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Purpose:

How does exercise affect our cardiovascular system?


To find out how activities affect the heart and breathing rate in humans.
Introduction:
The body needs energy for all kind of activities. When the body is resting, it
needs lower amount of energy. But the more demanding activities we are doing,
the more energy is needed.
The main source of energy is carbohydrate and fat. The fat and carbohydrates
are transformed by the citric acid cycle into energy. The chemical energy is
transferred to a substance that is called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The ATP is
a small package of energy that is used by the cells. In aerobic respiration oxygen
is needed. The waste products are water, carbon dioxide and heat.
The oxygen, O2 and carbon dioxide, CO2 is transported to/from the cells by the
haemoglobin in the blood from/to the lungs. It is in the lungs, in the border
between the capillaries and the alveoli, where the gases are exchanged by
diffusion. The heart is the pump which makes the blood circulate in the body. And
our breathing enables new air with O2 to enter the lungs by inhaling and get rid
of the old air with CO2 by exhaling.
Therefore, with more demanding exercises like running more energy is needed
and therefore also more oxygen is needed in the citric acid cycle and more
carbon dioxide is produced. Therefore, the heart and breathing rate is becoming
higher to enable the transportation of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
Normal resting heart rate for an untrained man is 70 - 75 bpm. And it's lower for
people that are well trained, it can be low as 25 bpm. And for old people it is
higher. Normal breathing rate/min is 13 16.
Hypothesis:
When we do many activity, our blood pressure will arise and our breathing will
become faster and increase.
CHEMICAL AND APPARATUS:
Digital sphygmomanometer, ice tube, test persons.
Procedure:
A. Blood Pressure rate
Set up the digital sphygmomanometer properly and ice water bath on the table.
The relaxed subject/ test persons sit on a chair. The cuff of the digital
sphygmomanometer is wrapped firmly around the left arm above the elbow. The
lower arm should be resting on a table-top or bench.

The relaxed subject/ test persons stand ups near the table. The cuff of the digital
sphygmomanometer is wrapped firmly around the left arm above the elbow. The
lower arm should be resting on a table-top or bench.
The right hands of relaxed subject/ test persons in the ice water bath. The cuff of
the digital sphygmomanometer is wrapped firmly around the left arm above the
elbow. The lower arm should be resting on a table-top or bench.
After do exercises (20 push ups), test the test persons using digital
sphygmomanometer. The right hands of relaxed subject/ test persons in the ice
water bath. The cuff of the digital sphygmomanometer is wrapped firmly around
the left arm above the elbow. The lower arm should be resting on a table-top or
bench.
Record all the data of each test persons, (diastolic, systolic and heart pressure).
Mean arterial
pressure)

= diastolic pressure + 1/3 (systolic pressure diastolic

pressure

B. Breathing rate
Set up the breathing test.
Each test persons blew using the breathing test by slowly.
Followed by, blew strongly using the breathing test.
Last, blew the breathing test after do exercise.
Record all the data and compare.
RESULT:

DISCUSSION:
The aim of this lab was to find out how activities affect the heart and breathing
rate in a human. In my lab, I can easily see that the heart and breathing rate
become higher during activity. My data is not 100% reliable because that
measurement that I used was not so good. If I would do the lab even more
accurate, I could use a professional pulse and breathing meter and have a
treadmill for the test persons to run on, so the test persons would make exact
the same activity.
Firstly, this lab wants to know our blood pressure when we are not doing nothing
compare then do some activity. Of course, I am very happy. This lab was very fun
and so interesting. Its also make us be ourselves when do this experiment. For
check blood pressure when do activity, of course my heartbeat was very fast. At
other side, we can study what is the human physiology and know how to use
Digital sphygmomanometer with correctly and know what is the component in
the Digital sphygmomanometer like systolic and diastolic.
Secondly, we must check our heart and breathing rate with do not doing nothing
and after do activity. The body needs energy for all kind of activities. When the
body is resting, it needs lower amount of energy. But the more demanding
activities we are doing, the more energy is needed. Therefore, with more
demanding exercises like 20 push ups, more energy is needed and therefore also
more oxygen is needed and more carbon dioxide is produced. Therefore, the
heart and breathing rate is becoming higher to enable the transportation of
carbon dioxide and oxygen.
In this lab the resting heart rate and the resting breathing rate were much higher
than normal. The reason for this was probably that I did not measured the real
resting rate for pulse and breathing. The persons were probably not relaxed. So
in next lab I would make sure that the persons are relaxing. It would be
interesting to measure the heart and breathing rate on a smoker or a person that
has certain health problems as asthma, or a person that lives in a place where
the environment is polluted, and how they respond to exercise, and compare to
my results. In these persons, the gas exchange is slower, and smoking also has
that negative effect that the haemoglobin can bind less oxygen because of it is
occupied of carbon monoxide (CO). So if I would make a new study with persons
in this group, I would probably get the results that their heart will beat faster and
they will have much harder to make exercises.
When we do not use the energy sources that we eat, they get stored as glycogen
and fat. If there is too big excess of energy sources, one become fat. Fat people
have more mass and weighs more than not fat people, so they also need more
energy and oxygen to do activities. Too much fat in the diet stops muscle cells to
take up glucose from the blood and makes the cells to slow down the release of
needed energy.

Conclusion:
Our hypothesis was correct. Our hypothesis was when we do many activity, our
blood pressure will arise and our breathing will become faster and increase. The
reason why it raised was because the heart needs to pump faster when the
athlete does exercise that requires more movement; the heart needs to pump
more and needs more oxygen. Therefore, the heart rate raised a lot. The
relationship between the input and output variables is, when doing the exercise
that requires more speed, the heart rate raises the most. After do activity, each
test persons heart beat raised from his average heartbeat.
REFERENCES:

http://www.science123.n.nu/respiration
http://theveryexcitingbiologyblog.blogspot.my/2013/04/a-few-days-ago-duringscience-class.html
http://www.slideshare.net/gdiane/lab-report-heart-beat
http://www.slideshare.net/brookelynwiggins/lab-1-and2-final-n