You are on page 1of 9

MIZAT ADVANCED NDT

P.O. BOX 31712 AL-KHOBAR 31952


TEL. NO. +966 3 802 9708 FAX NO. +966 3 802 9709
E-mail: info@mizatalkhleej.com.sa
Website: www.mizatalkhleej.com.sa

Document Title:
Document No.:
Revision No.:

Rev.
No.
00

POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT PROCEDURE


MAN-QP-PWHT-001
Rev. 00

Description of Change
Initial Release

Rev. Date

Prepared
by

Approved
by

24.02.2010

GCC

ISG

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

1. SCOPE
The procedure covers the general requirements of Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) of weld joints
between alloy steel to alloy steel, alloy steel to carbon steel and carbon steel to carbon steel material of
piping fabricated in accordance with ASME B31Pressure Piping and ASME BPV Code.
2. REFERENCES
ASME Sec. VIII Division I

Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME B31.3, 2008

Process Piping

ASME B31.4, 2006

Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other


Liquids

ASME B31.8, 2007

Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

3. RESPONSIBILITIES
3.1 Safety
Personnel working in the heat treatment shall be trained in PWHT work.
It shall be the responsibility of the employed PWHT technician to ensure personnel safety and
clearance within the facilities before performing the activity.
3.2 Qualification
The PWHT technician shall be either a science/technical graduate or an electrical apprentice high
school graduate with basic electrical knowledge to undertake the heat treatment at the site.
4. EQUIPMENT
4.1 Power source
Power source shall be a 3 Phase 65 KVA double wound class H insulated dry type power
transformer suitable for primary supply of 380/415/440 V and gives 3 Phase output voltage of either 60
V or 80 V AC between phase and neutral. Output from the power source is taken through connectors
and made available on the output sockets. The unit is fitted with circuit breaker and panel mounted
cam-lock output terminals.
4.2 Programmable Temperature Controller
It is a proportional controller used for controlling the temperature during post weld heat treatment. The
magnitude of control signal is proportional to the deviation between work piece temperature and set
point temperature. Power supplied in an ON-OFF mode but the set point is shifted electronically by a
measure at how far the process temperature is above or below the set point. K type thermocouples
attached to the work piece shall be connected to the temperature controller using compensating cables.
Programmer is provided with automatic cold junction compensation.

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 1

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

The six (6) channel controller energizes the contractorised heating circuits of the power source. Time
proportional action is used to control heating/cooling rates and Dwell action to maintain soaking
temperature.
4.3 Temperature Recorder
Post weld heat treatment shall be progressively recorded using a multipoint, potentiometric type strip
chart recorder with built in thermocouple reference junction compensation circuit.
Chart speed shall be selected either on 25 mm/hr or 50 mm/hr and can be verified by using a
stopwatch. Inputs shall be K type thermocouples connected using Copper-Constantan compensating
cable of 30 mm length via programmable temperature controller. 12 Nos. Thermocouples can be
connected to the recorder and each channel will be printed in different colours. Chart shall be fully
identified with date, chart speed, joint identification, temperature-time cycle, name of the operator, heat
treatment specification and chart receipt number.
Temperature recorder shall be calibrated every three (3) months and a proper valid sticker shall be
displayed. Calibration frequency shall be extended up to 12 months with the approval of Client
Inspection Department if the documented calibration checks for that particular recorder demonstrate
acceptable accuracy for a suitable period.
4.4 Thermocouple Wire
Type K (Chromel-Alumel) thermocouple wire (22 SWG, pair) shall be used for measuring
temperature of post weld heat treatment. Thermocouple wire shall be covered with high temperature
glass fibre material which acts as an electrical and thermal insulation as well as protect the wire from
atmospheric contamination.
Standard limits of error shall be 2 C for 0 275 C and 0.75% for 275 1260 C range as per
ANSI MC-96-1-1975.
Copper-Constantan compensating cables shall be used to connect thermocouple to instrument
terminals. Thermocouple wires shall be attached to the job using a thermocouple attachment unit.
Thermocouple putty shall be used on hot junction to eliminate the chances of error due to radiant heat.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the thermocouple wires do not touch, away from the hot junction.
The thermocouple to extension cable connection shall be clear off heating zone.
Thermocouple plug and sockets shall be used for connecting thermocouple wires to compensating
cables and compensating cables to the instruments.
4.5 Thermocouple Welding and Attachment
K type thermocouple wire (Nickel-Chromium and Nickel-Aluminum pair) shall be fixed to the job
using thermocouple attachment unit working on capacitance discharge principle.
Proper cleaning of the area where the thermocouple to be attached shall be done (with wire brush or
file) to make sure that it is smooth and free from dirt, grease, oil, etc.

