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# (Dr.-Ing.

Wei Wang,
Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

## 1. Differential equation of control systems

(from physical and chemical principle)
2. Transfer function (definition and how to get)
3. Block diagram
4. Signal flow chart

Transfer function:

G ( s) =

C (s)
R ( s)

where

C ( s) = L[c(t )]

R( s) = L[ r (t )]

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

## Different forms of transfer function:

G(s) =

bm s m + bm 1s m 1 + L + b1s + b0
an + an 1s n 1 + L + a1s + a0
m1

m2

s 2
s
) + 2 k ( ) + 1]
k
k
k =1
G ( s) = i =n11
n2
s
s
s (T j s + 1) [( ) 2 + 2 l ( ) + 1]
l
l
j =1
l =1
K ( i s + 1) [(

K ( s + z1 )(s + z2 ) L ( s + zm )
G ( s) = r
=
s ( s + p1 )(s + p2 ) L ( s + pq )

(s + z )
s

i =1
q

(s + p )

j = v +1

Example:

i
R
ui

1
i (t )dt = ui (t )
C
1
uo (t ) = i (t )dt
C

uo

Ri (t ) +

## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

i
Eliminating i(t), get

RC

ui

duo (t )
+ u o (t ) = u i (t )
dt

R
uo

## make Laplace transform:

( RCs + 1)U o ( s) = U i ( s)

U o (s)
1
=
U i ( s ) RCs + 1
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## Typical factors in transfer functions:

1. Amplifying factor:

G (s) = K

2. Inertial factor :

G (s ) =

1
Ts + 1
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

3. differential factor

G (s ) = Ks
4. First order numerator term

G (s ) = s + 1

## 5. Second order numerator term

G (s ) = 2 s + 2s + 1
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6. integral factor

G (s ) =

1
s

7. oscillatory factor
G (s ) =

n
s + 2 n s + n
2

G(s) = e s
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Block diagrams
Basic Elements in block diagrams:
r (t )

c (t )

R (s)
C (s)

(a)

R(s) C ( s)

R(s) +
C (s)

(b)

R (s)

G ( s)

C (s)

C (s)
(c )

(d )

asignal line
bpickoff point
csumming junction
dblock

Serial configuration
General feedback configuration

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Serial configuration:
U(s)

G1(s)

V(s)

W(s)
G2(s)

X(s)
G3(s)

G1(s)G2(s)G3(s)

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## General feedback configuration:

R(s)

E(s)
-

C(s)
G(s)

H(s)
E(s) = R(s) - H(s)C(s)
hence

## C (s)= G(s)E(s) = G(s) [ R(s)- C(s)H(s) ]= G(s)R(s) G(s)C(s)H(s)

C(s)[1+G(s)H(s)] = G(s)R(s)

C (s)
G (s )
=
R (s) 1 + G (s) H ( s)

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

## Block manipulation rules

in the process of
simplifying a block diagram

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G
1 m GH

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

A B +C
B

A B+C

C
A B+C

A B+C

B
A

AG B

1
G

B
A

AG BG

AG B

AG

AG BG

AG

AG

AG

AG

AG
G

A
B

AB
A

A B

AB

A B

B
A

1
G

AG1 + AG2

G1

1
G2

A G
2

AG1 + AG2
G1

G2
A

G1

B
A

1
G2

G1

G2

G2

G1

AG1

G2

B
AG1

A
AG1

G1

G2

B
AG1

## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Example:
From the principles of the circuits:
r(t) u 1 (t)
= i1 (t)
R1

u 1 (t) c(t)
= i 2 (t)
R2

c(t) =

1
i 2 (t)dt
C2

u 1 (t) =

1
[i 1 (t) i 2 (t)]dt
C1

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

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N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

C (s)
= G1 ( s) G2 ( s ) = G ( s)
E (s)

B( s )
= H ( s)
C (s)

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N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

B( s )
= G1 ( s) G2 ( s ) H ( s ) = G ( s) H ( s)
E (s)

C (s)
G1 ( s )G2 ( s )
G(s)
=
=
R( s ) 1 + G1 ( s)G2 ( s ) H ( s ) 1 + G ( s) H ( s )
C (s)
G2 ( s )
G2 ( s )
=
=
N ( s ) 1 + G1 ( s)G2 ( s) H ( s) 1 + G ( s ) H ( s )
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

E (s)
1
=
R(s ) 1 + G (s ) H (s )

E (s ) G2 (s ) H ( s)
=
N ( s ) 1 + G ( s ) H ( s)
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N(s)
R(s)

