givinga possible codecombinations; two more than necessary.total of 256 increments 500 ft each,i.e. of The extra two. if assigned. would correspond 128000 ft, commencing -1000 ft. In orderof to at I 1 0 0a n d - 1 2 0 0 f r . frequency bit change have84,82, Bl, 44, A2, of we The C pulses form a unit distance reflected binary Al , D4, D2; thus 84 changes every 1000 ft whereas codegivingthe 100 ft increments. shownin As D4 doesnot enterthe codeuntil 30 800 ft and D2 Table8.2 the reflected pattern,startingat until 62 800 ft. Needless sayaircraftin the general to C l = C 2 = 0 , C 4 = l , b e g i n sv h e n o d l e ( A )= 8 ; r M aviationcategory will not needto employ encoding i.e.when the renrainder dividingthe altitude(in on givingD4 and D2 selection. altimeters hundreds feet)by 10 is 8. Thus to find the C of To find the A, B and D pulseswe can use pulses the codefor. say,25400 ft we have in Table8.3. Sincethe entriesin the tablecommence A = 2 5 4 ,M o d 1 6 ( A = 4 , s o C l a n d C 2 a r ei n t h e r e p l y . with zero,whereas altitudecommences ) the at Table8.3 500-Footincrement codins
B4 B2 B1 A4 D2 D4 AI A2







0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0

1 1 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 1 . I 0 r

1 1 t 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 1 1

r 0 I r

1 t r t

0 r 0 I

0 1 0 I I

1 r 0 I 0 0

t 0 I


0 0 0 0 - 0

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 I

0 I I 0 0 I

0 0 0 0
I I 0 0 0 0

I I I t

0 0

0 0 I I 0 0 I I 0

0 31 32 63 64 9s 96 t27 t28 159 160 l9l t92 221 224 255

1 30 33 62 55 94 97 126 129 158 161 190 193 222 225 2s4

2 29 34 61 66 93 98 125 130 r57 162 189 t94 22r 226 253

3 28 35 60 6't 92 99 t24 131 156 163 188 195 220 227 252

4 27 36 s9 58 9l 100 t23 r32 155 t64 187 196 219 228 25t

s 5 7 26 2s 24 3 7 3 8 39 58 57 56 69 70 7 t 90 89 88 101 t02 I 03 122 t2t I 2 0 r33 134 I 3 5 154 153 Is 2 165 166 I 67 186 185 I84 r9't 198 I 99 218 217 21 6 229 230 23 1 250 249 24 8

8 9 23 22 40 4 1 55 54 7 2 . 7f 87 86 104 1 0 5 ll9 ll8 135 137 1 5 l 150 168 169 183 182 200 20t 2 t 5 2r4 2 3 2 233 2 4 7 246

l0 2t 42 53 74 85 106 tt7 138 t49 170 r8l 202 2t3 234 245

lt t2 20 19 43 44 52 5l 7S 76 84 83 107 108 116 l15 139,140 148 t47 l7l 172 180 t79 203 204 212 2tr 23s ?36 244 243

13 l8 45 50 77 82 109 114 l4l 146 r'13 178 205 210 23't 242

14 t7 46 49 78 8t ll0 l13 142 145 174 t77 206 209 n8 241

15 16 47 48 79 80 l1l tr2 r43 t44 t' t5 t76 207 208 239 240


-1000, we must add 1000 to the altitude before enteringthe table. The tablerecords altitudein the increments 500 ft. The followingalgorithmwill of give the requiredcode: (i) add 1000 to the altitude; (ii) enter table with the integerpart of the result of (i) dividedby 500; (iii) readthe code:row, column. As an examplewe will find the completecode for I l0 200 ft: ( i ) 1 1 0 2 0 0 +1 0 0 0 =l l l 2 0 0 ; ( i i ) I n t . ( l l l 2 0 0 / s 0 0 )= 2 2 2 ; = (iii) 10110001 D2 D4 Al A2 A4 Bl 82 F.4. To find the C pulses: Modls (l102) = 2, therefore100 = Cl C2 C4. C o m p l e t e o d ei s l 0 l 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 . c False Targets There are several of causes unwanted returnsbeing p.p.i.,one of displayed the air traffic controller's on which is interrogation sidelobes. This is discussed by in somedetail below under the headingside lobe suppression. Sincethe transponder antenna omnidirectional is the reply pulsesnreantfor one interrogatormay also providing is within range be received another, by it and its antenna pointingin the directionof the is returnswill not aircraftconcerned. Suchunwanted of with the transmission the be synchronized the and interrogatc'r suffering interference would appear randombright dots on the p.p.i. This type as of interi-erence, known as fruiting.carrbe dealtwith by makinguseof the tact that different rates, work on difl-erent interrogation interrogators
P 1 ,P 3

repliesmay thus be sortedon this basis. A reply from a transponder lastsfor a period of pulsetrain will occupya 20'3 ps, thus the transmitted distance 163000 X 20.3 X l0-6 = 3.3 nautical of (speedof propagation milesin space being 163000 nauticalmilesper second).As a consequence any two aircraft in line with the interrogator,and with a difference slantrange less in of than 1.65 nautical miles,will transmit replieswhich overlapin space and consequently mutuallyinterfereat the interrogatorreceiver. Such repliesare said to be garbled. Secondary surveillance radaris most useful when traffic densities greatest.These are giveincreased garbling. circumstances, course, of Reflections the transmitted of either energy, or interrogation reply,from mountains, hills or large will givean indicated structures reply at an incorrect range.Sincethe directpath is shorterthan the path echoprotectionmav be used; the reflected i.e. receiver may be suppressed desensitized a or for of limited periodon receipt a pulse. Side Lobe Suppression(SLS) When a reply is received angularposition on the its p.p.i.is determined the directionof controller's by the main lobe radiation from the interrogator.If the reply is due to an interrogationtiom a sidelobe then the indicated bearing will be incorrect.Two systems havebeen designed suppress to repliesto sidelobe interrogation:they are the ICAO 2 pulseand the FAA 3 pulseSLS systems. Someoldertransponders to havecircuitry applicable eithersystem; however three-pulse SLS hasadvantages over its virtually obsolete rival and is the only system considered, for The polar diagram the interrogator antenna system shownin Fig. 8.7. Pl and P3 are the is i n t e r r o g a t i op u l s e s p a c e d t 8 , 1 7 , 2 l o r 2 5 p s n a radiated from the directional antenna.P2 is the SLS from an omnidirectional control oulseradiated

r *'J
I2rs fFig. 8.7 Three-pulse s.l.s.


Figure 8.9 showsa typical transport category aircraft dual installation. Two transponders mounted side are by sidein the radio rack mating with back plate in connectors the mounting tray junction box. Two n >Pl no reply encodingaltimetersand the control unit havetheir P2<Pl-9dB reply routed through the back plate to the connectors otherwise reply mry transponders while direct connections the front of to In the grey regionthe probability ofa reply increases the transponders made from two L-band antennas are with decreasing amplituderelativeto Pl. P2 and the suppression interconnecting L-band line all equipments. Powersupplies routed through the are Probability backplate. of reply The encodingaltimetersmay be blind (no altitude indication) or panel-mounted.On largertransport aircraft encodedaltitude information may be derived from a static pressure-activated capsule mechanism in a centralair data computer(CADC). The transponders fitted on a shock-mounted are tray. Coolingis by convectionand radiation. Most transponders designed the general for aviation market and control unit in one box, combinetransponder which is panel-mounted.To ensure adequatecooling sufficient clearance must be allowedaround eachunit. A common co-axialcableinterconnects the n-P2 transponders DME interrogators.A transmission and (dBsl 'black , I Grey by any one box' will cause receivers the the of
Fig. 8.8 Probability ofa reply

antenna. The field strength for P2 is such that an aircraft within the Pl/P3 main lobe will receiveP2 at a lower amplitudethan Pl/P3 whereas elsewhere P2 will be greater. The condition for a reply/no reply are:


Supply: 115V, 4OO Hz and/or 28 V d.c.


l J



inlout S0ppression



.s ..{

3 ! I




Fig. 8.9 Dual transponderinstallation


other threeto be suppressed a perioddepending for on the_source; a transponder suppression will be puir. about30 ps. controlunit is, of course, panel-mounted in the cockpitandprovides piloiwith.o*fi.t" the controloverthe transponders. onetransponder Only at a timeis in usewhilethe otheriJon standbv. Controls and Operation FunctionSwitch Off-Standby-A-B-C_D. ModeC operation depend will only on theposition the of altitude reporting (a.r.)switch; hence the function if svitch hasa'C' position such selection a wouldserve to switchmodes B andD off but have effect A, no on the selection modeC. Manytransponders of have only A andC capability which.ur. th. function in switchmighthave positions Off-standby-A. Rotaryswitches mounted co-axiaily ?!:.S*:!rhes m palrs;thumbwheel switches a common are

alternative. The code setectedappearsin a window abovethe switches and will determinethe code pulsespresentin the reply in response a to modeA (or.B) in_terrogation. Sometranspona.r,t .u" " facility for remote automaticteying fo, moOes e ana B; this may be selected settingtlie code by ,rit.h., to 8888. In fact the necessary extra equipmenthas neverbeenintroduced. I/P.Syvit-ch Spring-loaded to_off pushbuttonor toggle s'uritch selectionof the SpI puise. May be labelled for SPI or ldent. Lo SenseSwitch Whenselected .on'reduces to the transponder receiver sensitivityby l2 dB. This featurewas introducedas an inteiim measure for reducing sidelobe response. Subsequent developments havemade this facility unnecessary.

A.R. Switch On-off selectionfor altitude reporting. Test (T) Switch Spring-loadedto off pushbutton or

Spike eliminator pulse width limiter

Visual monitor Fig. 8.10 Transponderbtock diagram






the toggleswitch which energizes self'testcircuitry. is self-test givenby a green Indication of a successful visualmonitor lamp which alsoilluminateswhen a to reply is sent in response a valid interrogation. The switch and visualmonitor may be repeated self-test unit for the use of the on the transponder engineer. maintenance No' I or either transponder TlansferSwitch Selects No. 2 in a dual installation. is Pilot work load with transponder minimal, there beingno indication other than the monitor lamp are while control switch changes initiated on ATCs eitherby r.t. or throughstandard instructions procedures.

Simplified Block Diagram Operation pulsesofr.f. energyare fed tcl the The interrogating by receiver way of a 1030 MHz band passfilter' The as pulses amplified,detectedand passed a video are limiter iignal to the spikeeliminator and pulse-wihth greaterthan 0'3 gs in pulses circuits;theseonly pass to duration and limit long pulses lessthan that triggering.The decoder duration which will cause pulses Pl of the examines spacing the interrogation an and P3, if it is that for the mode selected output is will be givento the encoder.If the Pl-P3 spacing of an 2l prs output will be givenregardless the mode selected. by The encoder.on being triggered the decoder. to appropriate the required produces train of pulses a (mode A) reply which is determinedby codeswitches output (modeC). The encoder altimeter or encoding the triggers modulator which keys the 1090 MHz

transmitter. Radiationis by an omnidirectional antenna. circuitsare fed with the The sidelobe suppression video output. In the event of an interrogation receiver for will be suppressed about by sidelobe, the receiver with the P2 at 35 ps commencing a time coincident of pulse,thus blocking the passage P3. wheneverthere circuit is triggered The suppression pulseso producedis used is a reply. The suppression the to suppress receiverand is alsofed to other L-bandequipmentfor the samepurpose. The is L-bandequipments between feature suppression mutual. otherwise control(a.o.c.) Automaticoverload reduces known asgroup countdown,progressively sensitivityafter the reply rate exceeds the receiver I per typically 1200groups second.Assuming 5 pulse ps pulsewidths and a maximumreply replies,0'45 we rate of 1480 groupsper second havea typical airline requirementof a I per cent duty cycle to handlernultipleinterrogations. are facilities provided.On beingactivated, Self-test test signalis injectedinto the front end of the a by is self-test indicated the receiver.A successful there is an visualmonitor lamp which lights whenever havean Sometransponders transmission. adequate audiomonitor facilityin additionto the visual monitor.

:q ii n

I 1

i .{ ? { *

Block Diagram Details Transmitter Receiver will The r.f. sections employnormalu.h.f. techniques in signals the regionof suitablefor processing leads internalco-axial 1000MHz. Interconnecting

{ n I :
! ':i!





I 'i

To vidco st6gos

Fig. 8.1I Logarithmici.f. amplifier


must be of a length laid down by the manufacturer as they play a part in the circuit action; in particularthe lead to the transmitterwill be of a leneth such that received sigralswill seethe transmitteifeed as a high impedance, thus assisting the duplexing action. in In flying from maximum rangetowards the interrogator a large dynamic rangeof signalstrength is received, least50 dBs from minimum triggering at level. Providingadequateamplification for the weak signalscan result in saturation of the last stage(s)of the i.f. amplifier when strongersignals received. are Such saturation may give rise to the suppressionof valid interrogations by the SLS circuit since the strongerPl main lobe pulseswill be limited. Successive detectionof the video sigral can overcome the saturationproblem. Figure 8.11 shows a logarithmicamplifier usingsuccessive detection. fusuming a gain of A for each stageand a maximum input signalZ before saturationof that stage, stage an input to the i.f. amp. of VlAi wrll causestage to 4 saturate.In this event the detectedoutput to the video stage will be (VlA') + (VIA) + (V) + (AV) which is approximatelyequal to AV for'a reasonable gajrnA. Table 8.4 illustratesthe differencebetweena conventional and logarithmic amplifier. Decoder Many transpondersstill in serviceuse multi-tapped delaylinesin both decoderand encoder;howeverall employ monostables and shift moderntransponders registers, the form of integratedcircuits,which will in here. be the only type of transponder considered The detectedvideo signals appliedto the spike are eliminator and pulsewidth limiter in series. The action of the 0'3 ps delay and AND gateis to prevent any pulses noisespikeslessthan 0'3 ps in duration or

Table8.4 Comparison conventional of and logarithmic amplifiers
Input signal Output signal Conventional Logarithmic

V I3 V T2 V





beingpassed the decoder. Long pulses to which might cause a'reply are reducedin duration by the pulse-widthlimiter monostable, output of which the is a pulseabout 0'5 ps in duration regardless the of width of the input pulse. The decoderinput monostable ensures that only the leadingedgeof Pl (positive-going triggersthe t) mode A and C delay circuitseachof which consists of a monostable and a differentiatingcircuit. The mode A and C AND gateswill givean output if the delayed Pl pulsesfrom the differentiatorsare coincidentwith the undelayedP3. An output from either AND gate will give a trigger('T') output from the OR gate. Encoder ln the exampleof an encodershown,two lO-bit shift registers used(e.g.Signetics8274).The operating are

O ' 5p s

O'3lrs Pulse width limiter

Spike eliminator fig. E.f 2 Spike eliminator and pulse width limiter wavcforms






Pulse width limiter Fig.8.l3 Decoder

{ : : :.


| Ln-] P'I P2

n t t

t l

. l


30 trs mono output



8 lrs mono-output

I lrs

21 1rsmono output

t l

Differentiator I O/P

Differentiator 2 O/P

l l






Fig,8.14 Decoder waveforms mode intertogation A mode is controlled inputsS0 and Sl, hold, clear, by load and shift being selected the input values by $rown in the truth table(Fig.8.l5). Thesetwo control waveformsare producedby two monostables, one triggeredby the positive-going edgeof the T output from the decoder,the other by the negative-going edge. This anangementgivesus the 130
'lhc s e q u e n o eo a d , s h i l t , c l c a r , h o k l . l S 0 w a v e f o r mi s a . l s o s e d t ( ) g a t c a c l o c k g c r r c r a t o r p c r i o d 1 . 4 5g s . u , 'l Load l'ha lcading cdgc of triggcrs thc controlling m o n o s t a b l c s o t l r a t S ( )= l , S l . , ( . 1 n d t l r c s h i f t s a r e g i s t e r l e r n c n t s i l l b c l o a d c r lw i t l r t l r c b i n a r v e w information present on tlrc input lirres. Since il an<l



10 bit shift register

10 bit shift re$ster



Pilot code switch Encoding altimeter switch




Fig 8.15 Encoder F2 are requiredin all replies,the appropriateinputs arehigh (+5 V). The one time-slotbetween.A4and betweenF2 and SPI are B1 and the two time-slots their input lines,together neverused; consequently with the two spare after SPI.arelow (earth). The dynamicinput linesCl to D4 will be high or low on depending the code switch selection(mode A or interrogation) the altitude(modeC interrogation). a has Assuming validmode A interrogation been 'A' line therewill be a pulsepresenton the received to in coincident time with the from decoder encoder 'T'line. After inversion this A pulseis. puiseon the the to in applied parallel one of twelveNOR gates, individuailyto otherinputsof which areconnected the twelvepilot code switches.Thosecode pulses NOR selected resultin a groundon the appropriate gateinput. Sincethe other input in eachcaseis also low for the dur4tion of the load mode, the NOR gate go codes high and to outputscorresponding selected element. Similar shift register thusset the appropriate are whenever modeC interrogations action.occurs is Dl although selection not involved.Noise received (r.c.networks) within the filteringis employed for transponder eachof the altitudeinformation when the A pulseis input leads.SPIloadingoccurs with the l5-30 s output pulsefrom the coincident of on SPItimer produced depression the SPIswitch. the S1 Shift The trailing edgeof pul5eT triggers thus S0 = Sl = I and the shift registers monostable with mode. Shiftingoccurs arein the shift operating thus in of a high to low transition the clock pulses, the l'45 1lsafter the first transitionthe shift register output is high (Fl); after the next transitionthe 131






c2 A2 C4 A4 S/R out

D2 B4 D4 F2



S/R out 7777



AND out

AND out 7777 wavefolms Fit. 8.16 Encoder

output will be high or low dependingon hqw the Cl elementwas loaded,and so on. Aear and Ho;ld S0 and Sl pulsesare each of approximately30 ps duration, thus S0 goeslow ltrst = = $ving S0 0, Sl I when all the elementsclear. will haveclearedso ln fact during shift all elements this clearmode of operationis not vital. What is important is that S0 goeslow first, sincewe do not want to load againuntil just before the next At transmission. the end of SI we haveS0 = SI = 0, the hold mode which is maintained until the next valid interrogation. The output ofthe shift registercontainsthe coded information but not in the form required,i.e. a train of pulses. Differentiatedclock pulsesare fed to an AND gatewhich is enabledby the shift register output, thus positivepulsesappearat the output of the AND gatein the appropriatetime-slots. The final 132

monostable is to provide pulsesof the correct duration to the modulator. Encoding Altimeter in the As the aircraft ascends, decrease static pressure and consequent expansionof the capsule causes device,an optical or movementof a position-sensing (Fig. 8.17). The resulting transducer magnetic drive, through appropriategearing, servo-assisted altitude display and encodingdisc. The drivesthe for reference the indicatedaltitude can be pressure lhangedby the barosetcontrol. It should be noted *rat this doesnot affect the encodingdisc position which is alwaysreferredto 1013'25 mbar (29'92 in'Hg) pressure'As a result all the standardmean sea-level to aircraft report altitude referenced the samelevel; requirementfor ATC purposes. an essential Variationson the aboveareencodingaltimeters which give no indication of altitude, blind altimeters,



i l


Tach. gen.



-l ffi' t--:

Light sourcc

sonsitive devices Encoding disc

Posi rng sens
d e v i ce


\-^-N Capsule

I *1.-


urts crr(

-l switch i n g
c l r c u l ts

Static connection


To transponder

Fi& 8.17 Servo enodingaltimetet drivesbut and thosewhich do not haveservo-assisted do employ a vibrator to givesmooth movementof pointer and encodingdisc. minimizesthe error when the readingline is aligned with the junction of two segments. In the simplifiedencodercircuit shownin Fig. 8.20 with A/R switchON ZenerdiodeVR2 is shortedand emitterof Q2 returnedto earth. When Altitude Encoding is disc,usually glass, divided into tracks light from LED VR1 falls on photo transistorQl, via A transparent part of the encoding disc,currentis a transparent one and segments.Eachconcentrictrack represents drawn through R switchingon Q2. Thus collector of the of the code pulses, outer track beingC4, while a a represents oarticularaltitude. An opaque Q2 falls to a low value,i.e. input 2 to NOR gateis segment low. If input I is drivenlqw by an output from the pattern is formed on the disc so that on a particular decodera high output lrom the NOR gateis available will with eachtrack the areaof intersection s€gment for loadinginto the encodershift register. on depending the either opaqueor transparent be If no light falls on Ql we haveno volts drop across by to code assigned the altitude represented that R, thus Q2 is off and input 2 to NOR gateis high. segment. a'zero'will be loadedinto Undertheseconditions The disc rotatesbetweena light sourceand element.The circuitry shift register the appropriate photosensitive.devices, for eachtrack, aligned one 'reading for is described repeated eachtrack of the disc. line'. As the disc is driven by the along the is the segment read. altimeter appropriate barometric Side Lobe Suppression 8.2 back to Tables and 8.3 we seethat Referring possible ways of desigringan SLS by the codechanges I bit for each100 ft increment. Of the several in circuitone is illustrated Fig. 8.2l, with the or This useof a l-bit change unit distancecode


\.,r n,
sensitivc devices



||-.+ lF-+ ll-> ll--

To transpondcr

Fi& E.lt



Fig.8.l9 Segmentfor12300ft,code0l0ll0l0o. Encodingaltimcter range- l000-32 700 ft


Mode C load

Encoding alttmeter





A/R onloff



Fig. 8.20 Simplifiedaltitudeencoder circuit


D2 R1


Ditch digger

circuit Fig.8.2l Sidelobe suppression


in, d


M3, O

Ml in waveforms Fig. 8.22. Monostable associated the and AND gateGl separate Pl pulsefrom P2 and by P3 so that M2 will be triggered Pl only and will not be triggereduntil the next interrogation. M2 and M3 provide a gating waveform about I ps wide in the P2 pulseposition. Th" input pulsesarealso appliedto a'ditch-digSer' circuit. Prior to Pl, Dl is forward biasedand the junction of Cl/R2 is low. Both inputs to G2 ate Dl low. The leadingedgeof Pl causes to conduct edgeof Pl causes Cl charging rapidly. The lagging Dl to cut off, sincethe junction Cl/R2 falls by an amount equal to the amplitudeof Pl . Cl now through Rl and R2. WhenP2 arrivesDl discharges will conduct providingthe amplitudeof P2 is sufficient. The time constantClRlR2 and the bias so Vl voltages and Y2 ue chosen that if P2>Pl AND gate G2 will receivean input via D2 which will be coincidentwith the gatingwaveformfrom M3' M4 Thus the SLS pulsegenerator will be triggeredif suppression and only if Y2> Pl, the subsequent video output pulsebeing usedto inhibit the receiver to the spikeeliminator.

Junction c1 R2

waveforms Fig. 8.22 Side lobe suppression

is The followingsummary drawnfrom ARINC for No.572.1 theMk 2 ATC Characteristic out It transponder. is worthpointing that several for are on featuies the Mk I transponder not required will theengineer find many the Mk 2, however or some all of whichhave still transponders in service the following: 135

l. two-pulseSLS; 2. SLS countdown - receiver desensitized when the number of SLS pulses exceeds limiting a figure; 3. low sensitivity selection; 4. receiver video signaloutput socket; 5. remote automatickeying; 6. externaltransmittertriggering position; 7. audiomonitor: of 8. transmission SPI pulsewhenever is one D4 bit ofthe altitudereporting code. Receiver Minimum Ttiggering Level (MTL) -77 to -69 dBm at antenna or -80 to -72 dBm at transponder. Dynamic Range M T L t o 5 0 d B sa b o v e . t . l . m Frequency and Bandwidth Centrefrequency 1030MHz. - 3 d B p o i n t sa t 1 3 M H z . -60 dB pointsat ! 25 MHz. Decoding Facilities Decoder output lbr pulses spaced I 7 and 2 I ps 8, t tolerance 0.2 gs on spacing.Automaticmode C decoding regardless modeselection of switch. provision 25 ps decoding. Space for

Reply Delay 3 t 0'5 ps. Reply RateCapabiliry 1200replies second. per Reply Pulse Interval Tolerance t 0'l gs for spacing any pulse, of other than SPI.rvith respect F I ; t 0'15 ps for spacing any pulsc' to of with respect any otherexceptFl: t 0.1 prs spacing to for of SPI with respectto F2. Mutual SuBpression P.ilse 25-331s duration. Manitor Lamp To light when five replies dctected a rategreater are at thar 150 replies second.To stayilluminatedfbr per l 5 s a f t e rl a s tr e p l yd e t e c t e d . Antenna Polarization: vertical. v . s . w . r .b e t t e rt h a n l . 4 l : I a t 1 0 3 0a n d 1 0 9 0M l t z . :

Ramp Testing A transponder can be testedril situ usingone of p s e v e r a l o r t a b l ee s ts e t s .A s u i t a b l ea n t pt e s ts e t t r will testby radiatitrrr._bc. ceplbleof interrogating on at leastmcldes and ( . be capable simulating A rlf a sidelobe interroXptlon. displaythe transponder reply and providea ffeansof measuring transponder the transmitterfrequency.

Side Lobe Suppression Facilities Pl > P2 + 6 dBs shouldgive90 per cent reply rate. 6 dBsratherthan ICAO 9 dBsensures ATC 5OOA adequate marginto allow for performance rundown in service. A popular test set is the IFR ATC 6004 illustratedin Figure8.23. A reasonfor its popularity is the fact SLSPulse Duration that it can testboth DME and ATC transponder with 25-45 ps. a comprehensive rangeof checks, making it suitable for functional testson the ramp or bench. Transmission Pl, P2 and P3 pulses genefated are and usedto key a crystal-controlled 1030MHz oscillator.The interval Pl Tlansmitter Frequency between and P3.isswitched simulate mode to a 1 0 9 0 13 M H z . Ay'Cinterlace,two mode A interrogations being transmittedfor eachmode C. The following Minimum Peak Power characteristics may be variedby front panelcontrols:

500 w.

l. Pl-P3 intervd - to checkdecoder; Reply hIttlse Characteristics 2. P2 amplitude to checkSLS; Duration 0.45 1 0'l ps measured between50 per cent poweroutput - to checkMTL. 3. Transmitter points. amplitude 0'05-0'l ps risetime, l0-90 per cent. The reply is displayedby a bank of lamps,one for 0'054'2 ps delaytime,90-10per cent. eachcode pulseand oire for the SPI pulse. There is 136

#ffi "n[f*
* * )


) poweroutput of transponder 50 per cent (1



i I

#'$$ i. 'tl* ffi





3 . frequency the'transponder of transmitter; 4 . percentage reply; 5 . invalidaltitudecode,i.e.no C pulses C I and or
C4 together;



6 . absence code pulsesin reply to nrode C of
interrogation. Supplyis by rechargeable batteryor a.c.,battery operationis limited by a timer. Further l'eatur.es are directconnection the transponder an external to via 34 dB pad, self-testing display, of lampsand battery and direct connection ofencodingaltirneter.



Fig.8.23 ATC600A(courtesy Electronics tFR lnc.)

alsoa numericalreadout which showseither the pilot codeor the altitude in thousands feet. In addition TIC T-33B and T-438 of to this basicinformation the following can be checked: The TIC approach ramp testing to useseparate to is testsetsfor L bandequipments, T-338 and the l. F2 timing; T-43B beingthosefor ATC transponder.

Fig. 8.24 TIC T-438 (courtesyof Tel-Instrument Electronics Corp.)


for Specifications the two test setsare identical of exceptfor the addedfacility of direct connection on which is available the T'438. an encoder of The capabilities thesetest setsand the ATC 6O0Aare similar in so far as ATC transponderramp in testingis concerned, that they both meet the FAA are Differences largelydue to the use requirements. of the ATC 6004 as a bench test, although it should be noted that a particularATC 600A is best usedas eithera benchtest setor a ramp test setbut not both. the To detailthe differences, TIC test setsdo not varyingPl -P3spacing for havefacilities continuously or strobingthe F2 pulse,and do not indicateinvalid 'no altitude'informationor transmitter power. or

of Features the TIC test setsnot availableon the ATC 600A are provisionof all military and civil modesof interrogationand changeof scalefor percentage reply meter(0-10 per cent SLS on: 0-100per cent SLS off). Thereare other minor in and differences, one other major difference. that ftlr the TIC test setsare designed use in the cockpit being on the groundor in flight, the antenna to mountedon the test set asopposed the ATC 600A is wherethe antenna mountedon a tripod nearthe l'or arrangements the aircraftantenna-The antenna the TIC test setsnecessitate useol direci connection checks. sensitivity for to the tr;ulsponder receiver



, t <<"


I Weatheravoidance

can remainin a cloud without falling to earth is dependent the speed on ofthe up-draught air. of Weatherforecasting by reputation and, until the is In the appendixto this chapterit is shown that the introduction of satellites, fact, notoriously in signalin a weatherradaris proportional to the sixth unreliable. Evenwith modern techniquesrapidly power of the droplet diameter,so strongsignais are changing conditions and lack of detailed associated with a rapid up-draught. If a small volume information on the exact location and severityof bad of the cloud resultsin strongsignals from one part weatherresultsin diversions cancellation,of fligt t, and or weak from an adjacentpart we havea steep 'rainfall where the forecastis the only available information. gradient',most probably due to a down- and What is requiredis an airbornesystemcapableof up-draughtcloseto one another. The region around detectingthe weatherconditionsleadingto the this verticalwind shearis likely to be highly hazards turbulence,hail and lightning.. of turbulent. Attention has been concentratedon developins The corresponding argumentfor associating systems which will 'detect'turbulence.tf an alrcr-aft electricalactivity with turbulencegoes as follows. passes through regionsofsevere turbulenceit is A wind shearwill resultin the separation positive of obviouslysubjectto rnechanical stress, which may and negative electricalcharges the air due to the in cause damage, possiblyleadingto a crash. On friction of the moving air currents. An electrical commercial flights, passenger comfort is also discharge occursafter sufficientcharge opposite of important sincethe number of customers would soon polarity has accumulated distinct parts of the in declineif the discomfort and sickness which cloud. Thesedischarges occur repetitively,most turbulencemay bring becamecommonplace. beinghidden from view but occasionally seenas Unfortunatelythe phenomenonof rapidly and lightning. Each discharge accompanied a large is by randomlymoving air currentsis not amenable to burst of e.m. radiation which canbe received some at detectionby any currently realizable technique; distance.In most radioapplications 'noise' the however,someprogress may be madeby utilizing a received due to lightning is a nuisance but its pulsed Dopplersystem. association with turbulenceis put to good usein a As a consequence our inability at presentto of Ryan Stormscope a way similarto that in which a in detect the turbulencedirectly, systems 'nuisance' have been weatherradaruses ithe signals weather of developed which detect either water droplets or clutter. electricalactivity, both of which are associated with We can summarlze and combinethe above convective turbulencein cumulonimbusclouds. arguments saying: by convective turbulence occurs Clearair turbulencehas no detectableassociated wherewe havelargeshearforceswhich imply: phenomena which can give a clue to its presence. (a) an up-draughtsupportinglargeraindropsformed To detectwater dropletsor raindrops a from the water vapour in the warm moist air rising conventional primary radaris usedwith frequency from ground level;(b) a nearbydown-draughtwhich and specialfeatureschosento optimize the cannotsupport largeraindrops; frictional forces (c) presentation signals of which would, in a normal search givingriseto charge separation; (d) electrical and radar,be unwanted. Weatherradar hasbeen usedfor discharge to charge due separation a saturated arid many years,and is mandatory for largeaircrift. intervening medium. Therehasbeena steadymove into the generalaviation Cause and effect are very much bound up iri this market by radar manufacturers but here a relatively argument,the variousphenomena being recentinnovation is the Ryan Stormscope, patented interdependent. a However reasonable theory, the the devicewhich detectselectricalactivity. ultimatejustificationfor the association between The maximum diameterof a water droplet which turbulence, steeprainfallgradient and electrical



activity is recordedcorrelationduring many flights. Weatherradar is certainly well provenwith many although only while the Stormscope, yearsin service, beenindependently since1976,has available and shown to be a useful aid' evaluated

Basic Principles on Weatherradar operationdepends three facts: r.f. scatters energy; l. precipitation of of 2. the speed propagation an r.f. waveis known; into a highly 3. r.f. energycan be channelled beam. directional Utilizing thesefacts is fairly straightforwardin by of principle. Pulses r.f. energyare generated a iransmitter and fed to a directionalantenna. The r.f. wave,confi4edto asnarrow a beamaspracticable, in by will be scattered precipitation its path, someof the energyreturning to the aircraft as an echo. The is and time betweentransmission reception elapsed to range in particular R, directlyproportional of R = ct 12 wherec is the speed propagation (= 162000 nautical miles per second);t is the time; and the divisor2 is introducedsince elapsed travelis two-way. The direction of the target is simply givenby the direction in which the beam is radiated. the to Sincethe pilot needs observe weatherin a is of the aircraftthe antenna made wide sectorahead hencewe use repetitively, port and starboard to sweep for the term scanner a weatherradarantenna.Any stormcloud within the sectorof scanwill effectively of be slicedby the beam so that a cross-section the is viewed. cloud for Displayof threequantities eachtargetis and intensityof echo' bearing requirid: namelyrange, (p.p.i.)displayis invariably .l ptanpositionindicator displayof the utid tinc. this allowsthe simultaneous ' and is easyto interpret. threequantities A cathoderay tube (c.r.t.)is usedin which the in is beamof electrons velocitymodulated strength' signal the received with accordance the Wherever beamstrikesthe'phosphorcoatingon a the back of the viewingscreen glow occurs,the of intensity of which is dependent the velocity of the with a is Thus a strongsignal associated electrons. hencethe term intensity on the screen; bright spot modulaiion. The beamis made to sweepacrossthe with both the time of in screen synchronism position' and transmission the antenna 140

In a conventional(rho'theta) display the beant at strikesthe screen bottom centre(origin) at the the instantthe transmitterfires. Subsequently beam will be deflectedacrossthe screenin a direction azimuthposition,e.g.if the on dependent the scanner pointing dead aheadthe beant is deflected is scanner vertically from the origin. In this way a time'baseline is tracedout on the screenand is made to rotate in with the scanner.' synchronism i.e. The duration of the time-base, the length of it takesto tiaversethe screen,dependson the time of by selected the pilot. Everymicrosecond range to round trip traveltime corresponds a rangeof rangeof 0'081 nauticalmiles,thus for a selected will be about the time-base 20 nautical miles 125 ps after 250 ps in duration. An echo received would causea bright spot to appear transmission so half-wayup a 250 ps.time-base, indicatingto the pilot that the rangeof the targetis l0 nautical miles' The net result of the aboveis that a cross-section rangeand scanned of the targetswithin the selected sectorof the radarareviewedin plan. The position of the bright patcheson the screenrelative to the of origin is representative the position of the targets relativeto the aircraft. Figure9.1 illustratesthe .situation.

and Choiceof Characteristics Features
Frequency The higher the frequency(smallerthe wavelength) per cross-section unit' the largeris the backscatter (see A9.12)hencethe greater volumeof the target suffer the echo power. However,high frequencies more atmosphericabsorptionthan do low, and extent' cloudsto the sarne further cannotpenetrate is of frequency a compromise'An Thus the choice is additionalconsideration the beamwidth; for a a diameter narrowerbeamis produced givenscanner with a higherfrequencY' of takinginto accountavailability Practically, compqnents,the choicecomesdown to standard eitherabout 3'2 cm (X'band) or 5'5 cm (C-band)' and currently The majority of radarsin service are manufactured X-band. Pulse Width The volume of the target givingrise to an echo is directly relatedto the pulsewidth (seeA9.8) thus use of long pulseswill give improvedrange' long pulses: There are two argumentsagainst l. Sincethere is only one antennaand a common

L_ \", r\-l c\',
l \



--^-\-1 ()







Fig.9.1 Display principles frequencyfor transmit and receive, the antenna Sincerangeresolutionand minimum rangeare not must be switchedto the transmitter for the criticalin a weatherradar,pulses tend to be longer duration of the pulse;thus the pulsewidth than in other radars, 2-5 ps. A shorterpulsewidth, say determines minimum range. For a 2 ps pulse say I ps, may be switchedin when a short displayed no return can appearfor the first 2 ps of the rangeis selected. = givinga minimum range time-base, which realizes the A techniqueis available t 2c X tO-612 one-sixth a nauticalmile. of advantages both long and short pulses. The of with increasing 2. Range resolution deteriorates transmittedpulsecan be frequencymodulatedso that pulsewidth. A pulseof 2 ps durationoccupies the r.f. increases over the duration of the constant about 2000 ft in space. If two targetsare on the amplitude pulse. The frequencymodulatedreturn is but within 1000ft of one another passed same bearing so through a filter designed that the velocity targetis still being the echofrom the nearest with frequency. Thus the of propagationincreases when the leading edgeof the echofrom higher frequencies the trailing edgeof the echo received at the furthest targetis received.The resultis that 'catchup'with the lower frequencies the leading at both targets mergeon the p.p.i.display.The edge. In this way, the duration of the echo is rangeof the targetsdoesnot affect the resolution. compressed. shouldbe noted that the bandwidth It


TargetI Harfa wavelength = IOOO' | i

Target 2 | k+


I l---

--- t

+ 2
-----t + 3

time (7rs)

+ 4 + 5


[D K3

Incidentpulse (2 1rs)


Fig.9.2 Range resolution are by requirements increased usingfrequency modulationof the pulsedr.f., this being the penalty lbr obtaining betterrange resolution.This technique but, so far as the is known as pulsecompression author is aware,is not usedon existingairborne weather radars. hrlse Repetition Frequency,p.r.f. the Changing p.r.f. will affect the number of pulses striking agivenvolume of the targetin eachsweep the and hencechange displayintegrationfactor (see A9.17). Howeverin order to maintain a constant duty cycle(pulsewidth X p.r.f.) an increase p.r.f. in by in must be accompanied a decrease pulsewidth, so power and henceheat dissipation keepingaverage an in constant.Alternatively increase p.r.f. accompanied a reductionin peak power will also by keepheatdissipation constant.The net resultis that power a change p.r.f. doesnot, for constantaverage in in theory, affect the maximum rangeof the radar. Limits areimposedon the choiceof p.r.f. sinceif it is too low the rate at which information is received 142

echoes Fig.9.3 Second.trace is low, while if it is too high the seriousproblem of secondtraceechoes may arise. If the characteristics of the radarare such that the maximum rangefrom which echoes be detected say,200 nautical can is, miles then the round trip travel time for a targetat ps. In sucha would be about,2500 maximumrange system pulserepetitionperiodp.r.p.(= l/p.r.f.) of a 2000 gs would meanthat the time-base start would occur 500 ps before the return of an echo of the previoustransmittedpulsefrom a target at 2OO nauticalmiles. This secondtraceecho would appear

to be at about 40 nautical miles range. It follows that in the aboveexamplethe maximum p.r.f. would be p.r.f. ( c/2R whereR is the 400 and in general maximum range. A popular choicefor older radarswas a p.r.f. of to 4O0 synchronized the supply frequency. With range,a improved performanceleadingto increased of the supply frequency,e.g.200, was submultiple internaltimingis used. In modernsystems independentof the supply frequencyand one finds p.r.f.sfrom about 100 to 250.

for is that ground returnswill appearat closerranges wider beamwidths,thus maskingthe cloud retums.

Tilt and Stabilization The reasonfor requiringstabilizationis relatedto the previousparagraph.A weatherradarmay scanup to 300 nauticalmiles aheadof the aircraft.within azimuth of scanangles typically t 90". Unlessthe beam is controlled to move only in or abovethe horizontal planepart or all of the weatherpicture may be maskedby ground returns. Imaginethe aircraft rolling with port wing down. If the sweptregionis in the sameplane as the aircraft'slateraland longitudinal Power Output is axes,then when the scanner to port the beamwill In older radarspeak power outputs of about 50 kW or evenhigher were common,while maximum range be pointing down towardsthe ground,while when to peakpoweris about starboardthe beamwill be pointing up, possibly wasmodest. In modernradars, with previous abovethe weather. Figure9.4 illustratesthis rangecompared l0 kW with increased problem. improvementis systems.This apparentspectacular In fact stabilizationholds the beamnot in the the put in perspective considering rangeequation by horizontal planebut at a constantelevationwith (see A9.7) where we seethat maximum rangeis respectto the horizontal. This constantelevationis root of the peak power. proportional to the fourth by maximum determined the tilt controlassetby the pilot. Thus reducingpower by four-fifths reduces later. and rangeby about one-third. This shortfall of one-third Detailsof stabilization tilt arediscussed in hasbeen more than madeup by improvements signal Contour rerial design,receiverdesignand sophisticated in The pilot will be interested thoseregionswherethe processing. precipitationis greatest.In order to make the which exceeda certain situation clearer,thosesignals Beam Width level are invertedso as to show the predetermined Although the largerthe beamwidth the greaterthe cellsof heavyprecipitationas dark holeswithin the to volumeof the targetcontributing the echo this 'paint' caused the cloud surroundingthe by bright out due to the inverse is more than cancelled effect 'paint' aroundthe cell is an cell. The width of the gainand beamwidth aerial between relationship indication of the rainfall gradient. The narrowerthe preferred, (G o ll02). A narrowbeamis always width the steeperthe gradient,and hencethe greater range and improve is to increase sincethe net effect turbulence.This considerations the probabilityof encountering resolution.Simplegeometric bearing iso€cho (equalecho) contour separated techniqueis known as two targets show that with a 4" beamwidth tation. ) by about 3! nauticalmiles,at a range 50 nautical presen on the p.p.i. Bearing as miles,will appear one on Sensitivity Time Control, s.t.c. is unlike rangeresolution, dependent resolution, strength the the targetrange.An equallyimportantconsideration For correctcontouroperation signal
No stabilitv

<______ __ Stability

No stabilitY

Fig. 9.4 Scannerstabilization


is arrangement to havea.g.c'noise'derived.During strould depend only on the characteristicsof the the output target,but of coursethe rangealso affectsthe received the time immediatelybefore transmission from the receiveris noiseonly, sincethe p.r.f. will contour inversion ifthe power. As a consequence i.e. echoes, to havebeenchosen avoidsecond-trace levelis set so as to indicate storm cellsat a certain to maximum rangeexpires the time corresponding rangethen innocent targetscloserthan that range well before the next pulse. The a.g.c.circuit is gated may causeinversionwhile storm cellsbeyond that output is connectedto it only for so that the receiver rangemay not. In order to solvethe problem the a short time beforetransmission. with range,being gainis made to vary receiver The result of havingsuch a.g.c.is to keep the thereafter minimum at zerorangeand increasing noiseoutput constant,which under normal receiver (i.e. with time), hencesensitivitytime control or conditionsmeansthe gainis constant. If, for any called. sweptgain,asit is sometimes or noisegenerated received, thereis excessive reason the gainwill fall, so keepingthe backgroundnoise will displayedat a constantlevel,althoughsignals Tx fade and contour will not highlight all storm cells. ------+Time is arrangement to keep the receiver An alternative Rx of gain constantregardless how the receiveroutput gain may change.This hasthe virtue of keepingthe (S.t.c.) conditionsfor inversionin the contour circuit unchanging.Such presetgain is found in modern a.g.c.is found noise-derived whereas digital systems, systems. in older analogue time Fig.9.5 Sensitivity control output The aim is to make the receiver range. Unfortunately the received independent'ud as power decreascs the squareof the rangefor targets which fill the beam,but as the fourth power of the rangeotherwise(seeAppendix). To achievethe aim would requirea complex gain control waveform which would, even then, only be correct for a certain havebeendesigned sizedtarget. Many systems a assuming 3 nauticalmile diametercloud as standard; to s.t.c.hasoperated a range among suchsystems, wheresucha targetwould fill the beam;beyond that that gainis constantwith time. It hasbeen observed it is uncommonfor water dropletretumsto come from a regionwhich fills the beamvertically except at closeranges. Following from the above,s.t.c.may be arranged for to compensate the rangesquaredlaw out to about 30 nauticalmiles for a 6o beam. A changein in sizewould lead to a change maximum s.t.c. scanner the beamwidthwould alter. Alternativeiy, rangesince for a modified law may be compensated out to, say, 70 nauticalmiles,ignoringthe possibilityof beam filling.