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 2

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

Nickel-Chromium and Nickel-Aluminum wires shall be fixed with a distance of separation 4 6 mm


for accurate measurements. Preheating is not required for fixing the thermocouple wire by using this
equipment.
4.6 Compensating Cables
Copper-Constantan compensating cables shall be used to connect K type thermocouples to the
programmable temperature controllers and temperature recorders. The Copper lead (positive, blue)
shall be connected to the Nickel-Chromium conductor (non-magnetic) and Constantan lead (negative,
white) to the Nickel-Aluminum conductor (magnetic) of K type thermocouple. For Type K
thermocouples, Copper-Constantan (Type T) compensating cables may be used with the following
conditions.
a) The junction between the Copper-Constantan compensating cable and the type K thermocouple lead
shall be a minimum of 0.5 mm outside the insulated area.
b) The acceptable temperature range of the junction between the compensating cable and the
thermocouple lead is from 0 C to 80 deg. C.
4.7 Flexible Ceramic Mat Materials
Heating elements used for post weld heat treatment shall be flexible ceramic mat heater of 60 V, 2.7
kW. Standard sizes are 205 x 250 mm, 255 x 205 mm, 305 x 165 mm, 180 x 145 mm and 1220 x 45
mm.
Flexible ceramic mat heaters are flexible and can easily be wrapped around pipes. Continuity checks
shall be done for each heating elements before connecting it in the circuit.
4.8 Insulation
Ceramic fiber mats of thickness 25 mm and size 1800 x 600 mm or 900 x 600 mm with stainless steel
wire mesh cover shall be used as thermal insulation. Density of ceramic fiber shall be 120 kg/m3.
Minimum two (2) layers of insulation shall be used.
5. PRE-START UP CHECK
5.1 Site Verification
MIZAT heat treatment engineer/supervisor shall visit the site 15 days before starting the job to assess
the location of joints, accessibility, arrangement for power connections, weather protection for
equipment, schedule of PWHT etc.
List of joints to be stress relieved shall be made with weld identification, drawing number, location,
diameter, thickness, material, heat treatment cycle etc. and to be submitted to client inspector at site.
5.2 Surface Condition
The welds to be heat treated shall be prepared free of greases, lubricants, dust and coatings to avoid
damage and short-circuiting of accessories/equipment.

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 3

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

5.3 Surface Protection


During heat treatment it shall be necessary to protect from oxidation the mechanical surface line flange
faces, threaded holes, threads by the application of coating such as deoxyaluminate or any other
suitable coating materials.
5.4 Protection from Extreme Weather
Proper protection to the job and equipment shall be done in case of extreme weather conditions.
Tarpaulin roof/side cover shall be used in case of heavy wind and rain.
5.5 Procedure to Avoid Chimney Effects
The ends of open pipes shall be closed off using ceramic fibre insulation mats in order to eliminate
drafts or air circulation that could lower the temperature on the inside of the joint, unless the internal
surface also insulated.
All the valves on the line shall be kept closed during PWHT to avoid chimney effect.
5.6 Equipment Checking
All equipment used for PWHT shall be checked to ensure integrity before starting the job.
Control circuit of power sources shall be checked before connecting the heating load.
Calibration of temperature recorder shall be cross-checked using calibrated thermocouple
potentiometer. Thermocouple attachment unit shall be checked for battery condition. All flexible
ceramic mat heaters shall be checked for continuity before connecting in heating circuit, all the
electrical connections shall be checked before switching on.
Connection materials required for the heat treatment, shall be of standard quality and it shall be selected
free of defects.
6. POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT
6.1 The PWHT heating and cooling rates above 316C shall not exceed 222C/hr. divided by the weld
thickness in inches, but no case shall be more than 222C/hr.
6.2 Soaking period shall be min. one (1) hour for P1 material and minimum two (2) hours for P4 material
and also per inch of nominal wall thickness of the pipe.
Welding or heating after the final PWHT is not permitted if the PWHT is required for service. Post
weld heat treatment shall follow all welding and repairs but shall be performed prior to hydrostatic test.
6.3 Below 315C, natural cooling under insulation in still air. During heating and cooling, there shall not
be a greater variation in temperature than 120C between any two points in the heating zone.
6.4 Pipes with diameter of 305 mm (12 inches) or less shall have at least one thermocouple. At least two
(2) equally spaced thermocouples shall be used for circumferential welds on pipe diameters above
305mm through 610 mm (24 inches). Pipes larger than 610 mm diameter shall have at least 4