C(s)

E(s)
G1(s)

G2(s)

B(s)

H(s)

C (s) =

G( s )
G2 ( s)
R( s ) +
N ( s)
1 + G ( s ) H ( s)
1 + G ( s) H ( s )

E (s) =

1
G ( s ) H ( s)
R( s ) 2
N ( s)
1 + G ( s ) H ( s)
1 + G (s) H (s)
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

x5
f

x2

x1

x4

x3

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x5
f

x1

x2

x4

x3

Input node :

x1, x5

Output node :

x4

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

x5

x1

x2

x4

b
x3

Mixed nodes :
x2, x3
A path:
x1x2x3,
x2x3x2

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x5

A forward path:
x1

x2

x4

x3

x1x2x3x4

A loop:

x2x3x2

Path gain:
Path gain of the path x1x2x3 is ab
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

x5

## Concepts in signal flow chart

Forward-path gain:

x1

x2

x4

x3

## The forward path ( x1x2x3x4 ) gain in the example is abc.

Loop gain:
The loop gain of the loop x2x3x2 is be

Nontouching loops:

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y6 = a16 y1
y7 = a17 y1
y8 = a18 y1

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

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a12
y1

a23
y2

a34
y3

a45
y4

a56
y5

y6

a12a23a34a45a56
y1

y6

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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

G = yout / yin =
where

1 L
pi i
i=1

## yin = input node variable, yout = output node variable

G = gain between yin and yout , L = total number of forward paths
Pi = gain of the ith forward path

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L
m

## Pmr = gain product of the mth possible combination

of r nontouching loops
i = the for that part of the signal flow chart which is
nontouching with the ith forward path.
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G7

Example:
G6
R( s )

G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

+ C(s)

H1
H2

G7

G6
R (s ) G1

G4
G2

G5

1 C ( s)

G3

H1
H 2
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

G7

G6
R ( s ) G1

G4
G2

G5

1 C ( s)

G3

H1
H 2

individual loops:
L1 = -G4H1

L2 = -G2G7H2

L3 = -G6G4G5H2

L4 = -G2G3G4G5H2

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G7

G6
R ( s ) G1

G4
G2

G5

1 C ( s)

G3

H1
H 2

forward paths:
P1= G1G2G3G4G5

1=1

P2= G1G6G4G5

2=1

P3= G1G2G7

3=1-L1
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

L1 = -G4H1

L2 = -G2G7H2

L3 = -G6G4G5H2
L4 = -G2G3G4G5H2
P1= G1G2G3G4G5 1=1

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L

P2= G1L6G4G5

2=1

P3= G1G2G7

3=1-L1

= 1 - (L1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4 ) + L1 L 2

C(s)
1
= G(s)= ( p1 1+ p2 2+ p3 3)
R(s)

## G1G2G3G4G5 + G1G6G4G5 + G1G2G7 (1+ G4H1)

=
1+ G4H1 + G2G7H2 + G6G4G5H2 + G2G3G4G5H2 + G4H1G2G7H2
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Example2:

R (s)

1
R1

1
C1s

1
R2

1
C 2s

C ( s)

C(s)

R(s)

1
R1

1
C1s

B
1

1
C

1
C2s

1
R2

E
1
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## (Dr.-Ing. Wei Wang,

Dept. of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong
Univ.

Example2:
R(s)

1
R1

1
C1s

1
C

1
C2s

1
R2

C(s)

B
1

individual loops:
L1 =

1
R 1C1s

L2 =

Nontouching loop:

L1L 2 =

1
R 2 C 2s

L3 =

1
R 2 C1s

1
R1C1sR 2 C 2s 2

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L
m

= 1 (L1 + L 2 + L 3 ) + L1L 2
= 1+

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
R 1C1s R 2 C 2s R 2 C1s R 1C1R 2 C 2s 2

R( s)

1
R1

1
C1s

1
C

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1
C 2s

1
R2

C ( s)

forward path:
P1 =

1
R 1R 2 C1C 2s 2

1 = 1

= 1 Pm1 + Pm 2 Pm 3 + L
m

= 1 (L1 + L 2 + L 3 ) + L1L 2
= 1+

1
1
1
1
+
+
+
R 1C1s R 2 C 2 s R 2 C1s R 1C1R 2 C 2 s

C(s)
P
1
=G = 1 1 =
2
R(s)

R 1R 2 C1C 2s + R 2 C 2s + R 1C1s + R 1C 2s + 1
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