Display A problem in displaydesignfor cockpit useis the largerangeof ambientiighting conditions. Some if is of storage the informationreceived inevitable it is to be viewed,owing to the relativelylow refreshrate basicinformation. of the fleeting is the In olderand simplerradars c.r.t. screen phosphorwhich with a long-persistence coated continuesto glow sometime after the electronbeam on haspassed its way thusstoringthe information suchphosphors overthe scaninterval. Unfortunately. very efficient and very high shieldingis arenot viewingin bright conditions. requiredfor adequate is tube (d.v.s.t.) a solution The directview storage c.r.t. A meshis of to the problems a conventional mounted immediatelybehind the phosphor-coated screen. Electronsarriveat the meshfrom two by beam,velocity-modulated the a sources: locused electron gun while signal,comesfrom a conventional a continuously, wide beamof a flood gun provides, electronsover the whole mesh. Sincethe modulated with the beamis deflectedacross meshin accordance a position and time sincetransmission, charge scanner pattern is written on the mesh. The pattern determines where and what fraction of incident electrons Automatic Gain Control, e.g.c. penetratethe meshand strike the phosphor. Since with desirable It is neither practicalnor indeed to havea'g.c.determinedby signal eachglowingelementof phosphoris excited contour operation continuously,very bright displaysare possible. A level asin receiversfor other systems. The normal 1U


slow discharge.path the mesh must be provided to exception for of a few noisc spotsper memory update. preventsaturation;the possibility of changingthe discharge rate exists and a pilot-adjustablecontrol Scanner may be provided. On changingrangethe meshwill be There are two typesof scanner employed to obtain 'instantly' discharged prevent confusion between to the required narrowbeam,namelya directly fed parabolic 1ew and old screenpositionsof the targets. If the reflectoror a flat plateplanararray. Of the discharge path is broken and updating inhibitrd *" two, for a givendiameterand wavelength, flat the havea frozenpicture. platehasthe highergain/narrower beam/least The modern approachto information storageis to sidelobe power,but is most expensive. .. Sincethe flat digitize the signalwhich is then storedin an plateis almosttwice asefficientasthe parabolic intermediatememory at a location dependingon the reflectorit is invariably usedwith a modernsystem scanner azimuth angleand the time of arrival exceptwhere cost is an overridingfactor or the space measured with respect the time of transmission. to available the noseof the aircraft allows a larsein The p.p.i. time-base scanformat can be either . parabolic reflectorto be used. rho-thetaor X-Y as per a conventionaltelevision. The flat plateantenna consists stripsof of In either casememory can be read at a much higher waveguide verticallymounted.side side with the by rate than that at which information is received. With broad wall facing forward. Staggered off-centre many more picturesper secondpainted we havea verticalslots are cut in eachwaveguide as to so bright, flicker-freedisplay without the need for interceptthe wall currents and henceradiate. Several long-persistence phosphorsof low efficiency or the wavelengths from the antennasurface,the energy e4pensive d.v.s.t. from eachof the slotswill be summed space, in In the caseof a rho-thetadisplay thc scanformat is cancellation reinforcement or takingplacedepending the same receiptand displayinformationbut, as for on the relativephases.In this applicationthe phase explained,the repetition rate is different,so only of the feedto eachslot, and the spacing between scanconversion time is required. With a television_ in slots,is arranged as to givea resultantradiated so type displayboth the scanformat and repetition rate pattern which is a narrow beamnormal to the plane are different, so completescanconversionis required of the plate. The greater nurnberof slotsthe . the from input (received)format to readout(displayed) betterthe performance; sincethe spacing between format. Useof the television-type display makes the slots is critical we can only increase number the multipleuseof the weatherradarindicatorrelatively of slotsby increasing sizeof the flat plate. the simpleso we find such indicatorsable to display data The parabolic reflectorworkson a similarprinciple from other sensors (e.g.Area nav.)or alphanumeric to a car headlampreflector. Energystriking the datasuchaschecklists. reflector from a point sourcesituatedat the focus will Digitizing the signalinvolvesthe recognitionof oroducea plane waveof uniform phasetravellingin a only discrete values signal of intensity. ihe standard direction parallel to the axis of the parabola. The practice to havethreelevels non-zero is of intensity, feedin a weatherradarparabolic antenna usuallya is the highest corresponding the contour inversion to dipolewith a parasitic element which, of course, is level. Although thesethree levelscorrespondto not a point source.The consequence a dipole feed of different degrees brightness the paint, with the of of is that the beam departqfrom the ideal and there is useof a colour tube they can be madeto correspond considerable spill-over, $ivingrise to ground target to threecolours. While thereis no standardization of returnsfrom virtually helow the aircraft, the so-called the colour code as yet (1979) red is the obVious height ring. choicefor contourable tarsets. In both typesofaptenna,scanning achieved is by Perhaps mosl signifilant virtue of a digital the r o t a t i n g h e c o m p l e t e n t e n n a 5 s e m b l yh u sa t a a t, weatherradaris the absence noiseon the display. of o r o t a t i n g a v e g u i dje i n t i s r e q u i r e d . n w A The output of the receiver, videosignal, the is electronically steered beantis possible with the flat digitized and then averaged both time and position, in platebut the considerable complications arranging of i.e. the videooutput occurring gs after a p the correctphasing the feedto all slotshavemade of transmission averaged is with that occurringp ps after this impractical airborne for weatherradarsystems. the next transmission the video datawhich would and Someof the simpler. cheaper weatherradars appear adjacent at positions the screen subject on are employinga parabolic reflectorrotatethe reflector to a weighted aver-agingprocess. a suitable With choice only. leaving feedfixed and so eliminating the the o f m i n i r n u m i g r a ll e v e lf o r a ' p a i n t ' u n c o r r e l a t e d s needfor an azimuthrorating joint. A disadvantage of noiseis virtuallyelirninated from the displaywith the this latter systemis that the feed is not at the focus


rotation, memory write/read and all display circuitry. 'brain' Thus in a modern weatherradar we seethat the of the systemis situatedin the indicator while the by heart'remainsin the t.r. This view is reinforced the fact that the pilot/systeminterface is achieved throughthe indicator,both for display completely and control. lnstallation is The scanner a flat plate array plus associated and.azimuth drive. stabilization circuitryfor scanner Figure9.6 illustrates typicalinstallation block in a u'hich The t'lat plate is mounted on a gimballedsurface form asrepresented the BendixRDR 1200.a by to allowsrotationin response pitch and roll signals with the upperend of digitalweatherradardesigned gyro (VRG). the general aviationmarketin mind. The installation from the aircraftverticalreference is througha radomewhich ideallyis will be discussed termsof the RDR I100 first. and Radiation in but at the same transparent the X-bandenergy to will then variations and refinements be described. preserves protectittnfor the scanner, time provides Radome shape the aircraftand has of the aerodynamic adequate structuralstrength. VRG Waveguide are Most of the interconnections madeusing N, with signaland control lines approved cables standard ---i---l Trar scanner J l ) recev e r t be s c r e e n e d . h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n t i v e e n. r . a n d T l / losses by is, scanlrer of necessity. way of waveguide. 2 8 V d . c .t t s v ' c f f at cablebeingunacceptable X-band(or in co-axial Supply e v e nC - b a n d ) . lndrcator of Whilethe aboveis a simplifieddescription the contents are BendixRDR 1200the units and tl.reir very much the samefor all moderndigitalsystems. RDR 1200installation Fig.9.6 Bendix aviation for systems general A trend in lightweight (t.r.) contains the r.f. and scanner in aircraftis to combinethe transmitter receiver The transmitter all of one unit. The nrainadvantage a two unit system, as circuitryand components well as the rnodulator, plus indicator,is that the waveguide is run IF analogue digital(a/d) converter t.r./scanner to duplexer, stages, costs so capitaland installation and powersupplycircuits. Unlikeolder systems, the eliminated, reducing against losses. The argument andwaveguide basictiming circuitryis in the indicatorratherthan is the t.r. This timing controlsthe p.r.f.,scanner combininsthe t.r. and scanner that the unit exceptwhen the reflector axis is deadahead;the resultingdeteriorationof the beam shapemeansthe anglethrough which the beamis scanned must be restricted.


Fig.9.7 Primus 200 multifunction colour weather radar. on Two-unit sensor on the left, multifunction accessories the right (courtesy RCA Ltd)


installedin the noseis costly in terms of maintenance cornersand flexible sections, except where necessary, strouldit require regularreplacement; thus reliability so reducingcostsand losses.A choke flangeto plain assumes evengreaterimportancein such systems. joint is normal practice,the choke flangewaveguide Singlecngined aircraft havenot been neglected, the flangehavinga recess take a sealing to ring. problemhavingbeen tackled in two different ways, The radomeis usuallya coveredhoneycomb both of which involve a combined t.r./scannerunit. structuremade of a plasticmaterialreinforcedwith Bendix havegone for an under-wingpod-mounted fibreglass.The necessity mechanical for strength, unit, while RCA have developed wing leadingedge smallsizeand aerodynamicshape a may compromise mountedunit in which a sectionof a parabolic the r.f. performance. Lightning conductorson the reflectoris used,as well as a pod-mountedunit. insidesurfaceof the radomewill obstruct the beam, Corrosiondue to moisture collection is a problem but their effect is minimizedif they are perpendicular in the waveguide to the electricfield of the wave. Horizontal run, which may be easedby pressurization. polarizationis normal sincethere is lessseaclutter, The ideal is to havea reservoirof dry air feeding,via a pressure-reducing valve,a waveguide althoughwith moderateto rough seas ldvantage the run which hasa slow controlled leak at the scanner; is minimal. this method is not usedon civil aircraft. Several On largeaircraft a dual installationis used. installatiorpailow cabin air to pressurize Obviously scanner the the cannotbe duplicated but both waveguide via a bleedervalve,desiccantand filter. t.r. and indicatorcanbe. In somecases run only the If the cabinair is not dried and filteredmore problems indicatoris'duplicated, thus eliminating needfor the may be createdthan solved. Two interestingcases a waveguide switch. Unlessone indicator is purely a that havebeenbrought to the author's attention are: slave with no system controlsother than,say, a nicotine depositon the inner wall of the waveguide brilliance,a transferswitch will be necessary to causing excessive attenuation,and rapid corrosion transfer control from one indicatorto another. Even caused fumes from the urine of animals by if two t.r.s are fitted a transfer switchis still necessary transported air. lfno activepressurization by for scanner stabilizationon-off and tilt control. is enrployedthe pressure within the waveguide may still be higher than static pressure all joints are tightly if sealed.A primary aim of waveguide pressurization is Controls to reduce high-altitude flash-over. The following list of controlsis quite extensive; most will be found on all radars someareoptional. but The nomenclature varies alternative but names for someof the controlsarelistedwhereknown. RangeSwitclr Usedto selectdisplayedrange. Will alsochangethe rangemark spacing.Selectionmay be by pushbuttonor rotary switch,the latter possibly rOFF','STANDBY' and 'TEST' incorporating positions. OfflStandby Pushbuttonor incorporatedin the range switch. With standbyselected therewill be no transmission while indicatorextrahigh tension(e.h.t.) may or may not be on.' Fig.9.8 Installation Weather of ScoutI t.r./scanner unit (courtesy Ltd) RCA The waveguide run should be kept as short as possible. Inaccessibility inadequate or coolingmay that the t.r. cannotbe situatedso as to nrean minimizethe lengthof the run. Straightrigid waveguide shouldbe used, avoiding bends,twists. Functibn Switch Selects modet-rf,operation .NORMAL"'CONTOUR"'CYCLICi, APPING" .M 'BEACON'. The last two of these modesare described later. Normaloperation allowsthe useof t a . g . c(.p r e s eg a i n )o r v a r i a b l g a i n :s . t . c . s u s u a l l y e i a c t i v e .C o n t o u r p e r a t i o n e l e c t i o c a u s eb l a n k i n g o s n s o f s t r o n g e s ti g n a l s ,. g . ca n ds . t . c . u t o m a t i c a l l . , s a . a s e l e c t e dC y c l i co p e r a t i o n a u s en o r n r aa i r dc . r i r t o u r . c s l presentations alternate.Pushbutton rotar.y to or 147

'NORMAL'switch control may be used. may be omitted, this mode of operation automatically being 'OFF' when a rangeswitchincorporating selected and 'STANDBY' is selected any rangewhile to 'CONTOUR' or'CYCLIC' switches off. (Seealso are 'gain control'.) Gain Control Usedt6 set gainof receiver manually. A continuously rotatable click-stop or control is normal. The control may incorporate contour on-off;by rotatingthe knob pastthe maximum gain positioncontour plus preset gainwill be selected.In this latter case separate a springreturn pushbutton may be usedto turn contouroff momentarily. In other systenrs gaincontrol may simply the gainon-off switch at its incorporate preset a maximumposition. patternspecified the Test Switch A special by (or replace5 weather mapping)picture manufacturers when test is selected.

(usually)sectorscanangtes, Bendix RDR 1200 e.g. hast 30o or + 60o options. Contrast Control Adjusts video amplitier gain and henceallowssomecontrol of pictureas opposed to displaybrightness evenwhen i.f. ampsareoperating undera.g.c. Sonretimes calledintensity. Manual Tune Contol Associated with automatic liequencycontrol (a.f.c.)on-off switch. Whena.f.c. to is selected off, local oscillator may be tuned manuallyfor bestreturns. Generally not usedon modernsystems.


The actual operation ofa weatherradar is quite straightforward, to get the bestuseof the system but amountof experience expertise a considerable and is requiredon tl'repart of the pilot. Beginners are to advised avoidby a wide marginany contourable ScannerStob Switch On-Off Switching. targetwithin s.t.c.range and any targetat all outside that range. Tilt Control Adjustment of scanner elevationangle With experience the pilot is able to distinguish t typically 15". sal-e unsafetargets the extent that and between to ratherthan just avoid, he may be ableto penetrate, Brilliance or Intensitlt Control Adjustsbrightness of weather. Several words of warningarein orderwhen displayto suit arnbient lighting. penetration: one shouldalwaysselect attempting one of the longerranges beforeattemptingto fly Free:e or Hold Su,itch Dara updateof display storm cellssincethe way throughmay be between picturedisplayed.Transmissionblockedfurther ahead; stopped. last updated weatherconditionscan change and scanner rotationcontinues.Warning lamp rnay rapidlylthe limitationsof X-bandradarin so thr as be provided.Only available digitalsystemor on signalpenetrationis concernedshould be remembered. w h e r ed . v . s . ti.s e m p l o y e d . Eraseor Trace Contol Springreturn switch to rapidlydischarge meshin d.v.s.t., wiping picture so variable cleanor continuously control which alters a d i s c h a r gre t e . RangeMark Cttntrol Alters intensity of rangemarks. geiterated. Azimuth Marker Sv'itch Electronically azimutlirnarksnraybe turnedon or ofl'. flashes TargetAlcrt Sx'itct On-off. Whenactivated i a i a n a l e r to n t h e s c r e e nf a c o n t o u r a b lte r g e t s 'window' (window of in ahead the aircral't detected l s o s i z -f o r R C A P r i n r u 2 0 0 i s 7 ' 5 ' e i t h e r s i d e f h e a d i n g e o l . i i t a r u n g e . l ' 6 0 - l i 0 n a u t i c ar n i l e s ) W l r n i n gg i v e n range alsorvhenin 'freeze'mode rli regardless selected of Sec'tor SrurrSrl'ilci Allowsselection one of two 148




(courtesy Bendix Avionics Fig.9.9 RDR 1100displays Division)

It has alreadybeenmentionedthat a narrow paint scanner stabilizationfaults exist. With the scanner around a storm cell is a good indication of severe tilted down and stabilizationon a bright circular band turbulencebut whateverthe width the cell should be ofterrain targets centredon the originshouidbe presented. the band is not circularbut is severely If avoided;the only questionis by what margin. The 'toppled'or then most probablythe gyro is strape the return on the screen alsoa pointer to of is distorted, 'spilled', the spin axisis not vertical.The gyro the type of weatherahead. Targetswith fingers, i.e. edges that are U-shaped hooks, scalloped or havebeen will be in sucha conditionif its rotor is running on if to slow, aswill be the case it hasjust beenswitched observed be associated with hail. Long hooks or indentations crescent-shaped may indicatea tornado, or there is a supply or gyro motor defect. A gyro fast which,when depressed, erectswitchmay be provided but thereareno guarantees eitherway. the the This chapter,and its appendix,havethus far been increases supply voltageso accelerating run up concernedmainly with rain, so a word is in order here to operatingspeed. The switch shouldnot be held on for more than half a minute or so, otherwisethe rotor about returns from other types of precipitation. Dry so speedmay exceedthat for which it was designed, mowfall will not be seenbut wet snowfall may be causingdamage. sen with difficulty. Fog and mist will not be the To completean airbornecheck of stabilization, detected.Hail may givestrongor weak returns:if it aircraft shouldbe bankedand pitched,within the b dry and small comparedwith the wavelength, operationbeing stabilizationlimits, satisfactory rctums areweak:if it is water-coated. returnsare circularterrainband. indicated an unchanging by if it is dry and of a sizecomparable with the strong; the Note that with tilt down selected. amountof nose (an extrelnecondition with 3 cm radflr) wavelength circuitscan dealwith is in lhe echo is very strong. The increase scatteringfor up pitch that the stabilization water*oated ice particles,hail or snow, may give rise limited. which resembles to a'bright band'at an altitudewherethe temperature Spokingis any p.p.i. presentation of the spokes a wheel. lt is almostcertainlycaused an bjust above0"C. Lightningcreates ionized by a fault within the weatherradarsystem,although gaseous regionwhich may, if oriented correctly, electromagnetic devices by it can be caused unshielded the backscatter radarenergy. magneticfields. There are producingstrong changing weatherpicture on thingsmay affect the Several spoking: of attenuation two main classes fault which cause the p.p.i. Icingon the radomewill cause (a) video sigrral and noisespokes due to abnormal signal, targets so ofthe transmitted and received video output amplitudevariationssuchas might be which would havebeen displayedmay, under these frequency circuits(a.f.c.) by caused the automatic until very close; circumstances, remainundetected 'innocent'precipitation and through the local oscillatorfrequencies the will alsoattenuate signal. sweeping (b) sweepspokesdue to faulty displaycircuitry such Ground or searetums may mask a storm cell; the tilt resolver ground asdamaged slip ringsin the time-base weather.and control shouldbe usedto separate radar. To employedin an older all-analogue regions. targets, difficult task in mountainous a the Interference, which takesthe form ofbroken, curved determinewhich of (a) or (b) is the cause, gain tilted to may be tumed down and the antenna p.p.i.display, caused by is or straightlineson the persists, fault is in the maximumup; if the spoking other radar systems.The exact effect varieswith the the displaycircuitry. processing scanconversion type of videosignal and of The aboveis only a brief discussion someof the (if any) and with the p.r.f. of the interfering radar. weather when operating factorsone.must consider The older type of weatherradarwith no scan a of of radar. Because the degree skill involved, pilot of conversion no averaging the videooutput is and new to weatherradarshouldstudy the manufacturer's particularly High p.r.f. to susceptible interference. pilot's guidecarefully; thqy areusuallyvery good. interferingsignals, suchasGCA, givemany fine Equallyimportant,he shouldlearneachtime he uses broken radiallineson the screen.If the interfering for if the system; example, a detouris madeto avoid p.r.f. is closeto a harmonicof the p.r.f. of the radar an unusuallyshapedreturn, a simplesketchand a with, then curvedbrokenlines, beingintert'ered phonecall on landingto enquireabout the weather apparentlymoving into or away from the origin. will with that targetwill add to his experience. associated is the result. Wheremotion is apparent, interference 'running that to a largeextentthe body of Remember to rabbits',another commonly referred as 'rabbit tracks'. weatherreturnsis empirical. knowledgeconcerning commonll'encountered term is What betterway to learnthan to collectone'sown Selection contourmay alleviate of interference results? problems. ',dbnorrnal A final and most important point needsto be p.p.i.presentations be observed will if


/ made,and that is that weatherradarpresents a considerable hazard, when operatedon the ground. Detailsare givenlater in this chapter.

weatherradardirectly and rystemsof this type are still very widely used;the latter sinceit is th; currenr approachof all manufacturers.Two types of digital systemwill be considered: rho-thetadisplayand X-y display. All Analogue System The p.r.f. generator providestimb synchronization for the completesystem;the output is often calledthe

Block Diagram Operation
We shallconsider both analogue and digital systems: the former sinceit illustratesthe principlesof

Balenced mrxer.

lAzimuthI drive I I


1 S


P.R.F. gen. Mod. Tx Time base Bright up Range marks A.G.C./ Video -l-,-









Fig. 9. | 0 All analogue weather radar block diasram and waveforms


pre-pulse, sincethe lagging edgeis usedto triggerthe waveform coincidewith the start of the run-down. modulator. The transmitteris a magnetronkeyed by If the balancinghalf-cycleis madelargerthan the modulator which determines pulsewidth. the necessary havean open centrewhereby zero range we The burst of r.f. energy(main bang)ii fed from the is represented an arc,ofnon-zeroradius, the by on transmitter to the scanner a duplexerand via p.p.i. display. waveguide run. The duplexerallowscommon aerial The gatewaveformis fed to the marker and working in that it is an electronicswitch which bright-up circuitswhich providethe necessary feeds automaticallyconnectsthe scanner the transmitter to the c.r.t. for the duration to of the time-base.Range for the duration of the transmittedpulse,thus marksare producedat equally spaced intervalsduring protecting the receiver. the gate,and areusedto intensitymodulatethe c.r.t. A sampleof the transmittedfrequencyis fed to the electronbeam. The bright-upwaveformprovidesa a.f.c.(automaticfrequency control)mixer alongwith biaswhich prevents velocity of the beam berng the an output from the l.o. (localoscillator).If the sufficient to excite the phosphorcoatingon the differencefrequencyis not equal to the requiredi.f. screen, except during the time-base rundown. the a.f.c.circuit applies controlsignal ihe 1.o., a Pitch and roll stabilizationis providedby a to s<j adjusting frequency its until we haveequality. If the ryro-controlled servomechanism. differencefrequencyis outsidethe bandwidth of the a.f.c.circuit, the control signal madeto sweep is until Digital Weather Radar - Rho-Theta Display suchtime asthe a.f.c.loop can operate normaliy. The radio and intermediatefrequencypart of the The main receiver mixer is balanced reduce to l.o. block diagramis much the samefor analogue and noise. The i.f. amplifierchainis broadband digital systems, here only the video,timing and so (bandwidth ) 2 X reciprocal pulsewldtn) with gain control blocks will be considered.The following of is controlled the a.g.c./s.t.c. by circuits the manual or based the RCA Primus on 40. pin control. The videoenvelope detected is and after Analogue videodatafrom the receiver is further amplification usedto intensitymodurare is digitizedin an analogue digital (a/d) converter. to ( Z - m o d u l a t i o n ) ec . r . r . th The range selected dividedinto 128 equalrange is With contour on, the videosignal sampled, if cells,for example, is and with 300 nautical milesselected abovea preset inversion levelthe videofed to the eachcell is 300/128 = 2.344nauticalmiles,or, in c.r.t.is effectively removed. termsof time, 3607 ps is dividedinto 128 time-slots The pre-pulse fed to the a.g.c. is gatewhich thus of 28.96ps. Duringeachtime-slot videolevelis the allowsthe videooutput throughto the a.g.c. first integrated then encoded a 2-bit word, thus circuit as o n l y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n f t h e p r e - p u l s(e a yl 0 p s ) . I n o s givingfour discrete representations zeroto from this.waythe gaincontrolline voltage maximumsignal.In the Primus a complemented levelis madea 40 function of receiver noise. The lagging eclge the Gray codeis usedfor the conversion is then of but pre-pulse triggers s.t.c.circuitwhich reduces the changed standard to binary. i.f. gainat zero range and returns to normalafter, it The scanner drivenby a stepper is motor suchthat typically,30 nauticalmiles(about 370 ps). 1024steps takenfor 120" ofscan. The are The lagging edgeof the pre-pulse iniriates transmitter also fireson everyother stepso providing512 the start of the time-base gatewaveforms, and azimuthdirtictions from which echoes the may be durationofwhich depend the range on selected. Thuson eachof 512 azimuthangles The received. datais time-base wavefornrl(r)is f-ed a magslip to (synchro acquired 128 range in increments. resolver) the scanner; in sincethe rotor of the magslip The averaging/smoothing circuitsreduce the is drivenin synchronism with the scanner numberof lines(azimuthdirections) a factor of azimuth by m o v e m e ntth e o u t p u t s r e1 ( r ) s i nd a n d1 ( r ) c o s0 a 4 to 128(= 51214) and apply a correction the to where0.is the azintuthangle nreasurecl reference gradient the sigralin range with of and azimuth. The 4 to t o t h e a i r c r a f t e a d i n gU s i n g h e c o s i n e u t p u tf o r h . t o I line reduction achieved averaging sum of is by the verticaldeflection and the sineoutput for horizontal four adjacent azimuthtime cellsasshbwnin deflection provides necessary the rotatingtime-base. F i g .9 . 1 3 a n dT a b l e9 . 1 . A f t e r a v e r a g i n ge h a v e1 2 8 w The start of the time-base run-downmust lineswith 128 range cellsper line grving correspond zerodeflection the c.r.t.spot. Since 1 2 8X 1 2 8= l 6 3 8 4 d a t ac e l l s .T h e d a t ai s t h e n to of the magslip. beingbasically transformer, a removes corrected first in range then in azimuthas follows: any d,c. levela balancing half-cycle required is if in a series threeadjacent of cellsthe outer two cells imrnediately after the time-base flybackto makethe arethe same but the inneris different,then the inner (zero)valueof the composite average time-base is corrected asall threearethe same;forexample, so




Range cells


5 (NoisGl


10 1 1 12 13 1 4 1 5

127 128

Video levol (O thru 3)

















--{ Complemented binarygray I





in Fig. 9.1I Analcgueto digital conversion the Primus40 (courtesy RCA Ltd)

256 LINESPERFRAJVIE RATE FRAME REFRESH l S 6 0 . 7H z ( 1 6 . 4 7 5 m S | 2 T L 1 6 . 4 7 5 m-S 5 6 = 6 4 3 5 5 , r S I N E I M E


. . c4ce{


rasterscanformat in the Primus40; Fig. 9.12 Rho-theta per 128 linesin memory,256 512 transmissions scan, displayedlines (courtesy RCA Ltd)


as it is received.Sincethe signallevel within eachrangecell is codedas a 2-bit word the memory Sumof four azimuth Average capacity must be 2X 128 X 128 = 32'168bits. The adiacenttime cells memorycomprises sixteen2 X 1024-bitshift registers, applicationof clock pulsescauses so the 0-l 0 circulation dataprovidedthe output is connected of 2-5 I to the input which is the case when new data are not 6-9 2 beingloaded. New datamust be loadedinto memory r0-12 3 at the correcttime in the sequence circulating of data;this timing control is provided the new data by line control circuit which synchronizes loading the 313 would be correctedto 333 while 012 would remainthe same(seeFig.9.l4). The aboveprocesses, with scannerposition. Loadingis inhibited when the freeze button is pressed circulation data but of togetherwith the integration of the video signal readout asit within eachrangecell prior to digitization, reducethe continues.The datais continuously circulates a rate of about 7'772\ines second at per displayed noice to negligibleproportions. comparedwith loadingevery fourth main bang,a rate Eachof the 128 lines of 128 cellsis placedin = of 121'414 30.35linesper second.The different load and readratesgivethe scanconversion time, in a-----------l a--.,--=-l leadingto a flicker free bright picture. Although 128 linesof videoarestored,256 lines aredisplayed, it is necessary doublethe stored so to After averaginglines. The line-doublingcircuit averages adjacent two storedvideolinesto generate middleline, so giving a the required256 lineseachof 128 cells(i.e. a total of 32768 displayed cells). In the averaging process the rule is to average if an integeraverage not up is possible.The following example,considering part of
Fig. 9.13 Fout to one line averaging the RCA Primus 40 in Noise


Four to one line averaging


E'l corrected F8. 9.14 Rargc and azimuth smoothing and correction in the RCA Primus40


Video from Rx

Averaging smoothing circuits

Tx trigg6r
CRT Frame retrace

Freeze and Fig,9.15 Video processing rho-thetadisplayblock diagram

32768 bit shift register

Data out

Clock Fig. 9.15 Simplifiedmemory three adjacent stored lines, illustrates the process:

= by mile is represented 128125 5'12 cells,so the first (= 5 X 5'12) with subsequent mark is locatedat cell 26 storedline...3 3 2 2 1 . . . 5 a m a r k s t c e l l s l , 7 1 , 1 0 2 a n d1 2 8 . middleline...3 3 2 2 t . . . all Azimuth marksareobtainedby raising 128 storedline...3 2 2 I 0 . . . cellsof the appropriatelinesby I in a similar way t^o I I I 0... m i d d l el i n e . . . 2 is above. The sweep 120",so for l5that described storedline...0 0 0 0 0 . . . we markers requireI + 120/15 = 9 linesto azimuth in Rangemarks are obtainedby raisingthe appropriate be enhanced intensity. With 256 linesthose chosenare line 2 and line 256 Nl8 = 32ly' rvhere the 256 linesby l, i.e. 0 rangecell levelfor eachof -60o markersince 3 2,2 becomes while 3 remains N= 1-8. Line 2 is usedfor the 1, becomes I becomes line, tltus the to the first'trace blankingis applied at 3. Thus rangemarksappearslightly brighter than azimuthmarkeris in fact at -59'0625". targetreturnsexceptfor level3 targets'Identification leftmosi a The contourcircuit converts video 3 levelto a of the appropriaterangecell in eachline is achieved of video 0 level. If we had a rangesequence cells on the 25 nautical mile by a counter. For example cell of level3 rangethere are five rangemarks 5 nautical miles apart. 0 2 3 0 0, say,then the contoured being would not be bordered,the sequence Sincethere are 128 rangecellsper line eachnautical 154

0 2 0 0 0. To avoid this, the rangecell adjacentto a contouredlevel 3 cell is raisedto level 2 if necessary, thusin ourexampleO 2 3 O 0 would become 0 2 O 2 0 after contouring. Bordering guaranteed is in azimuth as a result of the line-doublingprocess since,for example,if we haveadjacentazimuth cells with videolevelsI 3 0 from'memory,then line-doublingwill give | 2 3 2 0 and after contouring | 2 O 2 0 as required. This bordering -featwe is.necossary where the video gradientis steep, suchaswhen we receive returnsfrom mountains or distantweathertargets.

The rho-thetaraster generated tlte deflection is by circuitswhich are triggered the frame andX-Y by retrace waveforms.A linearramp currentrvaveform needs be generated both_the (vcrtical) to for )/ deflection coilsand the X (horiz.r,ntal) deflection coilswhich form the yoke. The durationol'the ramp ( g i s 5 3 ' 8 9p s w i t h a 1 0 ' 4 6p s r e t r a c ef l y b a c k ) g i v r na totalline time (time-base period)of 64.35 gs. The amplitudes the rampwavelbrms of determine the amountof deflection the X and X directions in and thus the particular line which is tracedon the screen; line I is at -60o, line 256 is at +60o. In.pracrice, since the completionof one frameat line 256 on on 0 0 vlotor-EvtLs r 2 I 3 t 2 O the right we start the next frame on the left after frameretrace, line I is blankedin order to allow the o * ( , deflection circuitsto settledown. The franrerateis SINAiY CODI 6O'7Hz. The X and )z ramp waveformsare initiated by thc pulses.The amplitude the I/ ramp X-Y relrace of must be a mininrumat the beginning and end of the frameand a maximumhalf-waythroughthe frame; its polarity is constant throughout.The anrplitude of the X ramp must be a maximurn the beginning at and ANALOG VIDEO end of the frame and zerohalf-way through the frame,when the polarity reverses. achieve To the amplitude variations described X and Y ramp the (uncontoured) Fig,9.17 Digital analogue to conversion wavefolms amplitude-modulated appropriately are by (courtesy Ltd) RCA shaped waveformstriggered the frame retrace by pulse. The c.r.t.is intensitymodulated one of four by It shouldbe evidentthat timing and synchronization appliedto its control grid. Sincethe output are all-important. We seefrom the simplifiedblock d.c.levels from the contourcircuit is digitalwe must employ a diagram that the timing and controlcircuitsare (D/A) conversion digital to analogue circuit. to connected virtuallyall partsto ensure the

,,1. o

Frame retrace




X-Y retrace

_ r l l l l l l
Ramp -


Y Ramp

Fig. 9.18 Ramp generation


necessary synchronization. All timing signals are derivedfrom d 4'972459 MHz crystal-controlled (period0.201 1077 ps). Of particular oscillator positionwhen new datais significance the scanner is loadedinto the memory. A counterin the scanner drivecircuitscountseveryeighthstepin the sweep, first clockwise then counterclockwise so on. and The counterthus givesthe memoryline numberfrom I to 128 (= 1024/8)which is usedby the new data load circuit. lt is possible that the scanner stepping motor may missa few beats, which casethe count in referred abovewill not represent scanner to the positioncorrectly. In order to preventcumulative errorsthe count is Jammed'at 64 whenever the positiongoing scanner crosses deadahead the clockwise.The informationrequired Jam centre' for operation derivedfrom the X-axisstator output of is a resolver, rotor of which is drivenby the azimuth the motor. This output varies amplitude, in and phase-reverses when tl'rescanner pases through the deadaheadpositi<-rn.. The aboveis a much-simplified of description the features the Prirnus many detailshave essential of 40; beenomitted. Other digitalweatherradars with rho-theta displays suchas the BendixRDR 1200will differ in detail but will operatein a similar way. Digital WeatherRadar - Television(t.v.) Display In the nrevious section sawthat a disital weather we

radarwith a rho-thetadisplay requiredscan in conversion time only. This follows sincethe data in arecollected the sameorderasthey are presented; only the ratesare different. With a t.v. display this is not so, thereforewe needscanconversionin both position and time. Sincethe basicdifferences betweenthe two types of digital radar are the rasters, scanconversion, and the organizationof memory we shallconcentrateon thesetopics. What follows rs based the RCA Primus30. on The rasteris similar to a standardt.v. display except that the field and line directionsof are displacement reversed and it is quantitatively different. The rasterconsists 256 verticallineseach of with 256 cells,thus we have256 X 256 = 65 536 displayed data cells. Eachframeof 256linesis displayed two interlaced in fieldseachof 128 lines. 107'5 per second The field rate is approximately so gives 53'75 frames per the interlace approximately (fasterthan conventional t.v.).which gives second a flicker-freepicture. Azimuth drive is similar to the Primus40, the angle of scanbeing 120" achieved 1024steps. An in azimuth counter counts every fourth step so that when the count has gone from 0 to 255 there is a phasereversal the drive signalcausingthe scanner of to reverse direction. When switchingfrom standbyto a transmitmode(normal,contour,cyclic or mapping) to the scanner driven counterclockwise the is

t \


\l ',

t \i ! | l rl \i
r t

\ \


AT 0f FlRsl t lttD RAsltRLltrt. oNt tr 126 Llilts wRlTTiN RATI 10, t Hz' i t G D r l R 5 1F l t l , 0B T A NR I T R A CliN t o N t 0 f 1 2 8 t N f R A l tA l R A T0 f l 0 / t H 2 ' K N 0 l 5 E t A t i rfK Y B A C KN i r R O nt N D0 t f l R 5 Ir l t L oT 0 B t C I NIN G f S t C o l ' lfDi t o A I R A l t 0 f 1 0 7 . H r L Ll ! A 0 1 . 1 tf l ? 8 L l N t s ! R l I T I N l R A r t0 f l o i 5 H z ' 0 R s t c o N D F l i L R A S T IL I N € . 0 A I t t K Ll s f c 0 N Dl t L D E L A NR I T R A C I N t .o t \ t 0 r I 2 8C t f t t R A T t 0TR A T0 f 1 0 7 H ] ' FLYBACKLINtfR0!,!t!D0tStCOt!0FltLDT0EtClNNlNC0frlRSIfltLDAIRAT[C[1075H. 'llt60 UMs PtR stc

Fig. 9.t9 Simplifiedrasterfor the Primus30 (only eleven linesshown)(courtesyRCA Ltd)


leftmost position, and 'chatters'there until the azimuth counter reaches 255 when clockwise rotation is initiated; this ensures synchronizationof counter and position. Digitized data is written into a random access memory (RAM) consisting eight 4096-bit RAM of chipsgivinga total of32K bit storage (lK bit = lO24 bits). Thus with a cell containinga 2-bit word there is provisionfor l6K cells(= 128 X 128). Conceptually the memory is arranged a grid with orthogonal as ixes, so the address which datais to be storedmust at be in X-Y format. SCan conversion required to is provide the correct address giventhat the data is being received a rho-thetaformat. in

usedasa lock-up table to give the valuesof cos 0 and s i n0 . T h e 1 2 8 X 1 2 8= l 6 K R A M c e l l s u s tb e m converted 256 X 256 = 64K displaycells;this is to achieved a datasmoothing by circuit. EachRAM cell is converted into four displaycells,the videolevelin eachdisplaycell beingdetermined a weighted by and biased average levels the corresponding of in RAM cell and someof its neighbours. With the cellsdesignated asshownin Fig. 9.21we have: ' Ia Ib /c Id = inr. = int. = int. = inr. IQI6 l(2ly IQIy l(Zty + Is +'t7 + Is + Ir + It + IL + Ia + In + + + + l)lal l)l4l l)l4l l)l4l

whereint. [. . . .] means integerpart of f . . . .1. An exampleoi the process one RAM cell is given for in the figure. Four concentric arcs,with centreat the middleof the bottom edgeof the display, serve range as marks. The addresses the displaycellsto be illuminated of frrr range mark purposes storedin a ROM. The are I l[-+ (o'O) 8K bit ROM is time-shared with the scanconverter e AX--ri which utilizes asa sin/cos it look-uptable,asstated previously. Fig.9,20 Rho-theta X/I scan to conversion The rho-theta sectorof targetreturnsoccupies only part of the X-Y display. The unused areaof the Assume word hasbeencorrectlystoredat d screen usedfor alphanumerics is identifyingthe (X,Y) the next word, assuming unit range address a operating mode and the range marks. A ROM, used step,must be storedat (X + LX, Y + A)z) where only lbr alphanumerics, contains positioncode the = sin 0 and AY = cos0, 0beingthe scanner AX for the bottom ofeach character any givenline of on azimuth anglegivenby the azimuth counter (see F i g . 9 . 2 0 ) . T h e r a t eo f g e n e r a t i o n f n e w a d d r e s s e s the raster. o Eachof the circuits providingthe functionsof is determined the rate of generation new data by of rastergeneration, azimuthdrive,digitization, RAM cells,of which there are 128 for eachazimuth count. ROM addressing transmission and must be The first datacell in eachgroup of 128 corresponds and synchronized time. All timing signals derived in are to the address 0). A readonly memory(ROM) is (0, from a 10.08MHz crystaloscillator.Suitable of sub-multiples the basicfrequencyare fed throughout the systemas triggersand clockswhich lr keep everythingin step. td lb (x+AX,Y+AY)
lM l8



Scanner Stabilazatioh stabilizationhasalreadybeen The needfor scanner we stated;here shallreviewthe implementation. There are basicallytwo types of stabilization: platform and line-of-sight.With the former the can movingpart ofthe scanner be considered being as mounted cin a platform controlled,independently in gyro (VRG). pitch and roll, by a vertical reference With the latter, pitch and roll signals combined, are


3 3



2 2

3 3

Fig. 9.21 A RAM cell to display cell conversion in the RCA Primus 30


Timing and control

Control panel (rangel

tsig.9.22 XIY display blockdiagram

taking into accountthe azimuth angleof the scanner, The aboveparagraph the basis line-ot-sight is for the compositesignalbeingusedto control the beam stabilization. Pitch and roll signals fronr the VRG are tilt angle. Sincethe platform systemrequires combined an azirnuth in resolver, rotor of which the joints for azimuth, rotatingwaveguide pitch and roll is drivenby the azimuthmotor. Tl.re statorsof the plus pitch and roll motors,the line-of-sight resolver connected the pitch (P) and roll (R) movenrent are to is system preferred most modernweatherradars. in outputsof the VRG, in sucha way that the rotor Only the line-of-sight system will be explained below. output is P cos0 + R sin d, where0 is the azimuth ' Whilethe scanner pointingdeadahead, is aircraft angle. movementin roll will haveno effect on the beam The composite dernand sigrral fed to a servo is direction sincethe axis about which the aircraft is amplifierwhich alsohaspositionand velocity rotatingis in line with the bearn axis. With the feedback inputs. If the sunrof the inputsis non-zero, pointing90" port or starboard scanner pitch an error signal from the servo amplitier will drivethe movement will havea negligible eft'ect sincethe axis motor so as to reduce error to zero. The position the aboutwhich the aircraftis rotatingis parallel and close feedback from the tilt synchrois modifiedby the tilt to the beamaxis. Conversely with the scanner dead control so that the angle the beanr of aboveor below ahead, aircraftpitch must be corrected full while in the horizontalmay be setby the pilot. Velocity the scanner t 90" aircraftroll rnustbe corrected at in feedback provided a tachogenerator prevent is by to full by pitchingor tilting the scanner. excessive oversltoot.' 158

Antenna Elevation
rotary joint



Azimuthmotor controllogic from indicator

6h I

L--I I I Cable and I Oear reductionl I

Pitch/roll amplifiers


Pcos0 + R . s i n0

le and


Summingpre-amplifier Position feedback

Indicator Fig.9.23 RDR 1200scanner (courtesyBendix block diagram Avionics Division)

The components usedin the stabilizatidn system canvary. The positionfeedback transducer tilt and control may be two- or three-wire synchros indeed or potentiometers. Someequipments a d.c. rather use than a.c.motor although a.c.is normalfor demand and feedback signals. somesystems roll On no correction employed the scanner is if azimuthangle is

restricted say145o, ason various to general aviation systems. Unlessan azimuth steppermotor is usedthe azimuthangular velocityof the scanner not constant. is Reversal directionat the extremities of means that the scanner accelerates towardsthe deadahead position and slowsdown going away from deadahead.


to Grid vanes It follows that lesstime is available make position. at corrections the deadahead stabilization Mapping Weather is If the servo loop response fastenoughto copewith in the nrostrapidrRovement azimuthit will be too /---=--\ time thstat the extremities.In order to vary response z'.-\"' may be modifiedso that it is the velocityfeedback greatest amplitudewhen the azimuth angleis a in maxlmum. With a flat plateaerialthe beamis tilted by pitchingthe plate,thus a pitch-rotating waveguide joint is needed.Thereis a choicewhen the system Horizontally eitherthe reflectorand uses parabolic a reflector, polarized feed feedmovein pitch or the reflectoronly. In the latter joint is usedbut the beamshape Fig.9.24 Weather-mapping facility using a parabolic case pitcli-rotating no sincethe feed point is displaced tiom the reflector deteriorates focuswith tilt applied. reflector is rotated through 90" (asin Fig. 9.24) or is the directionof polarization rotatedby usinga joint or a ferritepolarization waveguide rotating Other Applications for Weather Radar twister. with a flat beamis difficult to achieve The cosec2 AJthoughthe primary function of a weatherradaris specificallyfor a pencil beam. to detectconditions likely to giveriseto turbulence, plate array designecl beamcanbe obtained a by various other uses the system part of the system However, fan-shaped for or of the reversing phase the r.f. energyfed to the slots havebeen;and continueto be, found. Thesewill be in the top half of the plate. briefly described. rivers, Whenselected nrapping, to lakesand are so coastlines clearlyidentified, allowing Mapping of and Virtually all weatherradarsoffer a mappingfacility. confirmation position. Built-upareas will givestrongreturns.An interesting merely of mountains At its most crude,selection mapping phenomenon whereupon pilot can tilt the beam the may be noticedoverthe plainsof the s.t.c., removes buildings and powerlines sincefences, United States: down to view a limited regionof the ground. At its or to beam, tend to be laid out with a north-south east-west bestthe beamis changed a fan-shaped from all is wherebyreceived echoenergy constant orientation,returnsfrom the cardinalpoints are groundregion. In the partsof the illuminated thus givingnoticeablebright lines on the strongest, poweris to Appendixit is shownthat the received radarcorresponding north, south,eastor west. proportionalto the squareof the rangefor a inversely target(A9.9). alsoif the beamis beam-filling Drift Indication at With downwardtilt the retumedecho is subjectto a depressed an angle@to the horizontal the range R = ft cosec@wf "e /r is the aircraft height. So for Doppler shift due to the relativevelocity of the equalreturnsfrom ground targetsat different aircraft alongthe beam. The spectrumof Doppler (hencerange)the transmittedpower shift frequencies narrowestwhen the beam is depression angles is we since to on needs be distributed a cosectd basis. alignedwith the aircraft track. The Doppler signal indicator(A-type on will thenhave(Pr)o(PtlR2i". lcosec2 Qlh2 cosec2 61= canbe displayed a suitable it as o where,due to the spectrum, appears display) Q l h ' ) , i . e . P , i s i n d e p e n d e n tf r a n g e . cosec2 noiseelevated onto the top of the returnpulse.With With a parabolic reflectoran approximate by manualcontrol of the azimuth position of the scanner beamcanbe obtained useoi a polarization'noise' grid aheadof the reflectorsurface. In the the pilot can adjustuntil the Doppler sensitive (spectrum)is at a minimum, when the drift anglecan to weather modethe grid is transparent the beam to be readoff the control. This option is rarely found. the E field is perpendicular the conducting since vanes the grid while in the mappingmode the grid of a downwardsince the Beacon Interrogation part of the beamenergy reflects The transmittedpulsefrom the weatherradarcan be and therefore doesnot E field is parallel the vanes to remote usedto triggera suitably tuned beacon(transponder) satisfythe boundaryconditions.To achieve replies 93 l0 MHz, on on the ground. The beacon eitherthe weather and mapping. switching between



so a weatherradar with a local oscillatorfree.rencyof 9375 MHz and a transmit frequencyof 934i MHz will producea differencefrequencyof 30 MHz for normal returnsand a differencefrequencyof 65 MHz for the beaconreply. Two differently tuned i.f. amplifiers can be usedto separate signals.As an alternative the two local oscillatorsmay be used. On somesystetns selectionof beaconeliminates the the normal returns from the display;on others it is possible show weatherand the beaconresponse. to The ease with which this facility can be uied to find offshore oil rigs makesradarsoffering beacon operationan attractiveproposition for helicopters supplyingthe rigs. Such radarsusually havea

short-range capability;for example,the Primus50 offers 2 nautical mile rangeusinga 0.6 ps pulse,thus givinggood rangeresolution. Multifunction Display The weatherradarindicator is increasingly usedfor purposes other than the display ofweather or mappinginformation. X-I rasters particularmake in the displayof alphanumeric data straightforward, henceall the major manufacturers now offer a 'page-printer' option with one or more of the radars in their range. Similarlydisplay navigation of datais available an option with the latestcolour weather as radars.



