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(Dr.-Ing.

Wei Wang,
Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Chapter 2 Model of control systems

1. Differential equation of control systems


(from physical and chemical principle)
2. Transfer function (definition and how to get)
3. Block diagram
4. Signal flow chart

Transfer function:

G ( s) =

C (s)
R ( s)

where

C ( s) = L[c(t )]

R( s) = L[ r (t )]

C(t) is system output

r(t) is system input


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(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Different forms of transfer function:


G(s) =

bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0
an + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0
m1

m2

s 2
s
) + 2 k ( ) + 1]
k
k
k =1
G ( s) = i =n11
n2
s
s
s (T j s + 1) [( ) 2 + 2 l ( ) + 1]
l
l
j =1
l =1
K ( i s + 1) [(

K ( s + z1 )(s + z2 ) L ( s + zm )
G ( s) = r
=
s ( s + p1 )(s + p2 ) L ( s + pq )

(s + z )
s

i =1
q

(s + p )

j = v +1

Example:

i
R
ui

1
i (t )dt = ui (t )
C
1
uo (t ) = i (t )dt
C

uo

Ri (t ) +

(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

i
Eliminating i(t), get

RC

ui

duo (t )
+ u o (t ) = u i (t )
dt

R
uo

make Laplace transform:

( RCs + 1)U o ( s) = U i ( s)

U o (s)
1
=
U i ( s ) RCs + 1
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Typical factors in transfer functions:


1. Amplifying factor:

G (s) = K

2. Inertial factor :

G (s ) =

1
Ts + 1
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(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

3. differential factor

G (s ) = Ks
4. First order numerator term

G (s ) = s + 1

5. Second order numerator term

G (s ) = 2 s + 2s + 1
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6. integral factor

G (s ) =

1
s

7. oscillatory factor
G (s ) =

n
s + 2 n s + n
2

8. Time delay term

G(s) = e s
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(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Block diagrams
Basic Elements in block diagrams:
r (t )

c (t )

R (s)
C (s)

(a)

R(s) C ( s)

R(s) +
C (s)

(b)

R (s)

G ( s)

C (s)

C (s)
(c )

(d )

asignal line
bpickoff point
csumming junction
dblock

Serial configuration
General feedback configuration

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(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Serial configuration:
U(s)

G1(s)

V(s)

W(s)
G2(s)

X(s)
G3(s)

G1(s)G2(s)G3(s)

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General feedback configuration:


R(s)

E(s)
-

C(s)
G(s)

H(s)
E(s) = R(s) - H(s)C(s)
hence

C(s) = G(s) E (s)

C (s)= G(s)E(s) = G(s) [ R(s)- C(s)H(s) ]= G(s)R(s) G(s)C(s)H(s)


C(s)[1+G(s)H(s)] = G(s)R(s)

C (s)
G (s )
=
R (s) 1 + G (s) H ( s)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Simplification of block diagram

Block manipulation rules


in the process of
simplifying a block diagram

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Block manipulation rules

G
1 m GH

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(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

A B +C
B

A B+C

C
A B+C

A B+C

B
A

AG B

1
G

B
A

AG BG

AG B

AG

AG BG

AG

AG

AG

AG

AG
G

A
B

AB
A

A B

AB

A B

B
A

1
G

AG1 + AG2

G1

1
G2

A G
2

AG1 + AG2
G1

G2
A

G1

B
A

1
G2

G1

G2

G2

G1

AG1

(Automatic Control System)

G2

B
AG1

A
AG1

G1

G2

B
AG1

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Example:
From the principles of the circuits:
r(t) u 1 (t)
= i1 (t)
R1

u 1 (t) c(t)
= i 2 (t)
R2

c(t) =

1
i 2 (t)dt
C2

u 1 (t) =

1
[i 1 (t) i 2 (t)]dt
C1

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(Automatic Control System)

(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

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Transfer functions when multiple inputs

N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

C (s)
= G1 ( s) G2 ( s ) = G ( s)
E (s)

B( s )
= H ( s)
C (s)

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N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

B( s )
= G1 ( s) G2 ( s ) H ( s ) = G ( s) H ( s)
E (s)

C (s)
G1 ( s )G2 ( s )
G(s)
=
=
R( s ) 1 + G1 ( s)G2 ( s ) H ( s ) 1 + G ( s) H ( s )
C (s)
G2 ( s )
G2 ( s )
=
=
N ( s ) 1 + G1 ( s)G2 ( s) H ( s) 1 + G ( s ) H ( s )
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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

E (s)
1
=
R(s ) 1 + G (s ) H (s )