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 4

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

thermocouples equally spaced around the circumference. (see Appendix I THERMOCOUPLE


LOCATIONS)
6.5 Flexible mat heaters are arranged about the weld seam to accomplish a heating area extending at least 3
times the thickness of the material being welded, but not less than 25 mm on either side from the edge
of the weld. Gaps between heating elements shall not exceed the wall thickness or 50mm, whichever is
smaller.
6.6 Where the butt joint constitutes two (2) separate material thicknesses, the heating elements shall be
arranged in two circumferential bands with independent control.
6.7 A minimum of 2 layers (50 mm) ceramic fibre insulations shall be applied, extending to a minimum
distances of 300 mm on either side of the weld.
6.8 In case of premature termination of heat treatment (due to power failure etc.) it shall be recorded and
repeated from the point of termination.
6.9 Any reduction in post weld heat treatments or alternative temperatures, below normal holding
temperatures, listed in the codes shall not be permitted.
7. DISASSEMBLY
Power source shall be electrically isolated before dismantling the secondary power cabling system, ceramic
fiber insulation shall be removed only after the temperature has cooled below 150 C. After completion of
PWHT, all thermocouples shall be removed and the attachment areas shall be ground smooth in to clean
and sound metal. MT/PT should be applied to those areas when requested by the Client.
8. PRECUATIONS
Prior to the start of PWHT, components shall be checked to ensure that all restraints are removed and the
component is free to expand and contract. For safety reasons, job shall be perfectly earthed during PWHT.
The immediate area of the job shall be roped off.
General safety aspects of Hot Work shall be strictly followed.
Check all cable connections using proper plugs and sockets. Protect the power cables and thermocouple
cable from damage.
Care shall be taken when shifting the equipment from one place to another. Electronic equipment like
recorders, programmers etc. shall be transported suitably packed in shock proof containers. Heat treatment
equipment shall be placed at site in covered space, which protects it from extreme weather conditions.
9. DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDS
9.1 Procure the approval of the PWHT cycle and assignment for the weld joint to be heat treated.
9.2 On a daily basis, a list of joints heat treated in the previous day along with all the relevant details
including Time Temperature graphs (chart) shall be submitted to QC department for approval, All
identification of joints must be noted in chart and signed, mentioned start time by the technician prior
to start of PWHT.

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 5

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

9.3 Inform the client for any deviation in the heat treatment cycle.
9.4 The heat treatment cycle chart shall be treated as the proof and record for any heat treatment
completion.
10. HARDNESS TESTING
10.1 Hardness checking shall be performed to determine the satisfactory performance of Heat treatment
process. Performance to SAES-W-011 Section 14 and/or NACE RP 0472 shall be made for the
purpose of hardness testing, the maximum hardness for P1 materials is 225 BHN for sweet service and
200 BHN for sour service.
10.2 The hardness testing shall be performed with portable Telebrineller field hardness tester only.
10.3 Hardness testing of deposited weld metal should be taken at the center of the weld bead. Hardness
limits applies to both weld metal and HAZ (heat affected zone). Hardness testing of HAZ at a point as
near as practicable to the edge of the weld. Before any hardness measurements, the surface shall be
made smooth by filing.
10.4 If any readings exceed the specified limits by no more than10 BHN, then a minimum of three (3)
indentations shall be made near the original high reading. If all three (3) retest are below the specified
limits, then the joint is acceptable. If any of the retest readings are found to exceed the specified limits,
then the weld shall be considered unacceptable.

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 6

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

Appendix I
THERMOCOUPLE LOCATIONS
Diameters; mm (inch)
D 305 mm (12 inches)

Thermocouple Locations

D > 305 mm (12 inches)

D > 610 mm (24 inches)

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 7

DOCUMENT TITLE:

POST WELD HEAT


TREATMENT PROCEDURE

DOCUMENT NO.
REVISION NO.
REVISION DATE

MAN-QP-PWHT-001
00
Initial Release

MAN-QF-PWHT-001

Appendix II
PWHT Form

MIZAT AL KHALEEJ HOLDING


MIZAT Advanced NDT

Page | 8