Fig. 9.25 Primus 30 with page-printeroption (courtesy RCA Ltd)


A page-printeroption is normally used to display data is arranged and checklists.The alphanumeric either in the indicator or on storedin pages EPROMs, may be in an external auxiliary unit. EachBage button. Pages calledup in turn usinga page-advance containingthe normal checklistindex and checklistindex are particularlyimportant, emergency buttons usedto call them and usually havededicated a up for display. Havingdisplayed pageof one of the a button may be usedto advance indexesa line-check by cursor(line highlighted displaying,say,black alphanumericson greenbackgroundrather than greenon black asfor the other lines).With the cursorset,the usinga list button. checklistcanbe displayed chosen other alphanumeric Apart from checklists information which may be listed includeswaypoints, are or indeedany pilot+ntered dataif pages allocated to this facility. One method of allowingthe pilot to enter data is to usea calculatorkeyboard; and Hewlett-Packard TexasInstrumentsmake which can be modified to interfacewith calculators system. the page-printer Display ofnavigation data from externalsensors suchasVORTAC, Omega,INS or Loran is achieved through an interface unit. Typically the pilot is able to displaywaypointsjoined by track lines,together with the weatherdata. As an examplethe RCA Data Nav. trI systemallowsthe displayof current VORTAC frequency,rangeand bearingto current waypoint and up to three correctly positionedwaypoint symbols from twenty which can be stored. An additional symbol featureof the Data Nav. I I is a designator location on the which may be set to any desired this location can then be enteredas a new screen: waypoint to replacethe current one, so providingan on alternativeroute if stormsareobserved original intendedcourse. in Progress this areais rapid' ln 1979,with the interface,the weatherradar could display appropriate of aircraft position on straightor curved projections data paths,ETA at waypointsand warningsof sensor failure in addition to the data referredto above.

by 300 nauticalmiles for s.s.t.is usually demanded customers. Rangemarks at 25 nautical mile intervalsup to 100 range as nauticalmiles are suggested, are the available of30/80/lS0 or 30/100/300or 30/80/180/ selections of 360. The advantages a continuouslyvariable rangefrom 30 nautical miles to maximum displayed arestated. Displayed Sector nt ieast + 90" but not more than t 120". Displayed rangeat + 90" to be not lessthan 60 per cent of or maximum range. The scanmay be reciprocating of the latter, sincethe circular. (Note in the case rotatesthrough 360' RAM (radar absorbent scanner is material)screening neededon the nosebulkheadto prevent excessivelystrong receivedsigrrals.) Radio FrequencY C-Band 5400 MHz x2OMHz (nominal) X-Band 9375MHzt 20 MHz (nominal), or 9345 MHz L 2O MHz (nominal) Bandwidth Minimum bandwidth = l'216 where the pulsewidth 6 must be lessthan l0 Ps' Dispby AccumcY ^ Azimuth angle:t 2-. Range:the greaterof t 5 per cent or I nauticalmile. Sensitivity Time Control law from 3 nautical miles to the point where Range2 to a 3 nauticalmile target ceases be beam filling. to Two-wirelogic from scanner set s.t.c.maximum with antennagain (and hence rangein accordance bearnwidth). Scanner Stab and Tilt each(E/2300) V Two-wire pitch and roll sigrrals + 2 per cent per degree whereE is nominal I 15 V but phase(50 mV per degree 400 Hz reference is in expressed terms of supply). The phaseof signals specified. Dummy load of 20 kQ where signalnot used. Pilch and roll rate capability 20o per second. (two-ais system):combinedroll, pitch Line-of-sight tilt freedomt 35" with accuracy+ lo, manual and tilt i 14". system):roll t 40', pitch Split axis (three-axis pitch and tilt t 20o,manualtilt I 14",combined !25",accuacy t 0'5". samephase Droop nosesignal(tr/575) V per degree, asnosedown. (Two-wire signal,20 mV per degree

ARINC Characteristic564-7 allows the designermore freedomthan do most other suchdocuments; and howeverit is quite clearwhat performance facilities are to be made available. The following is a summaryof someof the more significantand/or items. interesting Range At least 180 nautical miles for subsonicaircraft and 162

Enroute Navigation.


1 ) T h e i n t e n d e dt r a c k l i n e o r i g i n a t i n gf r o m l h e a i r c r a f t s y m b o ld i s p l a y sl h e p r o g r a m m e dr o u t e o f f l i g h t .W a y p o i n t s a n d t h e i r n u m b e r sc a n b e d i s p l a y e do n t h e t r a c k l i n e .W h e n D a t a N a vi s u t i t i z e dw i t h R N A V ,t h e a s s o c i a r e d O R T A C V s y m b o l i s d i s p l a y e da l o n g w i t h i t s f r e q u e n c ya s i l l u s t r a t e d W h e n u s e d w i t h a V L F / O M E G Ao r I N S s v s l e m .t h e D a t a N a v w i l l d i s p l a ys i m i l a ri n f o r m a t t o nW h e n w e a t h e ri s e n c o u n _ . tered lhe current Waypoint may be ottsel by using RCA'S exclusive esignator eature The Designator an be moveo D f c to any location on the screen by means of the Waypoint

o f t s e tc o n t r o ls h o w i n gt h e D e s i g n a t o s y m b o la t 3 5 " r i g h t , r 46 nm. 2 ) W h e n t h e D e s i g n a t o r s a t t h e d e s i r e dp o s i t i o n , h e n e w i t W a y p o i n tc a n b e e n t e r e di n t o t h e N a v i g a t i o n y s t e mb y S m e a n so f t h e " E N T R " b u t t o no n t h e D a t a N a v o n t r o lp a n e , . c T h e c u r r e n tW a y p o i n tw i l l b e m o v e dt o t h e n e w l o c a t i o na n d a n e w t r a c k l i n e e s t a b l i s h e dT h e R a n g ea n d B e a r i n go f t h e . a i r c r a f lt o t h e V O R T A Cs t a t i o nw i l l a l w a y sb e d i s p l a y e di n t h e l o w e r r i g h t h a n d c o r n e ro f t h e d i s p l a y .

3) The aircraft has now completed the turn and intercepted t h e n e w l r a c k l i n e w h i c h w i l l s a f e l yc i r c u m n a v i g a l e h e t d a n g e r o u sw e a t h e r .l f d e s i r e d ,y o u c a n r e l u r nt o t h e o r i g i n a l Waypointand track line by pressing lhe cancel button on the DataNav onlroloanel. c

4) Waypoinl Listing Mode can be sebcted by means of-the "MODE" b u t t o no n t h e D a l a N a vc o n t r o lp a n e l .I n f o r m a t i o n f o r 3 W a y p o i n t s a n b e d i s p l a y e do n t h e s c r e e n .T h e c u r c r e n l W a y p o i n lw i l l b e d i s p l a y e di n y e l l o ww i t h a l l o t h e rd a l a i n g r e e n .A l l t h e W a y p o i n t s a n b e d i s p l a y e di n g r o u p so f c "Waypoint lhree by moving the Offsel Control" left or right.

FiE 9.26 En-route navigation with the (colour) Primus 200 (courtesy RCA Ltd)

for SSTaircraft where scanner mount is droppedwith nose.) Scale required scanner on wherebytilt anglemay be read.

Ilaveguide C-Band type ARA I 36 or WR I 37. X-Bandtype RG-67U. Ridgedwaveguide rejected; v.s.w.r. m a x i m u m. l : l . l 163

Magnetron Magnctic Field deviationwith sensorl5 ft No more than lo compass from the t.r. The t.r. shouldbe mounted at least2 ft from the indicators,other t.r. units and other devices to sensitive magneticfields.

width. It is normal to calculatethe m.p.e.l. assuming a stationaryscannerand a point source'in which case power of 6 X F X Pt is spreadover an area an average (e X 1Jin2 l2)i thus the distanceD in rnetres of n X D2 for an exposurelevel of l0 mW/cm2is givenby:


and Maintenance Testing
Safety Precautions There are two hazardswhen operating weather radar, to namely damage human tissueand ignition of combustiblematerial. power density the greater The greaterthe average the health hazard. A figure of l0 mW cm' is a exposure gene maximum permissible rally accepted level(m.p.e.l.). Among the most vulnerableparts of the body are the eyesand testes. The greaterthe peak power the greaterthe fire hazard. Any conductingmaterialcloseto the scanner may acf as a receivingaerial and have r.f. currents induced. There is obviouslya risk, particularly when aircraft are being refuelledor defuelled. An additionalhazard.which doesnot affect safety of but will affect the serviceability the radar,is the possibilityof very strongreturnsif the radaris operatedcloseto reflectingobjects. The result of is these'returrls to burn out the receivercrystals which are of the point contacttyp€' when The following rulesshouldbe observed operatingthe weatherradaron the ground: are l. ensurethat no personnel closerto a than the m'p.e.l. transmittingradarscannpr boundary, aslaid down bY the sYstem manufacturer; 2. nevertransmit from a stationaryscanner; 3. do not operatethe radarwhen the aircraft is being refuelledor defuelled,or when another is aircraft within the sectorscanned being refuelledor defuelled; '4. of do not transmitwhen containers inflammable or explosivematerialare closeto the aircraft within the sectorscanned; unless 5. do not operatewith an open waveguide r.f. power is off; neverlook down an open fit waveguide; a dummy load if part of the run waveguide is disconnected; 6. do not operatecloseto largereflectingobjects or in a hangarunlessr.f. energyabsorbing materialis placedover the radome(RAM cap)' vary widely, for The safedistances radars power transmitted and beam dependingon average 164

D=m6 hffil







L ' J where: 6 is pulsewidth in seconds; F is pulse repetition frequency in pulses per second; P1 is peak Powerin milliWatts; 0 is beamwidth.

Thus consideran older airline standardweatherradar nominal (Bendix RDR IE/ED) usingmanufacturers' figuresfor the longestrangeoption, i.e.6 = 5 ps; F = 2 O O ; P t = 7 5 k W ; 0 = 3 " ; w e h a v eD = l 8 ' 6 6 m (ev60 ft), while for a modern generalaviation radar (RCA Primus20) where6 = 2'25 ps, F = 107'5, = D = l'12 m (e,:* ft)' & = 8 k w , 0 8 6w e h a v e consult are To ensuresafety precautions observed then, if data for safedistances manufacturers' place purposes, operatingthe radar for maintenance hazardwarning noticesthe appropriate radiation from the nose. Whenworking by the scanner distance with the radar on standby a notice should be placed 'do not touch', or better still by the controlsstating the transmittershouldbe disabledor the waveguide run broken and a dummy load fitted. If the radaris switched on prior to taxiing, the transmitter should not be switchedon until clearof the apron' X-ray emissionis a possiblehazard when operating the transmitter with the caseremoved, such as might be done in a workshop. The likelihood of dangeris small but the manufacturers' data should be consulted. Check for Condition and AssemblY Obviouslythe weatherradar systemas a whole is as subjectto the samerequirements all other airborne in respectof securityof attachmentand equlptn.nt condition; however,certainpoints need to be highlighted. -Thi waveguiderun should be the subject of fairly ifpoor and shouldbe suspected frequentinspections is performance reported. Wheninspectingthe suchas corrosionand physicaldamage waveguide, are obviousthingsto look for' cracksand dents Flexible waveguidecoveringsare subject to perishing, bond at the crackingand a detachedmechanical can in flanges.lnternal damage flexible waveguide be gently flexing while listening and feeling for founa Uy clicks. There shouldbe no more than minor bendsin

l. Checkwarm-uptime for magnetron. and the radiusof the H plane of flexible waveguide than about Zlrn.2. Checkfan motor (a light pieceof papershould bendsin the E planeshouklbe greater 'stick' to the filter). to the If it is thoughtnecessary dismantle and currents 3. Checkinternalpowersupplyvoltages waveguide ,un1o curryoui an internalinspection, with built-inmeter,if fitted. or testmeterconnected to care needs be replaced, or if i pieceof waveguide if to testsocket, supplied. Chokejoint flanges must be takenwhen re-installing. a NB'. when disconnecting test lrleter from the plain flanges.Seaiing O-iingsmusi or must mate to plug test socketit is vital that the shorting of u be fitted to achieve pr.rrut. seal. The E planes otherwise crystalearth shouldbe replaced, pieces waveguide shouldbe paraliel.Undue adjoining brokenfor currentmeasurement, returns, waveguide, either forceshouldnot be usedin aligning will not be made' within the run or at the endsof the run. All and undamaged. 4. Checktest facility: patternshouldbe asspecitied waveguide supports shouldbe secure checkthe pattern In by manufacturer. particular usinga probelight reveals If an internalinspection or and neitheroverfilling underlilling is centred it to dirt or moisture may be possible cleanby pulling marksareequallyspaced and that the range screen, througha cleansoft cloth andior blowingout with an arcs symmetrical (lineardeflection, rho-tlieta). line. Caremustbe takennot to scratch air pressure (lineardeflection,X-Y)andcorrectin number of sincethiswould the insidesurface the waveguide raster (time-base duration,rho-theta)'A rho-theta aswouldsigns corrosion deposits of or renderit scrap, (about{ in'; but no may showa smallopencentre is which cannotbe removed suggested above. tail. run Any drain trap in the waveguide shouldbe ail Operate groundreturns all ranges. on 5. Observe for moisture and checked blockage, accumulated effcct is achieved. the controlsand ensure desired in shouldbe removed.Filtersand desiccators the fbr pressurization feed,if fitted, shouldbe inspected Notes (filter) and colour(if desiccator pink it is cleanliness to The aboveis only a brief outlineof the checks be is unserviceable). use always the manltfacturers' out. OneshtlLrld carried of The scanner shouldbe checkedfor freedom when tcsting.When procedures of recornmended as conditionand security movement well asgeneral if is experience necessary out itenr(5) above. carrying ()ut scanner the inspcctions attachment.In carrying o , o n ei s t o s t a t e w i t h a n y c e r t a i n t yt,h e c o n d i t i t l n f dishor plateshouldnot be turneddirectlyby hand on will depend the in can but throughthe gearing.Backlash the gears be the systenr.The pictureobtained an exantple of heading the aircrali;asan extreme forwardand backward by checked gentiyapplying pointingout to seawill givevery diflerent aircraf't to movement the edgeof the dishor platein both w d g r o u n dr e t u r n s t t i t s r a d a r l t e nc o m p a r e w i t h a n o in azimuthand pitch directions: a 30 in. diameter of aircraftpointingin the directionof a range hills. imtenna, of a movement ; T at the edgein<licates The technicirnshouldbe awareof the f orm of thc of of total backlash nearly 1". No chafing cables r a pi e t a r g e t / n o i s e c t u r e x p e c t e d t a p a r t i c u l aa i r l l e l d movernent. shouldoccur due to scanner r o n a p a r t i c u l ah e a d i n g . or the ensure shirns Whenreplacing scanner, to from system system. At The testfacility varies in are washers usedfor the replacentent, the same is a its sirnplest ramp or tri{ngularvoltage generaled positions they wereusedlbr the item rentoved, as of from siSnal which varies levelzeroto a maxitnunt the this ensures azimuthscanaxisis nrutually is levelthree. If suclra waveform appliedto the and pitch axiso1'theaircraft. signal perpendicular the roll to l o l r may be mountedwith input waveguide t l i g i l i z e t h e na l l t l r r e c e v e l s f i l l u m i n a t i o nn d Somescanners . c b c o n t o u ro p c r a t i o n a r r 6 c h e c k e d A d t l l t i o n atl e s t s will connecliorts be up flange or down, but polarized s n a n b tailureto checkthis w h i c hl r a v c e e np r o v i d d d r c l u d e g a t e d o i s e o u r c t ' correctfor only one orielttaticln: with nornral s.t.c.and contparing for checking ol sense rotationin point may resultin an incorrect ' r c c e i v en o i s e r e f l e c t e t fo w e rt t t t r l t i t o r , . l. c . p a . r azimuthand pitch. a r n o n i t o r n d a . g . ct.n o n i t o r . The t.r. is likely to havean internalcoolingtan, in and l'reet'rom the which case filter shouldbe secure Radar SystemsTester e o b s t r u c t i o n I t m a y b e p o s s i b l t o c l e a ra b l o c k e d . of ntisinterpretation the of t d l i i t c r b y a i r b l a s ti n t l t eo p p o s i t e i r e c t i o n o n o r n t a l Because the possible I'rtltn olt when.iudged returns systenr cclndition b a i r i l o r vw h i c l rs h o u l d e i n t o t h e u n i t . . usedto testeris stlnletimes groundtargcts systctns a ofthe target. tlre givenrorecontrol ttvefr fcalures - Radar Functional Ramp Check a t A p i c k u ph o r n i s a t t a c h e do t h e r a d o r n e t d c : l d ety t rr.. Ohsr' S:rl l)reclu ions 165


(uGr{Tt{olsE }

r/tFfs TrsTsAt{ffi




TESrilfffE B*lw { ilff{*s $iltctr} -lT{o EFFscr { *fffiIcrD sAlH}

F t g . 9 . 2 7 R D R I E / F t e s t p a t t e r n ( c o u r t e s yB e n d i x A v i o n t c s Division)

and radomeaswell as the t.r. If both scanner attenuatorsreadlessthan normal then the fault must if be in the commonr.f. components; only the input power output is low then transmitter reads attenuator settingindicates while a low output attenuator down; ivity. poor receiver sensit Functional Test - ScannerStabilization SafetyPrecautions Observe with radome. Switchto standby 1. Remove on stabilization and tilt zero. Check,usinga spirit the level, that the flat plate or the plane across Fig 9.2E Simplified radar systems tester with the rim of the reflectordishis vertical of and at the extremities the deadahead scanner sectorscan. centreposition. A co-axialcableconnectsthe horn to the testerwhich is insidethe cockpit. The tester 2. RemoveVRG from its mounting and fit on a tilt is so tableadjust.ed that its surface horizontal a beaconand returnsa signalwhich should serves as alongboth axes. on appearat zerodegrees the p.p.i. displayat a range po by determined the testerdelay. An input attenuator . 3 . I n c h s c a n n etro t h e d e a d - a h e a d s i t i o n .W i t h . - \ on, stabilization adjusttilt controluntil scanner ) so can be adjusted if the testerjust fails to be is vertical. will givea measure the of the triggered, attenuator power. An output attenuator 4. Simulatea suitablepitch angle@noseup. Using can be radiated 'echo' just visible(radar scanner elevation a protractorspirit levelensure is on adjusted that the so down. Repeatfor nose by preset gainwith standardized changes @degrees brilliance setting), thus down. will givea measure system of the attenuator in no aircraliroll, ensure change 5. Sinrulate may alsobe used sensitivity. The output attenuator . s c a n n ee l e v a t i o n . r levelsetting. to checkthe contourinversion 0 h , 6 . I n c hs c a n n etro p o r t e x t r e n t i t ya z - i m u ta n g l e . run. Note the testerwill checkthe wavesuide 166

a measure waveguide of losses be obtainedfrom can the differences forward power at either end. in Practicaldifficulties occur in fitting the directional 7couplerin a rigid waveguide run. In some installations couplermay be permanentlyfitted at a 8. one end, usuallyat or closeto the t.r. In order to measure v.s.w.r.of the waveguide the the scanner shouldbe disconnected a dummy and 9. load fitted in its place. ARINC 564-7 specifies a maximumv.s.w.r.of I .l : I for a new installation. Whenmeasuring v.s.w.r. the scanner the of the radomeshouldbe removedand the scanner tilted up 10. to maximum to avoid returns. Figuresobtained shouldbe checkedagainst manufacturers' data. On I l. fitting the radomethe v.s.w.r.at the antenna will deteriorate, measurement variousazimuth and tilt at angles will givean indication of the radome performance. Notes: The most likely cause lossof radomeefficiency of The aboveappliesto a typical line-of-sight system. as a transparent materialto r.f. is ingress moisture of For any particularequipmentthe manufacturers' through small pinholesand crackswhich may appear procedureshould be followed, observing stated on the outsidesurfaceof the radorne. Such pinholes tolerances. A platform systemcheckoutvariesfrom the above and cracksmay be seenby shininga light on the outsidesurfaceand viewingfrom the inside. A in that changes elevationare independent in of moisturedetectorcan be usedto measure the azimuth angle. resistance points on the betweentwo adjacent In items (6), (i) and (8) an azimuth angleof 90" radome. The detectorhastwo probeswhich are strouldbe chosenif possible, sincethis will make pressed firmly against insidesurface the the = I and sin 0 = 0, so simplifying checking. of cos 0 radome. Wherethe resistance measured lower than is Pitch and roll correction potentiometers often are normal it may be due to an ingress moisture. of accessible which case pitch correctionshould be in carriedout with the scanner deadaheadand rolBench Testing correctioncarriedout to balance any errorsat the Thereis not space hereto consider benchtesting'in extremities. depth,but mentionshouldbe madeof a special A gyro simulatormay be usedfor a checkoutof the completesystemlessthe VRG. The VRG is disconnected the simulator and connected its in place. The procedureis then similar to that above, with the appropriatepitch and roll angles being selected the simulator. Sincethe VRG is not on testedthis is not a full functional test but is useful for fault-finding. The signals from the simulatorshould correspond the VRG output signalstandards to (e.g.ARINC).

Simulatea suitableroll anglea port wing down and ensurescanner elevationchanges o sin 0 by up. Repeatfor starboardwing down. Simulateaircraft pitch angle@and ensurescanner elevationchange @cos0 in oppositesense. is Repeat(6) and (7) but with scanner starboard at extremity noting sense roll correctionis of reversed. Inch scannerto deadahead. Simulatesuitable pitch angle. Switch stabilizationfrom on to off and back to on, and ensure scanner movesin elevationwithout excessive overshooting. Switch stabilizationoffreplace gyro in aircraft mounting. Carry out final checkof tilt controlbefore switchingoff and replacingradome.


Check of v.s.w.r. If the waveguide or scanner suspect, run is v.s.w.r. checks can be carried out to find the faulty itcnr. To carryout sucha checka directional couplermust be fitted in the run, and power in the forward and reverse directions measured for using, example, a thernristor bridgepowermeter. The checkshouldbe carriedout at both endsof the wavesuide so that run

Fig.9.29 RD-300 weather radar set(courtesy test IFR. Electronics Inc) weather radartest set,the IFR RD-300which, togetherwith an oscilloscope, be usedto perform can all the commonradartestswithout the proliferation of signalgenerators and other instruments normally found on a radartest bench. 167

accurate'For possible reasonably and measurement are signals compared the measurement received range 'standard' giveso-called pseudo range.The to the Stormscope with a Beinga relativelynew development that particularly lrteans ratlge in methoduscdto deterntirte is, asyet, not to be found in service anythinglike than they actually is to appear be closer asmany aircraft asis weatherradar' Sincespace at strongsignals since in of are.which is not reallya disadvantage the source a premium the coverage the Stormscope this activity electrical is of suchsignals a regionof severe beenlimited to allow a moredetailed book has allocatedhere andhenceturbulence. of coverage radar. The numberof pages dot on the to as appears a bright green of Eachdischarge the reflects importance eachof the systems of today. The situation at staff and aircrew circulaldisplayscreen a positionrepresentative maintenance to positionrelative thc aircraf't.An in the source well be reversed the future or, more likely, may aircraftsymbolis locatedat the centreol-tlredisplay equalized. a s m w i t h r a d i a l i n e s a r k e d t 3 0 " i t l t c r v a la t t dt w t t As statedin the introduction to this chapter,the ol'tlre outer on rings. The range for range depends its success detecting equallyspaced Ryan Stormscope receiver' with on activitywhich is associated turbulence. ring is asselected the panel-mounted electrical is 40, 100 or 200 nautical miles. Sincetlre outer ring is Sincethe radiatingsourceis naturalonly a receiver the rnaximuttl radar. not at the periphery the display of over advantage weather an required; immediate is useis madeof an available of the orderof 260 nauticalrniles. information, range To obtaindirectional eventso to is Eachdischarge only a momentary both eitherdedicated antenna, ADF loop and sense with ADF. storage memoryis required.The trlemorycan in or installation time'shared the Stormscope beingdisplayed a storethe positionof 128 dots,these comprises displayunit The restof the installation to form a mapJikepicture. Whenthe 129thdischarge unit. and a computer/processor in planning since occursthe oldestdot in memoryis replaced; this Caremustbe takenin installation updated. lf the is lrom generators, way the image continuously is Stormscope proneto interference is or changes a new range selected from aircraftheading motors,strobelights,etc. Interference are until all I 28 havebeen by is avoided inhibiting the dot positions incorrect transceivers communication which cantake up to 25 s on a a is updated, process a whenever transceiver keyed' the Stormscope


display andcomputer/ unit Stormscope Fig.9.30 Ryan (courtesy Ryan Stromscope) processor stormyday (only 5-10s with tomadoactivitywithin range).On quiet daysa dot may remaina long time erased.A'clear' but after 5 min it is automatically the button allowsthe pilot to erase displaystarting in to with the oldestdataand progressing the newest

Operation from the two orthogonalloops and the sense Signals antennaareutilized to giverangeand bearingof the sourceof electricalactivity received.The propertie:. antenna makebearing of the loop and sense lSe

a total erasetime of I s. Another button allows the display of that activity which is forward of the aircraft with, of course,the full memory dedicatedto thesesignals. The 128 dots appearin clusterson the display, indicatingwhere bad weathercan be expected. As the there is a spreading weatherbecomes more severe inward towardsthe centre due to the pseudorange reducingas a result of the strongersignals.Witll very storm intensity the display becomes increasing animated. A test facility is built in whereby when the a appropriate button is pressed dot cluster appears nearto a positionof 45o; 100 nauticalmiles. In which can simulate addition, a test set is available and azimuth anglesfor at sigrrals variousranges systemcheckoutand calibration.

Appendix FactorsAffecting WeatherRadarPerformance TheRadar Equation
If powerP1 is radiatedfrom an omnidirectional antennathen the power density(power per unit area) decreases with range. At a range a sphereof R surfacearea4nR2is illuminatedby the e.m. wave, thus: Powerdensityfrom omni antenna=# (A9.1)

Sincea directionalantennais usedwith gain G (over an isotropic antenna, perfectly omnidirectional) i.e. we have:

Powerdensity from = PrG(Ae.2) directionalantenna 4rRz Comparison of Stormscope and Radar It would appearthat, purely from a functional point The targetwill interceptpart of the radarbeam,the of view, i.e. ability to avoid turbulence,there is little on sizeof the part depending the radarcross-section to choosebetweenthe two systems.Someadvantages ofthe target o. Sincethe reflectedpower is subject ofStormscopeover radar are: out to the samespreading in spaceasthe incident l. no moving parts and no transmitter,hence powerwe have: meantime betweenfailures(m.t.b.f.) should be Power density of _ P,GO higher; (Ae.3) (4rR2)z echo at aircraft 2. simplerantennainstallationwhich keepsdown installationcosts; part of the echo signal, The radar antennaintercepts radarscomparein capital cost; 3 . only the cheapest on the sizeofthe part depending the effectivecapture 4. fully operationalon the ground with 360" field areaA, so received echo powerPr is givenby of view. comparedwith of Somedisadvantages Stormscope radarare: to l. sensitive interference; 2. limited rate and accuracyof data acquisition although it would appearfrom operational evidence that this doesnot preventthe Stormscopefrom being used for efficient and safeweather avoidance ; 3. lacking in any other applications such as mapping, navigation data display or page printer option. Two things should be pointed out here; firstly the extras with weather radar have to be paid for; secondlythe Stormscopeis a relatively new developmentby a company small in comparison to the giantsofweather radar. It should not be beyond to the ingenuity of the designers develop the system so as to eliminate some, if not all, of the disadvantages.



betweenantennagainand effective The relationship capture areacan be shown to be

G =f



of where is thewavelength thee.m.wave.So ), (A9.4)becomes: equation

& =1ffi


o P,G2).3



ReplacingP, by the minimum detectablesigtal pow.er rn and rearranging,we have the well-known radar rangeequation:

=ffi R*"*t


The Radar Equation for Meteorological Targets With meteorological targetswe have a large number of


independent of scatterers radarcross-section so; o; providing target thebeam, may represent the fills we thetotal radar cross-section bv:
o = V42oi where: Xoi is the average total backscatter of cross-section the particlesper unit volume; V^ is the volume occupied by the radiated pulsewhich can be approximatedby ( n l 4 ) R 2 2c 6 l 2 ; 0 0 is the beamwidth(equalin horizontal and verticalplanesfor a pencil beam); c is the velocity of propagation: 6 is the pulseduration.

P, = -

lS0l,t'6 P,G02 c6 n3



(Ae.8) cloud. (Note that 180 x2OO lkl2).

as the echo power receivedfrom a beam-filling rain

Minimum Detectable Signal ( E q u a t i o n A 9 . 1 l ) g i v e s h e m a x i m u mr a n g e f a t o weatherradar in terms of the minimum detectable signalfrom a non-beam-filling target. A threshold levelmust be chosenwhich is greaterthan the r.m.s. valueof the noise occupyingthe samepart of the frequencyspectrumas the signal. If the signal exceeds thresholdit is detected:if not it is missed. the Too low a thresholdwill give rise to falsealarms. In choosingthe thresholdlevel the interpretation Substituting for o in (A9.6) we have: of the operator is significant,particularly in 0 weatherradars. In digital D - PtG2^,2 2 c62oi (Ae.e) conventional(analogue) 'r _ -SIZFFthe weather.radars choiceof thresholdis taken out of the hands,or eyes,of the operators. Noise spikes Equation(A9.9) is applicable where the targetis which do not occur in the sametime-slotafter beam-filling,for examplea spherical cloud of 3 transmissions not displayed; several successive are nauticalmiles diameterwill fill a 4" beam up to about they are said to be averaged out. As a result in a 43 nauticalmiles. For a ta-rget outsidethe beam-filling or digitalweatherradara lower threshold, minimum rangethe proportion oi'beam filled can be shown to to tolerated with signal noiseratio (s.n.r.), can.be be (Dl0R)2 whereD is the targetdiameter.So I improvementin maximum range. consequent (A9.9) would become, sucha target: for equation In introducingthe factorsrelatingto noiseinto the P , G 2 ) yc 6 D 2 (Ae.0) radarequationit is convenientto usethe noisefigure r, = *-:;.IFFF- 2 2 o ; r F grvenby an equationin which the fourth power of R occursas (A9.6) and contrasting in the basicradarequation (A9.9) wherewe havethe square R. of with equation Againwe can producea rangeequationassuming non-beam-filling targets:
R*a*o c = PrG2)t2 6D22oi 5l2r2m

p = *l* ' S"IN"
where: S;/N; is the input s.n.r.; is Sofly'o the output s.n.r.



If the wavelengthis long comparedwith the particlethen it can be diameterd of a scattering shownthat: ns lklz>d;6 zoj = --Ia=


The input noisecan be taken askTB = where:k is Boltzrrrann's constant, l'38 X 10-23 joules/degree: temperature degrees in Kelvin; ?nis .Bis the noisebandwidth(differentfrom 3 dB bandwidthbut often approximated bYit). equation(A9.14) and substituting for So rearranging ly'; we have: Si = kTBF SslNe (A9.15)

constant and to where lkl2 is related the dielectric hasa valueof about 0'9 for water and 0'2 for ice. It is helpful to replace2d16 by an expression is involvingrainfall rate, suchan expression provided by 2di6 - 200rr'6wherer is the rainfall rate in mm/h. lt shouldbe noted that this is an empirical beingsubjectto variability relationship, constants the to from one experimental observation another. Replacing o; in equation(A9.9) and usingthe 2 between,dir we have relationship 170

(A9. I I ) gives: for Substituting m in equation o n2).3c62o;

R."*' = n#ftngl;i;;


a from considering single Equation(A9.16) results pulse;ho.vever are many pulses normallyreceived from a targetduring one sweepof the aerial. The returnedfrom a point targetis numberof pulses

n = +

0 X p.r.f.

564 togetherwith (Ae.r7)Characteristicmaximum range.an empirical fornrula The primary purpose relatingPI and

to of the PI is to enablea comparison be made per rate in degrees second; wherec^.r the scanning is betweendifferent radarsratherthan effect the p.r.f. is the pulserepetition frequency. accurate of calculation maximumrange. We can utilize someor all of the n pulsesto improve Atmospheric Effects known as integration. Use of a detectionin a process Therearethree effects.namelyattenuation,refraction of with the properties the eye and c.r.t.,together or the and lobing,which can degrade evenenhance brain, constitutesan integrationprocess.Digital of in whereby the signaloccuning in successive performance a radaroperating the earth's techniques, atmosphere. is time-slotsis averaged, also a form of corresponding primarily by Attenuationdue to absorption gases, integrationin this sense.We can define the integration will reduce maximum the oxyBen and watervapour, efficiencyas follows: particles alsoabsorb range attainable.Precipitation and caus.' scattering. The scattering the e.rn.energy radarbut lirr is csscntial the opelutionof weather the will decrelse range the and reduce absorption = s.n.r.of a single pulsetbr a $ven where(S0/)r e t i a b i l i t yo l ' t l r er a d a r o p e n e t r a tc l o u d s n o r d e rt o probability of detection; 'see'what is bc.r"ond. Ernpirical results available are (S/ffh = s.n.r.per pulsefor the same ri increases but we nraysirnplystatethat degradation probability of detection when n the of I.rencc descriptions C-band with frequency. pulsesare. integrated. radar as equipment weather-penetration and X-band The integrationimprovementfactor nEn canbe radar. asweather-avoidance includedin the rangeequation. is Sincethe densityof the atmosphere not power P of the radaris relatedto the The average or of uniform, refraction bending the radarwaves peakpowerP; by: may take place. Watervapouris the main contributor will ( A e . l 8 ) to this effect. The radar.waves normally be bent P = PtX6 Xp.r.f. density aroundthe earth sincethe atmospheric Substitutingfor Ps in equation(A9.16) and altitude, thus leading with decreasing usuallyincreases incorporatingthe integrationimprovementfactor we to an increase radarrange. in have: Lobing is the arrivalat the targetof two radar one via the direct path and one by way of waves, o3 PG2l,2 c EnDo; (Ae.le) reflectionfrom the earth'ssurface. Depend'ing the R*"*o on 5t2r2 VTBF Q (S/l/), or rangemay be enhanced degraded. relativephases ln an effort to simplify the rangeequation In an airborneweatherradarwith smallside lobesthis EUROCAEand RTCA havederiveda Performance doesnot createthe sameproblemaswith lndex, PI, from the basicradarequation. Detailsof ground-based radars. involvedare givenin ARINC the calculations

- (s/.^/), L" =reET,.


10 Dopplernavigation

300 knots. Thus after I rnin the systemgivesa readoutof position asbeing 2995 nautical milesfrom A Doppler navigator a self containeddead.-reckoning on trackt after I h 2700 nautical miles from B; after is B systemgivingcontinuousreadoutof aircraft position l0 h the indicatedpositionis B. usuallyrelatedto waypoints. Military aircraft have madeuseof suchequipmentsincethe mid- 1950s while bivil usefor transoceanic navigationcommenced 3OOOn.m. in th6 early 1960s. In recentyearsihr ut. of Doppler in navigators long-range commercialaircraft has by triple largelybeen superseded inertial navigators, systems being fitted to airlinerssuchas the 747 and l" -' include composite Concorde. Military developments lo and we may expect to Doppler and inertial systems seesuchsystems'gocivilian' in the future. There are still many civil aircraft carryingDoppler airlinersand navigators but theseare older, long-range assuchthey are fitted with equipmentwhich, althoughnot in any way primitive, doesnot employ error Fig.l0.l Effectofheading of the very latest techniques.A class civil aircraft for which there is a continuingneedfor Doppler the With a + | per cent error in computedspeed, navigators surveyaircraft which, by the very nature is toleranceon the position readoutafter 1 min, I h and areas not coveredby of their work, operatein l0 h will be I 0'05. + 3 and t 30 nauticalmiles ground-based navigationaids(exceptOmega)and With a + 1" error in the heading respectively. positionalinformation. Use of requireaccurate information we have the situation givenin Fig. 10.r . is Doppler navigators helicopters not unusual;there in We can seethat d = 2 X 300/ X sin 0'5, thus after for is equipmentspecificallydesigned such aircraft. I min, I h and l0 h the aircraftmay be up to 0'087, of The advantage Doppler navigationlies in the 5.24 and 52'4 nauticalmilesaway from the indicated systemwhich doesnot fact that it is a self-contained the aids rely on ground-based and can operatein any part position. In both cases absoluteerror increases with distanceflown. In practiceit is the heading is of the world. This advantage sharedby inertial information which usuallylimits the accuracyof the of which alsoshares disadvantage the navigation wslem. of degradation positionalinformation as distance of The degradation information flown is increased. from the fact that startingfrom a known arises positionsare computedby position subsequent the sensing aircraft velocity and integratingwith to respect time. Errors,oncethey are introduced, can only be eliminatedby a position fix. A simplisticexamplewill illustratethe build-up of error. An aircraft takesoff from A to fly to B, 3000 nauticalmiles awayin a direction due west from A. Usingheadinginformation from a directionalsensor the compass Doppler suchasa gyromagrletic that the iircraft is flying due west at Fig. 10.2 Doppler effect - transmission navigatorsenses


J ,l


Doppler Effect




l l r l ln 1842 the AustrianscientistChristianDoppler predictedthe Dopplereffect in connectionwith soundwaves. It was subsequently found that the effect is also applicable e.m. waves.The Dpppler to effect can be described the change observed as in Aircraft Ground frequency (transmitter) when the source and observer (receiver) in motion relative one another. The are to Fig. 10.3 Doppler cffect - reception noiseof moving trains and road traffic is a demonstrationof the effect commonly observed. (10.2) fr=(c+v)l\. The applicabilityto e.m. wavesis illustratedby the useof police radarspeed traps,to the cost of Again we seey = 0 leadsto c = )\,f and the aircraft offenders. moving away from the ground targetgives In an airbome Doppler radarwe havea transmitter f r = ( c - y ) / I . which, by means a directional of antenna, radiates We must now consider both effectssimultaneously. energytowardsthe ground. A receiver receives the The wavelength in equation (10.2)is the tr echo of the transmittedenergy. Thus we havethe wavelength the echowhich must be ).' in equation of situation whereboth transmitterand receiver are (10.1). .Thus substituting for X we have: ).' movingrelative the ground;consequently to the ^ k+v\ ^ original frequencytransmittedis changed twice. The Ir = (-fi I. differencebetweentransmittedand received frequencies known as the Doppler shift and is very We are interested the Dopplershift, is in /2r, which is nearly proportionalto the relativemotion between the differencebetweentransmittedand received the aircraft and the ground alongthe direction of the sigralsthus: radarbeam. - _((c+v) .) 2v Considerthe transmission e.m. energytowards of f o = f , - - = ' f( { c _vl l} = = . f . - v " f (-c t the ground. Let the relativevelocity of the aircraft in the direction of the beambe r, the frequencyof the Now c = 186000 milesper second I is obviously so radiation/ and the speed the electromagnetic of very small compared with c, so with negligible error waves (= 3 X tO8ms-l ). Referring Fig. 10.2we we may write: c to seethat in t seconds wavewill havemoveda the (10.3) fo = 2vflc. distancect to b while the aircraft will havemoveda distancevt to a. The wavesemitted in time r will be This equationis the basisof a Doppler radar. bunchedup in the distance betweena andb which is Observing, above, as the conventionthat y is positive ct - vt. The numberof wavesemitted will be /r for movementtowards,and negative movement for cycles. Thus the wavelength observed the target, at away,the groundtargetgivesan increased received ).', is givenby: frequencyon a forward beamand a decreased frequencyon a rearwardor aft beam. t r ' - ( c r- v } l f t = ( c - v ) l f ( 1 0 . 1 ) received From Figs 10.4and 10.5we seethat the relative We can seethat if the transmitteris stationarywith velocity of the aircraft in the direction of the beam respect the groundthen y = 0 and equation to (10.1) centroidis v = V cosI cosc where Iz is the masnitude. ' reduces the familiar relationship =/tr. If the to of the aircraft velocity with respect the grou-nd. s to transmitteris movingaway from the ground target, (10.3)becomes:' So equation that is the beamis directedtowardsthe rear,then (10.4) 0 fp = (2Vf cos cosc)/C. -y (10.1)becomes andwe have r in equation \'=(c+v)lf. It is at this stagethat the studentis often convinced Now considerthe received sigtal. In a time / the that a Doppler radarcould not possiblywork due to aircraft would receive the wavesoccupyingspace the smooth earth paradoxand the mountalnparadox, all cf in Fig. 10.3. Howeverin this time the aircraft which arehopefully dispensed with below. i movesa distance and hencewill receive number r/ the It is falselyarguedthat if an aircraft is moving of wavesoccupyingct + vt in f seconds (c + r)/tr parallelto flat ground then thereis no change range or in wavesin I second.Thus the received frequency, betweenthe aircraft and the groundand thereforeno fr, is given by: Doppler shift. That this is falsecan be seenby








Vi the verticalvelocity component asshown in Fig. 10.6. Thesevelocities in antenna are which, with an antennafixed rigidly to co-ordinates the aircraft, are airframeco-ordinates.As the aircraft pitchesand rolls the antennamoveswith it and hence in Vil, Vn' and Vf will not be the velocities earth requiredfor navigation. co-ordinates



geometry in thc Fig. 10.4 Airborne Doppler single-beam vertical Dlane

Fig. 10.6 The resolved velocity vectot

geometry the Fig. 10,5 Airborne Doppler single-beam in plane horizontal which produce the considering actualtargets of backscattering the energy. Thesetargetsare scattering objectssuchas pebbles irregularlyshaped and there is. of course.relativemotion betweenthe aircraft and individualtargets- hencea Doppler shift. If the illuminatedareawere perfectly smooth no reflectedenergywould be received the aircraft. at The othdr falseargumentconcerns slopingterrain. If the aircraft is flying horizontally abovea slope then its rangeto the ground along the beam is changing and thereforethe Doppler shift will be affected. Again this falsehoodis exposedby the fact that the 'slope' actualtargetsare individualobjectswhose with respect the aircraft is randomand henceis not to related to the slope of the ground. and speed Fig. 10.7 Drift angle ground One conceptuallysimple solution is to stabilize the antennain pitch and roll, in which casethe earth velocitiesVg, V1 and VV are co-ordinate-related equal to Vi, Va' and Vpi respectively.If the lateral it velocity V4 is non-zero meansthat the movement of the aircraft is not in the direction of the heading 6, drift angle, existsasin Fig. 10.7. and a non-zero The resultantof Vg and Va is the velocity vector s, with magnitudeequalto groundspeed and direction that of the aircraft'strack. It is convenient to for navigationpurposes presentthe pilot with ground speedand drift angleinforrnation rather than Vs urd V1. the With movingantennasystems, antennais stabilizedin pitch and roll and alsoalignedin azimuth with the track of the aircraft,that is to say track-stabilized.The drift angleis givenby the angle betweenthe antennaand aircraft longitudinalaxes in measured the horizontal plane. SomeDopplersuse pitch but not roll stabilizationsinceerror due to roll and furthermoretends is small for smalldrift angles out over the flight. to average

The aircraft velocity has three orthogonal @mponents: Vfi the headingvelocity component; V) the lateral velocity component; and 171

Fixed antennasystems must compute the velocities Vry,Vn and Vv eachbeinga function of yi, V;, Vf R andp, whereR and F are roll and , pitch anglesappearing the expressions in as trigonometricfunctions. The relationships derived are in the Appendix.

Doppler Spectrum
The beamsare of finite width, henceenergywill strike the ground alongdirectionsof different relative velocities. a consequencespectrum Doppler As a of shift frequencies received shownin Fis. l0.g is as wherethe effectsof sidelobesareisnored.

Wilh A? typically 0.07 radians (4") and I typically 70- we haveAfp lfp rypically 0.2. Sincebackscattering from the illuminatedtarget areais not constantover the whole areathere is a random fluctuation of the instantaneous mean frequencyfp. To determine aircraft's the velocrty accuratelythe time constantof the velocity-measuring circuitsmust be sufficientlv lone to smooththis fluctuation, but not so long asio beunableto follow the normal accelerations-of the aircraft.


Sincethere are three unknowns Vi, Va' and Vf , a minimum of threebeams required measure are to them. ln practicethree or four beamsare usedin a configurationinvolvingfore and aft beams;assuchit is known asa Janusconfigurationafter the Roman god who could seeboth behind and in front. The beams radiatedcan be either pencil.asin Fig. 10.10or narrowin elevation (nO) Uut wide in %power azimuth(Ac) asin Fig. 10.9. The hyperbolic lines -3 dbs fo, h , f*, f-u are linesof constantDoppler shifts calledisodopsand are drawn assuming flat earth. a Whenwide azimuth beams useda fixed antenna are system would leadto the beamcrossing wide a range isodops of underconditions drift, resultingin of an excessively wide Doppler spectrum. Consequently suchbeams virtuallydictatea track-stabilized anrenna. fd Doppler shift A wide azimuthbeamhasadvantages that smaller in Fig.10.8 TheDoppler antennaareas requiredand roll performance spectrum are is improvedin the case whereno roll stabilizationis Sucha phenomenon undesirable providing is but employed. the spectrum reasonably'peaky'the is meanDoppler Figure 10.9 showsthat for a fully stabilizedsystem shift is easilymeasured.If Z is the anglebetweenthe the Doppler shift on all four beamsis the same. beamcentroidand the aircraftvelocityvectorthen Without roll stabilization smallerrorsareintroduced e q u a t i o n 1 0 . 3 )b e c o m e s : ( which tend to average out. Stabilization be can achieved servoloops which drive the antennaso as by 2Vf "otr. ( 1 0 . s ) to equalizethe Doppler shifts. Alternativelypitch lo =; information (and possiblyroll) can be fed to the Differentiation with respect 7 givesa first Doppler from a verticalreference to suchasa gyro or approximationto the half-powerbandwidth of the evena mercury switch leavlng azimuthstabilization to spectrum: be achieved equalization Doppler shifts. by of Typically in suchradarsground speedand drift angle 2A gy.rinT Lfo = ( r 0 . 6 ) are the only outputs wheregroundspeedis givenby equation (10.4) and drift angle the amountof by azimuthrotationof the antenna.Headine whereA7 is the half-powerbeamwidth. The ratio of information is usuallyaddedto the drift ingle to give Lfp to fp is thusgivenby dividingequation 10.6) ( aircraft track. by ( l0.s). Figure 10.10showsthat for a fixed aerialsystem Lfp the Doppler shifts on all four beamsare,in general, -f; = a 7 . t a n 7 . (10.7) not equal. It is shownin the Appendix to this 175

Fig. t0.9 Moving aerialsystem- typical beamgeometry

chapter that the velocitiesin airframe coordinates, Vri, VA' and Vf , dependon (f2 - f l),(f2 -/3) and (.f | + f3) respectively, where/l ,f2 andf3 are the for Dopplershifts on beamsI ,2 and 3. Relationships can alsobe derivedusing/4 and two thesevelocities we other Doppler shifts. With this redundancy have or the possibilityof self-checking continuedoperation after one beam failure. Computationof groundspeedand drift anglein a fixed antennasystemcan be dividedinto three parts: firstly computationof Vi , V; and Vl, usingthe secondly Dopplershifts from three of the four beams; computationof Vg, V4 and Zy usingpitch and roll information and the previouslycomputedairframe velocities; and lastly, drift angle= co-ordinate = uctan (ValVn) and ground speed (Vn'+ Vnzlo's (seeFigure 10.7). 176

The choiceof r.f. is, asever,a compromise.The of advantage using a high frequency is that the sensitivityof the radarin Hertz per knot is high, as can be seenfrom equation(10.3); furthermore,for a givenantennasize,the higherthe frequencythe narrowerthe Dopplerspectrum. If, however,the radiated frequency is too high atmosphericand precipitationabsorptionand scattering becomemore is of a problem. Another consideration the for availabilityof components the variousfrequency bandswhich might be considered.Most Doppler radarsoperatein a band centredon 8'8 GHz or 13'325 GHz, the former, to date,beingperhapsthe most common for civil aircraft use.