E (s ) G2 (s ) H ( s)
=
N ( s ) 1 + G ( s ) H ( s)
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N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

C (s) =

G( s )
G2 ( s)
R( s ) +
N ( s)
1 + G ( s ) H ( s)
1 + G ( s) H ( s )

E (s) =

1
G ( s ) H ( s)
R( s ) 2
N ( s)
1 + G ( s ) H ( s)
1 + G (s) H (s)
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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Signal Flow Chart

The signal flow chart :


x5
f

x2

x1

x4

x3

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Concepts in signal flow chart


x5
f

x1

x2

x4

x3

Input node :

x1, x5

Output node :

x4

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

x5

x1

x2

x4

b
x3

Mixed nodes :
x2, x3
A path:
x1x2x3,
x2x3x2

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x5

A forward path:
x1

x2

x4

x3

x1x2x3x4

A loop:

x2x3x2

Path gain:
Path gain of the path x1x2x3 is ab
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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

x5

Concepts in signal flow chart

Forward-path gain:

x1

x2

x4

x3

The forward path ( x1x2x3x4 ) gain in the example is abc.


Loop gain:
The loop gain of the loop x2x3x2 is be

Nontouching loops:

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The manipulation of signal flow chart:

y1 = a21 y 2 + a31 y3 + a41 y4 + a51 y5

y6 = a16 y1
y7 = a17 y1
y8 = a18 y1

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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

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a12
y1

a23
y2

a34
y3

a45
y4

a56
y5

y6

a12a23a34a45a56
y1

y6

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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

The Mason Gain Formula

G = yout / yin =
where

1 L
pi i
i=1

yin = input node variable, yout = output node variable


G = gain between yin and yout , L = total number of forward paths
Pi = gain of the ith forward path

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L
m

Pmr = gain product of the mth possible combination


of r nontouching loops
i = the for that part of the signal flow chart which is
nontouching with the ith forward path.
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G7

Example:
G6
R( s )

G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

+ C(s)

H1
H2

Signal flow chart:


G7

G6
R (s ) G1

G4
G2

G5

1 C ( s)

G3

H1
H 2
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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

G7

G6
R ( s ) G1

G4
G2

G5

1 C ( s)

G3

H1
H 2

individual loops:
L1 = -G4H1

L2 = -G2G7H2

L3 = -G6G4G5H2

L4 = -G2G3G4G5H2

The two nontouching loop is L1 L2


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G7

G6
R ( s ) G1

G4
G2

G5

1 C ( s)

G3

H1
H 2

forward paths:
P1= G1G2G3G4G5

1=1

P2= G1G6G4G5

2=1

P3= G1G2G7

3=1-L1
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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

L1 = -G4H1

L2 = -G2G7H2

L3 = -G6G4G5H2
L4 = -G2G3G4G5H2
P1= G1G2G3G4G5 1=1

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L

P2= G1L6G4G5

2=1

P3= G1G2G7

3=1-L1

= 1 - (L1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4 ) + L1 L 2

C(s)
1
= G(s)= ( p1 1+ p2 2+ p3 3)
R(s)

G1G2G3G4G5 + G1G6G4G5 + G1G2G7 (1+ G4H1)


=
1+ G4H1 + G2G7H2 + G6G4G5H2 + G2G3G4G5H2 + G4H1G2G7H2
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Example2:

R (s)

1
R1

1
C1s

1
R2

1
C 2s

C ( s)

C(s)

Signal flow chart:

R(s)

1
R1

1
C1s

B
1

1
C

1
C2s

1
R2

E
1
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(Automatic Control System)

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(Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,


Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Example2:
R(s)

1
R1

1
C1s

1
C

1
C2s

1
R2

C(s)

B
1

individual loops:
L1 =

1
R 1C1s

L2 =

Nontouching loop:

L1L 2 =

1
R 2 C 2s

L3 =

1
R 2 C1s

1
R1C1sR 2 C 2s 2

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L
m

= 1 (L1 + L 2 + L 3 ) + L1L 2
= 1+

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
R 1C1s R 2 C 2s R 2 C1s R 1C1R 2 C 2s 2

R( s)

1
R1

1
C1s

1
C

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1
C 2s

1
R2

C ( s)

forward path:
P1 =

1
R 1R 2 C1C 2s 2

1 = 1

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L
m

= 1 (L1 + L 2 + L 3 ) + L1L 2
= 1+

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
R 1C1s R 2 C 2 s R 2 C1s R 1C1R 2 C 2 s

C(s)
P
1
=G = 1 1 =
2
R(s)

R 1R 2 C1C 2s + R 2 C 2s + R 1C1s + R 1C 2s + 1
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(Automatic Control System)

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