Fig. 10.10 Fixed aerial system - typical beam geometry

At first sight it would appearthat no modulation is necessary, indeed c.w. Doppler radarshavebeen built and operated,a great attraction being simplicity. Difficulties,however,arisein transmitter receiver isolationand discriminationagainstreflectionsfrom nearbyobjectsin particular the dielectric panel (radome)coveringthe airframeopeningfor the antenna. At other than low altitudes unwanted reflectionsare comparable amplitude to ground in returns. Noiselike variationsin vibrating radome echoeswill more than likely be in the same frequency band as the gxpectedDoppler shifts, and thus indistinguishableexcept where the s.n.r. is sufficiently high at low altitudes. To overcome the above problems both pulsed and

frequencymodulated(f.m.c.w.) radarshavebeen used. The earliestDopplerswere pulsedso that during the echoes from nearby objectswere received recoverytime of the diplexer and hencewere not a incoherentpulsesystems processed.In the so-called signals Doppler signalis obtainedby mixing received from fore and aft beams;thishas two undesirable Firstly the returnson the fore and aft consequences. beamsmust overlapin time if mixing is to take place, this meansstabilizationand/or wide beamsmust be used. Secondly,the Doppler shift on the individual of hencethe sense direction of beamsis not available, the velocity vector (forward or backward)and the verticalvelocity cannot be computed. With modern radarsf.m.c.w. is the most common type of transmission.The spectrumof the transmitted as sigrd consistsof a largenumber of sidebands well


asthe carrier. Theoreticalanalysis f.m.c.w. reveals of an infinite number of sidebands spaced the by modulation frequency f,n amplitudeof individual sidebands being determinedby Bessel functions of the first kind of order n and argumentrn where n is the sideband (first, second, concerned third, etc.) and rn is the modulationindex,i.e. ratio of deviationto f.. By usingthe Doppler shift of a particular sideband, and choosingan appropriatevalueof m to give sufficient amplitudeof the sidebandconcerned, suppression noisedue to returnsfrom the radome of and other nearby objectsis achieved. A problemcommonto both pulsed and f.m.c.w. Doppler radarsis that of altitude holes. In a pulsed systemifthe echo arrivesback at the receiverwhen a subsequent pulseis beingtransmitted then it is gatedout by the diplexer and no Doppler shift can be detected.Similarlywith f.m.c.w.,if the round-trip travel time is nearly equal to the modulationperioda deadbeatwill occurwhen mixing transmittedand received signals, and again no Dopplershift will be detected. If a low modulatingfrequencyis use'd the first altitude hole may appearabovethe operating ceiling. Howeverlow p.r.f. in pulsesystemleadsto low efficiency and the possibilityof interferenceif the p.r.f. is in the range Dopplerfrequencies of (eudio). For f.m.c.w.givena choiceof expected sideband used,typically third or fourth, and modulationindex,typically2l or 3, suchasto avoidradomenoise,the modulating frequency must be fairly high to allow a reasonable deviation. A fairly high modulatingfrequencyis usually varied (wobble)or in discrete eithercontinuously steps to avoid altitude holesat fixed heishts.

aircraft relativeto the surfacebelow them. When flying over water that surfaceitself may be moving due to seacurrents wind-blownwater particles. or Randomseacurrentsare of speeds usually a good bit lessthan half a knot, and this small el'fect averages sincethe currentsare in random out do say, directions.Major seacurrents not exceed, 3 knots and sincedirection and approximatespeed areknown they can be compensated for. Wind-blowndropletswould give an error lessthan the wind speed, about 3 knots error for l0 knots wind with the error varying as the third root of the wind. On long flights such an error will be reduced by averaging. .
o i o-

k___ Overwater caltoralon : I shrfterror

Frequency Fig.10.12 Over-water calibtatiory shift Whenflying overland the beams illuminatean particles.Generally many scattering areacontaining coefficientsover the whole the backscattering illuminated areawill be of the sameorder givingrise shownin Fig. 10.8. Over to the Dopplerspectrum smooth seathe situation is different; a larger fraction of the incident enerS/ will be returnedon part of the beam sincethe surface the steepest coefficient will dependon the angle backscattering of incidence.The net resultis to shift the Doppler as spectrum shownin Fig. 10.12,so that the mean Doppler shift is lessthan it should be for the aircraft velocity. which could be up to 5 per The error introduced, cent,is known as over-watercalibrationshift error. The narrowerthe beam widih the lesssignificantthe to error,so someDopplersaredesigned produce beamsnarrow enoughto keep the error within acceptable limits. Other Dopplershavea manual land-sea seabias switch which, when in the seaor or a on position respectively, causes calibrationshift in .of the oppositesense weightingthe response the by in Doppler shift frequencyprocessing favour of the higherfrequencies.For a carefully chosen shift the error can be reducedby a compensation f-actor about ten. of

Errors Over-Water
Doppler navigators measure velocity of the the

Fig lO.l I Frequencymodulatedcontinuous wave groundechospectrum signaland received transmitted


Antenna axis Ground track


Lobc switched beams





t '


Fig. 10.13 Lobe switching

Lobe switching is a more successfulmethod of reducingcalibrationshift error. The beam angleof incidenceto the ground is switchedby a small amount periodically. The illuminated areasfor the two switchedangles overlap,as do the Doppler spectra.The Doppler shift frequencyused for velocity measurement where the spectracross. is This crossover point corresponds the retum from to the samegroup of scatterers the sameangleof at incidenceand is thus not affectedby over-water flight. Figure 10.13 illusrratesthe technique,which porks far better when track-stabilized antennas since then the lobe switchingis at right anglesto the isodops.

Fig. 10.14 Navigation calculations

To arriveat along distanceto go (X) and across (y) the true track (?') and track error angle distance (E) areneeded. We have,assuming drift to starboard aspositive:

Navigation CalculationS


The ground speedand drift angleinformation is normally presented the pilot but in addition is to used,together with heading information,to givethe aircraft position relativeto a destinationor forthcomingwaypoint. To achievethis the pilot must set desiredtrack and distanceto fly before take off. In Fig. l0. | 4 the pilot wishesto fly from A to B, a distance 50 nauticalnriles, of with desired track 090. Thc aircraft has flown for 6 min at a speed 500 knots on a heading 100 with a drift of of o[ 27" starboard, thus the total distance 50 is nauticalnriles and the aircraftis at point C. The trackerror is 37-, tlre alongdistance go is to X = l0 nauticalmiles:the across distance is Y = 30 nauticalnriles. In order to seehow the Doppler navigatorarrives at the alongand across distances indicatedto the pilot we must consider informationavailable: the ' Groundspeed and (s) - Doppler radar dril't angle(6) - gyromagnetic (I/) Heading compass (Til)and Desired track - pilot (D) Distance

T =H+6 E = T-Td x = D -JjScosf,'dr Y = tssinEdt

(r0.8) (10.e)
(10.10) / ( 1 0 . l1 )

where I is the time of flight, and the senseof the across distanceis positiveto the right.

Block Diagram Operation
Moving Antenna System Figure 10.15 illustratesa block diagrambasedon the MarconiAD 560, a system introduced the in mid-I960s and usedon a'varietyof civil aircraft. It is still to be found in service. The sensor an f.m.c.w. type employing is wobbulation of the modulatingfrequencyf^ to avoid altitude holesand usingthe Nth sideband (tr/ = 3 in the AD 560) to avoid unwantedinterference due to radomevibrations. For the choice.ofthe third sideband suitable a modulation index is 2.5. obtained by usinga deviationof t I MHz on the 8800 MHz carrierand a modulatingfrequencyof 400 kHz. give the Doppler shift frequency Two mixer stages




Aerial unit p-Heading

F----+ Drifi

Set tiack

Autopilot Steering ind. Set zero Set distance

Ground speed



=TTo diStance

i Computer I
! :

Display unit

Fig. 10.15 Moving aerial Doppler block diagram based on the Marconi AD 550

signalwith a sample fo. The first mixes the received of the transmittedsignal,the requiredsideband (1200 kHz in the AD 560) beingselected the by intermediatefrequencyamplifiers. The secondmixes sidebandto extract fi.; times f^ with the selected .fy' by meansof a low passfilter with a cut-off frequency ' ofabout 20kHz. There are two transmit and two receivelinear arraysare slotted arrays. Anti-phaseand in-phase which an usedfor transmit and receive, arrangement for in can be shown to compensate changes are to The arrays connected appropriate wavelength. diodesin the by inlets/outlets an r.f. switch(varacter are AD 560). Fore and aft beams obtainedby providingfor connection eitherend of eacharray, to is by while port and starboard deflection achieved use sequence is of sidereflectors.The beam-switching 180

important where pitch and azimuth drive of the aerial the AD 560 sequence port forward, is is concerned; starboardaft, starboardforward, port aft, a complete cycle taking I second. The Doppler spectrumis fed to two loops: one coarse and one fine. The searchloop providesfor measuring shaft adjustmenlof a ground-speed coarse the frequency of a voltagecontrolled which determines oscillator(v.c.o.) in the tracking loop through a feedbackpotentiometer. With the searchloop nulled the v.c.o. frequency is approximatelyequal to the meanDoppler shift frequency,a discriminatorwithin the tracking loop is then able to apply an error signal to the speeddrive so as to position the ground-speed shaft accurately. The Doppler can then be saidto be locked on, and any changein ground speedwill be trackedby the fine trackingloop.

drift angle(azimuth drive) and so give track to another differential synchroin the displayunit. The Sterboard rotor of the seconddifferentialsynchrois set by the drift operatorat the desiredtrack angle,hencethe output track, betweentrack and desired is the difference Timo error6. i.e. track angle ground in The resolver the computerunit resolves Noseup speedcomponents speed into its alongand across S In S cos.EandS sin^Erespectively. the AD 560 a ball analogue 1 second is resolver used,thus givingmechanical computing. The ball is drivenby a tracking misalignment shiftwith aerial in Fig 10.16 Change Doppler steppermotor, hencethe rate of oscillator-fed rotation is proportional to ground speed. The axis of on rotation depends the angleof the drive wheel If the antennaaxis is not aligred with the track of the aircraft, either in pitch or in azimuth, the Doppler which is set by a servoposition control systemto be equal to the track error angle. Two pick-offwheels With with beam-switching. strift will change rotate at a in the change Doppler occurs mounted with their axesat right angles in misalignment azimuth speeds.These on rate depending the alongand across is at a rate of I Hz, while if the misalignment in pitch in the rate is 2Hz. This follows from the beam-switching rotations are repeated the displayunit by meansof the servodrivesand cause counlersto rotate. The and sequence rate (seeFig. 10.16). Reference to alongdistancecounter is arranged count down from to the pitch and waveformsof 2 and I Hz arefed any misalignment the initial distanceto the waypoint until it reaches circuits respectively; azimuth drive zero when the aircraft will be on a line perpendicular of the antennawill be detectedby the drive circuits, throughthe waypoint. track and passing to the desired resultingin the antennarotating so asto align itself readzero distances shift If both alongand across with the aircraft track. At this stagethe Doppler the simultaneously aircraft is over the waypoint. on all four beamsand accurately is the same ground speed,alsothe anglebetweenthe represents Fixed Antenna System aircraft and antennalongitudinalaxesis equal to the of Figure10.17may be usedto explainthe principles drift angle. a fixed antennasystemto block diagramlevel. The in s.n.r.is measured both the searchand The of antennaconsists planararraysof slotted waveguide loop checkis not tracking loops. If the search arraysbeingusedfor for satisfactory three out of the four beamsthe three or printed circuit, separate is and reception. Beam'switching transmission to sigrral noise circuits are disabled.The servodrive usingvaractordiode or ferrite switchesto achieved the the trackingloop causes systemto.go to checkin to couple the transmitterand receiver the memory if it is not satisfactory. In memory the port. appropriate shaft are fixed and a antennaand ground-speed signalis mixed with a sampleof the The received and drift in memory flag appears a ground'speed f.m.c.w. transmittedsignaland the wanted sideband continuesto give the angleindicator. The sensor filtered out and amplified. If only ground speedand ground'speed and drift anglefor as last-measured drift angleare requiredfurther mixing may take place long as the poor s.n.r.continues. as to extract the Doppler frequencies in the moving is output from the sensor in two Ground-speed of howeverthe sense the shift (positive antennacase; coupledto forms.- A synchrorotor is mechanically is or negative) lost. If the three velocity vectorsin the shaft givinga three'wirefeed' The the ground-speed are direction of the aircraft cq'ordinates required,an v.c.o. frequency,which is proportional to tracking frequency,feis retainedwhich will be intermediate in resolver the ground speed, fed to a sine'cosine is on depending by computer and alsoto a frequencydividerwhich scales reducedor increased an amount which beam is beingradiated. pulse per nautical the and shapes sigral so that one The time-multiplexed Doppler shifted ,fq siSnals mile is fed to a distance flown indicator (integrating by are separated a demultiplexerdriven by the counter). control and feedingfour tracking beam-switching givesa A synchrotransmitterin the antennaunit becomelocked oscillators loops. Voltage-controlled to the drift angleoutput sincethe body is bolted to the incoming frequencies ! fo by sweeping fO part ofthe antennaand the rotor is driven by fixed through their rangeuntil they lock on. The four the azimuth motor. A differentialsynchro tracker outputs are then summedand differenced,as to transmitteris usedto add heading(from compass) Pf SA 181

o x o


] z E
Air speed Variation initial position and waypoints

= E

Fig 10.17 Fixedaerial Doppler blockdiagram

appropriate, a combiningnetwork to provide in ground-speed drift-angleoutputs and, with a and signals fy and/2 proportional to aircraft /r, compass input, will providenavigation data to a CDU co-ordinate velocities (seeAppendix, Al 0.3). givinga two-unit Doppler navigationsystem. Digital Within the computer/display (CDU) the unit outputsareprovided accordance in with ARINC 429 aircraft referenced velocity componentsare (DITS) and ARINC 582, thereis alsoan optional transformedinto track-orientated earth-referenced synchrooutput for drift angle.This unit, introduced components usingattitude signals (pitch and roll) n 1979,may heralda comeback Dopplerin for from a verticalreference gyro (seeAppendix, A10.4). airline service sinceit has beenorderedby Boeingfor With a headinginput and waypoints,in terms of installation their 727s and,737s. be usedin in to desiredtrack and distance, in by the pilot the set conjunction with Lear Siegler's performanceand computercan integratethe alongand across navigationcomputer system(PNCS). velocitiesto givedistanceto go and across-track error (distance)respectively. The CDU may offer latitude and longitude rcadoutof position by transformingthe aircraft velocities into north-orientated horizontal components. True north, as opposedto magneticnorth, may be usedas the reference the pilot is ableto enter the if variation. With attitude, headingand true air speed inputs the output from an airspeed transformation circuit or routine may be comparedwith the velocity transformationto give wind speedand direction.

Installation TheDoppler navigator system illustrated in
Fig. 10.I 5 requiresfive units asindicated;i.e. antenna, transmitter-receiver, tracker,computer and display unit. The Marconi AD 560 comprises five units the mentionedplus a junction box, ground-speed and drift-angleindicator, distance-flown indicator and a control unit (or simply a panel-mounted switch). The weight of the AD 560 is about 30 kg which shouldbe comparedwith Marconi'slatest Doppler the AD 660 which weighs5 kg (sensor only). The AD 660 is a single-unitDoppler sensorgiving Fig. 10.18 AD 550 (courtesyMarconiAvionicsLtd) '182

:1 I

{:,-:"* .
ril,:.: tri l

i t .

i ,

i f

Fig. 10.19 Doppler7l antenna/electronics (courtesy unit the DeccaNavigator Co. Ltd)

Figure10.18showsthe AD 660 with cards removed.Note the useof large-sca1e integrated circuitscommonin all modernsystems we as approach the 1980s.The antenna a printed circuit is microstripproducing four beams transmitted sequentially. The transmitter a f.m. Gunn diode is oscillatorgenerating over 200 mW at a carrier frequency 13.325GHz. Computation of and control is achieved througha microprocessor. The DeccaDoppler7l and 72 aredesisned for v./s.t.o.l. (vertical/short take-offand landing)aircraft operatingbelow 300 knots and fixed-wins aircraft operatigg to 1000knots respectively. up these havehad civilian sales Efstems limited to aircraft with special needssuchas certainhelicopteroperations and -10 surveying.Figures10.19 .22 showunits of a typicalDeccaDoppler7l installation.Interconnections aresimple;all three indicatorsbeingdriven directly from the antenna/electronics unit. A heading input is requiredfor the PBDI which, togetherwith the antenna/electronics unit, forms a basictwo-unit system, two metersbeingoptional. Another the 7l bearing drift indicaror and lq._19.?0 Doppter position, optional unit is an automatic chart display driven by (PBDI) (courtesy Decca the Navigator I_tay Co. the PBDI or a more sophisticated replacement, a TANS computer.


error areusually error and track-angle Across-track as available outputsfrom a CDU fbr useby an warningsignals must alsobe autopilot. Obviously providedto indicatethe integrityof the steering to signals the userequipment.

Controlsand Operation
the We shallconsider Doppler71 as an example, variations exist. considerable obviously although P.B.D.I. processor purpose Indicator,controllerand general o w e w i t h p r o g r a m m c a p a c i t y f 1 5 0 01 6 - b i t o r d s . memory. Battery-protected Switches of l. DOP TEST: groundchecking sensor; ST BY: inputsinhibited,displaytlashes; for LAND/SEA: allowscorrection overwater in. shift error to be switclted calibration 2. LMP TEST: checkof displayand lamps; input and insertion HDG/VAR: displayof heading variations; of m agnetic is FIX: positiondisplayed fixed; Doppler are warninglamp distances stored; incremental operable: slewswitches flashes: POS:aircraftlatitudeor longitudedisplayed; and drift angledisplayed: GS/DFT: groundspeed and distance next waypoint to BRG DIST: bearing displayed; waypointlatitudeor longitude. WP: selected 3 . W A Y P O I N TI t o l 0 : a l l o w s f o r w a y p o i n t Waypoints be inserted changed or can selection. at any time. latitude,longitudeor 4. LAT LONG: three-posttion displayed. both (alternately) variation. usedfor inserting 5. SLEW:two switches and position, waypointco-ordinates present the as resetting numericdisplays required. \Displays of l. Numeric:twb groups threeseven-segment by filamentsshow data selected seven-position switch. latitude no*fh (N) or 2. Sectordisplay:indicates east(E) or west(W). south(S), longitude are systems c.w., three-beam The Doppler 70 series track error, displayshowing decoupling 3. Trackerror: analogue (not switched) K-bandradars.Adequate waypoint. to in degrees, the selected and receiver inherentin the is transmitter between in incorporated analogue indicators: the desigr,so allowing useof c.w. A localoscillator 4. Warning displayto givewarningof Doppler failure signalis usedfor mixing, so providingan intermediate (or memory),computerfailureor test mode t frequency the Dopplershift. Furtherdetailsof the selected. systemareincludedbelow. (courtesy Decca Fig.10.22 Doppler hovermeter 7l the Co. Navigator Ltd) 184

and Fig. 10.21 Doppler7l ground-speed drift meter (courtesy Decca Navigator Ltd) the Co.

Ground-Speedand Drift Meter Drift anglerange:i 39.9o. Displayofground speedup to 300 knots and drift Altitude: 45 000 ft abovesround level. angle+ 30o (expandedscale). S u p p l y 2 8 V d . c . , 2A . : Powerfailure and memory warning flags. Manualsettingof drift and ground speedprovided for. Testing Hovcr Meter Displays: ModernDopplers havea considerable amountof along-heading velocity- range-10 to +20 knots: built-in test equipment with which to carry out across-heading velocity- ranget l5 knots; checks.Syntheticsignals may be generated by verticalvelocity - ranget 500 ft min-r. switching antennas a much higherrate than normal, at thus leadingto the memory flag clearingand a given readingpossiblyappearing the ground-speed on and Characteristics drift-angleindicator. This might be the effect of pressing test switch on the ground under memory the conditions.If airborne and in memorya similar ARINC Characteristic 540, airborneDoppler radar, wasissued 1958 and lastprinted in January1960; checkcould be carried out, but ifin the signal in condition,i.e. Dopplershift present it is no longermaintained and s.n.r. current. For this reason satisfactory, then a goodand easycheckis to operate detailsof a currently available system,the Decca the slewingswitchesto offset ground-speed Doppler7l arelisted. Sincethis is primarily a and helicoptersystema'very brief data summary for the drift-anglereadings; release readings on the should MarconiAD 660 systemaimed at the airliner market return to their original positions. This check will cause small error in the computedposition but this a hasalsobeenincluded. DeccaDoppler 7l Power: 100 mW Frequency: 13'325and 13.314GHz. Intermediate frequency:10.7MHz. Beamwidth: 5o in depression plane, I lo in broadside plane. Depression angle'. 67". Modulation:none,c.w. Number of beams:three continuous. Along-heading velocity rangeto computer: -50 to +300knots. Across-heading velocity rangeto computer: ! 100 knots. Supply: I l5 V, 400 Hz, single-phase. Altitude range:0-20 000 ft over land or over water when surfacewind ) 5 knots. Accuracyof sensor- lessthan O'3Vo 0.25 knots or (whicheveris the greater(overland)). Acquisitiontime: within 20 s. Indicatedaccuracy,ground speedand drift meter: 3'5 at 100 knots; 5 at 300 knots, drift t 0'5o. Indicatedaccuracy,hover meter: along and across velocitiesI I knot, verticalvelocity t 40 ft min-I. Marconi AD 660 Power:200 mW. Frequency: 13'325 GHz. Modulation:f.m.c.w. Number of beams:four, sequential. Velocity range: l0-800 knots.


Simulated flight path

Sta$ 2



Stage 1

Start flight to check Fig, 10.23 Test conditionsfor simulated computer(seetext)


can be eliminatedby sleivingin the oppositedirection error. by the sameamount to producea cancelling part of a Doppler To check the computer/display navigatora coursemust be simulatedby setting heading(d.g., directionalgyro, selected), compass drift angleiground speedand waypoint courseand slewing controls. Having usingappropriate distance set everythingup the computeris switchedon for a timed run, at the end of which the displayedreadings be d-rould asindependentlycalculated. Usually a figuresfor written procedurewill give the necessary easy sucha checkbut in any casethey are reasonably As an example,startingwith the to work out. following: Waypoint I Waypoint 2 track 335" track 065" distance15 nauticd miles distance15 nautical milqs

Appendix Aircraft and Earth Betrrveen Relationships Co-Ordinates
l A s i n F i g .A l 0 . l l e t i ' , i ' , k ' b e o r t h o g o n au n i t co-ordinatesystem vectorsdefining a right-handed by with the positivedirection of the axis spanned i' beingforward along the aircraft'slongitudinal axis by and ihe positivedirection of the axis spanned i' starboardalong the aircraft'slateral axis. being

OlO" Heading l0o starboard Drift Ground speed 600 knots at the end of the simulatcd two-hg flight the across distanceshouldbe zeto, the distancefTown42 nauticalmiles and the time taken 4 min l4'5 s, all to within the tolerancelaid down for the system. Ramp test setshavebeenproducedfor Doppler by usually purpose-built the manufacturerof systems, as the radar and not general-purpose are, for example, one VOR, DME, ILS, etc. test sets. Sometimes will which can be switches find meterswith associated andior usedto monitor variousinternal voltages but this is more likely on older multi'unit currents equipment. to It is important for accuracy ensurethe antenna is alignedwith the aircraft'slongitudinalaxis. The as Doppler will interpret any slight misalignment a is of alignment all antennas error. lnitial drift-angle systemoncethe but with a fixed antenna important hole is cut in the airframe,correctly aligned,the only for cause concernafterwardsis that the antennais fitted the ccrrectway round. With moving-antenia an systems alignmentprocedurefor the antenna mounting is carriedout initially by usingsightingrods on the mountingand the aircraft' Viewingthe rods from a distanceto ensurethey arein line, and then bolts throughthe slotted the tiglrtening securing that the holesin the mountingplate,will ensure without a need. changed can be subsequently antenna one shouldbe check.- although for an alignment out on rnajor inspections. carried FE. At0.l Aircraft co-ordinates unit As in Fig. A 10.2let i, i , k be orthogonal co-ordinatesystem vectorsdefining a right-handed by with the positivedirection of the axis spanned f axis longitudinal beingforward alongthe aircraft's projectedon to a plane parallelto the ground and the by positivedirection of the axis spanned 7 being starboardalong the aircraft'slateral axis projectedon to a planeparallelto the ground.

k Fig.A10.2 Earthco-ordinates Further le! positivepitch be nose'upand positive then from Figs.A10.3 wing-down, roll be starboard and A10.4 we have: i'= k'= icosP-ksinP isinP+kcosP

i'= TcosR+/rsinR k'= -i sinR+kcosR


sinceZ is thevectorsumof Vd,VA' and l/y'. Thus:

vn = hvi+av{+vvl
of whereft, a andv arethe magnitudes the projeition system axisof the co'ordinate ofz on to each i . e . u= h i + a i + v k that for: A10.6andA10.7we see A10.5, FromFigs
b e a mI beam2 beam 3 beam4 h= -H h= H h= H h=-H a= A a= A a= -A a=-A

v v v v

= = = =


where = cos0 cosa;.4 = cos0 sina; Z = sind. I/

k' roll F8. A10.4 Aircraft Thus the matrix of transition from l, i, k to i', i', /c' is givenby:

'[i :-il lrrhn] F::
sin P sinR cosR cosP sinR sin P cosRl -sinR l=U cosP cosRJ (Al0.l)

Fig. A10.5

Velocities in longitudinal/lateral plane


f cosf =10 l-sin P

l!1, vectorl/ hasco-ordinates velocity If the aircraft to Vt, Vv with respect i, i, k andVfi , Va', Vf with lo respect i',i',k'we have:

V(/ Fig. A10.6 Velocitiesin planenormalto longitudinal/lateral plane

P i.e. Vy = Vrt cos + Vj sinPsin R + Vi sinPcosR - Vl sin R Va' cos R V.e= = -Vi sin P + Va' cosPsinR + Izf cosP cosR Vv


The Doppler Shifts for a Four-Beam Janus Configuration

Fig. A10.7

Aircraft velocity vector

Now the Dopplershiftsaregivenby/2 =2Vnf lc' velocityvector24, in Themagnitude the relative of is of thedirection anybeam the innerproductof the. therefore: velocityvectorV andthe unit vectoralong aircraft fi = 2f (-H Vl +,a Va'+ Y Vl)lc centroid, Thus: a. thebeam Vx'+ V Vf)lc

VR= V'u =(Vi+V71'+Vv).u

fr=2f(HVil+A f s = 2 f ( H V r i - A vA'+ v vi)lc fc = 2f(-H vi 'l v; + v vi)lc

(Ar 0.2)


The Aircraft Velocity in Earth Co-Ordinates Expressed Termsof DopplerShifts in
- From equations (A10.2) we have:

where = 47cof Kp .", "

v1i= c(fz;fr\=+*-fr

=c(h v; =c(20p. -rrr-



c i,4 = AEos;1il-;
"! Y

c(fz + v l = c ( fi +ft) - __4TTfq)

are known constants.

4f sin 0

rl4 is obtained from pitch and roll signalsandf1,f2,fg are the Doppler shifts measured beamsl, 2 and 3. on Substituting Vfi, Vt' , Yi from equations for (A10.3) Note beam4 is redundantbut could be usedfor (Al0.l) we have: checking purposes. into equations


11 Radioaltimeter

The meaningof the terms aircraft altitude or height is complicatedby the variousreferences used from which the height can be measured.A barometric altimeter senses static pressure aircraft leveland the at givesa readingdependent the differencebetween on and the pressure somereference {his pressure at level. For aircraft flying aboveabout 3000 ft, the reference of paramount importance that levelcorresponding is to a pressure 1013.25 of mbar(29-92in.Hg),the so-called mean sealevel. The other barometric references usedare local sealevel and airfield level. The pilot is able to set the reference level pressure at l0l3'25 mbar,QNH (localsealevel- regional) QFE or (airfield level),the Q codesbeingusedin communication with air traffic control(ATC). Conversely radio altimeter measures height the the of the aircraft abovethe ground. lf an aircraft is in levelflight the barometricaltimeter readingwill be steadywhile the radioaltimeterreading will be varying unlessthe aircraft is ffying over seaor plain. It follows that radio altimetersare most usefulwhen closeto the ground, say below 2000 ft, and particularly so when landingproviding the final approachis over a flat surface. As a consequence, radio altimetersdesigned usein civil aircraft are for low-levelsystems, typical maximum ranges available being 5000, 2500 or even500 ft in the caseof usein automaticlandingsystems.Military aircraft can utilize high-levelradio altimeters.

necessary orderto 'mark' tlie time of transmission. in both f.m. and pulsedtransmissions used. The are methodof time measurement depends the type of on modulationusedand the complexityof the airborne equipment which is acceptable. Threebasictypesof altimeterare marketed: pulse, conventional f.m.c.w. (frequency modulated continuous wave)and constant diflerence frequency f.m.c.w. The bgsicprinciple of a pulsedsystemis simple, sincethe transmitted and received pulses clearly represent events between which the time can be measured. With f.m.c.w.thereis no single event duringone cycleof the modulating frequency; however specific timesduringone-half cyclecanbe identified by the instantaneous frequency beingtransmitted. Sincethe transmitter frequency continuously is changing, received the signal,which hasbeen subject to delaydue to the round-triptraveltime, will be different in frequencyto the transmittedsignalat any instant in time. The differencefrequency,fi, can be shown to be proportional to the height as follows. Assumea triangularmodulatingwaveformof frequencyfm and amplitudesuchthat the carrier,'/", is modulated overa range A/. This situationis illustrated Fig. I I .l . Th€ two-waytraveltime is in 2Hlc where11is the heightand c the speed light. of The magnitude the rateof change transmitted of of frequency 2 . A/. f^ (= 0.5 Lf lO10.25fil. The is productof the elapsed time and the rateof change of frequency will givethe diflerence frequency in between transmitted and received frequency thus:

Radioheightis measured usingthe basicideaof radio ranging, measuring elapsed i.e. the time between transmission an e.m.waveand its reception of after reflectionfrom the ground. The heightis givenby hAlf the productof the elapsed time and the speed of

f n = 2 . L f. f ^ . 7 , = 4 . A f. f ^ . H l c

( rl . r )

Tltus the measurement the beatliequencv of determines heightsince .Lf . f^jc is a known the 4 constantfrrr any particular system. The beatfrequency constant, triangular is for modulation, exccptat thc turn-around regiontwice havethat the average beatfrequency 2Zps is for fnl2 l'orthe restof the moclulating cycle;thebeat frequencyis constantat fi . If the average beat

& & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & &c y& & & & & &S i& &e t& & & &r o& & & t& & & s p l 4 9 2 t nr? .e is w eh e e l a p s e d t i m e i n & nc & urn-a & und ake &= acei ( b g ngt per & cle.

microseconds). Energyis radiated a frequency the band at h 42OO'44O0 MHz. Modulation of the carrieris



Thfi will result in'a vertical dhplacetnent of thc graph sigral in Fig. I l.l. The effect for a of the received aircraft (positiveshift) is shown in descending is Fig. I1.2. As canbe seenthe beatfrequency fn - fa andfi, + f6 for equalperiods. If we take the over half a ntodulationperiod we get average fn ) fa which will be the casewith a radio altimeter.

This Un +fa +fn - fil2 =fh asrequired. assumes


o C o t ct o E o .9 ! o G

radioaltimeter frequency/time Fig.I l.l A FMCW relationship frequencyover one modulatingcycle is detectedwe will havea measured frequencyfi givenby:



= fn '= (((tlf; -2r)fn + rfnl2)fm fm(r - 3Tfmlz)


(l1.2) o


With the aircraft at about 2000 ft andf^ = 2OOHz we have: fn = fn (l _ 0.0012)

shifton beatfrequency of Fig.I 1.2 Theeffect Doppler

i.e. an error of about 2.4 ft at 2000 ft. On the ground (l with therewill still be an elapsed tlsingequation l.l) we seethat for a system time, due to built-in delay,ofabout 0.12 ps corresponding a residual to A.f = 100 MHz (42504350 MHz) andf ^ = 200 Hz altitude(seelater)of 57 ft, say. Whenwe use the beat frequencyfi = (4 X 100X 106X 2OOH)/ (984 X 106)= 8011sothe range fp lor a ol 0'12 ps andf^ = 2OO (l Illlll= Hzin equation 1.2)we altitudeof 57 ft with a residual find that the erroron the grounddue to the averaging 0-2500ft altimeter kHz. Thiswide bandrvidth can of the non-constant would be 4'56-?.04'56 beatfrequency about 0.002 ft is a difference which is insignificant. by' be reduced maintaining constant sensitivity.Since In practice perfecttriangular a frequency thusimproving modulating fi frequency difficult to achieve, is on depends both Lf andf * we canvary eitherin someroundingat so proportionto the heig.ht keeping the turn-around takingplace. In fact with any inverse fi reasonably shape-modulation waveform, canbe it constant. servo loop nrustmonitor the shownthat the average beatfrequency when usedin The necessary ( and control the modulatorso as equation I I .l ) will yield a heightreading frequency which is diff'erence The control signal c o r r e cw i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e i t s . A p p e n d i xI L I t im to changeLl'or frt accortlingly. proves this for sinusoidal the frequency modulation,whichrepresents heightof the aircraft, Sincethe proportionalto is to variable madeinversely is easier obtainsincethe rateof change carrier of controlled frequency bounded magnitude unity. is difficult to employthe technique in by heightit becomes particularly whenA/ is varied. This lf thereis relative motion between aircraftand at lower heights. the of b1' the groundimrnediately canbe overcorne the contpromise below the received frequency latterproblenr a will experience Dopplershift,/a (seeChapterl0). a c lt o p e r a t i n g o n v e n t i o n a l ay l o w a l t i t u d e s n d r v i t h 190

constantj[ otherwise,or by modifying feedbackin the loop such that fp varies with any change in altitudebut not oversucha greatrange it would as with no feedback.The Frenchlnanufacturer TRT producealtimeters with constant at all heights, fi control beingachievedby varytngf^; the tolerance + I ft or I per centis met.

FactorsAffecting Performance
Ihe accuracy a radioaltimeter of depends fundamentallyon the precisionwith which the time of transmission marked. For precise is timing a wide transmitted spectrum required is sincethis would lead to a steepleading edgein a pulsedsystem in the or, case f.m.c.w.,a largefrequency of deviation which effectively givesan expanded scale. Ofcourse a finite spectrum transmitted is and in fact is limited to a total spread between of 4200 and 4400 MHz by (the band 1600-1660 international legislation MHz hasalsobeenallocated useby radioaltimeters for but is no longerused). In an f.m.c.w.system countermay be usedwhich a the measures numberof cycles half-cycles one or in periodof the modulation.Sincethe counteris unable to measure fractions a cycle,other than possibly of a half, the count is a discrete number. The process results a quantization in error calledstepor fixed ( error. We may rewriteequation I I .l ) as:


(l r.3)

= where,rV fnlfn is the number of beat frequency (to nearest cycles integer below)in the modulation cycle. Sincely' is an integerthe height measured will be subjectto a quantization error calledsteperror equalto cl4Al'which with A/= 100 MHz is2.46 ft. In practicein any one rnodulation periodthe actualcount will depend the nurnberof on positive-going crossings the beat frequency, zero of this could be N or N + I depending phasing.So if on y'y' varies count will jurnp between and the phasing thc Iy'+ | and backso avertging the steperror out p r o v i d i n g h e t i r r r c o n s t l n t< l ft h e i n d i c a t i n g i r c u i ti s t c c l a r g e o r n p u r ew li t h t l t 0 t i r r r e e t w e e n o u n t c 't b c f l u c t u a l i o n s l t c l n b e s h o w t rh a t t h ec o u n tw i l l . l lirr change a charrgc- lrcightol'u quarterof a in w a v e l c n g to l t l r c r . l ' . A t t l r el ' r c q u e n cu s e df o r h y r r a d i oa l l i r r r c t c r . t l u i t r t co l ' a w a v e l c n g tils l e s s h a n i s( r t I i n . l n d l r c n c c r r r l c s l y i r r g v e ' v c r ys n t o o t h r ls o r h s u r l a c ets c l l L r c t t r l t i r r gd i o l r c i g h w i l l c a u s e l t a v e r a g i no r r l o l ' t h c e r r o r . l ) e . l i b e r a t e l y b b l i n g h e g wo t

phaseof the modulation frequencywill alsohavethe desiredeffect providingthe wobbulation rate, say l0 Hz, canbe filteredout. lf a frequencydiscriminatoris usedto measure frequencythe steperror is not presentsince is measurement continuous ratherthan discrete.With f.m.c,w.altimeters. conventional however. ranse the of frequencies be measured largeand to is discrirninatorcircuitssufficiently stableand linear are difficult to achieve. With a constant difference frequency f.m.c.w.altimeter discriminator a can easilybe usedto detect the smallchanges which occur in l7r. The received signalstrengthvarieswith the height ofthe aircraft. From the radarrange equationthis variation is as the fourth power of the range;however with an altimeterthe greaterthe range(height) the greater areaof the target(ground)is illuminated. the For radio altimeters therefore. variation as the the is square the range.The gainfrequency of characteristic of the difference frequency amplifier(f.m.c.w.) should be suchthat the higher frequencies are amplifiedmore than the lower. Sucha characteristic helpsby reducing dynamicrange the the of frequency-measuring circuitand alsoreduces low frequency noise. Part of the two-waytraveltime is accounted by for the aircraftinstallation delay(AID). Since, ideally, the radio altimetershouldreadzero feet cln touchdown,the residual altitudewhich accounts for the AID is madeup of cablelength,multipliedby a factor (typically l'5) to allow for propagation speed, and the sum of the antenna heights.It is important that the system calibrated asto allow for AlD. is so One method which hasbeenr.rsed an altimeter for utilizedfor blind landing to measure difference is the frequency touchdown a numberof flight trials on on of a particular type ofaircraft. The frequency arrived at empirically canbe injected into the difference frequency amplifieron the benchand the setcan then be adjusted givea zero feetoutput. A mole to commonmethodis to calibrate cuttingthe by antenna feeders an appropriate to length;this will be 'lnstallation'. described underthe heading Transmitter-receiver leakage be viewedasnoise can which limits the receiver sensitivity alsomay and reading.Useof separate transmit cause erroneous an will and receive a antennas givespace attenuation, figurein the regicnof about75 dB shouldbe aimed e f o r i n a n i n s t a l l a t i ow h e r e , t h a l t i m e t eo u t p u t i s n r and usedin critlcalsystems suchasautomatic Ianding ( g r o u n d r o x i m i t yw a r n i n g g . p . w . s . ) . p Signals occurring nearzerorange caused at are by gearand other appendages, reflections frorn landing 191




r.caraf \
\ \


Time (pulsed). Freq.(f.m.c.w.)

performance Fig,I1.3 Some factors affecting aswell as the leakage signalreferredto above. In pulsedsystems and lowest frequencytracking (spectrum both constant-difference frequencyand pulse filtering)in f.m.c.w.systems usedto is altimetersa trackingloop is employedto follow the retain accuracy. in changes altitude. Initially, the altitude will be with a response The altimeter can be designed time unknownso a search mode is entered which,while in the orderof a few milliseconds; however one does seeking correct altitude, will vary receivergain. the not normally wish to follow the snrallest variationsof As previously discussed, low altitudes gainwill at the the groundbelow. The output is usuallyfilteredwith be low, thus while searcfuing the frequency in a time constant saya few tenthsof a second. of (f.m.c.w.)or time (pulsed) regionof the unwanted signals largegain reductionensures the they are weak. The groundreturnis relatively strongensuring lock-on Block Diagram Operation to the correctsignal and henceindicationof the actualradioaltitude. therearethreemain approaches As alreadymentioned Multipath signals arisesincethe first-time-around to radio altimeters.Most altimeters of the f.m.c.w, are echowill be reflectedfrom the airframeback down beingconventional the type, the majority of these for to the groundand returnasa second-time-around sakeof simplicity. Althoughtrackingf.m.c.w.and echo. Whilethis multipathsignal will be considerably pulsedsystems more complex they do have are weakerthan the required signal height-controlled advantages conventional the over f.m.c.w.aswill be gainwill in part nullify this favourable situation. In paragraphs. from the previous Simplified appreciated trackingaltimeters initial or subsequent the search for block diagrams the threetypeswill be considered. canbe in the directionof increasing altitudeso lockingon to the correctsignal first, a similar Conventionalf.m.c.w. Altimeters approach outboundsearch DME. to in a in comprises The transmitter a modernequipment Aircraft pitch and roll will meanthat the beam oscillatorfrequencymodulatedat typically solid-state centreis no longervertical; however the beamis if Hz 100-150 rate. Whilemost of the power fairly broad,at leastpart of the transmitted energy (0'5-l W) is radiated from a broadlydirectional will take the shortest route to the ground. Provided antenna smallportion is fed to the mixer to beat a receiver sensitivity adequate is therewill be sufllcient with the received signal. energyreceived point for accurate from the nearest sample a in The echois mixedwith the transmitter measurement. balanced mixer to producethe beat strip-line A consequence broad beamsis that in flying of mixer helpsin reduction frequency.Useo{ a balanced overroughterrain,reflections be received will from The gainof the noisein the receiver. of transmitter angles other than the vertical.Sincethe non-vertical wide bandbeat frequency with amplifierincreases pathshavea longertwo-waytraveltime the spectrum frequency compensate the low signal levelof for to of the difference frequency will be spread (ground (highaltitude). Signal limiting the high frequencies diffusion). The spectrum shape wili be steepat the variations gives and a amplitude removes unwanted low frequency end corresponding the correci to signal form for the counter. suitable altitudemuch the sameasthe pulseshapein a pulsed frequency-measuring circuit A cycle-counting system will havea steep leading edge,(see I l.3b Fig. provides d.c. signal the indicator. Basically to a and c). This spectrumwideningis increased by ol'a switching circuitscontrol the charging suitable aircraftroll and pitch. Leadingedgetrackingin is so capacitor that a fixed amountof charge 192

Fig. I1.4 Conventional FMCW altimeterblock diagram

Ft. | 1.5 Constant difference frequency FMCW altimeter block diagram pnerated for each cycle (or half-cycle) of the

rmknownbeat frequenry. With the simplesttype of indicatorthe total chargeper second(current) is hdicated on a milliammeter calibratedin feet. Condant Differencc Frequency f.m.c.w. Altimeten This approachis similar to a conventionalf.m.c.w. dtimeter at the r.f. end. The beat frequency anplifier is a narrow band with gain controlled by &e loop so that it increases with altitude. A tracking discriminatorcompares beat frequency,/6, with the ainternal reference,fr;if the two are not the same, tr crror signalis fed to the loop control. The outputs of the loop control circuit are usedto -t the modulator frequency,f^ (or amplitude if &viation, Al is controlled), to set the gain of the anplifier and to drive the indicator. The change in f- (or A/) is such as to make/6 = /' . Obviouslyany dage in height will lead to a changein/6 and

consequent loop action to bring/6 back to the requiredrate;in doing so the indicator feedwill change.lf f6 andf, are far removed,search action is instigated whereby the modulator frequency(or A/) is made to sweepthrough its rangefrom low to high until lock on is achieved. hrlsed Altimeters A simplifiedblock diagrarfi a typical pulsed of altimeter shownin Fig. I 1.6. Suchaltimeters is are manufactured by, amongothers,Honeywell;the figuresmentionedin the descriptionof operation which follow arefor the Honeywell7500Be series. A p.r.f. generator operating 8 kHz keysthe at transmitterwhich feedsthe antennawith pulseof r.f. of 60 ns duration and frequency4300 MHz. The peakpower is about 100W. A time reference radiated signal,/6, is fed from the transmitterto initiate a precisionramp generator.


reliablesignal(tive or six pulses)is received when the track loop becomes operational. Tx During track the overlapofthe track gatepulse and videopulsedetermines magnitude a current the of which is comparedwith a reference (offset) current. to Wherethe two currents equal,the output of the are rate circuit (integrator) is zero, otherwisea positiveor voltageis fed to the rangecircuit. The range negative circuit (integrator) adjustsits output voltage,Vp, if Ramp its input is non-zero. Since I/p determinesthe timing of the track gatepulse any change /p will cause in I I the previouslymentionedoverlapto alter until such 1r6ck gate | pulse time as the loop is nulled,i.e. overlapcurrent= | I N reference current. Any change height will in Video rcturn thereforeresult in a changein Zp to bring the loop back to the null condition. Automaticgaincontrol (..g.c.)and sensitivity time Fig.I 1.6 Pulse altimeter blockdiagram control(s.t.c.)are fed to the receiver wherethey control the gain of the i.f. arnps. During search the The ramp voltageis compared with the range a.g.c. circuitsmonitor the noiseoutput of the receiver /4, which is proportional the indicated voltage, to and adjustits gainso asto keepnoiseoutput constant. height. When the ramp voltagereaches Vp atrack The s.t.c.reduces gainof the receiver a short the for gatepulseis generated and fed to gateB and an time, equivalent say50 ft after transmission, to and gatepulseis fed to gateA. The detected elongated then its controldecreases linearlyuntil a time video pulseis also fed to gates and B. A further A equivalent say200 ft. This actionprevents to gatepulseis fed to the a.g.c. circuits. ircquisition unwantedsignals, of suchasleakage, a Unless reliable signal detected is within the duringthe search mode. gatepulsethe trackisearch elongated circuitwill During track the a.g.c.maintainsthe video signalin sigralthe commencement a search of gateat a constant cycleand break the a.g.c. level. This is importantto the track loop by removing reference its precisetracking of the received currentfeed.. ensure signalsince any During search search generator the drive to the range variation amplitude in would cause areaof overlap the circuitensures that I/p, starting from a voltage to track gateand videosignals change.At low to representing feet,runsout to a voltage zero gain, heights track the a.g.c. on reduces receiver the representing 2500 ft. The search cyclerepeats Whenthe until a so helpingto avoidthe effectsof leakage.






height readingof the radio altimeter it is likely that therewill be a signalfailure detected. Sincethis is due to attenuation because ofexcessive range, and not a failure or degradation the altimeter,it is of desirable that no warningof failure is given and that Monitoring and Self-Test the pointer on the indicator is parked out of view. A cruise-monitoring circuitmay be incorporated The integrity of the radio altimeter output is vital, particularlyin automatic landingapplications. Circuit which, usinga delayedand attenuatedfeed between transmitter and receiver, checks continuing redundancy and comparisonis an effectiveway of of operationin the absence a detectable dealing with the problem. For exampletwo separate satisfactory received signal.Any warningto the autopilotmust dtitude-measuring circuits may accepta feed from by monitoring; shouldbe it not be affected cruise the mixer and independentlyarrive at the aircraft's activewheneverthere is a lossof r.f. or when any height. Should the two heightsbe different by more than an acceptable amount, a warning signalis sent to other failureis detected.Contraryto the above, reactto a lossof signal many radioaltimeters by the indicator and any other systems which the to parkingthe pointer and displayingthe flag. height inlormation is fed. A disadvantage using of The antenna and feeder, not properlymatched if redundancy and comparisononly is that no attempt ii to the transmitter,will give rise to a reflectionwhich madeto eliminatethe causeof failure, so information problems it with may cause since will be delayed is lost. respect the transmitted to signal.A directional Self-calibration an approachwhich is able to is couplingcircuit may be usedto monitor the reflected for compensate small errors. If a part of the v.s.w.r. and so givea warningof excessive signal transmitteroutput is passed through a precisiondelay The monitoringand self-calibration circuitsvary line the resultingsignalcan be usedto provide a 'check a height'. For example a conventional in f.m.c.w. greatlyin detail and in how comprehensive checkis on out. All, however, detecting failurewill a systemthe delayedtransmittersamplemay be mixed carried providea warning signalto operatea flag in the with an undelayedtransmittersampleto give a beat indicatorand a similar, but usuallyseparate, warning with a suitable frequency which may be compared signal other systems, to dependent radio altitude on frequency. lf the two frequencies are reference information. In particular a tie-inwith autopilot if different the modulatingsignalis adjustedto bring the will control them in line; for example,if the beat frequencyis too hasbeenestablished, warningsignal an interlock circuit within the autopilot systemwhich ( A/ low, equation I I . I ) tellsus that increasing by prevents erroneous informationdictatingthe flight the increasing modulatingsignalamplitude will, in providelatchedindicator the turn, increase beat frequencyas required. Similar path. Somemanufacturers frequency lightson the front panelof the transmitter-receiver ideas may be appliedto constant-difference which give an indicatioq of the areaof failure. wheresuitable f.m.c.w.and pulsedaltimeters A self-test facilityis usuallyprovided wherebya parameters adjustedasnecessary. are delayline, ideallybetween antennas, switched is in, loop suchas described above A self-calibration thusgivinga predetermined reading the indicator. on usingwhat is essentially may operate continuously A disadvantage sucha facility is that it introduces of redundantcircuitry. Howeverin equipmentwhere devices suchasco-axial cablerelays the altitude is measured meansof a loop, suchas a electromechanical by which are,of course, something to go wrong. It else f.m.c.w.system. we servoed slope(controlled f^) that checking that the reading the on may be argued wherethe self-calibration may havesequential groundbefore take-off is somespecifiedIigure near loop is switched,perhapsthree times per measuring zerois adequate, nevertheless, but someform of mode. into self-calibrate second. in-flighttest facilityis usuallyrequired. signalquality is a featureof Checkingreceived the button, providingthe of On pushing self-test most altimeters. In a pulsedsystemthe presence pulses a gatepulseis feasible; a equipment operating correctly. failurewarning the in is received in detected to the frequencyaltimeter the presence output shouldbe activeso causing warningt'lag constant-difference on beat is checked. appear the indicatorand,moie important. of a spectrum centredon the required preventing autopilotutilizingradioaltimeter the With a conventional f.m.s.w.altimeterone cannot an part of the time or frequency information. As an extra safeguard. interlock checka particular oncethe self-test shouldbe providedso asto prevent plus noiseto noiseratio may be domainbut signal has autopilotor any other system begunto makeuse monitored. heightoutput. of the radioaltimeter Whenthe aircraft is flying abovethe maximum 195

the heightincreases leakage signalis, of course,gated out. givingtime discrimination.

previously, milliammeter As mentioned a may be used to indicate heightbut an altemative a servo-driven is pointer. A decision height(DFI)facility is also provided.The pilot setstlle DH bug to the required heightreading and in doingso determines voltage the V1, fed to a comparator.The other comparator input is a d.c. analogue which if lessthan Iz4 altitudesignal w i l l c a u s eh e D H l a m p t o l i g h t ,s o w a r n i n g h e p i l o t t t that the aircraliis flying below the DH setting. A b l o c kd i a g r a m f a n i n d i c a t o irs s h o w ni n F i g . I 1 . 7 . o whereisolationamplifiers havebeenomitted for simplicitv.

usedparticularly laterally to avoid roll error in which case leadingedge tracking(pulsed)or spectium-filtering (servoed slopef.m.c.w.)must perform adequately. The antennas must be mountedsufficientlyfar apart to avoidexcessive leakage not so far apartasto but producea largeparallaxerror at touchdown,a spacing between in. and 8 ft may be required. 20 lf the spacing betweenantennas, mounted longitudinally, 8 ft and the midpoint of the line is joining the antennas say,7 ft abovethe groundon is, touchdown, then half the shortest distance between x via the antennas the groundwill be (42 + 72)o's g 11 givinga parallax error of I ft on landing. This may be takeninto accountwhen calculatine residual the



l E a-L-$oH set \ E
Comparator DH bug or index
Differential amp

Fig. I 1.7 Simplified servodriven indicator




lFla( FigureI 1.8 illustrates single radio altimeter a test I installationshowinginterfaceand selectionlinks. Supply pass energyto and from the feeders Co-axial r.f. Transmitterreceiver by transmitand receive antennas way of separate f Whenself-test activated transmitted L r n K s l a t o the is switches. MOD energy fed to the delayunit whereit is attenuated is anddelayed beforebeingfed back to the receiver. feeder lengthand delayis installation For a particular on may be known so the correctreading self-test in and calculated entered the pilot checklist and functionaltest procedure. flush-mounted are The antennas broadlydirectional, givinga beamwidth hornsoften beingemployed beams may be Fig.I1.8 R a d i o a l t i m e t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n about 20o and 40o. Broader between

To other systems: autopilot, GPWS, flight director


Division) BendixAviohics Fig. I1.9 ALA-5lA (courtesy

DH ind.

lrt Lamp\

Alt display tape
DH Select -_''Buq

DH ref. symbol DH tao

Flag AlC ret. symbol


DH adjust and self test button
oH select/' Test Knob

Fig. ll.ll Typical moving vertical scale indicator

with KRA l0 radio for FiE I l.l0 KI 250indicator use (courtesy Radio Corp.) King altimeter of in altitude. Good performance respect leading edgetrackingor spectrumfiltering will make parallax in error worse. A further consideration antenna from excessive reflections is positioning avoiding in suchasthe undercarriage; this protuberances respectsidelobe energymust be kept low (say 40 dB down). must be mountedwithin receiver The transmitter

reachof the antennarsincethe feederlength is low power, is critical. Sincethe transmiiter relatively cooling problembut forced-air coolingis not a severe energy with up to 50 W of dissipated ableto cope may be required.The powersupplywill be I l5 V a'c' is Hz 4OO if the equipment to ARINC specifications will but 28 V d.c.equipments be found. Aircraft Installation DelaYtime delay(AID) is the elapsed Aircraft installation 197

betweentransmit and receive when the aircraft is at touchdown,and is due to the delay in the feeders and the height of the antennas abovethe ground. In order that the indicator will readzero feet on landins the installationmust be calibrated. Variousmetho-ds have bien used,by far the most common being that laid down in ARINC 552,{; AID is definedby the formula:

interchangeability transmitter-receivers of between different installations. In practiceon a new installation, havingdetermined positions the antennas, minimum cable suitable for a length for feasiblet.r. location will be found. Equation( I I .4) cannow be usedto decidethe AID and to calculate cablelengths.ARINC 552A and, the usually, manufacturers' providea = P+K(Ct+Cr) installation manuals AID (r1.4) graphfrom which cablelength can be readoif. Ar un where: . e x a m p l e o n s i d e r P =l 0 f t , m i n i m u mt o t a l c a b l e c P is total minimum path length between transmit l e n g t h = 0 f t a n d K = 1 . 5 .W e h a v e l and receive antennas the ground when the via P + K (Ct + Cr) = 25 ft so the 20 ft AID cannot be aircraft is in the touchdownposition (minimum used. If we choose then total cablelenethis 40 path length is specifiedto avoid parallaxerror); (40 - l0)/l .5 = 20 ft, whereas with 57 *.luu. K is the ratio of the speedof light to the speedof 3l'3 ft. One shouldbe careful, when usinga graph, propagation the co-axial of (typically 1.5); to ensure cable that it corresponds the type of cable to C1is the transmitterfeederlength; (RG beingr"rsed - 9/U in ARINC 552A) and further C, is the receiver feederlength. check the axeswhich may be total cablelength or (AID is not in fact aircraftinstallationdelay eachcableand total path or antenna height(each sinceAID is an elapsed time whereas the cableys.antenna heightin ARINC 552A). right-handsideof ( I I .4) is in feet. A more accurate term would be residual altitude.) Interface Wereit not for the usewhich is madeof radioaltitude informationby other systems, is doubtful whether it many civil aircraftwould carry radioaltimeters.The outputsavailable heigirt, are rateof change height, of trip signals and validity (l1agor warning)signal. Some of these will be fed to the autoland/autopilot system, the g.p.w.s. and a flight director. Most frequentlyusedarea d.c. analogue aircraft of heightwherever system a needs continuously to monitor radioheightand,essential, switched, a lail-safevalidity signal(invalid low). The rate signal, i.e. rate of change height,may be derived the of in system utilizingthe heightsignal, if providedwill but take the form of a phase-reversing analogue a.c. sigral (ARINC 552A). The trips areswitchable voltages, d.c. switchingtaking placewhen the aircraft transits througha pre-set height,the DH bug is sometimes calleda pilot set trlp. Againtrip signals may be generated thosesystems in usingthe heightanalogue sigrral. Autolandor blindlandingsystems must haveradio heightinformationwhich will be usedto progressively reducethe gain of the glideslope signalamplifier (not radio)in the pitch channel after the aircraftpasses overthe outer marker,and will alsobe usedto generate signals trip within tlte autoflare computer. The followingis a brief summary events of with radio heights: 140 ft (a) radioaltimeter interlockswitched in;

Calibrationis achreved cutting the cablesto a by lengthwhich givesan AID of 20, 40 or 57 ft (figures of 40,57 and 80 fr arequoted in draft proposais from ARINC in 1978). The transmitter-receiver is bench calibrated the 57 ft AID standard.Grounding for one of threepins on the t.r. plug by means a jumper of externalto the unit selects appropriate the zero-bias adjustmentto give the 20,40 or 57 ft AID as required. The result of choosingthis method is


+ o

P-------> Fig.ll.l2 198 An AID calibration chart(& = 1.5)

used. Whetherdual or triple installations used are depends the probabilityofan undetected on degradation; consequently dual radioaltimeters will only be usedwhere monitoring, self-calibration and redundancyare deemedsufficiently comprehensive and reliable. As soon as'onefits more than one radio altimeter to an aircraftthe possibility ofinterference exists. If. the number I systemwere to receive leakage a signal from number 2 a falseheight readingmay result. Also This sequence applicable, example,to a is for sincethe antennas broadlydirectional are and all BAC I -l I series 500 aircraft usingan Elliott series facingdownwardsthe echo from number I will be ll00 auto touchdownsystem.The 140and 90 ft received number 2 (and 3) and vice-versa. by trips are fed from the radio altimeter;the othersare Various safeguards employed. Minimum are generated the autoflare in computer. couplingmay be achieved separating pairsof by the The g.p.w.s. needs radioheighttrips on all modes antennas sufficiently (at least8 ft, say) and possibly profile changes sincethe abruptlyat differentheights. ensuringthat the E fieldsof adjacentpairsare at right ' Mode2 operation xcessive ise terrainclosure warning (seeFig. I l.l3). and so depends the rateof change radio height. angles on of As a iurther precautionmultiple-installation The trip signals and the rate signalwill normally be altimeterswill employ different modulation generated within the g.p.w.s.using validheight frequencies.As an exampleof how this helps, irrformation from the radioaltimeter. consider Fig. 11.14wherewe havetwo altimeters, one Somemulti-functionflight directorinstruments operatingwith a modulation frequencyof 100 Hz, havea risingrunwaysymbolwhich movesup to meet an aircraft symbol as the aircraft descends to touchdown. Operation typicallyoverthe last is 100 ft. The verticalmovementof the rising runway t l depends the height analogue on --rj t Fsignalfrom the radio altimeter, while its lateralmovement controlledby t t l is l-+: o the ILS localizeroutput. Failure of either radio c fb iA o { f ' c altimeteror localizer causes risingrunway to be the o obscured a'RUNWAY' flag. by r

(b) changes response glidepath in to signals; 120 ft (a) preparatory functions; 90 ft (a) check 140 ft operation: 50 ft (a) glidepath signal disconnected; (b) throttle closure initiated; (c) pitch demand maintains correctdescent rate; 20 ft (a) rudderservodisconnected; (b) ailerons centred.


Multiple Installations All-weatherlandings will only be safeif information fed to the autoland system reliable.To achieve is reliabilityof radioheighta multipleinstallation is

1/105 1/100
F i g . I l . l 4 D u a l - i n s t a l l a t i o nm o d u l a t i o n l i e q u e n c i e s (100 and 105 Hz)


>20in No. I


l.- *l


>20 in No. 2

E r-


>20 in No. 3



Fig. I l. | 3 Triple-instaltation aerialarrangements


the other 105 Hz (e.9.CollinsALT 50). Assumethat (b) Two trips: singlemake contactsswitchingsupply at one instance time 're' in one of the receivers in from userequipmentbelow pre-set we height. havetwo signals both at fc F 4300 MHz) and both Adjustable0-2500 ft t 6 per cent and increasing frequency;one at 100 Hz rate,the other in 500-1500ft I 6 per cent. at 105 Hz rate. One-hundredth a second of laterthere will be a non-zero beat frequency glen by rateof Optional (additional to above) f6 (a) Synchrooutput representing change frequencyof the most rapidly changing of height to be signalmultiplied by the time lag of the slowesr. So: employedfor displaypurposes.Sameaccuracy as (a) above. = (Lfx 106x 00x2)x(/) 1 fn 200 = ( 1 0 0 1 0 6 1 0 0 2 )x ( l / 1 0 0 l / 1 0 5 ) (b) Altitude rate 400 Hz phasereversing, mV x x x 1 0 0f t - r m i n - l = 9'5MHz. greater Accuracy: than t 20 f.p.m. or f l0 per Thus after one cycle of f^ the interferingbeat is well c e n tu p t o 5 0 f t ; t 3 0 f . p . m .o r t l 0 p e r c e n t out of rangeof the differencefrequencyamplifier 50-500ft. (c) Additional trips: three at 0-200 ft t 3 per cent t bandwidth. The beat will change a 5 Hz rate, at rcaching nraximum 100 MHz. a of 3 ft; two at 0-500 ft t 3 per cent t 3 ft; one at The different modulation frequencies selected 1000-2500 t 6 per cent. i ft are jumper between in a sinrilar way to AID, i.e. by a pins,the jumper beingpart of the fixed appropriate installation.A similartechnique pulsealtimeters Ramp Testing and Maintenance for could be to employ sufficiently different p.r.f.s to 'height' ensurethat the change due to an,interfering It is importantto stress that due to the extensive pulsewould be at a rate fast enoughto prevent that the radio altimeteroutputs interfaceit is essential lock-on by virtue of the altimeter time constant. which it feeds. are compatiblewith thosesystems pins usedto select If we alsoconsider program the modulation frequencyand AID and, further, critical Characteristics feeder lengths, is clearthat replacement units or it of partsof the fixed installation must only bd carried The following are selected and summarizedfrom out when complete compatibility, both internaland A R I N C5 5 2 4 . has external, beenestablished. A functional test on the ramp is quite straightforward. Input I Output r.f. Coupling shouldreadnearlyzero feet when The radio altimeter 50 f,) RG-9/U (or equivalent)co-axialcable. are on. If the antennas mountedforwardof switched Cable+ antenna s.w.r.lessthan l.l : I over frequency the main wheelsthe readingwill be lessthan zero; rcnge4210-4390MHz. if aft of the main wheelsgreaterthan zero. The flag the shouldclearshowing r.f. path is not brokenbut Altitude Range attenuation not provingthe loop gainis sufficient; From 2500 ft to a'few feet'belowtouchdown. to shouldbe introduced checkthis but is unlikelv to be calledfor. Loop Gain Whenself-test operated correctreading is the proper operationup to 2500 ft Sufficientto ensure shouldbe obtainedand the flag should appear. While assuming total feedercablelength of 30 ft of a switch pressed DH bug may the keepingthe self-test RG-9/U,a groundreflection coefficient 0'01 and of be adjustedfrom.a higherto a iower readingthan the with an additional9 dB loop gain for contingencies height pointer, the DH lamp being first lit and then (e.g.longeror differenttype ofcable). the as extinguished the bug passes pointer. which allow test Special-to-type setsare available Outputs variation simulated of altitude:this is usefulfor checkingtrip signals.On somealtimetersoperating Basic the the self-testcauses pointer to sweepagaindue to a (a) d.c. altitudeanalogue: = 0.2h +0.4 below V variation simulated altitude. in 480 ft; V -- l0 + l0 In ( (/, + 20)/500)above 480 ft (ln beinglog to the base e). Accuracy:greaterof ! 2 ft or 2 per cent up to 500 ft, 5 per cent thereafter. Time constant s. 0.1 200


Alsozlz= Lf l2f^, whereA/is total range'od / l7 frequencyvariationso: vl,,= kV1V, sin (nAlI + 2nfrT) cos(2nf^t * n f*T) (A I I .4)

Sinusoidal Frequency Modulation

If the carrier Vs sin 2nf.t is frequencymodulatedby The beat frequencymay be found by differentiating a sinusoidal the argument (angle) (Al 1.4)with respect time waveform, V* sin 2rf^t, then the in to output of the transmitter,vs, and the received signal, and dividing by 2z to give vr, are givenby: fn = -((n LfT)(2nf^) stn(2nf*t - nf^T))l2r = nLfTfln sin(2nf^t -nf*T+n) vt = Vtsin(2rfrt +rnsin2nf*t) (All.l) (All.5) rr = Vr sin (2nf, (t - f) + m sin 2nf* (t - T)) Note the minus sign resultingfrom the differentiation ( A l 1 . 2 ) of the cosineterm hasbeenreplaced a phaseshift by of n radians.The average beatfrequency overhalf a where ?nis the two-way travel time and m is the modulatingcycle,l 12fm, is: modulation index (constant this application). in If received and transmittedsignals fed to a are 7n= 2f* Ullrr^1a,1 multiplicative mixer we have, after some = r LffmT cos nf^T (Al l_6) manipulation,a differencefrequencysignalof: AgainsinceT 4 | I fm, cosn/rrI= l, so: v1 = kV1V, sin(2m sin(nf*T)X 7n o 2Lff^r cos(2nf*Q - fl2)'1 + ZtrfrT) (All.3)

= 4Lff^Hlc

wherek is a constant of proportionality. Since T is much smallerthan I I f^ we may write: sin nf*T x f^T


(l This is the sameasequation l,l) derived assuming a linearmodulating waveform.


12 Area navigation

is controlled airspace lacking in detail but is sufficient With heavy traffic to make clear the disadvantages. we havemany aircraft occupying a relativelysmall pilots navigated by Beforeradio aidswere available, in particularthe scheduled visualcontact with the ground and were responsible proportionof the airspace, air transport aircraft in the airways. To free aircraft from other aircraft. With the for their separation from the airwaysone needsa navigationsystemwhich " it adventof radio and improvedinstrumentation be safelyusedover a largearea,hence area becamepossibleto fly in situationswhere the ground can tied to fixed points, and navigation, not irrevocably could not be couldno longerbe seenand separation on suchasVORTAC beacons, the ground. But one the guaranteed.From suchbeginnings need for airon cango too far; the thought of aircraftconverging ,',navigationaids and controlled and ground-based is an airport from all directions frightening.Whatis becameapparent: regions 'dog legs' new airwayswhich can remove s':rroundingcertain busy neededis In the 1930sthe airspace and parallelexisting ones,thus shorteningroutesand with controlledzones beganto be designated airports times. to relating weatherand to qualifications, flight restrictions, The benefitsof areanavigationare not alwayseasy placedon thosewho wantedto enterthe zone. With or evenpossibleto realize. For examplein the United the growth of air traffic has come the growth of a most usedby air traffic of the Kingdom the areas system. airspace worldwidecontrolled 'shape'ofthis transport type is largely coveredwith scheduled was airspace controlled The and zonesalreadyand an by influenced the introductionof one of the earliest airways,control areas extensionto areanavigationwhich will benefit ground-based navigationaids,radio range. This gavefour beams economicallyis difficult to achieve. However,in in equipment, introduced the 1930s, suchasBritain, smallbut busy regions which suitably equippedaircraft could follow. Beam geographically equipmentis an extremelyusefulbool areanavigation with the adoption flying wascontinuedand intensified to the largenumber of generalaviation aircraft which of VOR and so confirmed a systemof controlled the airwaysand in uncontrolled potter aroundbeneath airwayswhich radiatefrom ground stations. The before,but with generally.It waspossible airspace where a number of airways airwayslink control areas the correctequipmentit is now much easier. over c€ntresofhigh-density traffic. Neither converge start at ground level, the airwaysnor the control areas which arecentredon one or a zones asdo control groupof airports. Generalized Area Navigation System The airwavs.control zonesand coritrol areas within which instrument Area navigationequipment is not new although the constitutecontrolledairspace (lFR) are in force. Only.instrument-rated acronym RNAV. is fairly recent. In fact RNAV could flight rules havebeenimplementedin the 1950shad the choice pilcts flying aircraft fitted with a minimum for an internationalstandardbeen the Decca iquipment complementcan usecontrolled airspace purposes although,for non-conformingNavigator. Other equipmentsproviding navigation for navigational facilitiesover a wide areaand not tied to fixed points visualflight rules(VF'R) clearance flights, i special systems are Loran and Omegaof the ground-based canbe obtained from air traffic control (ATC) to of Svstems the separation and Dopplerand InertialNavigation enteror cross.Within controlledairspace variety. Unfortunatelyall of these in of is the responsibility ATC, whereas uncontrolled self-contained than VOR/DME which is are systems more expensive airspace is the responsibilityof the pilot who, i1 use. The adventof airbornecomputers if in widespread service in an however, be givena separation can navigation sophisticated hasnow madepossible route. areaor on an advisory advisory service on based includingan RNAV systern of systems of The abovedescription the structure Development of Airspace Organization


R/DME. The trick is to 'shift' the position of the headingand drift angleor co-located beaconsto a phantom beaconor waypoint track angleand ground speedor location chosenby the pilot. The pilot useshis wind directionand speed or VOR/DME instrumentation the sameway as h cross-track distance and track error,etc. before,exceptthat steering commands ielatedto are Analogue presentation HSI: on a waypoint remote from the beacon. heading and track The computer power, of course,allows much more course displayand setting than the generation steering of commands phantom to desired track beacons, several navigationsensorand air data lateralsteering command. outputsmay be mixed to provide a meansof lateral Analogue presentation attitudedirector: on and verticalnavigationand a display of data which pitch and roll steering commands. can take many forms. The all-purposesystemis Analogue map presentation: illustrated Fie. 12.1. in route,beaconand waypointdata.

Flight data storage unit

Control and display unit

Conventional instrumentation

Automatic data entry untt

Navigation computer unil

Electronic, moving or proJected Map display

Possible sensor inputs



Aar data inputs Fig. l2.l Generalareanavigationsystem

The computer. usingstored data and inputs from a No attempt hasbeenmadehere to give a definitive list rzriety of sensors. calculates aircraft position the of displayed datasincethereis considerable variation. absolutely termsof latitudeand longitudeand also in The datarequired the computerto performits for relativelyin terms of deviation tiom the desiredflight functionareof threetypesand canbe input to the path. A variety of display formats may be usedas system threedifferentways. For regularly in flown follows. routes'hard' datasuchaslocation, elevation and frequency VORTAC beacons airports, of and Digital read-out display and control unit: on standard departure and arrivalroutes(SIDSand presentposition, latitude/longitudeor STARS) etc. will be storedin a flight data storage


unit (FDSU), typically on magnetictape. Waypoint in or position,'soft' data.may be entered amended 'scratchpad' of flight by means a keyboardand displayon the control and displayunit (CDU). and air datasensors Real-time datafrom navigation for available input from a varietyof arecontinuously sources. 'soft' the in The data relatingto waypoints are but that they canbe amended they may be sense 'hard' dataon a magnetic punchedcard or storedas dataentry unit (ADEU). and input via an automatic This facility is usefulsincean operatorcould havethe waypoint data for all regularlyflown routes recorded on cards,the correctone being chosenfor a particular flight. {r is Sincethe information from the sensors in to form analogue digital conversation analogue (A/D) is necessary beforethe computercan handleit; system may be in the areanavigation A/D circuits which feedit. itselfor in the systems is The form of areanavigationsystems by no and with the varietyof inputsand finalized, means unlikelythat functional it outputspossible seents to will standardization be achieved the sameextent as suchaslLS, VOR, ADF, it haswith other systems eLc- Onecoukl write a bttok on those RNAV and now available eqttipttrents VNAV (verticalnavigation)

will only allow a brief (1979) but herespace RNAV. with of discussion VOR/DME-based 583'l ' Future and examples, ARINC Characteristic and on useof microcomputers depend developments (see displaysystems utilizationof flexiblec.r.t.-based ChapterI 3).

RNAV PrinciPle VOR/DME-Based
from existingVOR The basicidea is simple;signals are beacons usedto giverange and DME co-located not to the stationbut to a waypoint and bearing, ;pecifiedby its rangeand bearingfrom the station. (Fig. 12.2)hasto this the RNAV triangle To achieve solved. be continuously We have: beaconand aircraft; pr: distance between from beaconto aircraft; bearing 0 1: magnetic and waypoint, beacon p2: distance between from beaconto waypoint; bearing 02: magnetic p3: distance aircraftand waypoint; between from aircraftto waypoint. bearing 03: maflnetic p1 The quantities and 0I areknown from normal p2 the VOR/DME operation. quantities and02 are and an included by entered the pilot, hencetwo sides

V O R/ D M T

t'z /




Fig. 12.2 RNAV. trirnglc



angleof the RNAV triangleare known, so p3 and 0 3 can be found.


b, = i;:' rdi-i',l4,i:it
wherexL = p1-sin0 p yk=pkcosok

= ((iz-xr)2 + (y, - yr)')6t




Fig. 12.3 Vector solution of RNAV. triangle

lf (y, - y r)l(x, - x,) ) 0, 0. is in eitherthe north-east south-west quadrant; or if Oz - y t)l@z xr) ( 0, 03 is in eitherthe north-west or south-east quadrant, yz - y, = 0, 0g is either if 0 o r l 8 0 " , w h i l e ix z _ x r = 0 , 9 : i s e i t h e r g 0 o r f 270". The ambiguitycanbe resolved observing by that 03 will only change a smallamountfor by successive calculations. example givenby An is Figure12.5wherewe have: 01 x1 x2 pr 0r = = = = = 9 0 . 0 2= 1 8 0 p r = 4 0 , p 2 = 3 0 1 o : , s 40 sin 90 = 4O,yr = 40 cos90 = 0 3 0 s i n l 8 0 = 0 , ! z= 3 0 c o s l 8 0 = - 3 0 ( e 4 q ' + ( - 3 0 ) 2 ) o ' s= 5 0 tan-r (-30/-40) = 36.87 0r. 1 8 0+ 3 6 ' 8 7= 2 1 6 ' 8 7 .

The solution of the trianglecan be found by analogue methodsasin one of the earliestRNAV computersfor the generalaviationmarket, the King KN74. The vectorsP{0 1 un6Pzf02 ^t" represented squarewaveslilfrose by amplitirdes are If the previouslycalculated was 216 then the new d3 proportional to p1 and gz and whosephases represent 0 " is 216'87. to 01 and 02 respectively. From Fig. 12.3we see that:

P r l t = =p z l 0 z : p r l t l

(r2l) .

wherethe minus sigr indicatesvector subtraction. Thusif we reverse phase the square the of wave representing Orl0: anAadd this to the squarewave representing l!2 we will havea waveform the pz fundamental which represents and 03 in p3 of amplitude and phaserespectively.
Y axis (N)

Fig.12.5 RNAV.triangle example

(X, Fig.12.4 Cartesian Y) andpolar(p, 0) co-ordinates The solution may also be found by a digital computer. Expressions p3 and 03 canbe found for by converting cartesian to (see co-ordinates Fig.12.4) then reverting polar co-ordinates. to Thus:

The programfor the solution of the RNAV trianglecould be basedon the aboveor someother formulation of the problem. Sincethe programis fixed it will be storedin read-onlymemory (ROM). The trigonometricfunction valuesmay alsobe stored in ROM to speedup calculations.Note that complete sine and cosinetablesneednot be storedsince sin d = cos (0 -90), also c o s 0 = - c o s | 1 8 0- 0 l i f 9 0 1 0 1 2 7 0 a n d c o s0 = c o s ( 3 6 0- 0 ) i f 2 7 0 < 0 < 3 6 0 .


0 Thus, for example,a cosinetable for angles to 90 only is sufficient. A look'up table for the inverse tangentfunction is more problematicaland can be avoidedby a reformulationof the equations(12.2) to be solved,for exampleby usingthe cosinerule althoughhere ambiguity is introducedin the solution for 0 3 which is slightly more complicatedthan that arisingfrom (12.2).

Mean sea level

triangle range Fig.12,7 Slant
RNAV. vector


(pt) *e needto solvethe slantrangetriangle distance shown in Fig. 12.7. The beaconelevationmust be fed into the equipmentfrom a FDSU, ADEU or by of means a keyboard. Aircraft altitudeis obtained from an encodingaltimeter. Usingthe notation of Fig. 12.6 we have: Pr = (@r), _ (A_E)\o3 if are calculations necessary the systemhas Sim.ilar in commands both i.e. VNAV capability, if steering a pitch and roll are obeyedthe aircraft will achieve altitudeat the activewaypointor at a specified specifieddistancefrom the current waypoint.

Course deviation distance

Inbound course selected


triangle Fig. 12.6' Deviation

NP-2041A Programmer BendixNav.Computer

Coursedeviationcalculationinvolvesthe solution of another triangleshown in Fig. 12.6. It is normal with RNAV to give the deviationin terms of distance rather than angle,at leastout as far asa specified range. Solution of the deviationtriangleis possible are one side,p3,.andall angles known. So using since the sine rule:

Introduction is The NP-2041A a ten waypointRNAV computer. from a may be entered The waypointparameters keyboardon the front panelor from a portable to and distance the reader.Bearing magnetic-card activewaypoint are found by solvingfirst the slant trianglethen the RNAV triangle.ln addition range for the unit can be usedfor frequencymanagement and both v.h.f.communication navigation. ( r2.3) The completeRNAV systemcomprises an l u a C N - 2 0 1A c o m m . / n a v .n i t , a NP-2041A, '-p3sin(0"-0t) t.p course DM-2030DME, an IN-20l44' electronic altimeter. indicatorand an bncoding Ifp is negativefrom (12.3) then the aircraft is to the deviation throughan of Presentation HSI and RMI is achieved inbound course. For examplein left of the desired can unit. The abovepackage be IU-2016Ainterface F i g . 1 2 . 6i f 0 3 = 2 7 0 " , 0 c= 3 0 6 ' 8 7 "( t o ) a n d to = 50 thenp = 50 sin 36'87 = 30 nauticalmiles with an ADF and a transponder pr complemented (a 3 ,4,5 triangle)with aircraft to right of courseby makeup a BX 2000 system.Other optipnsarea reader and a magnetic-card if miles, whereas 03 = 306'87" znd0c.=2700 weatherradarinterface 30 nautical HP-67 (modifiedTexasSR52 or Hewlett-Packard miles,i.e. then p = 50 sin (-36'87) = -:0 nautical aircraftowners calculator).Largebusiness scientific aircraft to the left of courseby 30 nauticalmiles. for customers a full or nearlyfull be possible would navigationthe RNAV In the abovefor accurate aircraftmay be while smallsinglecngined package, triangle;hould be in the horizontal plane; a c V f i t t e dw i t h t h e b a s i c F R s y s t e m : i . e .o m m . / n a v .n d to distance the DME beaconfrom the unfonunately an indicator. aircraft is givenas slant range. To obtain ground



RNAV.system NP-2O4lA-based Fig.12.8 Bendix mainly with the Although herewe are concerned RNAV computer,a brief descriptionof the other unitswill be given. The CN-201lA (Fig. 2.2) is a panel-mounted containing two v.h.f. unit two transmitter-receivers, communications panel, an VOR/LOC receivers, audioselection (optional),markerreceiver glideslope receiver (optional)and various system controls(a less comprehensive CN-2012Amay be usedwith the and NP-2041A).The IN-2014,{indicatoris discussed in 4 illustrated Chapters and 5 (Figs4.7 and 5.3). unit interface The IU-20164 remote-mounted VOR/LOC and glideslope outputsto levels converts and that satisfyHSI and/orRMI requirements performs other functionsnot of interest this in HSI and altimeter, context. The DME, encoding RMI requireno commenthere,havingbeendealt are with elsewhere.The calculators simply modified to attacha plug-inconnector. KTS/TTS: displaysground speed(BRG/KTS window) and time to station in minutes(DST/TTS window) to waypoint in RNAV or APR modd or to VOR/DME stationin VOR/LOC mode. The SBY and ACT windows displaythe number (0-9) of the standbyand activewaypoint. The 'IN' legendis illuminatedif courseshown(CRS window) is inboundwhile'OUT'legend(below 'IN' legend)is illuminatedif courseshown is outbound. The Mode selectorcontrolsthe mode of operation asfollows:

OFF: self+xplanatory. the navigation, waypoints VOR/LOC: conventional arethe stations. RNAV: waypointsare remotefrom the associated is deviation linear stations.Lrft/Right course deflection within 100 nauticalmiles,full-scale (f.s.d.) being 5 nauticalmiles,from 100 nautical Display and Control miles out deviationis angular. Figure 12.9 illustratesthe front panel of the APR: as RNAV but linear deviationup to 25 nautical miles. separate digitaldisplays NP-2041A.Thereareseven miles,f.s.d.being l'25 nautical operation. indicators. 'TEST': specifieddisplayfor satisfactory eachemployinggas-discharge seven-segment The quantity displayedin eachof the windows Data is enteredby meansof the keyboardor by depends the position of the DisplaySelector on cardreader.Of the l6 keys 1l aredual magnetic the witch and,for someof the displays, Mode point), etc. functione.e.FREQ./I , NAV.2/. (decimal set switch. With the DisplaySelector to: Selector alwaysbe in the correctsequence Data entry must shownin FREQ., asfollows: waypointparameters SBY: standby B R G / K T S .D S T / T T S E L X l 0 0 a n dC R S , , C S l . p r e s s B Y W P T ,F R E Q . , O M . l , C O M . 2 , windows. parameters for SBY. B R G ,D S T ,E L , C R S ,N A V . I , N A V . 2 ,A D F waypoint shownas ACT: active to key (BRG/KTSwindow) and or XPR (transponder) asrequired select BRG/DST:displays bearing for address data; (DST/TTSwindow) to activewaypointin appropriate distance numberkeysto enterdata; 2. press RNAV or APR mode or to VOR/DME stationin window and if correct VOR/LOC mode. 3. checkdata in app.r-opriate



Fig. 12.9 NP-2041A (courtesy Bendix Avionics Divrsion)

'ENTER' key. press An annunciatorlight indicateswhen a key is being pressed. for As an examplethe sequence the entry of NAV.I frequency is: l. select KBD on COM.iNAV. unit; 2. setmodeselector VOR/LOC; to NAV.I key, ensure 3. press dot in FREQ.window flashes; 4. press appropriate numberkeys,e.g. 109'80, ensure readoutin FREQ.window (scratchpad) is correct: 'ENTER' 5. press will be key. Frequency transferred from FREQ.window to NAV.I window in COM./NAV.unit within which the NAV.I receiver be tuned to that frequency. will A lurther exampleis given by the insertion of a waypointparameter, stationelevation say 200 ft for with beacon associated waypoint3: l. modeselector any positionother than'OFF' to or'TEST': to 2. displayselector SBY; SBY WPT key; 3. press 4. press number key 3, ensure3 appears SBY in u,rndow: 20a

EL dot in EL X100 window 5. press key, ensure flashesl numberkeys0 and 2 in that order,ensure 6. press in 02 appears EL Xl00 window (scratchpad); 7. press'ENTER'key. i.e. The other waypoint parameters FREQ.,3RG, in DST, CRS may be entered a similarway. To enter outbound coursewe pressthe CRS XFR key having pressed previously CRS key and enteredinbound course. Two keys not previouslymentionedareWPT XFR, which transfersSBY waypoint number to ACT, and LPP,which loadsthe presentposition of the aircraft into waypointzero. Block Diagramdperation Microcomputer The heart of the NP-2041Ais a a which comprises central processor microco-rnputer controller,ROM, RAM, system unit (CPU),system clock and hput/output (l/O) ports. The CPU is an the chips 8080A 8-bit microprocessor, associated family e.g. being drawn from the same8000 series 8228 systemcontrol and bus 8224 clock generator peripheral etc. interface driver,8255 programmable data in a suitableform The microcomputeraccepts

fRot{t PAr{tt0tSPLAYS

0tsPtAY 0ArA coitIR0t



v(n mf

|Il v^t NPUT



t I N I A RZ T D I WAYPOINT v A R A8 r t I

t?.t9 Np-2041A block diagram (courtesy lq. llendir AvionicsDivision) reader, nav. receiver, receiver DME anoatti_ei.r.-ii"ln"o", a",, long asa memoryhold voltage (external) is maintained.In additionthere is subjected arirhmeric to onatugj.oi'oo.r;tii3", is 2K bits of storein _o thenoutputin a suitable *o]r whie-h provid.,, f*;;i"",h.. itoi,'Bra, ,".;;;;riJlug" ro, l:li,:1. oaratrom the CpU. disrance comm./nav. Interlace and to *aypoini. L."rringto units.Theoperations on waypoint,qtc. Volatii dataareperformed rr,r. by cpti-*iri.r, ffi;;;; lost(<lumPeri) when equipment instructions the and/ordatafrom nOU',naii rl'r#;l:?js _ flO porrs.Thelistof instructions^(progia",i'iri" CPU storing a<jdress thecurrent i<OU, Inputs Waypointpararneters.enter the of the microcomputer ,tjr^e. andnext via the keyboardor card_reider;;.;i;.;:';?n rnstruction internal in registers. inr;;;.;;;; An a key ,uy beto carry anarith out solution oneof ,h. JT:t::^:ptration aspartof tire of or to read dara of, microprocess". out or wntedatainro,," ,/lfi:i:: a*j"e pt,,iiiH:,?i|.,l,?i.:t:.r. A key can be pressed rni urt., TheROMprovides t3t1l^19n-v^olatile Zo a. ,fr. p*ri.", ,".. (permanent) from the keyboard. selection-switch,carrl

"t, ." ild;:i:i'*:f?f int"iu" i*n.,'i"

The card-readir interface raises signal the levelto that suitable TTL operation for ,"d s;;;;;;; rn'i"irrrrp, signalw-hichcauseithe microprocessor basic ;fdsi,.'**OV service VOR/LOC, loops to break the l"o service loop in prosress APR..The non-votatile totat while it ,.;;;; [eM i, zriiir' i"ii*onr. Datafronr tne VOR receiver r,?.rage the. for gar1m9 for I 0 way is in rhe form ol two ters poin constant lir^"td_t-lg. rs. Inedara rhenon_volatile in waves, reference (ref.) RAMin onlyr"iuii,.O phase amplitudesquare. ,, and variable (var.)phase.Th. ;L;;;;;;;*"*

friri. rr,o storage space usedfor rhe prograr's is tbr the four

menrorye6K (e6x l0l4 = ,816; of bits


waypoint are serially shifted out to the ECDI lbr between the ref. phaseand var. phasesignals window. and distance Ospiayin the course to the VOR station. A the representing bearing is by Comm./nav.frequencymanagement achieved to voltagecontrolled oscillator(v.c.o.) is phase-locked and parallel b.c.d.address dataoutputsfor tuning -OR type phase the ref. phaseusingan exclusive purposes. of comparator. (If two squarewaves, equal frequency '0' and 'l' are applied The bearingto the waypoint is fed to the ECDI switchhg between and phase, and alsothe interface unit in the form of the RNAV to an exclusive-OR gatethe output will be zero since Hz ref. phaseand RNAV 30 llz var. phasgderived 0@0 = 0 and I @l = 0; if not in phasethe mean level 30 from the waypoint bearingoutput LSI and waypoint of the output will be non-zero). The ref. phase-locked variabled/a converter. The feed to the waypoint loop where it is signalis fed to the var. phase-lock bearingLSI from the I/O ports is in digital format. the difference with the var. phase, phase-compared the The ECDI processes RNAV 3QHz ref. and 30 Hz controlling the repetition rate of pulsesfrom a second to to var.phases produce left/right deviationsignals circuit) integrated v.c.o. The VOR LSI (large-scale 'bar'. The interfaceunit sirnilarlyprovides drive the rate v.c.o.to from the variable countsthe pulses for left/right deviation signals the HSI (and possibly obtain the bearingwhich is fed to the l/O ports as a autopilot). four-digitb.c.d.numbertwo digitsat a time (since The displayintensity control setsthe intensity databus is only 8 bits wide). levelof the sevensegmentindicatorsand front panel The DME distancedata input is in the form of a with the settingof the in annunciators accordance pulsepair where the time interval betweenpulses ' D I M ' c o n t r o l o n t h e c o m m . / n a vu n i t . A c o m m o n ' (12'36 ps per nauticalmile)' the represents distance 'DIM' control is usedfor all units of the BX 2000 The DME ISI convertsthis time-intervalinto a systemto ensureuniform intensity of lighting. of four-digitb.c.d.numberwhich, asin the case the fo VOR LSI output, requirestwo readings transfer the data through I/O Ports. King KDE 566 datavia buffers' altimeterfeeds An encoding in (interface) setlatches the I/O ports. The data to sincethe C1, C2 and C4 Introduction in changes 500 ft increments are altillleter not connected The KDE 566 is an automaticdatainput/output linesfrom the encoding (ADIOS) usedwith the KCU 5654 control system 8). (seeChapter (e.g.nav. u n i t ( F i g . 1 2 . 1 2 )f o r m i n gp a r t o f t h e K N R 6 6 5 equipment of The flag signals external in illustrated Fig. 12.11. The and DN{E)aremonitoredby the flag interface.If an digitalRNAV system which may havemore units than systenr, output is complete interface the is invalidsignal detected flag with sincea system thoseshown.will not be described throughl/O ports to the computer. transferred beendiscussed' has interface similarcapabilities already Finally,the mode and displayselector an We havenot considered ADEU in any detailso to the translate informationrelating the positionof of that are a brief description the KDE 566 follows. In f'act logiclevels into switches the appropriate the unit is calledan ADIOS ratherthan an ADEU to applied the I/O ports. by cardsmay be recorded the sincethe magnetic usingdata frotn the KCU 5654.memoryaswell unit Outputs Data to be displayedon the front panel is throughthe I/O ports to the displaydata asprovidingthe dataentry or input function from transferred cards. pre-recorded b a s c o n t r o l .T h e d a t ac o n s i s to f b . c . d . d d r e s s ,. c . d . The magneticcardsare about the sizeof a business point. The displaydatacontrol dataand decimal (frequency, cathode cardand can storethe waypointparameters the the decodes dataand provides necessary outbound,and waypoint inbound,course course gasdischarge displays' and anodedrivesfor the from the beacon)for up to ten and bearing but datawill not be displayed will distance The appropriate for canbe prepared is if by be replaced dashes a flagsignal detected.For waypoints. A numberof cards routes. The route (from-to) can travelled examplethe BRG/DST flag in RNAV mode will show frequently for any of the following: nav. flag,DME search'DME be noted on eachcard and the top right corner clippedoff to fix the dataso that they cannotbe pairedwith nav. 1, lossof test,DME not frequency selected. changed. or nav.or DME input signals ILS frequency generated the computer by The RNAV flagsignal equipment. Block Diagnm Operation external must alsobe fed to appropriate in is of The KDE 566 operation bestexplained termsof outboundcourse the inboundor The selected which aremonitor, record, to its modesof operation waypointand the computerdistance the active 210

Card slot

KCU 565A memory/control/display

DME Tune Digital distance DME dist.

KDr571 dist. spd/tts indicator

Digital course glideslopedev. and flag RNAV./VOR/LOC dev. and ftag KN 581 RMI

Fig. l2.l I King KNR 665 RNAV. system

thereis a synchronizing sequence 6 bits set to I of followedby 2 bits at 0. The datacycleconsists of l0 X 5 X l6 = S00 bits since thereire l0 waypornts, 5 waypointparameters l6 bits for each and parameter.A further96 bits followingwaypoint9 'test aredesignated waypoint'. Thuswe havea total of 904 bits from the KCU 5654 which arestoredin four shift register memories providing more than a adequate storage space 1024bits. In this mode of the KDE 566 memoryis a mirror imaseof the K C U 5 6 5 , 4m e m o r y . U p d a t i n g . . u r c e v e r yI 1 . 3m s . o RECORD The recordmodeis activated whenever recorcl the button is pushed.The modewill not be entereduntil Fig.12,12KCU565A(courtesy Radio King Corp.) the end of a memory-refreshing cycleassignified by tl.re output of the memorysynchronizer the mode to enterand error. The mode control circuit nronitors control circuit. the recordand enterbuttonsand the belt position On inserting cardin the slot a microswitch a is detector determine to which mocle shoul,ibe actlve closed the cornerof the cardunless by previousiy andso instructthe restof the svstem. clippedoff. The recordbutton switchis in series w i t h t h e m i c r o s w i t c h , u sw h e nt h e b u t t o ni s p r e s s e d th MONITOR t h e n t e m o r y s t e m p o r a r i l yr o z e n . h e m o t o r d i i v e i f t & r i a l d a t ai s c l o c k e d n f i o m t h e K C U 5 6 5 A t h r o u g h systent activated i is and the cardbegins travelout to the memorydatagatingand voltage translation of the slot providedrhe cardis whJe and fully circuit.the clock pulses comingfrom the rnaster clock inserted.The motor.drives belt which hassmall a in the KCU 5654. lmmediately prior to a data cycle holesin it at appropriate pointsallowinglight from a


KDE 566 !KDE 566


Front panel

Mastor clock in

Serral data out Serial data in Read/write

Enter button Record button

PWR switch

14v I tov I to all l.C.'s s v j

(courtesy King Radio Fig. 12.13 KDE 565 block diagram Corp.)

lamp to shinethrough onto a photoresistorin the belt p o s i t i o n e t e c t o rn p u t . i d the cardhasbuilt up speed mode control - Whentl.re is notified by the positiondetectorthat all is ready for recording.The datais clockedout of the four which record to shift registers four magreticheads pointson the card the digitaldataat the appropriate

oxide in one of tlyo thc by magnetiz-ing ferromagnetic on depcrrdilrg whether0 or a I is toie--'' directions. one counteris advanced count recorded.A systt:ni writing4 eachtirlc thc nremoryis clocked. Bctween and bits (at a lirrre)the card advances previously datais erased.After 256 countsthe data recorded and the systemreturnsto the hasall beenrecorded m o n i t o rn t o d e .


ENTER A card, on which a set of data are recorded,is pushed fully home in the slot closinga microswitch so positionedthat it will closeeventhough the corner of the cardis clipped. Whenthe enterbutton switch,in series with the microswitch,is pressed, motor the drive systemis startedand the card travelsoutward. When the card reaches position slightly before where a datarecording beganthe belt positiopdetector notifies the mode control when then'enables enter all circuitry. The magneticheadsread data from the cardssince the changingmagneticfield, asthe card passes over a magnetized part, will cause currentto ilow in the a coil wrappedaroundthe headcore. Because the of way in which the datawererecorded this current occurs pulses, in positive negative or depending on whether I or 0 was recorded.Eachof the four heads feedsan amplifier and thencethe thresholddetecrors which providedigitaldataoutputs. The digitaldata arefed to the datadecoders which enterthe datainto the correctmemory channel sequentially. The four-channel count multiplexergathers counts the from all four channels producingone count ourpur for the counterand decoder. Whenthe cardhastravelled pastthe end of the datatracksthe belt positiondetectorinitiatesthe error checkphasevia the mode control. The counter and decoder output is examined determine to if 4 X 256 = 1024bits havebeencounted. If the count is correctthe mode control gates masterclock to the memory,actuates read/write the line to the KCU 565A and entersthe contents memoryinto the of KCU 565.4memory. After datatransfer complete is the KDE 566 returnsto the monitor mode. ERROR If the count from the counterand decoder not is 1O24the mode control initiatesa flashinered error light and returnsto the monitor mode. lio attemptis madeto enter datainto the KCU 565A.

which by this stagewas no longer '$mple', and the Mark 3 system shouldbe combined,hence the publicationin 1974of the ARINC Characteristic 583-l Mark l3 areanavigation system.The remainder of this sectionwill be usedto briefly describe tne Mark 13 system. The Mark 13 is a three-dimensional system desisned for usein all typesof commercial transport aircrafi. The basicinformationrequired lateraland vertical for navigation derived is from a mix of VOR/DME and INS dataplus altitudefrom an air dlta iomputer or sinrilar source.If INS dataarenot available VOR/DME fiing with air data/magnetic heading smoothing usedin which caselossof VOR/DME is dataleads an air databased to deadreckonins mode. The parameters at leasttwenty waypoiits are of providedfor usingmanualor automatic entry. Two successive waypointsdefine a greatcircle leg with respectto which navigationand steering command or deviation signals fed to conventional are indicators to givelateraland verticalcommands in addition and areproducedfor useby the AFCS. Both parallel track and verticalpositioningat any point on the track arecapabilities provided the system; the by in latter casevisualand auralaltitude alert sisnals are generated. The Mark l3 system comprises units, a two navigation computerand a controland displayunit, with the possibleaddition of a flight data storage unit. Processing the inputsand generating of the outputsshouldbe performed the NCU while the by CDU providesthe pilot/systeminterfaceincluding control of the INS when usedasan RNAV source. The sys.eminputs are as follows: VOR omni-bearing: analogue digital; or DME slantrange:pulsepair,variable spacing; INS: present positionlatitudeand longitude; INS: true heading and velocity(NiS and E/W); altitude:analogue digital; or baronretric correction: only if analogue altitude uncorrected; TAS: synchro,a.c. analogue digital for data or smoothing and d/r; magnetic heading: synchro; VOR warning:discrete high or low level; DMEwarning: iscrete; d altitudewarning:discrete; TAS warning:discrete; magnetic heading warning:discrete; prograln control: pinswired to choose input rlpiions: phase: V 400 Hz; a.c.reference 26 go-around: discrete from AFCS,

The first meetings the AEEC areanavigation of sub-committee wereheld in 1969to discuss ATA an previously statement prepared.Threepossible systems airlineusewereproposed: simpleMark for a l, a sophisticated Mark 2 and a Mark 3 which involved an expansion INS. The ARINC characteristics of lor the Mark I and 2 systems werepublished i970: in however, beforepublication the Mark 3 of characteristic wasdecided it that the Mark I system,


altitude alert cancel:discrete; Mach number: synchroor digital; IAS: synchro; ILS localizer/glideslope deviation:d.c. analogue; localizerfailure: discrete; glideslope failure: discrete; AFCSengaged: discrete; autothrottle engaged: discrete ; digitalclock input: ARINC 585. The systemoutputs are as follows:

omni-bearing waypoint: sin/cosfrom four-wire to resolver; relativebearingto waypoint: synchro; crosstrack deviation:high- or lowlevel d.c. analogue; vertical track deviation:ascrosstrack; lateral track angleerror: synchroor'digital (b.c.d.); drift angle:synchroor digital (b.c.d.); lateral track changealert:.28V d.c.; vertical track change alert: 28 V d.c.; (roll command):a.c. or d.c. lateralsteering analogue;



Fig 12.t4 TIC T.34A RNAV. test set(courtcsy Tel-lnstrumentElectronics Corp.)


An RNAV systemis simply a computerwhich actson data from externalsensors.In order to check for standardoperationthesesensors must give known inputs to the RNAV system. For examplewe could useappropriateVOR and DME test setsto give a bearing and distance from beacon lg0'anA fO of nauticalmiles respectively, then with a waypoint positionof 090" and .10nautical milesfrom the beaconthe RNAV bearingto the waypoint shouldbe 53.13" and the RNAV dislance nautlcalmiles 50 sincewe haveset up a 3 : 4 : 5 triangle. This simple example can be extended incorporate other to the inputs demanded more sophisticated by systems. Flagoperationmust be thoroughly tested. A self-test which checksthe displayand displaydrive and perhaps other circuitsis usuallyprovided. Tel Instrument Electronics producean RNAV test set,the T-34A,which is in fact a combined DME/VOR ramp tester. The convenience suchan of arrangement obvious.The DME section virtually is is the sameas the TIC T-24A (Chapter the VOR 7) sectionis similaFffffie TIC T-278 (Chapter4) but with additionalfeitures,i.e. 108.05MHi r.f. ind b e a r i n go f 4 5 " , 1 3 5 o 2 2 5 " ,3 I 5 o . s , It shouldbe remembered when trouble-shooting that, if the system includes ADEU or FDSU, an mechanical problemsmay occur affectinginput of data. Poor contactbetween reading headand The preceding of input and output signals list magnetic is cardor tapecancause lossof data. If the a ratherlengthybut illustrates computing the po*., cardor tapednve slowsdown but the readine -magnetic available modernequipment.Details ihe sienal frequency in of remains samethen the rateof the characteristics be found in ARINC 5g3. The last flux is slowerand hencethe can headoutpui is lowered. eightof the inputsand the lasttwo of the outputsare Whenrecording a slowdrivecauses to be wntten biis designated beinggrowthinputsar outputs. The as on top of eachother (pulsecrowding losses) while if method of achieving necessary the outputs, giventhe the drivespeeds the bit is recorded up overa longer inputs, is left to the designer and will vary in both lengthof track leading incorrect to headoutput if hardwareand software. replayed normalspeed. at

vertical steering(pitch command):as lateral; to/from: high-or low-level d.c.; desired lateraltrack: synchroor digital(b.c.d.); track angleerror plus drift angle:synchro; distance waypoint:digital(b.c.d.)0_399.9 to nauticalmiles; present position(lat./long.): digital(b.c.d.); groundspeed: digital(b.c.d.)0-2000knoti: timeto go: digita(b.c.d.0-.]99.9 in: l ) m crosstrack distance: digital(b.c.d.),O-3gg.g nauticalmiles; lateraltrack angle;digital(b.c.d.); desired altitude:digital(b.c.d.)0-50000 ft; second systemdata: two-wiredatabus: RNAV systemfailure:high-or low-level discrete: altitudealert failure:discrete; digitalbus warning:discrere; a u t o t u n e a l i d :d i s c r e t e ; v altitudealert: discrete auraland visual.: VOR frequen : 2l 5 selection; cy systemstatusannunciation: V d.c. onceper 28 second; high deviation sensitivity: V d.c. when selected; 28 VOR frequency alert: 28 V d.c.when discrepancy; parallel offset track alert: 28 V d.c.when selected: speed error: d.c. analogue; speed error warning:discrete.



13 Gurrent and future developments
conditionswhere previouslythe aircraft would have to be grounded. The reluctance replacean equipmentwhich is to Changes aircraft radio systems in occur more and perfbrmingadequately reduces sizeof the rnarket the more frequently due to the improvingstateof the for the radio system manufacturer. course Of thereis art. The first airborneradio equipnrents used no problem with new aircraft which will have the thermionic devices, cat'swhiskerdetectors and large latestprovenequipment fitted. Paradoxically, the parallel plate tuningcapacitors; power,weightand situationwe haveis that the aircraftfitted with sizewere restrictionson the developrnent such of employing lateststateof the art are the equipment equipments. the 1950stransistorized In equipment more likely to be in the general aviationcategory, beganto appearalthoughnot completely sincethat marketis very much bigger than that for transistorized, r.f. stages the beingreluctantto conrmercial airliners. succumbto solid state. Even now the thermionic Completely new systems not appear do very deviceis still with us in the shape the magnetrortr of although when they do it is often frequently, and the c.r.t.but not, I think, for very long. Claims the concerning all solid-state an weatherradarweremade because improvementin the stateof the art has possible.An airborneOmega made the impossible aboutmid-1979, commercially a viableequipment wasnot a viableproposition receiver until the appeared 1980(e.g.CollinsWXR700). The c.r.t. in necessary computerpowerand memorycapacity will remainwith us for many yearsbut will, I'm sure, in could be economicallymade available a box of eventuallybe replaced a matrix of by reasonable size. electroluminescent elements. suchasVOR, DME, ILS, etc. require Syqtems Transistorized equipmentis of coursestill enorrnouscapitalinvestmentand so once adoptedon marketed, many of the transistors, but diodesand a largescaletend to last an extremelylong time. resistors now appear integrated on circuits. The afterWorldWar II many During and immediately emergence first small scaleintegration(SSI) then of weredeveloped only a few but airborneradiosystems medium scale(MSI) and now.largescaleintegration new systems developed sincethe 1950shave survived; (LSI) of evermore components one chip has on replacements for agreed not beeninternationally revolutionized design air radiosystems.In the of but existingsystems providedcompetitionfor them. particular usingLSI techniques produce to (MLS) which will landingsystem The microwave microprocessors opens a wholenew world. up ILS succeed will be the first replacement system, as The rate of development the last decade so in or for to system, decades. opposed competing that many aircraft fly with a rangeof means in It must be mentioned the introductionto a technologies represented their electronicsystems. in we chaptersuchas this that the changes are seeing, It is not inconceivable that an aircraft could be in are haveseenand will be seeing, to a largeextent due service with a valveweatherradar,a transistorized to vastexpenditure defence on and space research. ADF and an RNAV systememployinga Havingstatedthe obvious,I will now briefly give my microprocessor, someother combinationwhich or supportedby facts, on what is would make it a flying electronics museum. That this thoughts,occasionally to come. happens will continueto do so is the company and accountant's choicenot the engineer's the pilot's.. or The replacement one systemby another of performingessentially samefunction must be the The State of the Art justified in termsof increased safety,increased pay load,increased reliabilityor an improvement and in The microp*ocessor other LSI circuits are usedin performance which allowsflights to be made in (1979). lt the currentgeneration radiosystems of lntroduction 216

seems clearthat such circuits will be used more and r.f. field continues with perhaps obviousresults. less generations more for succeeding not only for A logicaloutcomeof the development low-noise, of computingpurposes, the conventionalsense, in but reliable, r.f. small,solid-state amplifiers and sources alsofor control of virtually everything. Often, in must be to mount t.r.s adjacent antenna to downleads equipments, microprocessor be under-utilized so that r.f. cables a will and waveguides longerthan a couple of inchesare a thing of the past. Reliability is the key but nevertheless will still be a cheaperapproach it in this latter development since sucht.r.swould be than usingthe minimal amounfof hard-wiredlogic relatively inaccessible. and furthermore spareprocessing power is available for expansion. All one needsto do is add the necessary software. I doubt if special-purpose LSI circuitswill appearin greatvariety sincethe volume The Flight Deck ofproduction required for a reasonable unit cost is very large. Havingsaid that, we alreadyseespecial The flight deck will be radicallydifferent in future ISI chipsfor VOR and DME signalprocessing. with flexibleelectronic displays replacing The cqmpleteall-purpose airborne computer is conventional instrumentation a keyboardwith and 'completely not with us yet and may neverbe. By keysreplacing mass a of alphanumeric dedicated and all-purpose', mean a computer systemwhich I The trend hasalready rotary and toggleswitches. monitors all sensors, drivesall displays,performs all 9 in started, examples beingdiscussed Chapters and control functions and is the only equipment with that conventional 12. This is not to suggest which the pilot can communicatedirectly. Such a will completely display/control disappear ; computercould be built today but there are will as instrumentation be needed electromechanical problemssuchas reliability, duplication or back-upfor the electronicdisplaysand toggle triplication being necessary, need for performing the will alwaysbe usedfor certain functions. As switches several tasksat the sametime and the huge I/O examples the way thingsaregoing,work by Boeing of interface. Certainly in the near future, and indeed will be discussed. and British Aerospace now, airbornecomputerswill work in specific function areas such as navigation,flight control, flight Boeing767 management, although someof thesefunctions etc. of Thereare a number of features the 767 flight deck visibility may be combinedand performedby one computer. worthy of mention, such asspaciousness, Interwiring is beginningto changeradically in and comfort; our main concernhere,however,is the aircraftinstallationsdue to our ability to handle large displayand control of radio systems.Rockwell'Collins quantitiesof fast time multiplexed digital data. The are to provide their multi-colour EFIS-700electronic prospectof a main serialdigital data highway with flight instrument systemwhich includestwo shadow spursout to sensors, incoming data, and control for attitudedetector an maskc.r.t. indicators: electronic and/or displayunits, for both incoming and outgoing indicator (EADI) and an electronichorizontal data,is a very real one. Again we havethe problem of situation and indicator(EHSI). Computation reliabilitybut the savingin interwiring will be displaywillbe providedby the Sperry alphanumeric significant.This is happeningnow in certain computersystem(FMCS). There flight management functionalareassuchas frequencycontrol and will be an EADI, EHSI and FMCSfor eachpilot, passenger and will be extended. while an additionalcentrallyplacedelectronicdisplay entertainmentsystems, In this context mention should be made of the useof will be usedaspart of the cautionand warning optical fibreswhich can handledata at a very much system. fasterrate than conventionalcables(15 X 106 bits per The EADI presentation similarto a conventional is second; say). In additionto attitude-directorindicator-one of which is fitted as a cf.2400 bits per second, the increased of sky and capability the cheapness the raw back-up. Blue and black fields represent with a white line, separating materials and the immunity to interferenceare earth respectively the advantages which make it virtually certain that we two fields,as the artificial horizon. There are scales (left), speed deviation shallseehbre optics usedin the future and would see for roll (upper),glideslope them now were it not for the difficulties encountered (right) and pitch (vertical centreline).In addition in connectingthem together. there is a risingrunway symbol and a radio altitude The increasein the use of digital sigrals and the digital readout. The information displayedfrom ability to process them has a most noticeableimpact deviationagainst scale, a radio aidsis glideslope in the aircraft in that controllers,displaysand of localizerdeviationby lateral.,movement a symbolic facilities are all changed,meanwhile progressin the runway and radio altitude by verticalmovementof 217

q-"ff W:.

(courtesy Fig.l3.l Boeing flightdeckmock-up 767 Boeing Commercial Aeroplane Co.) the symbolic runway and by digital readout. Decision and operatingmodesare also height selected displayed. The facility exists,with an EADI, for not blankingof scales in use. The flexibility of a computer-driven c.r.t. displayis fully utilized in the EHSI by providingfor operation in three modes:map display,full compass displayor VOR/ILS modewith a lull or partialcompass rose. Weatherradardata can alsobe displayedmaking a weatherradardisplayan optional extra. dedicated Whenpresenting data in map form the display is orientatedtrack up; a verticaltrack line with range joins a symbolicaircraftat bottom centreto a marks ofthe track at top centre. boxeddigitalreadout Headingand presetcours€are givenby distinctive 218 pointen on a partial scalenear the top of the display. trend Ground speed(from INS), a three-segment vector(projectedpath), wind direction and speed, plannedflight betweennamedwaypoints,vertical operatingmode and weather deviation,range.scale, radardata are all shown. A variety of coloursare usedto avoid confusionin the interpretationofthe largeamount of data in a 4'7 X 5'7 in. display. A conventionalRMI providesback-up. The FMCSwill mix storeddaia and data from to several radio and non-radiosensors provide position fixing, optimized flightpath and speed guidance, drive for the EADI and EHSI and also in hardwareand softwaremonitoring to assist trouble-shooting.A four-million-bit disk memory

systemwill be employed to provide storageof data suchaslocation of airportsand VOR stations, departure and selected companyroutes,standard arrivalroutes(SIDSand STARS)and aircraft/engine parameters. Communicationwith the systemis providedby a l4-line c.r.t. display with24 characters per line, for display of navigationand performance keyboard plus data,and alsoa full alphanumeric keys. dedicated British AerospaceAdvanced Flight Deck Work by the British Aircraft Corporation and Hawker SiddeleyAviation on the evolution of flight decksinto a form which would include integratedelectronicdisplaysbeganback in the early 1970s. The resultswere jointly, an sufficientlyencouraging commence, to advanced flight deck programin January1975. Electronic displaysand controls havebeen studiedwith regardto engineering feasibilityand human factors. The programhascome up with an exciting view of the flight deck of the future. The main display consists seven in. c.r.t.ssplit into two discrete of 9 (Sl, 52 dnd 53) centrally sub-systems. Threedisplays locatedon the instrument panel presentaircraft systems and engineinformation while four displays (Fl, F2, F3 and F4) split two eachsideof the panel, present flight information. ln addition,two further (Dl and D2) areprovided, one eachsideof the c.r.t.s panel,for documentation, e.g. maininstrument performancedata,etc. checklist, The flight information displaysare an EADI and of m EHSI. Presentation informationis in a format, the EADI being similar to an conventional and ADI but with information in both analogue digital form surroundingthe ADI earth/groundcircle. a HSI type The EHSI canpresent conventional roseand lateraldeviation displaywith full compass with route and displaycomplete bar or a map-like weather radardata. Like the EADI the EHSI has flight information either sideof the main displaybut in in this case digital form only. A facility to switch the displayfrom one c.r.t. to the other will help shoulda malfunctionoccur. In additionthereare back-upinstruments. conventional

easier and saferinterpretation. Work hasbeen done by NASA usinga Boeing737 in which the EADI displayformat is suchas to give the pilot the next best thing to the VFR view when landing(Flight, I I September 1976). As conventional ctromechanical ele instruments giveway to c.r.t.sso c.r.t.s will one day giveway to Litton Systems Toronto have solid-state devices. of (1979) a 3 X 4 in. displaymade recently announced up of nearly 50 000 LEDs. The matrix is to computer-driven providethe requireddisplay. The advantages over the c.r.t. are reducedsizeand longerlife (m.t.b.f.). A displaytechniqueparticularlysuitablefor ILS display. Such approaches that of a head-up is on displaysare commonplace modern military aircraft.Whenlandingusingpanel-mounted visual the instruments pilot must look up to establish lookingdown contact. If suchcontactis not possible could createproblems to again return to instruments With of fastassimilation the dataon instruments. of symbolsare a head-updisplay the approachguidance of so projected somearrangement opticaldevices by that they canbe viewedthroughthe windscreen. (e.g. will be fitted with suchdisplays Civil airliners it Airbus4300) although shouldbe noted that with and one eyes-down two pilots one couldbe eyes-up attemptto to duringapproach avoidan abortive visualcontact. acquire

Packages Multi-System

and With the adventof micro-electronics the to it smallunit size, is possible bring consequent varioussystems togetherin one package.In the days we of valves had one system- many boxes,whereas to now it is possible think in termsof onebox - many examples discussed qystems. fact we havealready In packages Chapter12. As a further, in of multi-system -implemented, a example, consider andyet-to-be why the radarantenna.Thereis no reason Doppler for electronics the Dopplerradar,an inertialsensor, or srichasLoranor Omega sensor, a radio-navigation computershouldnot all VOR/DME,and a navigation be mountedon top of the fixed Dopplerantenna Altemative Instrumentation package. Control,displayand radio forminga single developments and BritishAerospace The Boeing would all needto be remote in suchan sensor antennas abovedo not depart from the conventional discussed displayformat for the main part of the EADI and the installation. EHSIdisplay.Obviously usingelectronic in displays of computer-generated symbolsa wide range showing Data Link possibilities display formats exist; however,any for would requirepilot departure fronr convention information automatic A two-waydigitallyencoded and retraining would haveto be justified in termsof


::'$ .




Fg. tf.Z Experimentaladvancedflight deck (courtbsy BritishAerospace)

link hasbeenthe subjectofperiodic discussion by various workinggroups over30 years.If and for whenthesystem be implemented whatr.f. will and dtannels be usedif any arestill unknown. ARINC will ?,20

project paper 586 providesdetailedinformation on a possible systemwith an entertainingappendixon the for history of automatic communications aircraft by the then Chairmanof the AEEC. W.T. Carnes.


In fact an ATC automaticdatalink doesexist in the form of the secondary radarsurveillance radar system (Chapter8) which will probablybe extended sometime in the future(seeADSEL/DABSbelow). Herewe areonly concerned with a two_way automatic datalink utilizingv.h.f.,h.f. or Satcom for universal use.
Participating aircraft

\ \ \ \ \ \

\ r

r ' /

, /

, / // t \\\ \ |

Subscriber terminals or line radio(microwave) link Fig.13.3 DataIink system The datalink is essentjally ground-controlled. Aircraft participatingin the syitem are .polled, by the groundstationwhich transmits sequence a of digital signals split into messages of which contains each a particular address (aircraftregistration number)and suitable text. The airborne equipment responds it if recognizes address the pollingsequ.n.. which its in is repeated a rate determined the giound at by station. Messages be eitherto/from ATC 6r to/from will the airlinecompanyand may relateto clearances, altitudechanges, positionreports, flight_plan change, weather data,etc. The text of the messages be will routedto/from terminals the grounaita a on polnt-to-point communications network interconnecting groundstationand the terminals. the

\ \

The problems fruit and garbling of werediscussed in Chapter8; suchproblems increase with trafflc d e n s i t y .A d d r e s s e l e c t i vS S R( A D S E L )a n d e d i s c r e r a d d r e sb e a c o n y s r e m D A B S )h a v eb e e n e s ( s developed the UK and USA respectively an in in effort to postpone dateby which the iCAO SSR the system would beconte saturated.In additiona new

systemwill provide for a transferof more informationthan is possible with currentSSR,enable ntoreaccurate and reliable tracking ATC and so by help in the development automatecl of approach control systems (CAAS _ cornplrter assisie.t approach sequencing) further.form an indispensable and part of a proposed beacon-based collision avoidance ( s y s t e mB C A S ) . A memorandum understanding signed of was by the FAA (for the USA) and the CAA (for tie UK) earlyin 1975to allow for future deveiopment of selectively addressed systems a co_operative SSR on basis.We arestill someway off an ICAO standard system, but whenever comes will be compatible it it with SSRso that existing airborne equipm.ni may continueto be used. A R I N C C h a r a c t e r i s t7 c 8 ( N o v e m b e r9 7 g _ i1 l draft) laysdown a specification a transponder for which lorms part of rhestandard SSRsvstem (ATCRBS- ATC radarbeacon systemjandDABS. pl In that characteristic , p2 and F: pulseparameters, frequencies SLSprovisions ui fu, itandard and ur. SSRbut the ability to respond modes and C to A interrogations only is required ratherthan A, B, C and D. will with - Two typesof interrogation be possible the new system, ATCRBS/DABS an ail_call a or DABS only. The all-call interrogation consist will of threepulses P3 and p4 together Pl, with a SLS control pulseP2. The pl, p2 and p3 pulseparamerers are as for the ICAO SSRwhile p4 is a 0.g pulse the irs leadiirg edgeof which is 1.5gs after the leading edge A" ICAO transponder will ignorep4 *f.,it. a :f.P: DABS transponder recognize interrogation will the as all-calland respondwith the all-callreplv. A DABS interrogation consists pt and p2 of preamble pulses and a datablock. The datablock is a single pulseeither 15.5or 29.5ps longemploying r.f. differential phase shift keyed(d.p.s.k..y midutation. With this type of modulationa lg0" phase change of the carrierat a databit phase position reversal 'l'while represents a no phase change represents .0,. a The first phasereversal occurs0.5 pi after the leading edgeof the datablock,this is the sync.phase reversal. Subsequent phase reversal positions occurat time 0'25l/lrs (N>2) after the sync.phase reversal. The maximumvalueof iy'is 57 or I l3 giving56 or I l2 databits transmitted a 4 M bitls rate. The trailing at edgeof the datablock has0.5 ps of r.f. addedto ensure demodulation the lastbit in the dara the of block is completed without interference. An optionalP5 may be radiated an SLS control as pulsein the sameway that p2 is radiatedfrom an ICAO interrogator.p5 will be transmitted ps 0.4

Preamble3.5us t 2rs I

Data Block 15'5or 29'5rs

0.5 0.5 0.25


Sync. phase reversal

53 54 55 56 57

0'8 rs

56 or 112 phase reversalpositions

j o'l------{ O'a ".- o.r l*
FS ll FS ll pS

rf = t03O MHz


Phasereversal bit 'l Position :

Phase reversal position bit : 0

Fig. 13.4 ADSEL/DABS format interrogation before the sync.phasereversal.For an aircraft fitted the P5 with a DABS transponder received amplitude will exceedthe amplitudeof the data block hencethe transponder will not decodethe d.p.s.k.modulated equippedaircraft will sigral. An ICAO transponder not reply to a DABS interrogationsincethe P2 pulse will triggerthe SLS suppression circuit. will generate A DABS transponder ICAO replies (12 information pulses) response ICAO in to and DABS repliesin response all-call to interrogations and DABS interrogations; DABS transponders also generate squitterat randomintervalsto allow without interrogation(similarto DME acquisition 7). auto-standby, Chapter A DABS replyis only similarto an interrogation in a followedby a data so far asit contains preamble block of 56 or I l2 bits. The preamble consists four of 0'5 ps pulseswith the spacing betweenthe first pulse andthe second, third and fourth pulses being 1.0,3.5 respectively, from leading and4'5 prs measured edge to leadingedge. The data block begins8 prs after the 222 leadingedgeof the first preamblepulseand usespulse (p.p.rn.) a data rateof I M positionmodulation at bit/s. In the I gs intervalallottedto eachdatabit a in 0'5 gs pulseis transmitted the first half il the data h b i t i s a ' l ' a n d i n t h e s e c o n d a l fi f a ' 0 ' . T h e d a t a block is thus 56 or I l2 ps long. The r.f. is 1090MHz asfor the ICAO SSR. from an Thereare four typesof interrogation all ADSEL/DABSinterrogator of which havethe preamble.The all-call datablock contains a same of reply sequence 28 onesin a 56-bitblock,the all-call details data of the contains aircraftaddress, equipment boardand parity bits for on interchange purposes. surveillance A interrogation error-checking address parity bits and alsoa and ol 56 bits contains r d i r e p e a o f t h e h e i g h t n f o r m a t i o ne c e i v e o n t h e t ground. An aircraftrecognizing address a the in will interrogation replywith a 56-bitdata surveillance the block containing altitudeor identity. The interchanges dataarein I l2-bit blocks of remaining givingriseto a both ways,a comm.-Ainterrogation


5 6 o r 1 1 2p s Data Block

br o.5 <H





l'',' l',,r1


P.P.M.cxample lol ....011 .

Fig.13.5 ADSEL/DABS format reply comm'-B reply and a comm''c^inte.rrogation giving. simplexsystememployingfrequencymodulation riseto a comm'-Dreply' A-B inteichang!involves *orld b.-rr.d with ujtir,l una ao*ntinr. frequencies .The altitudeor identity aswell asother data,anican be separated between and l0 MHz. Aircraft by 4 usedlbr trackingpurposes while the c-D interchange Saicom.unt.nnu,would be broadlydirectional, contansan extended-ren_gth message segment g0 of possibly with switchable lobes. bits in both directions'one thingnot yet decided is The accuracy any Satnav. of system will depend on the methodby which datawill be traniferred into the knowledge satellite of positionand so a numbe.f and out of the transponder from various sensors and trackingstations required the ground. Since are on to various displays a suitable via processor. Two. the airb"orne equipmenimust haveth! oatarelating to areproposed the interface, for firstly using the satellite porition a link must be established T:tl99t ARINC 429 digitalinformation transferryrt*r betweenthe trackingstation and the aircraft, most (DITS) format, secondly.a synchronous M bitisec I probablyvia the satellite.Knowingthe positionof interface which would allow datarequested an in the satellite airborne the equipment mustestablish the uplink to be contained the next downlink. in aircraft's positionrelative the satellite orderto to in The system only beenbriefly described: has the obtaina dx. reader referred ARINC 718 for further details. is to The various methods which a fix canbe by obtained involvesomecombination measurement of of angular elevation a satellite, of range a satellite of Satcom. and Satnav. and rateof change range a satellite of of (Doppler shift). Directionof arrivalof a signal tire saiellite at Therearemany satellites orbit aroundthe earth ih may be methods whereby -foundusinginterferonteter beingusedfor relaying telephone and television the satellite antennas mountedon long booms are signals,.weather sensing, observation military and (say50 ft) and the phase difference signals in arrrvins navigation communication. and (For a comorehensrveat the antennas measured. is Range measurement review Flight,28 October197g.) Unforiunately see may be obtained a similarfvay to that employed in in noneso far areusedby civil aircraftand it is not DME. In a range-rate system Dopplerstrilt tf a the known (by the author)when suchusewill occur. signal from the satellite recorded is ovlr a periodof However, brief comments be madeon the can say l0 min, then the aircraftpositioncan be computecl principles involved. from the time of zeroDopplershift and the slopeof A possible v.h.f.Satcom. system described is in the frequency/time graphat zeroshift. ARINC Characteristic 566. The satellite simplya is The range-rate m.ethod providean accurate can fix repeater voiceand datacommunications for beiween aboutonceevery lI h, usinga satellite a 500-mile in a i r a n dg r o u n d . I f t h e s a t e l l i t e a t s y n c h r o n o u s is circular orbit, obviously aircrafta largenumberof for altitude(22 000 nauticalmiles)the service area would satellites must be usedto reduce tirne_interval the be 4l per centof the earth.s surface.a OouUle_cfrannel between fixes. The aircraftvelocityand altitucle

must be accuratelyknown during the time taken to obtain a fix asthe satellitemakesa passover the line of closest approachto the aircraft. The US Navy use sucha systemflorsurfaceship navigation. Angle-only,rangeonly or angle-range methods may be used. In thesesystems, usinga two-way by link betweenthe aircraft and a ground station via the satellite,the computationof aircraft position can be carriedout on the ground,the databeing sent to both aircraft and ATC. A range-only systemwhich should comeon line in the 1980sis the Global Navigation (NAVSTAR.) using24 satellites;however System use may be restrictedto military aircraft and ground personnel. The frequencies involvedfor Satnav.are likely to be v.h.f.or around1.6GHz. It will obviously be advantageous a group of satellites if could be usedfor both communicationand navisation.

would do the simulationsshowedthat both systems job and the choiie must havebeendifficult. One factorwhich helpedswingthe vote musthavebeena reduction cost of the TRSB system in broughtabout phased-array of by the development cost-minimized (COMPACT) Hazeltine.A conventional techniques by electronicbeam scanning array consists many of eai,hof which is fed by an radiatingelements electronicphaseshifter. Changing phaseof the the r.f. energyradiated eachelement by causes far the field beam to scan. With COMPACTthere is nearly a 4: I reductionin the numberof phase shifters each of which feedsall radiating elements througha patented passive network. The resultis accurate with low sidelobesat a reducedcost. bearnscanning The principlesof TRSB are quite simple. Consider a radio beam scanned rapidly to and fro; an on appropriatelytuned receiver an aircraft within in rangeof the beamsourcewould receivetwo pulses one completescan,as the beamswept past twice. is The pulsespacing relatedto the anglemade Microwave Landing System (MLS) sectorand the betweenthe centroid of the scanned line joining aircraft to beamsource. Note that the The long, controversialand heated argument about sincethe computed is systemas described ambiguous which systemwill be adoptedas the successor ILS to anglecould be either sideof the centroid of the endedin 1978 with the choiceof a time-referenced sector. Ambiguity may be removedby, scanning beam(TRSB)system.The requirement was scanned 'to' and which is the 'fro' for a landingsystemthat would allow for a variety of knowing which is the scan, curvedor straight-line or by knowing the scancycle start time, i.e. the approaches within a large 'to' volumeof airspace of half cycle. For accuracy and that would not suffer to the commencement the same extent as ILS from multipath effects. precisiontiming circuits must be used. azimuth scanning The main contenders the time the final decision For lateraland verticalguidance by wasmadewere the USA with TRSB and the UK with beamsare required. Preamble and elevationscanning a commutatedDoppler. Demonstrations and instructionsmust be usedto identify the beamswhich.

Scan cycle

tt related to {l Fig. I 3.5 Principles TRSB of


are synchronizedso that one time dift-erence each and C2. for The particularmodc useddepends the on beamis measured a 150 ms frame. Back beamand aircral't and in llt the type of groundstaiion. flare measurements alsopossibleon a t'ull system are which will be usedin conjunction with a high-accuracyMode AB Angular and rangeinformation is available DME. Reflected beamreceptioncan be elinrinated by usinga standard land-based MADGE station. The gating(echo suppression).The r.f. employed time_ direction from which the aircral'tis interrogatineis will be in the Ku band. nreasured the groundstationinterferom-eterf by the The battle lbr ICAO recognition not the whole is subsequent reply containing horizontaland vertical story of MLS, systems havingbeendeveloped ior deviation from an approach overshoot path or special applications;MADGE (microwaveiircraft determined the sitingof the grounduni.nno arrays. by digital guidanceequipment) is an MLS-based The azimuth deviationwith respectto the approach on-groundderivedinterferometry, developedby the path centreline is displayed a purpose-built on British company MEL(see below); SCAIvILS (small precision range and azimuthnreter(pRAM). while on communityairport MLS) is a Hazeltine product using a standard cross-pointer deviation indicatorazimuth their COMPACTantennas the TRSRsystem. for and elevation guidance givento an approach is path selected the pilot. The overshoot by path is selected Microwave Aircraft Digital Guidance by the pilot in azimuthonly, elevation deviation is (MADGE) Equipment with respect the ground-dellned to path. overshoot Rangedata,derived measuring elapsed by the time between interrogation and reply.is displayed a Introduction on PRAlvl.With an appropriate link in the wiring of the MADGE is a microwave,secondary radarsystem airborne installation on receiptof a commandin or which providesguidanceto a landing site for any the groundstationreply the range datais sentto the suitablyequipped aircraftwithin a rangeof abour l5 with subsequent interrogations. miles. As well as providing flexibility in the approach groundinterlaced The two typesof air-to-ground transmission are path,asone would expectin any successor ILS, a to referred asA channel interrogation: channel to B two-way data link is established which resultsin range data. deviationand rangeinformation being available not only in the air but alsoat the landinesite. Mode C Two alternatives Mode C are available, The MEL EquipmentCompanyllmited (A for PhilipsCompany)havewon sufficient military orders both providingguidanceto a point offset horizontally from the landingsite,by at least200 metres. Such to assure future of MADGE. The first extensive the guidance suitable helicopters is civilianusewill be in the North Seaoil fields where. for operating to offshore platforms. In addition to azimuth ind one platform is alreadyequipped. elevation and range dataone of two arrowson the PRAM indicatesto the pilot on which side of his Basic Principles aircraftthe landingsiteis situated. The systemprovidesboth rangeand angulardata. The rangeis derivedin the sameway as with DME, Unlike Mode AB the pilot-selected angular offset of the approach i.e.measurement path is not available takesplacein the airborne with Mode C. equipment The particularapproach after an air-to-ground path usedis ground-defined, interrogation and a subsequent ground-to-airreply. The air-derivedrange henceMode C is known asthe groundcontrolled may be contained the interrogations, in subsequent to mode(GCM). The platform installation rotated is the recognition valid replies, order to make this of to the correctcompass in bearing within one of four information available the ground. on sectors chosen the pilot, the choicebeingrelayed by Azimuth and elevationangles ground-derived, b y r l t . are usinginterferometry in the case elevation, or, of radio The two ModeC alternatives Mode Cl and C2 are altitudeand range. If the latter is the case both range which differ in the way elevation guidance derived. is and radioaltitudedata must be transmittedfrom With Mode Cl radio altitudeand range are air to groundin order that the elevation triangle may transmitted the landingsite.wherethe elevation to be solved elevation for angle.The angulardatais angle can be computedsincethe sineof the angleis contained the reply to the airborneequipntent's in equalto the ratio of the radioaltitudeto the (slant) interrogation. range.With ModeC2 elevation informationis derived asin Mode AB. Modesof Operation Mode C I allowsgreaterflexibiJityof approach. Therearethreemodesof operation, namelyAB, Cl The aircraftcan be guideddown a glideslope a point to


remote from the landingsite (say 0'5 nautical miles away) from where the final approachis completedin of levelflight. The parameters the approachpath are under the control of the ground station for both ModeCl and C2. lnterferometry of A basicinterferometerconsists trvo antennas the feedingreceivers, outputs of which are compared in phase. If the radiatedwavearrivesfrom a direction other than normal to the planeof the two'antenna array then the energyarrivingat one antennawill havetravelledfurther than that arrivingat the other d. by a distance The phasedifferencebetweenthe will dependon d which, in turn, antennasignals on the direction of arrival. depends A two-antennainterferometeris of little usesince of measure the direction of arrivalis an ambiguous spaced obtained. For exampleconsiderthe antennas ofthe radiatedwave I cm apart and a wavelength equalto tr cm. lf d = 0, I, 2),,etc. the measured to will be zerocorresponding phase difference to with respect the of directions arrival0, measured

interferometer Fig 13.7 Two antenna givenby sin 0 = 0, tri Q,2ltlQ, etc. Thus with normal, I = 100 cm, say, and tr = 6 cm, then for zero phase d i f f e r e n c 0 c o u l db e 0 , 3 ' M , 6 ' 8 9 , e t c .d e g r e e s . e must be antennas To resolvethe ambiguity several measurements dilference a lineararray. Phase usedin to can be madebetweenany two antennasignals give directionof arrival. an collectively unambiguous to chosen be in the of With the spacing the antennas 2:4 : 8 : l6 : 32 the derivedangleword canbe ratio codeddirectly in binary.

" .r" i 't,i

(courtesyMEL Equipment hardware Fig. 13.8 MADGE, Co. Ltd)


The length and message content of the interrogation word, which is assembled the logic unit, depenis in on the mode of operation. For A channel(M;de AB) a 25-bit word requesting guidance information rs transmitted a jittering meanrateof 50 Hz. at B channel,containingrangeand other data in a 60-bit word, can be interlacedwith A channelinterrogations a t a f a c t o r ys e tr a t eo f 2 . 5 , 5 , l 0 o r 5 0 H z . C m o d e s useonly one interrogationword 60 bits long at a jittering meanrate of 100 Hz. -BothCl and C2 interrogations containguidance interrogation data and range, but in additionmodeCl transmits radio altitude information. Appropriateair and ground address codes,asselected the controller, form on p a r t o f t h e g u i d a n c ie t e r r o g a t i o n . n The interrogation word pulsetrain,suitably In addition, if the controller is dual mode i.e. Mode processed a line receiver pulsemodulattr, in and 'ANGLE AB and C an OFFSETS'/,SECTOR GCM' controlsthe grid voltageof a travelling-wave_tube five-position switch is provided to allow the pilot to which amplifiesthe r.f. from a solid-state source selectwhich of the four approachsectorshi desires phase-locked to 56 timesa reference oscillator for ModeC (GCM) operation or, if usinga Mode AB crystal. A 4-bit parallel code,determined the bv station,the angleoffset controls may be enabledby frequency selection the controller, at selectiwhich of s e l e c t i n g ' A N G LO F F S E T ' . E four crystals to be usedasa reference. is The pulse The PRAM and crossed-pointer deviation indicator codeanrplitude modulated frequency between of havebeenmentioned previously.In additionthree 5 ' 1 8 2 5a n d 5 . 2 0 0 5 H z i s f e d v i aa l o w - p a sfs i t e r G l optionalindicators may be fitted: and circulator the microwave in assembly one of to selected a switchwhich is by l. Overshoot warning. Only activeduring Mode two antennas controlled the logicunit. by AB operation. Thereare two activestites of Received signals amplified are and detected a this ntagnetic in indicator.in one of which double-superhet receiver, then passed the logic to indicationof the serviceability the ground of unit. lncomingnoisepulses combated are overshoot by interferometer given;the other is reducing receiver the sensitivity the rate ofreceived as givingovershootwarning. .Off is displayed pulses increases. Interference from multipathechoes when the indicatoris not active. by levelin accordance 2. Low-fly warning. Similarto ( I ) aboveexcepr is avoided settinga threshold with the amplitude the first pulseof the incoming of that the activestates show eitherthat the word. The weaker multipathechoes will be unlikely elevation failurewarningflagis pulledin to exceed this threshold which returnsto zero at the (elevation safe)or that the aircraftis low. end of eachreceived word. 3. Excess azimuthdeviation.Only usedin The reply is clockedinto a shift register and then Mode C. A lamp which flashes when the checked validityand parity. Validity is for aircraftis more than 60 metresfrom the determined comparing and groundaddress by air approach path and within t nauticalmile of codes received with thoseselected. ranseclock. A the landingsite. w h r c hw a ss t a r t e d h e n . t h en t e r r o g a t i o o o k p l a c e , w i In is stopped completion .asuccessful on of validitv and p a r i t yc h e c k . Block Diagram Operation The system functions eithersearch track. in or The installation comprises interrogator (logic an set U n t i l t h e r a t eo f v a l i d a r e r e p l i e ss a c c e p t a b lte e d i h u n i t) . a n i n t e r r o g a t os e t( t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v i r ) . r e logicunit causes t/r output to switchbetween the controller, antenna an selector, two antennas up and forwardand rearantennas a 0.5 Hz rale. llavins at to five dilferentindicators, possibly duplicated, as a c q u i r e d r e l i a b l ea n g e a l u e a t r a c k i n g a t ei s a r v , g described previously.All electronic circuitry is generated that only thosereplies so within I gs c o r r t a i n ew i t h i n t h e l o g i cu n i t a n d t r a n s m i i t e r - r e c e i vbefore.and 2 ps after, d er the expected time of arrival (ti r) with tl"re exception that contained the of in areaccepted. With replies regularly fallingwithin the PRAM. tracking gatethe range change range of of is

Conbrlls and Instrumentation A Mode AB controller has the following controls: l. 'OFF/STANDBy/ON'. Whenin standbythe input to the modulator is inhibited wirh a . 3-min warm-up delay for the transmitteris initiated. 2. GROUND/AIR control. Four thumbwheel switches which selectthe ground and air address and the frequencyof operation. 3. Angle offsets. Three rotary switcheswhich allow the pilot to selectone of a variety of elevationand azimuth anglesfor approach. For overshootazimuth offset only is provided. 4. 'TEST'. A push switch which activatis the built-in test equipment (b.i.t.e.).


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computed. If the rate exceeds knots antenna30 svitchingceases, forwardantenna the beingselected for decreasing range,the rear antennafor increasing range. Each antennahas a polar diagramwhich is 180" wide in the horizontal plane and 40o wide in the vertical plane. With validity and parity confirmed rangeand angle data is fed to the output control logic circuits. Digital rangeand azimuth information is fed to the PRAM, the azimuth information beingunaffectedby the selectionof angleoffsets. Azimuth and elevation information is comparedwith the selected angle offsets,the resultingdigital differences then are guidance convertedinto analogue outputs which are fed via matchingresistors the interfacejunction in box to the cross-pointer deviation indicator. The d/a convertergainis progressively reducedas the range decreases from I nauticalmile. This reduction in eain is known as beam-softening resultsin meter and deflection beingpropoitionalto lateralratherthan angulardisplacement from the approachpath. Warning signals generated are within the logicunit. Flag drivesare fed to the cross-pointer instrument being28 V for validinformation,0 V duringa fault condition. A low-fly warningis provided in Mode AB, or an excess elevation signal Mode C. deviation in Azimuth warningsare the excess azimuth deviationin Mode C and the overshoot signal Mode AB. The in PRAM display is enabledby the azimuth flag signal. For Mode Cl a radio altimeter interface unit is requiredto digitize the analogue height signalfrom the radio altimeter. As a checkthe digitized heightis converted back into analogue form, then compared with the height input. A fault signalis fed to the logic greater unit if a discrepancy than 1 25 ft is detected. The fault signalis also generated the radio if altimeter's flagoutput showsa lault condition. With a fahlt detected elevation the flag showsand the heightinformationpresent in the interrogation bit word is negated. Selected System Parameters peakpower: 150W nominal. Transmitter 5 T r a n s m i t t efrr e q u e n c y h a n n e l s : 1 8 2 ' 5 ,5 1 8 8 ' 5 , c 5 1 9 4 ' 5 . 5 2 0 0 'M H z . 5 5004'5, 5010'5,5016'5, Receiver frequency channels: 5 0 2 2 ' 5 . 0 2 8 ' 5 .5 0 3 4 ' 5M H z . 5 lnterrogation word rate: 50 Hz mean(A channel); 100 Hz mean(C channel). + Word jitter: + 2 ms (A channel); I ms (B channel). M e s s a gb i t r a t e : l ' 0 1 1 2 5 M H z n o m i n a l . e word length:25 bits (A channel); lnterrogation 60 bits (C channel). Reply word length:60 bits (all channels).

(n.r.z.). Message format: non-retum.to-zero Height data, down link: I I bits (binary). Range data,down link: l6 bits (b.c.d.)., Elevationdata, up link: 9 bits. Azimuth and flag data,up link: l5 bits. + Analogue azimuthguidance: selectable 2'5 to t l0o full scale. t Analogueelevationguidance:selectable 0'5 fo t 5" full scale. Azimuth coarse output: t 45o full scale. -5 Elevation coarse output: t25" (A channel): to +20' full scale (Cl channel). Rangeoutput: 25 nauticalmilesat l0 V;30 nautical m i l e sa t l 2 V . Velocity output: I 200 knots full scale. n.r.z. Digitaloutputs: I '01 125 MHz, bi-phase Anglesand flags:28-bit word at reply rate. Range rate. data: l8-bit word at interrogation O'144": Digital resolution: azimuth0'235'; elevation range9'26 metres.

Collision Arioidance
has Up until 1979collisionavoidance beenthe responsibilityof ATC tbr aircraft flying under IFR for while pilots are responsible their own safety is underVFR. This situation likely to continuelbr sometime in the future eventhough a workable system(CAS) hasbeen developed. collision avoidance systemwould protect the A self-contained ofwhether other aircraft equippedaircraft regardless was were similarly equippedor an ATC service could be built measuring Sucha system available. and directionof all aircraft of range, range-rate change, around the protected within a certainvolume of space datacould be usedto compute aircraft. Received projectedpathsso that the risk of collisioncould be a evaluated and,if necessary,warninggivenor initiated. The costof sucha automaticmanoeuvre systemprovidingthe accuracyrequiredis prohibitive, at leastfor the time being. we As an alternative, may havea co-operative systemand this is an areain'which work hasbeen exist: done. Two possibilities radar l. an interrogator/transpondersecondary rangeand systemwhich could measure in range-rate much the sameway as DME does problems crowdedairspace in but with obvious is wherethe system most needed; in system which all aircraft 2. a time multiplexed transmitin turn without interrogation. approach The calculationof the rangeat nearest


(miss distance)is complicated and requiresprcsent relativepositions,ipcluding altitude, and the speed and track ofeach aircraft involved. One approachis to usethe componentof relativevelocity perpendicular the line joining the aircraft asshown to in Fig. 13.10whereV1 , Va, Vn arethe velocity vectorsof aircraft A, aircraft B and B relativeto A of while X is the measure the risk of respectively, collision.Another,simplermethodis to usethe measure the risk of rangedividedby the range-rate, known as tau (r). In both methodsa minimum being is valueof the risk measure set,below which evasive actionis taken. With the latter method,however, when the closingvelocity is small r is not a good of measure risk and a minimum rangecriterion shouldbe includedin the system.

of The CurrentGeneration ARINC Characteristics


ln 1979a numberof new ARINC Characteristics (700 series) were adoptedby the AEEC. The systems DME, ILS, VOR, includeradio altimeter, covered p.a. amp.,v.h.f. comms,weatherradar ADF, Selcal., detailthe These characteristics and ATC transponder. in for airlinestandards radioequipment the 1980s. between many rninordifferences Thereareobviously and new and old characteristics somemajor onessuch of asthe incorporation DABS into the ATC is transponder.However,the most significantchange for the switch to serialdigital signals both system of outputsand control. The details the digital information transfersystem(DITS) are givenin 429-2published March 1979. I ARINC Specification 453 Additionalinformationis givenin projectpapers (VHS) bus and digital and72A,the very high speed (DFS) respec tively, functionselection frequencyi papers had not beenadoptedby May these although 1979. for the The DITS describes standards the transfer Aircraft of digitaldatabetween avionics systenls, just not all I / radio. Data flow is one way only, via twistedand Aircraft pairsof wiresat a rateof l00K bits per shielded A-L ( s e c o n dK b s )o r l 2 t o l 4 ' 5 K b s( 1 0 0 0K b s f o r V H S on is bus). The system based 32-bitwords. The geometry threat Fig.13.10 Collision on logic for eachbit is based a voltage encoding 'Hi' we of of a stateat the beginning a bit As an example a system will briefly consider transition, 'Null' statebeforethe end of to BendixCASwhich wasworkableaslong agoas returning a the interval a an clock, involves airborne tl 1969. The system t h a ti n t e r v arle p r e s e na so g i c ' l ' s i m i l a r l y ' L o ' t o '0'. The transmitter voltage while a computerand transmitter-receiver on the ground 'Null' represents logic of is and syncl.rroniz-ation clock accuracy the system l e v e la r e+ 1 0! I V . 0 1 0 ' 5 V a n d- 1 0 1 I V f o r t h e s ' H i ' , ' N u l l ' a n d ' L o ' s t a t e se s p e c t i v e l y . r of by assured means an atonticclock. Duringa 3 s ways:binary lnlornrationis codedin one oi several intervalknown as att epoclt,eachparticipating fractional each duringone of 2000 time-slots aircrafttransmits codeddecirlal(b.c.d.).two's contplement Standards the of 1'5 ms duration:while one is transmitting rest binary(b.n.r.)or the International No. 5. Codel'or graphics (lSO) alphabet of organisation listen. Transmission altitudeand other data(e.g. data suchas is rnade. hasnot yet beendefined. Discrete data heading) 'code'. Wordsare all is The groundstationkeeps aircraftsynchronized on/off switching simplya I -bit words, and by of synchronized a gapof at least4 bits between in time;and frequency transmission hence propagation by time and gapis recognized the fact that thereis no voltage from a range rnaybe measured out b1'one parity is rate fiom Dopplershift. Thusr ntay be transition.Errcirchecking carried range 'bit parity is odd. i.e. tlte total per word, the required onceduringeachepochfor all reporting calculated on to n u m b e o t ' ' l s ' i n a w o r di s o d d . r aircraft. Commands the pilot based the of of evaluation the risk are: aircraftabove, The basicorganization eachword is label. computer's t identifier(SDI), dirtafield. t p r e p a r eo d i v e ,d i v e .a i r c r a f b e l o w ,p r e p a r eo c l i m b , source/destinatic-rn t are m clinrband l'ly level. The comrnands givenby s i g n / s t a t u s a t r i xa n df i n a l l y ,b i i 3 2 , p a r i t l . T h e f i r s t o w ld s 8 b i t s o f e a c h o r d a r ea s s i g n etd a l a b e l u h i c h b a c k - l i g h t e e g e n do n o n ei n d i c a t o r . in the identifies informationcontained the data fleld, be Any CASwhich may eventually adoptedwill s D v . h . f .c o m m .f r e q u e n c y , M E d i s t a n c e ,e l e c t e d e.g. but be not necessarily like the Bendixsystem, . discussed c o u r s ee t c . B i t s9 a n d l 0 a r eu s e df o r t h e S D I w h e r e and techniques someof the tactors certainly systemof a to to a word needs be directed a specific will be relevant. above 230

multi-systeminstallationor the sourcesystemof a multlsystem installationneedsto be identified. The words (lSO for SDI is not available alphanumeric alphabetNo. 5) or where the bits are usedaspart of the data field when the resolutionrequireddemands matrix it. Bits 30 and 3l areusedfor the sign/status t, North, right,to, test,no which represents wordsareusedto computeddata,etc. If several too transmit a message long for one word then the signistatusmatrix is usedto indicatefinal word, word, controlword or initial word. intermediate aboveideasare best illustratedby examples: The l. ADF. typicalword 0 0 0 I I 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0I I 0 I 0 0 0 0 l 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 '0 The label 0 0 I I 0 I 0' is followed by SDI '0 0' the all-call code. Data field bits I I ,12 and l3 areb.f.o. - on/off (0 for off), ADF/antenna Data respectively. mode (0 for ADF) and spare bits with select field bits 14-29arethe frequency ' bits bits 21-29the 1000kHz selectiod, 23-26the 1 0 0k H z , b i t s l 5 - 1 8 t h e I k H z a n db i t 1 4 t h e shownreading 0'5 kHz selection.The example f r o m b i t 1 4 .i s 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 l 0 l 0 l + 800 +1000 + l0 0.5+5 = l8l5'5 kHz. herebut in any case is Sign/status not applicable 00 canbe readaspositive.The final bit is setto 0 to make total one count odd.

distancewith the most significant bit (m's.b') of (m.s.c.)beingbit the most significantcharacter shown readingback from bit 29 29. The eximple is 1 0 0 0 0 l l 0 0 l l l 0 1 0 o l 0 l 2 5 7 8 6 nautical miles are parameters generated DITS words reprcsenting DME interrogators' in units such asVOR receivers, etc. and will terminatein navigationcomputers' display driversor indicators. The rate of of transmission suchwords varies,for examplethe is minimum rate for DME distance 6 times per secondwhile radio height is 20 times per second; (l) DITS radio controlwordssuchasexamples (2) aboveare transmitted9 times per second' and

Remarks Concluding

with currentradiosystems This book hasconsidered of examples a rangeof technologies.The final in to chaptir hasattempted showdirections which We progress. will certainlysee may radio systems Ut-S and most probablyADSEL/DABS' Flight decks but displays a will makefull useof flexibleelectronic and instruments conventional of minimalcomplement will remainindefinitely. controls will probably remainanalogue Modulatingsignals sinceto go digital would systems, in propagating frequencyscaleto accommodate requlreishifi up the the wider bandwidthsrequired. Eventhough the tYPicalword 2. ATC transPonder, sigrals,they will will be analogue basisof the systems 'go digital'asearlyaspossible the circuitry' 0 0 l I I 0 l I 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0I in 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 beyond that which we Cornputlngpower will increase order are The datafield bits I l'17 in ascending already,the-power is this hashappened can employ; on/off (0 for on), inertial altitudereporting there,all we needto do is think of the applications' computer, management system/flight reference after which there will be yet more computingpowei' for i.e. IRS/FMCinputswhich arereserved future the questionmark is ov-er the Perhaps biggest use(0 for IRS),ident. on/off (1 for on)' altitude future of VOR/DME asthe standard ICAO (0 select for No. l), IFR/VFR which navigational datasource are replacements v'l'f'/Omega' aid. Possible for is reserved future use(0 for IFR) and X-pulse Satniv. in one form or another'or evenLoran C; the on/off (0 for off). Datafield bits l8 to 29 beingthat they arelo.ng.range' of advantages these codefor Mode A replies pilot-selected represent is A poisiblescenario an aircraftfitted with a 2l-23 with bits l8-20 the D codegroupselect, and positionfixing nav' varietyof deadreckoning the C,24-26 the B and 21'29 the A codegroup aidsin a minimumnumberof boxesbackedup by back from shownreading powerful select.The example immensely groundtracking, accurate data bit 29 is and a corpprehensive link' groundcomputers 0 0 r 0 l 0 l 0 l 0 0 0 ivith u -ultiple CAS and MLS of the required r a 0 =code 5 I J the accuracy aircraftof the future couldgo from of ramp t; rampwithout the intervention the pilot (b.c.d.) DMEdistance 3. andln almostperfectsafety. This could be I 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 1 I I now, but would be cost prohibitive; developed 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 and anywaywho wantsa robot flying the'plane? for exclusively theDME datafieldis used


Recommended reading

As the reader probablyawarethereis a dearthof is books on avionics;those that exist and concern themselves with aircraft radio are perhapsa little dated.In contrastthe numberof booksivailableon electronics, computers and radiois staggering. I have chosento list most books availableon avionicswhich I think are worthy of the reader's attention. For sources background of materialon basic theoryof electronics radio the reader and is perhaps best advised visit a suitablelibrarv or to, bookshop and pick out thosewhich seemto suit him or her best. Sincethis is a fbrmidabletask. I have listedsomebookswhich I think may be useful. A briefnote is givenasa guideto contentand level of each.

A very good book but the emphasis on is operational so the theorygivenis brief. use C o m p l e m e n t a r y t h i sb o o k . to 8. S.E.T.Taylor and H.A. parnrer. Grountl Stutlies for Pilots. Volurne l, Radio Aids. Granada ( 3 r d e d i r i o n ,1 9 7 9 ) . Covers needs prospective the of contnrercial pilots in so far asthe useof raclio aidsis concerned. 9. J.L. McKinleyand R.D. Brenr. Electricitt, and Electronics Aerospatc Vchit.les.MeGruw-t{ill for ( 2 n de d i t i o n t 9 7 l ) . , Covers fundamental theoryand brielly d e s c r i b e sv i o n i c s y s t c n ) 5B t s i c . a . 10. D.C. Green,Transmissiott,st'slarrs, pitnran ll. l. M. Kayton and W.R. Fried (Editors\, Avionics (1978'1. NavigationSystems.John Wiley and Sons(1969). I l . D . C .G r e e nR a d i o S y s t e n r l l , p i r n r a n l 9 7 g ) . , s. ( Authoritative book which.isstill of 1 2 . D . C .G r e e nR a d i o S l t s t e m sl,l . P i t r r r a ( 1 9 7 9 ) . , I n considerable interest.Covers 1 3 . D . ( ' . G r e e nE l e c t r o n i c s , l l .p i t m a n( l 9 7 g ) . , radio and non-radio aids. Postgraduate 1 4 . D . C .G r e e nL ' l e t , t r o t i l c ' s , l lp.i t r n a n 1 9 7 g ) . , engineer l level. ( 2. G.E. Beck(Editor),Novigation yan s A l l o l ' G r e e n ' b o o k sa r ew e l l w r i t t e na n d Systerns. Nostrand Reinhold( 1971\. i l l u s t r a t e dT e c h n i c i aln v e l . . e Similarto Kayton and Fried.alsoconsiders 1 5 . J . E . F i s h e r n d I l . B . G a t l a n dL l e c . t n t n i c si t m a , fr marinenavigation systems.Equallyworthy Theoryinkt Prac'tice. I)ergrrnonlrrd ediiion. ( but not, perhaps, comprehensive as t9761. sinceit has almost300 l'ewer pages. Mainly concerned with design circuits. tif 'l9791. 3. B. Kendal. Mqnualof Atktnics. Granada U n d e r g r a d u aae dp r a c t i s i ne n g i n e e r s . tn g ' Biased towardsair tral'ficcontrol aspects 16. G.A. Streitrnatter V. I:iore.Microprocessors of arrd aircraltoperations. Complementary this to Thcoryanl Applit'utr,lrs.Reslorr lg79). ( book. O n eo f t h c b e s to l ' a r c c e n t u n r b e o f b o o k s n r 4. E.H.J. Pallert,Airuaft ElectricalSystems. on mlcroprocessors. P i t r n a n2 n d e d i t i o n .1 9 7 9 ) . ( f 7 . A . J . B a d e n u l l e r M i c r o w a v e sp e r g a m o n F , . 5. E.H.J.Pallett, ( l n d e d i t i o n .t ) 7 t ) 1 . Aircraft Instruments. pitman l ( 2 n d e d i t i o n .t q Sl ) . L l n d e r g r a d u a cev e l . s e f ud e s c r i p t i o n sf ll ' U l o 6. E.H.J.Pallett, Automatic Flight Control. c o l n p ( ) n e nas dd e v i c e s . tn ( Granada 1979)'. 18. Telec'onntwic'utlons S-r,s/enls Llnits, l-6. Course All of Pallett's booksarewell written with ( - h a i r r n a n : . S m o l . T h e O p e nU n i v e r s i t y r e s s p G goodillustrations.Very usefulto avionics ( l(r76). engineers. May be considered comDanion 19. L.' t rrtrnag,t t i( s and L'Iect ron ics. Cou rse as lec c v o l u m e so t h i sb o o k . t C h a i r r n a n :. J . S p a r k e sT h e O p e nU n i v e r s i t l , J . 7. N.H. Birch and A.E. Branrsonnight Briefing P r e s(sl 9 7 J) . , J'rtr .&/ors, Volume3,Radb Aidsto Air Nayisatiort. Both l5 and l(r arehighlyrecomnrended as P i t m a n 4 t h e d i r i o n .1 9 7 9 ) . ( course tatcrial. n


I am sureI have omitted many books which are equalin merit to those listed. The editions referred to ( I st unless otherwiseindicated) are those with which I am familiar; the readeris rCvisedto check that theseare the latest editions. I havenot mentioned any mathematics textbooks. but for thosewho wish to study aircraft radio systems depth, considerable in mathematicmaturitv is needed. Many books havetitles which are variations on the theme 'Mathematics,for Technicians'most of which will be useful. The Open University is againa


usefulsourcefor thoserequiringappliedmathematics at undergraduate level. A huge sourceof materialon avionicscomesfrom organizations which arenot publishing houses.The reader advised consultthe publications is to listsof nationalaviationauthorities, suchas the CAA and FAA, and alsoARINC and ICAO. Aircraft and equipment manufacturers producecomprehensive manuals varyingstandards of which will be consulted by the reader, a matterof course, the execution as in of his dutiesin the aircraft industrv.



a.c. - Alternating current: current flow which navigation rystems. direction periodically. changes Altitude trip - A discrete signal from a radio Acquisition - The recognitionof a signal. altimeter which changes stateas the aircraft passes ACU - Antenna CouplingUnit. through a pre-determined altitude. A/D - Analogueto Digital conversion.,, a.m. - Amplitude modulation: meaningfulvariation Address- A"Brq,qp pits which identify a particular of of the amplitude of an r.f. carrier location in memory oi'idiri'e other data sourceor Analog,analogue A quantity or signalwhich varies destination. continuouslyand represents someother ADF - Automatic Direction Finder: a systemcapable continuouslyvarying quantity;hence an analog of automaticallygivingthe bearingto a fixed radio circuit which processes suchsignals, analog an transmitter. computerwhich performsarithmetic operations on ADI - Attitude Director Indicator: an instrument suchsignals. which demands AND gate - A logic circuit which givesan output of attitude changes which, if I if, and only if, all its inputs are l. executed,cause aircraft to fly a path the determinedby radio or other sensors. Angle of cut - The anglebetweentwo hyperbolicor ADSEL - AddressSelective circularl.o.p. at their point of intersection. SSR: British development SSR,compatiblewith DABS. of Antenna,aerial - A devicespecificallydesigned to a.f.c. - Automatic frequencycontrol: automatic convertr.f. current flow to electro-magnetic tuningof a radio receiver. radiation,or vice versa. AFCS - Automatic Flight Control System. a.o.c.- Automatic overloadcontrol: a circuit which a.g.c.- Automatic gain control of a radio receiver. prevents excessive oftriggeringofa an rate AID - Aircraft InstallationDelay: the time elapsed transponder. betweentransmission and receptionin a Radio APU - Auxiliary Power Unit: a motor-generator Altimeter installationwhen the aircraft is in the fitted to an aircraft for the purposeof providing touchdownposition. ground power and startingthe main engines. Air Data Computer- A unit which senses, evaluates A/R - Altitude Reporting: automatic coded and outputs quantitiesassociated with altitude, of transmission altitude from aircraft to ATC in an airspeed, verticalspeed and Machnumber. SSRsystem. Air speed- The speedof an aircraft relativeto the air Array - A group ofregularly arranged devices, for massthrough which it is flying. example, antennas memorycells. or AIS - Audio Integrating System: electronic the Panel. ASP - Audio Selection interfacebetweencrew members and audiosources Associated identity - The identification of co-located and destinations. VOR and DM!. beacons synchronized by Algorithm - A sequence steps which alwaysleads of transmissions the same of Morsecodecharacters of a conclusion. from eachbeacon. Alphanumerics Displayedcharacters which may be Astable- Havingno stablestate. lettersor numerals both. or ATC - Air Traffic Control. Altimeter- Pneumatic: pressure a measuring device ATE - AutomaticTest Equipment. calibrated feet;alsobarometric, in pressure and ATU - AntennaTuning Unit. servo altimeter. Radio:a system which measures A-typedisplay- A c.r.t. displayin which the timebase the heightof an aircraftabovethe earth'ssurface. deflection horizontal is and the signal deflection is Altitude hole - [,oss signal an f.m.c.w.radardue vertical. of in to round trip traveltime beingequal to the Automatic standby- seeSignalcontrolled search. modulationperiod:of importance Doppler in 234



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Backlash - PleyGdfrdrani:l linkage such as scannerdriles, Balun - Balancedto unbelancedtransformer: used. for example. rn conncstint a co.axial feeder (unbalanced) a (xntrc fed half wavedipole to antenna(balancedl. - The referencepressurelevql of a Barometric di barometricdtimeter asset by the pilot. Base- The integral value of the number of sym[ols in a countrngsystem. The central regionof a bipolar transistor. Baseline- The line joining two ground stations in a hyperbolicnavigationsystem. b.c.d. - Binary coded decimal: a positional code in which eachdecimaldigit is binary coded as a 4-bit word. Beamsoftening - Progressive reduction in gain of demandsignalchannelin landing systems. Bearing- The angle,measuredin a clockwise direction,betweena reference line through the aircraft and a line joining the aircraft and the object to which bearingis being measured.The reference line may point to magneticor true Norfh or be in line with the aircraft'slongitudinal axisfor magnetic,true or relativebearingrespectively. Beat frequency - The difference frequency resulting when two sinusoids mixed in a nori linear are device. b.f.c. - Beat frequencyoscillator: an oscillator,the output of which is mixed with an incoming c.w. signalin order to producean audiblebeat frequency. Bidirectional - Refersto an interfaceport or bus line which can transferdata in either direction. Binary number system - A counting system using 2 as its baseand employing the symbols0 and l. Binary signal- A signalwhich can take on one of two states, one lepresenting bit 0, the other the the bit l. Bipolar transistor - A solid state device utilizing two typesof current carriers:holesand electrons; capable amplifying or switchingfunctionspvhen of usedin suitablecircuits. Bistable- Havingtwo stablestates. Bit - A singlebinary digit, i.e. the symbol 0 or l. BITE - Built In Test Equipment. Blade antenna- A rigid quarter wave antenna,the bladeshapeof which givesoperationover a wide band of frequencies; electricalcomponehtsmay be housedwithin the blade for the purposeof improvingthe performance. BNR - Signalrepresenting binary number. a Bonding- Electrical:interconnecting metal parts with conductorsin order to eliminatepotential

joining parts to one differences.Mechanical: anotherby methodsother than thoseinvolving bolts,screws and rivets. Booleanalgebra- The algebra two state,or binary, of variables. Buffer - A circuit used for isolating or matching purposes. Bug - A fault, usually in software. A mark, fixed or set,on a meter face. Bus - One or more conductorsusedas an information path. A conductorusedto cany a particularpower supply to varioususer equlpments. Byte - A specificnumber of bits (usually 8) treated asa group: 8-bit word. c - Standardnotation for the speedofpropagation of e.m.waves freespace: = 3 x 108 metres in per c sec= 186000 milesper sec= 162000 n.m. per sec. CADC - CentralAir Data Computer. Capsule An evacuated airtight containerusedto detect changes pressure. in of Capture- The sensing a radio beam suchas occurs in ILS. CAS - CollisionAvoidanceSystem. Indicator:an instrument CDI - Course Deviation which presents steering signals the pilot which, to the if obeyed,cause aircraft to follow a particular flight path. CDU - Control DisplayUnit. Cell - A circuit or deviceusedfor storingone character word, the locationbeinggivenby a or particular address. single A chemical source of electromotiveforce(e.m.f.). of electronic Chip - A collection interconnected componentsformed on a singlesiliconwafer. joint which.by Chokeflange- A type of waveguide of a short-circuited half-wave stub,gives good a use electrical across joint. the connection Warning System. CIWS- CentralInstrument carrier Clarifier- Tuningcontrol for the inserted for reception. needed s.s.b. oscillator locations a in Clear- To placeone or more storage particular state,usuallyO. circuit in a system; Clock - The basicsynchronizing the waveformfrom sucha circuit. Clutter- Unwantedradarreturns. conductors cable- A pair of concentric Co-axial by material and usedfor separated an insulating of up line transmission r.f. currents to about 4 GHz. Code - A systemof symbolsand rulesusedfor letters represe nting informationsuchasnumbers, and control signals.


Colocation- VHF navigationand DME beacons sharingthe samegeographical site; such beacons will operateon pairedfrequencies use and associatedentity. i Commutator - A mechanical electronicrotating or contactdevice. Compass rose- A circular scalemarked in degrees and usedfor indicatingaircraft heading. Computer - A machineor systemwhich performs arithmeticand logicalfunctions;maybe analogue or digital,electronic mechanical. or Contour - Blankingof the strongest signals a in weatherradar. Control bus - A bus usedto carry a variety of control signals. CPU - CentralProcessing Unit: a devicecapableof executinginstructionsobtainedfrom memory or other sources, term often usedfor a a microprocessor. Crossmodulation - Modulation of a desiredsignalby an unwantedsignal. Crosstrack deviation- The perpendicular distance betweenaircraft position and the desiredtrack. c.r.t. - Cathoderay tube: an evacuated thermionic devicewhich hasan electrongun at one end and a fluorescent screen the other;the electronbeam at from the gun writes a pattern on the screen which is a function of analogue signals appliedto the device. Crystal- A frequencysensitive deviceusedto determineand maintain the frequencyof oscillators establish or narrowpass stop bands or within closelimits. A point contactdiode which may find useas a mixer or rectifier in microwave systems. CVOR - Conventional VOR (beacon). CVR - CockpitVoice Recorder. c.w.-Continuous wave:continuous transmission of unmodulated duringthe time the transmitter r.f. is keyed. Cycle - One of a recurringseries events. of D/A - Digitalto Analogue conversion. DABS - Discrete Address Beacon System:American development SSR;compatible of with ADSEL. Ilata - That on which a computeror processor operates; singular: datum. Databus - Usuallyeither8 or l6 bi-directional lines capableof carryinginformation to and from the CPU,memoryor interface devices. Datasavememory - A memory devicewhich does not lose the data storedin it when power is switched off. May requirea battery. poweror voltage dB - Decibel:unit of relative 235

on measured a logarithmic scalewith multiplying factorsof l0 and 20 respectively. dBm - Unit of power: decibelsrelativeto I rnW. d.c. - Direct current:currentflow in one direction only. d.d.m. - Differencein depth of modulation: refersto the 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulating frequencies used in ILS. Deadreckoning- Calculationof position using vehiclespeedor acceleration, time in motion, direction and the known co-ordinates the initial of position. The absoluteerror in a dead reckoning systemincreases, without bound, with distance flown. Deccanavigator- A c.w. hyperbolic navigation system. Decimalnumber system- A counting systemusing l0 asits baseand employingthe symbols O,1,2, 3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Decometer- A phasemeter usedin the Decca navigation system; threeareemployed:purple, red and green. fletector - An electroniccircuit which de-modulates amplitude or pulse-modulated waveforms. D/F - DirectionFinding. DH - DecisionHeight: the height at which the runway shouldbe in view when on an approach. Differentiator - A devicewhich givesan output proportionalto the rate of changb input. of Digital - A systemor deviceusingdiscretesignals to particular valuesof a varying or fixed represent quantity numerically; signal sucha system. a in Diode- A semiconductor thermionicdevice or which preventsflow of current in one direction. Dipole, half wave - An antennaconsistingof two lengths conductoreachone quarter co-linear of wavelength long at the desiredfrequencyof operation. The two polesmay form a 'V' shapeif a more omni-directionalpolar diagramthan a figure of eight is required. Direct access Capability of readingdata from a particularaddress memory without havingto in access throughpreceding storage area. Disc - Storagedevicegivinglargecapacity and almost direct access.' signal- A signalcharacterized being Discrete by either'on'or'off'. Discriminator- A circuit which convertsfrequency jnto amplitude variations. or phasedifferences DITS - Digital Informition Transfer System: A R I N C4 2 9 . DME - DistanceMeasuring Equipment: a secondary radarsystemcapableof measuring slant range the of a fixed transponder.

Doppler effect - The changein frequencynoted , 100 ft. nearest Programmable ROM: a ROM when a wave sourceis moving relativeto an EPROM - Erasable observer. equipment, be erased and which, usingsuitable can Doppler navigation system * A dead reckoning re-programmed. systemconsisting a Dopplerradarand a of computer which, with headinginformation from a Fan-in- The numberof inputsthat canbe handled, compass, calculates position of the aircraft. the usuallyby a logiccircuit. Doppler radar - A primary radar systemwhich Fan marker - A position fixing aid for en route utilizes the.Dopplereffect to measure alsoZ marker. two or more airways navigation: of groundspeed, velocity, Fan-out- The numberof circuitswhich canbe driven drift angle, longitudinal usuallyof a logiccircuit. lateralvelocity,verticalvelocity. from an output terminal, voltage than Doppler shift - The differencebetweentransmit and Fasterect- The application a larger of . receivefrequencies a systemsubjectto the in for required normalrunningto a gyro in orderto Dopplereffect. operating speed. reduce the time takento achieve Doppler spectrum- A band of Doppler shift a f.e.t. - Field effect transistor: solidstatedevice (c.f. bipolar frequencies produced a Dopplerradarwith a by carrier utilizingone type of curretrt finite beamwidth. transistor). DPSK - Differential Phase Shift Keying: a form of Fetch - The part of a digital computercycle during digitalrnodulation which a phase reversal in is which the locationof the next instruction 'l'. the indicates binary digit is that instruction takenfrom memory determined, thift angle- The anglebetweenheadingand track. into a register. and entered wanted or rejects d.s.b.- Doublesideband: transmission both side Filter - A circuit which selects of of bandsof an a.m.wave,the carrierbeingsuppressed. unwantedsignals, usuallyon the basis frequency. Duplexer - A devicewhich permits sharingof one Firmwave- Instructionsstoredin ROM and hence in not easilyamended. circuit or transmission channelby two signals states, one of which hastwo discrete particularuseof one antenna reception and for Flag- A signal failure. which (low) usuallyindicates transmission. DVOR - Doppler VOR (beacon). Flagbit - The softwareequivalentof a flip flop - Directview storage for to of c.r.t. tube: a type which may be usedasan indicator, example, d.v.s.t. or indicatethe beginning end of a pieceof data. with a high intensity display. Flare - The final phaseof a landingduring which the Dynamic RAM - A type of RAM in which data is with height. rdte of descent reduced storedwill fade unlessperiodicallyrefreshed. through air between Flashover - Discharge which a largepotentialexists. across conductors EADI - Electronic ADI: similarlyECDI and EHSL EAROM - ElectricallyAlterable ROM:seeEPROM. Flight level - With a pneumaticaltimeterreference m s e ta t 1 0 1 3 . 2 5 b a ro r 2 9 . 9 2i n . H gt h e i n d i c a t e d Earth - seeGround. employing height,to the nearest hundredfeet,is thc flight Logic:logiccircuits ECL - Emitter Coupled to .bipolar transistors givingvery fast operation, level;thereply from an ATC Transponder mode C interrogations. fan-in and very good fan-out. reasonable of e.h.t.- Extra high tension:a source e.m.f.,usually Flight log - A devicewhich recordsan aircraft's plane,for example,a flight path in the horizontal in measured kilovolts,usedasa supplyfor c.r.t.'s power transmitters. rollermap. and high often and Flip flop - A circuit havingtwo stablestates, Elapsedtime - The time betweentransmission in The circuit remains to referred asa bi-stable. reception a radarsystem. in which two being Electroluminescent A property of devices one stateuntil triggered, triggers A to convert electricalenergyto light. required revertto the originalstate. waveswhich include may be referredto as a flip flop. e.m. wayes- Electromagnetic mono-stable representation a of Flowchart- A diagrammatic radio and light waves. - Electromotiveforce. which are often algorithmic. of e.m.f. sequence operations variation modulation:meaningful f.m. - Frequency Enable- A signalwhich allowsa circuit to give an of the frequencyof a carrier. output; alternativelya gate(signal). Fruit - UnwantedSSR replies. Encodingaltimeter - A pneumaticaltimeterwith a of parallelcoded output of9 to I I bits representing Frequencypairing - The permanentassociation in suchasVOR/DME frequencies different systems the aircraft'sheight abovemean sealevel to the


and Localizer/GlidesloPe. Freeze- Not allowing updating of a weather radar picture. deflection. f.s.d. - Full scale Garbling - Receivedsignalsoverlappingin time. on Gate - A circuit, the output of which depends certaininput conditionsbeingmet; for example AND, OR, NAND, NOR gates.A switching waveform. The regionof an f.e.t. which controls the output current. Gimbal - A frame in which a gyro is mounted so as to allow freedomof movementabout an axis to perpendicular the gyro spin axis. Glidepath/glideslope- The vertical plane approach path to a landingsite. That part of ILS which providesverticalguidance. GPWS- Ground Proximity WarningSystem. Gray code - A one bit changecode. Grey region- A condition of uncertainty. Ground - A point of zeropotential;alsoearth. which completelyreflects Ground plane - A surface e.m. wavesand which, at the frequencyof interest, as behaves if it extendsto infinity in all directions. Ground speed- The speedof an aircraft projectedon to the earth'ssurface. Ground wave - A radio wave which follows the earth'ssurface. Gunn diode - A solid statedeviceutilizing the bunchingof current carriersand finding ' applicationasan oscillatorin microwavesystems. gyro - A spinningmassfree to rotate Gyroscope, to one or both of two axesperpendicular about one anotherand the axis of spin. In the absenieof externalforcesthe spin axis direction is fixed in space.

Hexadecimalnumber system - A counted system using l6 asits baseand employingthe symbols A o , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ,, B , C , D , E , F . togetherwith High levellanguage A vocabulary, rules,in which eachstatement grammatical machinecode instructions to corresponds several tedious; leSs so making the task of programming FORTRAN, ATLAS, are examples BASIC, PASCAL. etc. Hot mic. -'A microphonewhich is permanentlylive of irrespective crew operatedswitch positions; live output is fed to the CVR. HSI ' Horizontal Situation Indicator: an instrument and v.h.f. displayinginformation from the compass navigationaids,the latter being in the form of which, in the caseof VOR, relate deviationsignals on to a courseselected the sameinstrument. Hyperbolicnavigation- A meansof navigationusing systemof hyperboliclines definedby a co-ordinate ground basedradio transmitters.

i.c. - Integratedcircuit: a devicecontaining fabricatedas an electroniccircuitsinseparably integralpart of the deviceitself; often referredto as a chip. i.f.- Intermediatefrequency:the fixed frequencyat which most of the amplificationand selection receiver. takesplacein a superhetrodyne IFF - Identification Friend or Foe: military version of SSR. IFR - Instrument Flight Rules: apply when VFR are excludedby virtue of flying in controlled airspace or lack of visibility. IIS - InstrumentLandingSystem:the current standardICAO approachaid. transit time diode: Impatt diode - Impact avalanche biasedto its a silicon p-n junction reverse to threshold;can be arranged act as a avalanche Handshake Electricalverificationthat a data in resistance microwavecircuits,henceits negative transferhastaken place. use in oscillators. Hard data - Data which remainsin memory with Impedance The total oppositionto the flow of power removed. varies with impedance current;in general Hardware-- The sum total of componcnts of a system frequency. which havea physicalexistence. in.Hg - Inchesol mercury: a unit of pressure an Hard uV - Hard micro volts: the voltageacross the measurement; height of a column of mercury load. open circuit beingmeasured; by supported the pressure Headup display- Equipmentwhich allows mbar= I standard 29.92 in.Hg= 1013.25 to information to be visuallypresented the pilot at i.e. atmosphere, the pressure meansealevel. while looking through the windscreen. particularcircuit - The tail to nosedirection of the aircraft Inhibit - A signalwhich prevents,a Heading from performingits function. in clockwise axismeasured degrees longitudinal INS - Inertial NavigationSystem:a non radio or from eithermagnetic true North. - The ground return from a vertical navigationaid which computesthe aircraft'sposi Height ring accele' tion by deadreckoningusingthe measured givesa bright height in sidelobe a WeatherRadar platform. ration of an airbornegyro stabilized on on the p.p.i.centred the origin. ring 238

Lenc - A region bounded by lines of equal phasein a trctmction - Coded rnformation which causes the Deccaor Omeganavigationsystems. computer to perform an operationusuallyon data latch - A circuit that may be locked into one of two which forms part of the at available an address particularstableconditions. instruction. lnstruction set - The sum total of instructions which Leading edge- The edgeof a pulse which occurs first edge. in time; cf. lagging can be executedby a particularcomputer. leakage - Unwantedcouplingbetweentransmit and lntegrator - A device,the output of which is receive antennas. proportional to the sum of past inputs. diode LED - Light Emitting Diode:'a semiconductor Intensity Modulation - Variation of the velotity of which emits light when forward biased. asto cause a the electronbeamin a c.r.t. so valiation in intensity of the Limiter - A circuit which limits the voltageexcursior corresponding of a waveform. of brightness the display. Interface- The point at which two parts of a system Linear array - A one-dimensionalarray of antennas to arranged producea beam which is narrow in or two systems meet. one plane,for example,a slotted waveguide. lntprferometer- An antennaarray, togetherwith the of l.o. - Local oscillator:the circuit usedto provide an phasediscriminators, capable measuring output which is mixed with an incomingr.f in directionof arrivalof an e.m.wave. - Time multiplexing of modesof order to producethe i.f. in a superhetrodyne lnterlace radarsystem;in receiver. in a secondary interrogation in particularmodesA and C may be interlaced Load - A devicewhich drawscurrent; to connect sucha device. SSR. part of3 secondary Localizer- That part of ILS givingazimuth guidance. Interrogator- The independent binary radarsystem. Logic circuit - A circuit which processes with the rulesof Boolean of in signals accordance lntemrpt - The suspension the executionof a out used algebra;extensively in digitalsystems. currentroutinewhile a computercarries an table - A circuit, the output of which is the alternativeroutine; the signalwhich triggerssuch L,ook-up to function valuecorresponding the input which anactron. a the represents argument;usually ROM which, for I/O - lnput-Output. or S)'stem:the heart of INS' example,might storethe sine(function values) a IRS - Inertial Reference (arguments). - The line joining thosepoints on the earth's numberof differentangles large Isodop of Loop antenna-' An antenltaconsisting a coil of e.m.waves. from which reflected surface wire, usuallywound on a ferritecore,which, originatingfrom an airbornetransmitter,suffer the magneticfield ideally, reactsonly to the changing Dopplershift. same loop antenna an e.m.wave;an ADF or an Omega in coils. - Randomvariation frequency; in hastwo mutuallyperpendicular employed of Jitter l . o . p .- L i n e o f p o s i t i o n . DME and MADGE in orderthat wantedreplies l.oran - Long rangeaid to navigation:a pulsed may be recognized. LoranA positionfixing system; hyperbolic LoranC - current,Loran D - short obsolete, Key - To turn on a radiotransmitter. rangeversionof Loran C (Loran B - never Keyboard- A devicewhich allowsan operatorto the operational). informationinto a computer; keysor inputor LSA diode - Limited Space- chargeAccumulation characters alphanumeric switches may represent diode:similarto Gunn diode. functions. dedicated bit l.s.b.- Leastsignificant in a binaryword- Lower Klystron - A thermionic deviceemployingvelocity. of the sideband: sideband an a.m.transmission of beamand capable of nrodulation an electron than the carrier. which is of lower frequency oscillatingor amplifying continuouslyat ISI - LargeScaleIntegration:a largenumber of frequencies. microwave i.c., circuits(usually1000or more)on a single Knot -- The unit of speedusedin air and marine MSI (medium)and VLSI m.p.h. similarlySSI(small), I navigation: knot = I nautical (very large). Laggingedge- The edgeof a pulsewhich occurslast Lubber line - A referenceline againstwhich a movlng edgeif the pulseis scaleis measured. in time, i.e.the right-hand a or viewedon an oscilloscope drawnagainst time to scale increasing the right.


Machinelanguage The basicinstructions,in binary of characteristics a carrierwave in order to impress by code,executed a computer;maybe written informationon it. down in hexadecimal octal code. Monostable- A deviceor circuit with one stable or condition to which it will return, after a specified MADGE - MicrowaveAircraft Digital Guidance delay,when disturbed. Equipment: a secondary radarsystemwith civil Morsecode - Combinationsof dots and dashes applicationasan approachaid to offshore to and to numerals. assigned lettersof the alphabet platforms. FET: Magnetron- A thermionic deviceemployingvelocity MOSFET- Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor an f.e.t.wherethe gateconnection insulated is from modulation of an electronbeamin a magneticfield the drain to sourcechannelby an oxide of silicon. and capableof oscillatingat microwavefrequencies m.p.e.l. Maximumpermissible exposure level:in with very high power output for short periods. - A four wire synchroresolver relation to microwaveradiation. Magslip commonly sequence usedto resolve timebase a waveforminto sine and MP mode - Multipulsemode: a transmission which allowslane ambiguities be resolved a to in cosinecomponentswith respectto the azimuth DeccaNavigation System. angularposition of a radarscanner. m.s.b.- Most significantbit in a binary word. Main bang - The transmission from a pulsedradar. - The predominantcigar-shaped of a m.s.l.- Meansealevel. Main lobe part MTL - Minimum TriggeringLevel; the signal directional polar diagram. antenna amplituderequired initiatean action;of to Marker beacon- A radio aid transmittinga vertical in significance secondary radarsystems. directionalbeam so allowinga pilot to fix his Multiplexing - Transmittingmore than one signal position on an app.roach path or airway. over a singlelink; signals may be separated time in mbar - Millibar:a unit of pressure measurement; or frequency. 1013.25mbar = I standard atmosphere the i.e. pressure meansealevel. Multivibrator - A circuit which can be rn one of two at states,neither,one or both of which may be stable, Memory - A devicervhich storesinformation for monostableand bistable future use. henceastable. Microcomputer- A contpletedigital computing multivibrators. system hardware which comprises the of a NAND gate - A logic circuit which givesan output of microprocessor other LSI circuitssuchas and 0 if, and only if, a.llits inputs are l. memoryand input/outputports;a single chip with NDB - Non-DirectionalBeacon:a radio transmitter circuitscapable providing ol' control.arithmetic/ at a known geographical for useby ADF. site logicoperations. nlentoryand input/output. logic - Representation the bit I by a lowNegative of Microphone, mic. - A transducer which converts voltageand the bit 0 by a high voltage. soundwaves electrical to signals. n.m. - Nauticalmile: the lengthof a minute of arc ot Microprocessor A chip which provides control the longitudeon the equator;approximately6076 ft and arithmetic/logic operations required a by o r 1 8 5 2m . digitalconrputer; chip caprbleof processing a Noisefigure - The s.n.r.at the input of a receiver informationin digitaltbrrn in accordance with a dividedby the s.n.r.at the'output:a measure of codedand storedsetof instructions order to in receivey,'noisiness'. c o n t r o lt h e o p e r a t i o n l ' o t h e rc i r c u i t r yo r o Nor\-retumto zero - A binary signalwhich makesa equlpment. only when the bit I needs be to transition Microstrip - Transntission linesand p3i\ive represented. components formedbv depositingmetal srripsot' Non-volatilemembry - A memory that holds data suitable shapes dinrensidns one sideof a and on afterpowerhasbeendisconnected. dielectric substrate. other sideof which is the NOR gate - A logic circuit which givesan cutput of I completely coatedwith metalactingas a ground if, and only if, all its inputsare0. plane. Null - A no error signalcondition in servosystems. Microwaves A.vagueterm usedto describe radio frequencies above1000 MHz. Indicator. OBI - Omni-Bearing MLS - MicrowaveLandingSystem:replacement Selector: controlwith the for OBS- Omni-Bearing ILS. which the pilot selects desiredVOR radial. the oscillator:the circuit which provides m.o. - I\'laster Octal number system- A counting systemusing8 as the frequencyreference a radio transmitter. in the 0, its baseandemplo.,ing symbols I , 2, 3, 4, 5 ,. Modulation - Variation of one or more 6.7. 240

Omega- A c.w. hyperbolic navigationsystemgiving worldwide cover. Omnidirectionalantenna- An antennawhich radiates from all directionsequally; impossible in or receives to achievein three dimensions. Omni-station- A VOR ground transmitter. One bit drange coile : A binary code in which only with each count, for one bit in the word changes example,Gray code. One shot - A monostablemultivibrator. On-line- Refersto equipment in direct interactive communicationwith a computer. Refersto the of installationand commissioning a systemor the stateof a systemwhen operational. ONS - OmegaNavigationSystem. OBencentre- A p.p.i. display in which the radial timebase line has its origin on an arc of non zero zero n.m. range. radius,the arc representing OR gate- A logic circuit which givesan output of 0 if, and only if, all its inputs are 0. the Orrgn - A point with zero co-ordinates; illuminatedspot on the screenof a c.r.t. at the start of the timebase. (.in Orthogonal- At right angles two or three dimensional spaces). PA - Passenger Addresssystem. Power amplifier. Page- A number of words treated as a group; within bytes; for memory typically 4096 consecutive a displaypurposes portion of memory which can convenientlybe displayedon a VDU. Pairedfrequencies seeFrequencypairing. - The readingerror resultingfrom Parallaxeror viewingan instrument or display from other than headon. Parallel operation - Used by a digital systemin which one line or circuit dealswith only one bit in a word. Parity - A bit or bits addedto a group of bits such as to make the sum of all bits odd or even,hence'odd or evenparity which can be checkedfor error detection correction. or of p.e.p.- Peakenvelopepower: a measure power in sincecarrierpower cannotbe quoted systems; s.s.b. at the r.f. power dissipated the peakof the modulatingwaveform is given in specifications. of index - A global measure the quality Performance of a WeatherRadar system;relatedto maximum range. that operatein Peripherals Units or devices with a computerbut arenot part of it; conjunction to connected a units or systems more generally, but underconsideration not part of the system system.

Phantombeacon- A waypoint, in an RNAV system based VOR/DME, at which no actualradio on exists, positionbeingdefinedin terms its beacon of bearingand distancefrom the nearestin-range beacon. its Photosensitive A devicewhich changes electrical when exposedto light; for exarnple characteristics phototransistor. photocell,photodiode, diode:may.be PIN diode - P-type/lnsulator/N-type power switch at high frequencies. usedas a higtr on Pitot pressure The dynamicair pressure an to relative the air by aircraftcaused its movement on it; surrounding dependent both air speed mass and staticpressure. array of antennas Planararray - A two-dimensional to arranged producea beam which is narrow in a for two planes, example flat plateslottedarrayas RadarsYstems. usedin Weather p.l.l. - Phase lock loop: a circuit which, by usinga an to phase discriminator generate error signal, so controlsan oscillator as to makeits output equal in phaseand hencefrequencyto an input or demandsignal. Polardiagram- A plot of points of equal field representation strengthwhich givesa diagrammatic properties an antenna. of of the directional Polarization- The planeof the e-fieldin an e.m. wave. to Polling- lnterrogationof circuits,units or systems to or determinetheir stateof readiness receive interruptlinesto transmitinformation;scanning by which, if any, requireservicing a determine computer. (in Port - A circuit providingelectricalaccess or out) to a system,usually a computer system. the Positionfeedback- A signalrepresenting position of the output of a positioncontrol servosystem which may be comparedwith an input or demand signalso as to producean error signal. Positionfixing - Finding the position of a vehiclein relationto a groundfeaturesuchasa radio beacon. of Positivelogic - Representation the bit I by a high and the bit 0 by a low voltage. voltage Potentiometer- A three'terminalvariableresistor; the between wiper terminaland the resistance with adjustment; varies eitherof the end terminals betweenthe end terminalsis fixed' the resistance p.p.i. - Planpositionindicator:a radardisplaywhich in positionof targets a plane; showsthe relative will be superimposed bearing on targets the same on the display if they havethe sameslant range. of positionmodulation:transmission p.p.m.- Pulse by varyingtEe position (in time) of information pulseswithin a grouP' 241

Radome- A detachable aircraft nosecone'madeof dielectricmaterial;more generallyany dielectric panel or antennacover. RAM - Random Access Memory: a memory which affords immediateaccess any location whereby to information may be written in or read out. Raster- The pattern tracedby the electron beamin a c.r.t. RBI - RelativeBearingIndicator: displaysthe relativebearingof an NDB. Read- To sense information containedin some devicesuch as memory or an input port. Real time - Computation relatingto a process during the time that the process occurs;the resultsof such computation may be usedto control the relatedprocess. Refreshing- The processof restoring the chargeof capacitors which store the contentsof dynamic RAM: at intervalsof, for example,slightiy lessthan I ps cellsare automaticallyread, the resultsthen being written into the samecells. Register- A memory devicewith minimal access time usedfor the temporary storageof binary coded information; usually a collection of flip flops,onefor eachbit which can be stored. Resolver A devicewhich can give signals representing sine and cosineofan angle. the r.f. - Radio frequency. Rho-Rho-Rho- A position fixing systemwhich relieson measurement distanceto fixed points: of rho-rhosystems giveambiguous fixes. Rho-theta- A position fixing systemwhich relieson Q+ode - A code usedin R/T operationsto identify measurement distanceand bearingof a fixed of the nature of commonly usedmessages, for point. example:QFE - atmospheric pressure airfield at Rising runway - A runway symbol on a flight level;QTE- true bearing from groundstation; director driven laterally by localizersignals and pressure local sealevel. QNH - atmospheric at verticallyby radio altimetersignals. Error: the errorintroducedin ADF RMI - Radio MagneticIndicator: an aircraft QE - Quadrantal due to re-radiation from the airframe. instrumentwhich indicatesrelativeand magnetic of Qfactor - A measure the selectivityof a tuned bearings derivedfrom VOR and ADF. circuit. RNAV - Area navigation:navigationwhich doesnot Quadrature- At right angles: 90o phasedifference a necessarily confine the aircraft to a fixed airways betweensignals. system. antenna- One of the conductorsof a Quarter-wave ROM - ReadOnlyMemory: containspermanently half wavedipole mounted on a ground planewhich storedinformation written in during manufacture; serves 'reflect' the quarter-wave to conductor so as random access available all stored is to to produce,effectively,a dipole. information. Routine - A list of correctly sequenced computer Radarmile - The time taken for an e.m. warc io instructions;the terms routine and programare travel I n.m. and back,approximately 12.36 ps. often interchangeable the former is usually but Radial - One of a set of straighthalf linesterminating appliedto a commonly usedset of instructions at a fixed point; a line of radio bearingfrom a which may be calledby other programs. 'VOR station. R/T - Radio telephony: speech communicationby Radio, radaraltimeter - seeAltimeter. modulated radio waves. 242

p.r.f. - Pulserepetition frequency: the number of pulsesper second; may be usedto quantify pulse groupsper second. Primary radar - A radar (radio detecting and ranging) systemwhich detectsthe reflectionsof its own transmissions from an uncooperative tardet. Programpins - A group of connectorpins Jomeof which may be groundedto selectparticular modes of operationof a systemfrom several options available. hogrammable - The capability of accepting data which altersthe electricalstateof internal circuitry so as to be able to perform one of several possible tasks. hogramme counter - A CPU registerwhich holds the address the next instruction to be fetched from of memory; automaticallyincremented after a fetch cycle. hogramme, progrtrn - A set of instructions. arranged an ordered in sequence, which determine the operationscarriedout by a computer. PROM - Programmable ROM; programmed after manufactureaccordingto the user'ssilecifications; generallynot reprogrammable. p.r.p. - Pulserepetition period: the reciprocalof p.r.f. p.t.t. - Press transmit or pressto talk. to Pr.rlse compression A techniqueusedin radar systems which allowsa relativelywide pulse to be transmitted and a narrowpulseto be processed in the videocircuits.

known also as automatic when squitter is received; Scanconversion In position: the conversionof fronr rho-theta(angleand distance)to standby. co-ordinates X-Y (orthogonalgrid). In time: the conversion Skin effect - The tendencyof a.c. at h.f. and above to avoid the centreof a conductor so reducingthe betweenrate of receipt of data and (usually faster) useful crosssectionalareaand henceincreasing rateof display. to'current flow. of resistance Scanning The process causinga directionalbeam througha sectorof of e.m.radiationto sweep Skywave-- A radio wave refractedback to earth by the ionosphere. of space.The process polling interrupt lines or Skywavecontamination- Receptionof a skywave devices. wavesimultaneously;an and groundor space Scott-T transformer - Used in synchro systemsfor example multipathpropagation. of three-wireto four-wire conversionor vice versa. Slant range- The actual rangeof a targetin a plane Scratchpad Memory, often on the CPU chip, in horizontal. operationsmay which is not necessarily which data neededfor subsequent a be temporarily stored. Display on which data may SLS - Side Lobe Suppression: techniqueusedin by be checked beforebeingenteredinto the main SSRto preventinterrogation sidelobes. s.m.o.- StabilizedMasterOscillator. memory. s.n.r.- Signalto noisepower ratio. leadingto acquisition. Search The process - An echo or return of a radar Soft data - Data which is lost when power is removed. Secondtrace echo of languages procedures a and Software- Programs, which givesa falserangereadingsince transmission hasa no computersystem: part of software at the receiverafter a transmission it arrives ' physicalexistence other than as written down on to subsequent the one givingrise to the echo. - A radar systemwhi,chrequiresa by paperor storedin codeasrepresented the state radar Secondary of a signalor device. by target;a radiolink is established an cooperative Spacewave A radio wavewhich travelsin a straight interrogator,the return or reply being suppliedby line being neither refractednor reflected. on a transponder receiptof the interrogation. Spectrum- The sum total offrequency compon€nts calling:automaticalertingsystem Selcal Selective of a signal. usinga v.h.f.or h.f. groundto air link to a SPI - SpecialPositionIndicator: an additionalpulse particular aircraft or group of aircraft. by of r.f. which may be radiated an SSR access Readingdata from a particular Sequential purposes. for transponder identification in address memory havinggone through preceding of for Squitter - Random transmission pairs of pulsesof areain order to find that address; storage r.f. from a DME beaconas requiredfor the tape. on storage magnetic example. ' search. controlled operationof signal Serialoperation- Used by a digital systemin which of s.s.b. Singlesideband:the transmission one one line or circuit dealswith all the bits in a word wave. modulated of sideband an amplitude sequentially. Radar:a secondary Surveillance Servoloop - A systemin which a signalrepresenting SSR- Secondary transponder an employing airborne with an radarsystem output is fed back for comparison the to informationrelating identity which transmits or the input reference, amplifieddifference, error by is andbearing available and/or altitude;range beingusedto control the output. signal, - Sevensmall bar-shaped time and usinga directional elapsed measuring indicator Seven-segment interrogation. in arranged a figure of eight pattern, light sources or of particular combinations the Stable- A mechanical electricalstatewhich is suclithat activating aftera disturbance. restored to automatically a sources causes character be displayed' seven - A type of c.r.t. commonlyused Staticmemory- Memorywhich stores information maskc.r.t. Shadow not in sucha way that it doe's needrefreshing. for colourdisplays. due to still air; serially Static pressure The air pressure Shift register- A registerwhich is accessed with to decreases height. can both in and out; variations giveparallel serial time control:variationof receiver s.t.c.- Sensitivity l o r s e r i atlo p a r a l l ec o n v e r s i o n . - Thosebandsof frequencies. gainwith time so asto makethe output amplitude either side Sidebands signal of of producedby modulatioit. independent the range the received of the carrierfrequency, polar antenna source. Sidelobe Thosepartsof a directional or Subroutine A smallprogram routinewhich may eithersideof the main lobe. diagram - Allowing DME to or be calledby a largerprogram routine to perform Signalcontrolled search operation. only a specific and searching hencetransmitting commence



Track - The actual direction of movementof an aircraft projectedonto the earth and measured in degrees clockwisefrom magrretic Nsrth. Track angleetror - The angulardifferencebetween track and desired track. Transducer A devicewhich convertsinput energy ofone kind into output energyof anotherkind which bears known relationto the input. a Transponder The triggeredpart of a secondary radarsystem. t.r.f. - Tuned radio frequency: a basicradio receiver in which selectionand amplification of the modulatedsignalis carriedout in the r.f. stages, there being no i.f. Trigger- A signal,usually a pulse,which initiatesa circuit action. Tri-statebuffer - A buffer which can assume one oi three states:0 or I when requiredto feed a load, high impedance otherwise;the high impedance stateexistsin the absence an enablesignal. of TRSB - Time Referenced ScanningBeam: adopted by the ICAO as the techniqueto be employedby MLS. TTL - Transistor-Transistor Logic: logic circuits employing bipolar transistors fabricatedon i.c.s. giving fast operation and good.fan-inand out. - Tactical Air Navigation:a military sysrem TACAN Tunnel diode - A type of semiconductordevice which givesrho-thetanavigation;therangingpart which can be made to exhibit a negativeresistance has the samecharacteristics DME. as characteristic undercertainconditions. Tape,magnetic- Storagederrice usingsequential TVOR - Terminal VOR: a low power VOR station access. situatedat an airfield. Telephone, tel. - A transducer which converts Two.from five code - A code commonly usedfor electrical signals soundwaves. to frequencyselection;any two from five wiresmay Time base- A waveformwhich changes linearly with be groundedgiving ten possiblecombinations,ohe time; the term is normally appliedto the waveform for eachof the digits 0-9. which causes regulardeflectionof the electron beamin a c.r.t. so as to trace a line representing a USART - UniversalSynchronous/Asynch ronous time axis, the line alsobeing referredto as a Receiver/Transmitter: devicewhich interfaces a timebase. two digital circuits the timing of which may or Time constant- A measure the degree of of may not be related;similarly UART and USRT. resistance change:if a systemis subjectto an to u.s.b. Upper sideband: the sideband an a.m. of externalinfluencewhich causes to changefrom it transmission which is of higher frequencythan the one stateto anotherand it wereto executethat carrier. changeat a rate equal to the initial rate it would WEROM - Ultra-violet Eraseable ROM: an EPROM. ' completethe change a time equal to the time in constant. Varacterdiode - A voltagecontrolled variable To/From - Refersto selected VOR radialsor capacitance; capacitance the varieswith reverse omni-bearings; the pilot complieswith VOR if bias. derivedsteeringcommands will be flying he v.c.o.- Voltagecontrolledoscillator. towardsthe beaconif a 'to' flag is in view and Velocity feedback- A signalwhich is proportional to away from the beaconif a 'from' flag is in view. the rate of change positionof the output of a of Topple - The effect of allowingthe angularvelocity servosystem;in position control systems such of a VRG to fall below that at which it exhibits feedbackis usedto limit hunting, i.e. an excessive the propertiesof a gyro. number of overshoots. 24

Super flag - A high level warning signal providing sufficient current at 28 V d.c. to energize relay so a indicatingvalid or no-warningstatus. Superhetrodyne receiver, superhet- A radio receiver in which the received signalis mixed (hetrodyned) with a tuneablelocally generated signalin order to produce a constanti.f. Sweptgain - An alternativeterm to s.t.c. s.w.r. - Standingwaveratio: seev.s.w.r. Synchro devices A type of transducer which convertsangularposition to an electricalsignalor vice versa;all synchrosare transformers with both rotatableand stationarycoils. Three wire devices establish unique relationshipbetweenthe rotor a angleand the voltagedistribution in the three coil stator; four wire devices establish voltages which dependon the sine and cosineof the rotor angle and are thus termed synchroresolvers. Designations STRX or TR: synchro torque are receiver;STTX TX: synchrotorque transmitter; or DTTX or TDX or CDX: differential synchro torque transmitter; CT: control transformer; RS: synchro resolver. Synchronization - Changesrelated in frequency, time or position.

VFR - Visual Flight Rules: apply in uncontrolled Wavelength- The distandebetween points of airspace when visibility allows;limitations on pilot identicalphaseangle;wavelengrh = c/f. ), qualifications equipmentfitted are minimal and Waypoint- A significant point on a route. under VFR. Wheatstone bridge - An electricalmeasuring circuit Video signal- The post detector signalin a radar consisting four impedance of .rrn, .onn.-.tedin a receiver. closedchain;with an excitationsupply, connected Volatile memory - A memory that losesstoreddata to two opposite terminals the chainthe currenr in when power is disconnected. drawn from the other two terminals determined is VOR - VHF Omni-Range: system a givingthe bearing by the ratio of the impedances. to a fixed groundradio beacon. Whip antenna A quarter-wave antenna madefrom a VORTAC - VOR and TACAN beacons the same on t h i n r n e t ar o d . l geographical i.e. co-located, termed site, are Word - A groupof bits treatedasan entity; it may c o l l e c t i v e la V O R T A C b e a c o n . y represent instruction, an address quantitv. or VRG VerticalReference Gyro: a gyro to which Write - To recordinformation in somedevicesuchas gravltycontrolledfbrcesareappliedby an erection a memory or output port. systemsuchas to maintainthe spin axisin lhe verticalplane;usedto givesignafs proportionalto X-Y display- A p.p.i.display which rarget on pitch and roll. positionis determined termsof horizontal(X) in v.s.w.r.- Voltagestandingwave ratio: the ratio of the randvertical (Y) diSplacement from a datum point: maximum to minimum voltage the standing of it may be referred as t.v. display. to waveset up on a mismatched line; = v.s.w..r. (l + (pr/pr)o.ty(l _ prlpr)o.s) I > 7*nner diode - A diode operatedwith reverse bias so equalityindicating perf'ect a match,p, and p1 that breakdownoccurs,the breakdownvoltage beingthe reverse reflecteci) (or power and forward remaining constant a wide range ,.urrri for of (or incident)powerrespectiveli. currents. Zone - A regionboundedby hyperboliclines Waveguide A hollow, round or rectangular, metal separated a distance by equal to half a wavelength tube which is usedto transmite.m.energyat of the fundamentalfrequencyof a Deccachain. microwave frequencies.



2. Draw a block diagramof an f'm' transmitter' are The following exercises givento test the reader's 3. Draw a block diagramof a superhetreceiver' this of knowledgeaid understanding the cont€nt of 4. Describe four differentways in which binary if volumeiihis aim will be best achieved the questions circuits' in digitsmay be represented electronic arenot readuntil one is ready to attempt them' commonly usedfor airborne 5.- Desiribe fwo codes Havingworked through eachchapterthe exercises selection. radio frequencY shouldbe attempted' with that chapter associited of and digital representation Compareanalogue 6. Six test papersaregivenwhich shouldbe attempted data. It is only aftir ihe whole book hasbeen read' briefly the following:I'C'A.O', ARINC' 7. Discuss that one hour be devotedto eachtest recommended found ATA 100, national aviationauthorities' are oapertthe answers not givenbut are to be papers *iittin ttte relevantchapters' Ideally the t€st however'the reader Joufd be markedindependently, albeit subjective' strouldbe able to givean assessment, 2 Ghapter papers' the written answer-type of his attempt at from test can assessment be achieved An accurate io tunitrgarrangements typicalantenna l. Describe oaper6 by givingone mark for eachcorrectly system' h'f' comms 20 aviation channel a general utt.rnpt.a qu.ttion, deductinghalf a mark for each List and statethe functionof typicalaudio t: ' incorrectly attemptedquestion,leavingthe-score aircraft' on systems a largepassenger for unchanged eachquestionnot attempted,then *hui hupptnt when a crew member Describe i. multiplying the resultby 10/6 to givea Percentage' on transmits v'h.f. comms' can be usedto Senerate Someof the questions 4. Draw the block diagramof a CVR showing with drawing others,for example,thoseconcerned of etc' could clearlythe sources the inPuts' listingcontrols, ramp tests, block diagrams, typicalv.h.f' commsantennas' 5. Discuss herein' Even described apply to any of the systems to a howl; in e:. itr- to mii' feeduack an AIS leads it as *iittun extlnded set of questions, suggested, is isolatethe fault? how would You unlikely that the syllabusfor any coursewill be For example,prospective completelycovered. will engineers be required aircraft radio maintenance satisfyexaminingbodiesand/or employersin the to Chapter3 following areas: basicelectricaland electronicprinciples . legislation ramp,hangarand workshoppractices diagrams wiring and schematic reading etc. findingskiils, fault ADF of l. List the soulces errorsaffecting operation' quidrantalerror and explainhow it 2'. Describe maYbe ctlrrected. how an ADF groundloop swingts 3. Describe out. of In addition they must show evidence havinghad - carried and a dual pointer RMI diagram of 4. Draw a situatton the to experience assume responsibilities sufficient ol on a heading 200"(M) for piesentation an aircrait an engineer. of the aircraftand anotherat *lth un NDB due north 2 ADFs are :OO; ,.tutiu. to which numbersI and Chapter1 tunedresPecttvelY' of 5' Exp[ainthe basicprinciples ADF' of t 1 . C o m m e n o n the significance bandwidthin an diagram' installation 6. Draw an ADF block information link. 246

l. Describe differences the betweenthe radiated signals from Doppler and conventional VOR stations and explain why airborneequipmentoperation is not affected. ?. Explain the terms automaticand manualVOR. 3. Draw a situation diagramfor an aircraft on a headingof 090'(M) with i selected radial of 2g0; and with a fly right demand and from flag showing on the flight director. 4. Draw a dual VOR block installationdiasram. 5. Describe how information derivedfrom"a VOR receiver presented the crew. is to 6. Discuss typicalVOR antennas.

a DME ihterrogator (assumeswitched on and any warm up time expired). ?. Explain how echo protection can be achieved in DME. Why might a DME interrogatorreceive lessthan ?l^ IOO%replies'! 4. Describethe arrangements colocated for beacons. 5. Describe, generalterms,how you would in carry out a ramp test of DME. 6. Draw a simplifiedDME block schematic diagram.


Explain the needfor and the implementationof l, SLS in SSR. 2. Explain the terms fruit and garblingas appliedto SSR. l. Explain why a marker sensitivityswitch is 3. What is successive required. detectionand whv is it in 2. Describethe needfor and a typical implementa_ necessary an ATC transponder? tion of loadingcompensation an ILS installation. 4. Draw a block schematic diagramand explain the fo, actionof a decoder an ATC transponder. in Draw a block diagram a glideslope of receiver. 1 5. Describe how barometric Describe outputsfrom iLS to the aircraft,s altituie may be the t. encodedinto a form suitablefor selecting reply to instrumentation to other systems. and the a mode C interrogation. 5 . D e s c r i b eL S a n dm a r k e r h a n n e l l i n g I i 6. Draw a typicalATC transponder arrangements stating controller. how selection made. is statingthe purpose eachcontrol. of 6. Describe, general in terms,how you would carry out a ramp test of an ILS. Chapter 5

Chapter 6 Compare platformand line of sightstabilization. l. 2. Describe, l. Explainhow, in distance briefly, video signalprocessing a related in phase measuring digitalweatherradar. navigation systems, errorsdue to changes clock in 3. Describe offset can be minimized how a p.p.i.display can be usedto present 2. List the factorsaffecting informationrelating weather to ahead the propagation Omega of of aircraft, signals statingfor each, how, if atill, compensation is 4. How doesa weatherradarflat plateantenna made. achieve narrowdirectional a 3. Describebriefly the general beam? procedurefor skin 5. Describe safetyprecautions be observed mapplngprior to deciding positionof an Omesa the to the when operatingweatheriadar, statingthe possible antenna. consequences 4. Describe ofnot doingso. how Decca chains designated. are 6. Describe 5. Explainhow laneambiguities De"cca how you would checka waveguide run in may be for condition resolved usingthe Mp mode. by 7. Discuss contour,STC and AGC in a weather 6 Describe characteristics the radiated the of signals radar. fromaLoranCchain. 8. Describe how range and bearing resolution may . be improvedin a weather radarstatinethe d i s a d v a n t a go fst a k i n gs u c hm e a s u r e i t o i v e e g Chapter7 rmprovement. 9 Explainthe basic principles operation a of of l. Describe four possible the modesof operation of Ryan Stormscope. 247

l. Describethe Doppler effect asutilized in an airborneDoPPlerradar. 2. Explain how a moving antennaDoppler radar drift angle' measures factorsleadingto a choiceof f'm'c'w' 3. Discuss for Doppler radars. switch' 4. Explain the needfor a land/sea 5. Driw a simplifiedblock diagramof a Doppler navigationsYstem. in 6. Describe, generalterms,how you would carry out a ramp test of a Doppler navigator.

the airlinerof the 1980sand beyond,payingparticular of attentionto the presentation informationfrom radio sensors. of 2. Explainthe basicprinciples how an automatic datalink usingh.f. and/orv.h.f. commscould be set up. ADSEL/DABSwith currentSSR. 3. Compare could be 4. Explainone way in which satellites usedfor navigationPurposes. briefly, a TRSBMLS' 5. Describe, may be Explain how a collision risk measure 6. at. arrived DITS with currentmethodsof 7. Compare informationtranst'er. of 8. Explainthe principles interferometry.

11 Chapter
Distinguishbetweenbarometricand radio l. of altitude commentingon the usefulness both. of Explainthe basicprinciples an f.m.c.w. 2. altimeter. 3. Why doesDoppler shift havea negligibleeffect on a radio altimeter? of 4. List the sources error in radio altimeter systems. of 5. Explain the main advantages using constant overconventional altimeters frequency difference f.m.c.w.altimeters. diagramof a pulsedradio 6. Draw a block schematic altimeter. fronl a radio requiresignals 7. Which systems involved? altimeter? What are the signals

Test Paper1
briefly, the differenttypesof antenna l. Compare, may be found on aircraft. which of block diagram a computer 2. Draw a simplified and statebriefly the functionof eachblock. 3. Draw and explaina simpleanti'crosstalk network. explainthe 4. With the aid of a block diagram actionof an h.f. ATU. how informationfrom an ADF is 5. Describe to the pilot. presented in noiseis reduced a 6. Explainhow displayed digitalweatherradar.

area of l. Draw the block diagram a general system. navigation on of 2. Explainthe basicprinciples RNAV based VOR/DME beacons. and 3. Draw and labeltypical RNAV, deviation triangles. slantrange by the 4. Describe functionsperformed a typical computerbeingpart of a VOR/DN{E digitalnavigation RNAV system. based 5. Explainthe actionof a typicaldataentry/record unit. terms,how you would carry in 6. Describe. general RNAV system. out a ranlp testof a VOR/DNIEbesed

Test Paper2
a two waysof modulating c.w. carrier' Describe l. usingradioaidsunder the navigation 2. Discuss rho'theta,rho'rho-rho, deadreckoning, headings, and theta-theta hYPerbolic. and explainthe block diagranr 3. Draw a simplified payingparticular synthesizer actionof a frequency attentionto se,lection. of 4. Draw a block diagram a VOR receiver' 5. Definethe termsjitter and squitter. terms,how you would carry in 6. Describe, general of a line of sightscanner out a ramp test sYStem' stabilization

Test Paper 3 Chapter 13 l. 244 of the tertns, instrumentation in Describe general usedwith the Describe modesof propagation l. radioequiPment. airbclrne

l. An e-m. waveof frequency30 MHz will havea wavelength (a) l0m, (b) lOcm,(c) l0 ft. of 2. A loop antenna usedf or (a) VOR and ADF, is (b) ADF and Omega,(c) Omegaand VOR. 3. Above30 MHz propagation by (a) space is wave,(b) sky wave,(c) ground wave. 4. Fadingat l.f. and m.f. may be due to (a) poor receiver sensitivity,(b) atmospheric attenuation, (c) simultaneous receptionof sky and ground wave. 5. A carrierof amplitude V is amplitude 5 Test Paper4 modulatedby a signalof amplitude3 V, the percentage modulationis (a) 157o,(b)tbJ%,(c) 60Io. l. Describehow a capacitive type antenna operates; 6, A constantamplitudemodulatingfrequencyof 500 kHz causes carrierto vary between list systems which might usesuch an antenna. a 8798.5MHz 2. Explain how an interrupt signalmight be usedto and 8801.5MHz, the modulationindex is h\ ll3. (b) 3, (c) 6. achieve data transferfrom a radio sensorto a a 7. Which of the following is not equivalentto navigation computer. 2 3 ' s ? ( a ) l 0 l I 1 2 ,( b ) 2 7 s , ( c ) 1 5 , u . 3. Describe briefly the basicprinciplesof ILS. 8. The b.c.d.equivalent 3C16is (a) 0l l0 0000, 4. List the facilitiesprovided by a typical general of (b) I I I 100,(c) 001I I 100. aviationAIS. 9. Which of the following, wherethe l.s.b.is an 5. Draw a simpleinterlock arrangement a dual for odd parity bit, represents h.f. installation. 68,e? (a) 10001001, ( b ) I 1 0 0 0 1 0 0(,c ) 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 . 6. Describehow the possibility of lnterference is 10. An address usuallyconsists (a) l6 minimizedin a multiple radio altimeter installation. bus of bi-directionallines,(b) l6 unidirectional lines, (c) both bi- and uni-directional lines. I l. Rho-thetanavigation the basisof is Test Paper5 (a) VOR/DME, (b) Omega, ADF. (c) 12. To avoid earth loops in audio systems cable l. Describe, briefly, the fetch-decode-increment. screens should be (a) earthed at both ends, executecycle of a computer. (b) not earthed eitherend,(c) earthed one end at at 2. List sources interferenceto aircraft radio of only. systems and statemethodsusedto minim2e the 13. An aircraft v.h.f. communications transceiver effectsof suchsources. will provide(a) 720 channels 50 kHz spacing, at 3. Discuss term squelch. the (b) 360 channels at25 kHz spacing, (c)720 channels 4. Explain the principlesof lane ambiguity at 25 kHz spacing. resolutionin ONS. 14. An aircraft at flight level l0O will be able to 5. Describe, generalterms,how you would carry in communicate with a v.h.f.groundstationat 100 ft out a ramp test of a VOR. abovem.s.l. at an approximatemaximum rangeof 6. At a point in a 180 n.m.leg of a flight the (a) 123 n.m.,(b) 12.3n.m.,(c) 135 n.m. following situation exists: 15. The minimum 1000Hz, 30%modulated signal heading 090"(M) levelto achieve output s.n.r.of 6 dB from an an drift port 10" airline standardv.h.f. receiver (a) I pV, (b) 3 gW, is distanceto go 80 n.m. ( c ) 0 . 1 8x l 0 - r 2 W . desiredtrack 085"(M) 16. A typical a.f. response a v.h.f. transceiver of is Draw the situation diagramand calculatethe across (a) 500 to 2000 Hz, (b) 300 to 25OO Hz, distance the wind and headinghave readingif (c) 300 to 4000 Hz. remained for unchanged the leg so far. (Assume 17. Typical radiatedpower from an airline = 0 if 0 < 0.2 0.017 radians/degree that sin 0 and standard v.h.f. commstransmitter would be radians). (a).10 ,(b) 30 w, (c) 50w. W 18. In an airline standard h.f. installationthe ATU would reduce v.s.w.r. the antenna the of and ATU

2. Define the terms hardwareand software. 3. Describe, with the aid of a sketch,a typical h.f. wire antennainstallationpaying particular attention to safetyfeatures. 4 Sketcha typical error curve for ADF statingeE, loop and field alignmenterrorsfor your curve. 5. Draw and explain a simplified ATC transponder block diagram. 6. Draw a typical weatherradar control panel statingpurposeofeach control.

Test Paper6


to combined betterthan (a) l.l: l, (b) 1.3:I, ( c ) 1 . 5 :. l h.f. commssystemhas a 19. An ARINC standard typical power output of (a) 400 W p.e.p.,(b) 700 W

(a)962 in transmit the range 37. TACANbeacons to l2l3 MHz,(b) 1030to 1090MHz,(c) 978 to

l2l3 MHz. 38. DME gives(a) range,(b) slant range,(c) ground speed. (c) W p.e.p., 1000 p.e.p. lossof signal by is 39. If a DME is in track subsequent transmissioncoded (a) the 20. A Selcal (b) the equipmentto (a) search, spacing, will cause of number r.f. bursts, thepulse (b) automaticallystandby,(c) go into memory. (c) the modulatingtonesused.' (a) reduces radiated 40. Mode A and C pulsespacingare, respectively network An anti-crosstalk ii. (a) 8 and 2l gs, (b) 12 and 36 ps, (c) 8 and l7 ps. (b) conductedinterference, interference, reduces will 41 . Selectionof 5237 on an ATC transponder on (c) prevents transmission both h.f. systems in givethe following pulses, order of transmission simultaneously. n, 2 2 . A i r l i n e s t a n d a r d A D F s w i l l , a f t e r Q E c o r r e c t i o( a ) F l A l A 4 B . 2 C l C 2 D l D 2 D 4 F 2 , (b) Fl cl Al c2 A4Dl B2D2D4 F2, havean error bound of (a) 3', (b) 5", (c) 8". valuesof the peaks (c) Fl Cl C2 Al A4B2Dl D2D4 F2. of 23. The average the absolute 42. The output of an encodingaltimeter for an of an ADF error curvegive(a) field alignmenterror, (c) QE correction. altitude of 7362 ft would give the code (b) loop alignmenterror, phasc (a) Al A2 A4 Bl B2 C2C4D2,(b) Al A2 A4B/., phase the leads reference Itthe varlable )4. (c) A2 ,44 Cl C2. by 30" the magneticbearingto the VOR station will 43. The -3dB bandwidth of an ATC transponder Ue1a):O', (b) 210",(c) 150b. is of 090' and the receiver (a) 6 MHz, (b) 3 MHz, (c) 12 MHz. omni-bearing 25. With a selected should not reply if An ATC transponder 4. phaselaggingthe referenciphaseby 280'. variable (a) Pl > Y2.+ 9 dBs,(b) Pl > P2 + 4.5 dBs' the flighi director will show (a) fly right; from, (c) Pl ( P2. (b) fly right;to, (c) fly left; to. 45. An X-band weather radar will operate at of a VOR receiveris 26. The frequencyrange (a\9375 MHz, (b) 5400 MHz, (c) 8800 MHz. ( a ) 1 0 8t o I 1 7 . 9 5 H z ,( b ) 1 0 8t o 11 1 . 9 5M H z , M Secondtraceechoesare avoidedby 6. (c) I l8 to 135.95 Hz. M (a) choosinga p.r.f. greaterthan someminimum, is at 27. The VOR audio identificationtone than someminimum, a (b) choosing p.r.p.greater (a) 1350Hz, (b) 1000Hz, (c) 1020Hz. either or both of the receiver )6. Which of the following is a localizerfrequency? (c) increasing power. and sensitivity transmitter (a) I10.20 MHz, (b) 109.15MHz, (c) I12.10 MHz. e doesglideslop 47 . The pilot reportspronouncedground returnstc )9. In which oi tire following bands is one sideof the display,the most likely cause operate?(a) h.f., (b) v.h.f., (c) u.h.f. (a) systempermanehtlyin the mappingmode, in 3b. If the 90 Hz tone predominates a localizer tilt (b) scanner faulty, (c) gyro toppled. indicatorwill show (a) on the receiver deviatiorr on (b) fly left, (c) fly right. 48. Broken radial lines are observed the weather course, 31. The v.j.w.r. of a localizerantennashouldbe no radarindicator, the most likely causeis (a) a.f.c. (b) circuit sweeping, dirt in the magslip, more than (a) 5: I , (b) 3: I , (c) I .5:I . for from anotherradar' (c) interference 32. An ONS, usingsoftwarecorrection 49. A weatherradarwith a p.r.f. of 200 and a duty predictableerrors,will giveaircraft position to an cycle of l0 x 10-3 would havea bandwidth of u..uru.y (r.m.s.)of (a) l-2 nm, (b) 0-l nm, approximately(a) I MHz, (b)_500kHz, (c) 3 MHz. (c) 2_inm. gives navigationfacilities worldwide 50. A typicalmemory sizefor a digital weather 3t. Omega (a) five stationstransmittingon 10.2, I 1.33 and radaremployingan X-Y displayis (a) 4 kbit' using (b) 8 kbit, (c) 32 kbit. 13.6 kHz, (b) eight stationstransmittingon.10.2, placedstations 51. If Pand R aretheVRG pitch and rollsignals 11.33and 13.6kHz,(c) strategically and respectively 0 is the azimuth anglethen the transmittingfrequencymultiplexedsignals. demandsignalfor a line of sight stabilization of usuallyconsists (a) a mastet 34. A Deccachain systemis (a) Psin0+ Rcos0,(b) Pcos0+ Rsin0, pat, (c) independent (b) and three slaves, a master-slave (c) Pcos0x Rsin0. statlons. 52. An X-bandDoppler radarshowsa ground 35. The usablenight rangeof Deccais about estimateof the of speed 400 knots, a reasonable (b) 240 nm, (c) 360 nm. (a) 120 nm, Dopplershift would be (a) 5 kHz, (b) 500 Hz, (a) Loran C radiates pulsedr.f' at 100 kHz, 36. ,c) 12 kHz. (b) pulsedr.f. at 14 kHz, (c) c.w. at 100 kHz. 250

53. An f.m.c.w. Doppler radar operating at a frequencyof 8800 MHz, modulatedat 500 kHz with angle of 60' will have altitude holes at a depression multiplesof approximately(a) 500 ft, (b) 2000 ft, (c) 8000 ft. 54. Wobbulationin a Doppler radar is usedto overcomethe effects of (a) reflections from the dielectricpanel,(b) overwatercalibrationshift errors, (c) altitude holes. 55. A radio altimeterwould not be connectedto (a) MADGE, (b) a flight director, (c) an ATC transponder. 56. The DH lamp comeson when the aircraft is (a) over the outer marker, (b) below a pilot set barometricaltitude, (c) below a pilot set radio altitude. 57. It is found that the most suitable positions for a and radio altimetertransmitter-receiver antennas

leadsto a minimum total feeder length of 9 ft and an path length of 8 ft; what antenna€round-antenna would be a suitableAID setting? (a) 20 ft, (b) 40 ft. (c) 57 ft. 58. A phantom beaconis (a) a co-located VOR/DME beaconwith no identity transmission, (b) a TACAN beacon,(c) relatedto a VOR/DME and bearing. beaconby pilot set distance 59. An aircraft is 20 n.m.'and045'(M) from a VOR/DME beacon;the rangeof the current waypoint, which is due eastof the beacon.is shownas 20 nm; approximatelyhow far is the waypoint from the beacon?(a) 20 nm, (b) 30 nm, (c) 40 nm. elevationinformation 60. MADGE mode Cl derives by using(a) radio altitude and slant range, (b) interferometry,(c) a directionalbeamnarrow in elevation.



Acquisition,108 ADSEL,22I delay, l9l, 197 Aircraft installation Airwaysmarker,72 Altitude hales.178 Angleof cut, 8l Antennaeffect,5 I Antennatuning unit, 33 Antennas. 3 Area navigation display and control, 207 generalized system, 202 RNAV computer,206 2 standardization,I 3 principles, 204 VOR/DME-based ARINC, 19,230 Associated identity, I l1 ATC 600A (rFR), 120,136 ATC transponder block diagram operation,128 characteristics, I 35 coding,123 controlsand operation,127 encoding altimeter, 132 falsetargets, 125 installation, 126 interrogation, l2l principles, 121 ramp testing,135 rcply,122 sLS,125,128,133 Attitude director indicator,'l4, 217 Audio integrating system, 37 panel,38 Audio selection Auto standby, 106 Autoland, 198 Automaticdata input/output, 210 Automaticdirectionfinder 47 block diagramoperation, calibration and testing, 55 characteristics, 55 ' controlsand operation,54 installation.52 principles, 45 errors,49 system controt. t28 Automaticoverload Azinruthmarks,154 Balancing half cycle,15I Balun,63 Base line, 8 l. 95 Basic rate,l0l 143 Bearing resolution, 48 Beatfrequency oscillator,


BX-2000,206 cN-2011,2l 206 NP-2041A, RDR lE,164,166 R D R 1 1 0 0 ,r 4 8 RDR 1200,146 Boeing 7 4 7 ,t 4 , 3 7 767,217 advancedflight deck, 219 British Aerospace Cabininterphone, 4O 37, 80 Centilane, Clock offset, 82 Coastal refraction,50 Cockpitvoicerecorder,38,42 Coding,8 Codingdelay, l0l Collins Alt 50, 200 2 E F I S - 7 0 0 ,1 7 wxR700,216 Collision avoidance,229 beacons, ll0 Colocated map,85 Conductivity 143, 154 Conto.ur, 160 Cosec'beam, 555, 67, 78 Cossor deviationindicator,63 Course nrosstalk, 33 r.3, i ,bi,221 Datalink, 219 A Decca t\C81,102 Decca Doppler 70 serie.,183 navigator Decca a m b i g u i t i e9 7 , 9 9 s, antenna, 99 95, chain, 96 99 installation, Mk 1S/Danac,99Mk 19,99 positionfixing,96 signals, 96 height. 69, 196 Decision Decometer,95,96 Deviationindicator,70 tube, 144 Directview storage DITS,230 Diurnaleffect, 85 DME I analogue,14 ' block diagramoperation,ll2


channel arrangements, I l0 characteristics. I I 7 controls and operation, I l2 digital, I l4 g r o u n d s p e e d ,1 0 9 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , 10 6 i n s t a l l a t i o n ,I I I interrogation, 109 principles, 105 ramp testing, 119 reply,109 time to station, 109 Doppler navigation system antenna mechanization. I 74 beam geometry, I 75 characteristics, I 85 controls and operation, 184 Doppler effect, 173 Doppler shift, 173, 187, 190 Doppler spectrum, 175 f i x e d a n t e n n a s y s t e m ,1 8 1 installation,182 movlng antennasystem,179 navlgation calculations, I 79 o v e r w a t e re r r o r s , 1 7 8 testing,185 t r a n s m i s s i o n ,1 7 6 Drift angle,174 Drift indication (weathcr radar). 160 Echo protection, 108, 125 Electromagnetic propagation, 4 Electromagnetic adiation, 2 r Electromagnetic spectrum, 4 Encoding altimeter, 132, 210 Fan marker, 72 Field alignment error, 52 Flat plate antenna, 145 Flight interphone, 37, 38 F r a m e p u l s e s ,1 2 2 F r e e z e ,1 4 8 F r e q u e n c yp a i r i n g , 7 1 , I l 0 Fruiting,125 Carbling, 125 Geomagnetic field, 85 Ground conductivity, 85 G r o u n d c r e w c a l l s y s t e m ,3 8 , 4 2 Group count down, 128 H e a d u p d i s p l a y( H U D ) . 2 1 9 Hc4}rt ring, 145 ILF- ;cmms rn:enna, 30 t{c<i diagram operation, 32 *r:rlieristics, 34 ccqu=:lr and operation, 3l -m[ls'a. l! re-'-.=-:i :*- f9 irr-

Horizontalsituationindicator,63, 217 Hyperbolicnavigation principles, 80 ldentification,friend or foc, l2 I IFR ATC 600A, 120, 136 NAV 40IL, 67 NAV 4O2AP, 78 R D 3 0 0 ,1 6 7


a n t e n n a s ,7 6 block diagram operation, 72 categories,69 characteristics, 77 controls and operation, 76 coverage,70,72 difference in depth of modulation, 70 fiequency pairing,7l 'glideslope, 70 identification, 70 installation, 74 loading compensation, 75 I o c a l i z e r ,6 9 matker,72 principles, 69 r a m p t e s t i n g .7 8 I n d e x i n g , 1 0 2 ,1 0 4 Instrument flight rules, 202 Intensity modulation, 140 Interference, I 3 lnterferometer , 223, 226 I n t e r r o g a t o r , 1 0 5 , 1 2 1, 2 2 7 Isodop, I 75 Janus configuration, 175, 187 Jitter,106 Khg

K C U s 6 5 A ,2 1 0 K D E 5 6 6 ,2 1 0 Kr 20416,'ts KMA20,75 K N 7 2 .7 3 ,7 5 KN 74,205 K N 7 5 ,7 5 K N R6 6 5 , 2 l l K N S8 0 , 1 2 , l l l K P I5 3 3 ,l l l K P r 5 5 2 ,6 4 KX 1758,75 KY 196,2r,23 Laneambiguities, 97 86, Lanecount, 80 Laneslip,80 Lanewidth, 80 Laning,80 Line of position,79 Litton LTN 211,87 (lLS), 75 Loadingcompensation Lobeswitching. 179 Loop alignment error,52 Loopantenna, ' 3,45 Loop swing,55 LoranC block diagram operation,I 03

tt[IO,rl llcltd

-:- 35 :


l*.uil*: ::Cr:). 148 -5lI{ f series. 193



LoranC Gont'd) chain,101 102 installation, principles,102 101 signals, MADGE block diagram opention, 227 controls and instrumentation, 227 parameters, 229 principles, 225 Mapping,150 Marconi A D 5 6 0 ,1 7 9 A D 6 5 0 , 1 8 2 ,1 8 5 80 Master, exposivelevel, 164 Maximum permissible 9, Microcomputer, 26, 94, 208 Microwavelanding system'224 Middlemarker,?2 Modal interference,85 122 Modeinterlace, Modulation,5 Mountain effect, 50 MP mode,97 Multiplexing, T N A V 4 0 1 Lo F R ) , 6 7 NAV 402AP(tFR),78 Night etfect,50 Noisefigure,170 effect,85 Nonspheroidal Notching,99 Omega broadcastpattem, 84 95 characteristics, controls and oPeration,90 hardware,93 installation, 87 89 interface. position fixing, E6 ramptesting,95 signalpropagation,84 skin mapping,8T software,90 83 stations, selector,63 Omni-bearing Opencentre,15l 108 Outboundsearch, Outer marker,72 Overwatercalibration shift error, l?8 38, address, 40 Passenger entertainment, 4l 38, Passenger reply, 108 Percentage index, 171 Performance 58, Phantombeacon, 203 offset,82 Phase indicator,63, I I I Pictorialnavigation Ptanposition indicator, 140 Planararray, 145 Polar cap disturbance,86 Polardiagram,3 static,l3 Precipitation Programdiscretepins, 89

14l Pulsecompression, Pulsecrowding,215 Pulsewidth limiter, 129 Quadrantalerror, 5 I error correctioncuwe,57 Quadrantal Quadrantalerror corrector,5 2 Radarrangeequation,169 tester,165 Radarsystems Radio 4, categorization, I I I historical develoPment, principles,2 and transmitters,7 receivers Radio altimeter block diagramoperation, 192 200 characteristics, factors affecting performance,19I indicator,196 196 installation, delay,l9l, 197 installation interface,198 monitoring and self test, 195 199 multiple installation, principleq,189 ramp testing,200 sinusoidalfrequencymodulation, 201 indicator,53 Radiomagnetic Radome,147 marks,151,154, 157 Range resolution,l4l Range Rate aiding, 86 RCA AVQ 85,114 DataNavlI, 162 Primus20. 154 P r i m u s 0 , 1 5 5 ,1 6 l 3 40, Primus 151 50, Primus 16l 200, 146,163 Primus Weather ScoutI, 147 RD 300 (IFR), 167 Reciprocalsearch,108 altitude, 190, 19l, l9E Residual 79, P$o2,Rho3navigation, 8l 58, navigation, 105 Rho-theta '14,199 Risingrunway, 139, RyanStormscope, 158 223 Satcom/satnav, Scannerstabilization, 143, L57 Scott-T-transformer,.93 Seabias,178 Search,107 142 Secondtraceechoes, radar, l2l Secondarysurveillance Selcal,35 antenna,45 Sense time control, 143,194 Sensitivity 38, interphone, 40 Service -sia;i;fibe Signalactivatedsearch,105 87 Skin mapping, 105,206 Slantrange, Slave,80

I ;;tression,'25,r28,Bt


Solareffects,85 SperryFMCS,217 Spikeeliminator,129 149 Spoking, 22, Squelch, 23 Squitter,106 50 Staticinterference, Staticmemory,108 50 Stationinterference, Stationrate.101 139, 168 Stormscope, L-band, ll1, 126 Suppression, Sweptgain, 143 TACAN, IO5 VOR.58 Terminal TIC T24A, ttg T268, T288, T298,78 T278,67 T 3 0 B ,6 7 , 7 8 T 3 3 8 ,T 4 3 B ,1 3 7 T50A, 120 beam,224 scanning Time referenced Track,107 105,12l, 160 Transponder, 191 TRT radio altimeters, Velocity memory,108 Vertical effect, 5 I VHF comms 23 block diagramoperation, 28 characteristics, 22 controlsand operation, 20 installation. principles, 20 ramp testing,29

Visual flight rutes,69, 202 VLF comms,87

manual, 65 61, automatic, block diagram operation, 55 65 characteristics, controlsand operation, 65 conventional,58 doppler,6l 59 identification, installation, 63 o u t p u t s , 6 36 6 , principles, 58 ramp testing,5T VSWR check,weatherndat,167 Weatherradar l50 analogue, beaconmode, 160 16 characteristics, 2 164 conditionand assembly, controlsand operation,147 digital,rho-theta,15I digital,t.v. (X-Y), 156 146 installation. multifunctiondisplay,161 160 other applications, principles, 140 ramp test, 165 safety precautions,154 scanner, 145 scannerstabilization, 143, l5'l Wobbulation,f 78, l9l Z-matker,72 Zone,Decca,96