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Introduction
In the United States, 1 out of every 136 hospital patients becomes seriously ill as a
result of acquiring an infection in a hospital; this is equivalent to two million cases and
about 80,000 deaths a year (Minimizing infection through improved infection control).
These bacterial infections could be caused by contamination of bacteria onto a persons
clothes. Did you ever stop and think about how much bacteria your clothes could be
collecting? Also, have you thought about how much more bacteria can be grown after
your clothing has been exposed and bacteria has been collecting on your clothing? The
bacteria on worn clothes could be lethal, harmful, or indifferent to the carrier. Bacteria
can reproduce very quickly, creating even more germs on your clothes. Would you rather
risk your health, or wear clothing that attracts less bacteria?
The purpose of this experiment was to find out which material type and which
color t-shirt is the most condusive to bacteria growth. Materials were decontaminated
before use and the process began. The t-shirts were hand-dyed and hung to dry in a
contained environment. They were then soaked in sterile distilled water for a period of 24
hours. After the t-shirts were soaked, the possibly bacteria filled water they possessed
was sucked up and put into test tubes. Lastly, the test tubes were placed inside a
spectrometer and tested to find the light reflected through the test tubes. The percentage
of bacteria was then found subtracting the percentage of light reflected from 100% for
each material/color t-shirt.
In a prior experiment (Altoparlak), a 60%-40% cotton-polyester blend material
was found to attract and grow the most bacteria over time. In that particular experiment, a
100% polyester material was not used. The fact that a 100% polyester material would

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attract and grow the most bacteria can not be inferred from the data collected by the
source.
Three types of t-shirt materials were chosen to be tested during this experiment:
100% cotton, 100% polyester, and 60%-40% cotton-polyester blend. The 60%-40% blend
was chosen because it is the most common ratio among cotton-poly blend shirts. Since
polyester shirts tend to be more water resistant, it was a potential outcome that less
bacteria would be found on polyester because of the lower amount of water it absorbs. It
was suspected that the 100% cotton shirt would attract and grow the most bacteria. This
was suspected because tightly woven material was thought to possibly attract more
bacteria as opposed to loosely woven material. It was suspected that the red color would
attract and grow more bacteria because red reflects less light which could potentially
attract more bacteria.
In this experiment, three different material/color swatches of t-shirts were tested
for the amount of bacteria attracted and grown over a 24-hour period. In contrast to
Persistence of nosocomial pathogens on various fabrics where the bacteria was grown
until it eventually died off which was between 26 and 30 days. It also used 5 different
materials and said nothing about color dyes in the clothing that had been tested.
This experiment is important because bacteria plays a big role in a persons
health. If a person were trying to wear clothes that could attract less bacteria, they could
find out which material/color shirt to wear in order to do this. This experiment can also
help patients and workers in hospitals so that they are not as likely to become sick from
bacterial diseases caused by bacteria found on clothing.

Problem Statement

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Problem:
The effect of clothing materials and color dyes on the growth of bacteria before
and after they have been soaking in room-temperature sterile distilled water.
Hypothesis:
On a Gossypium [cotton] piece of material, more bacteria will germinate.
Data Measured:
The independent variable is the material of each t-shirt and the dye of each t-shirt.
The dependent variable was how much bacteria grew on the material after it had been
soaked in room-temperature, sterile, distilled water. Growth of bacteria will be measured
in percentage of light reflected through the bacteria filled water. For the means of this
experiment, the pieces of material are what the bacteria will grow on; therefore, the
percent grown will be calculated as the change in light absorbance after each trial. A chart
will be made to interpret the results in order to compare which material and which t-shirt
dye allowed more bacteria to grow on it. Multiple trials will be performed for each
material and color t-shirt dye; therefore, there will be quite a few trials.

Experimental Design
Materials:
(1) Spectrometer
(1) White 100% Cotton T-shirt
(1) White 100% Polyester T-shirt
(1) White 60%-40% Cotton-Polyester Blend T-shirt
(3) Wire Hangers
(1) 8 oz. Bottle of Cherry Red Rit Clothing Dye
(1) 8 oz. Bottle of Royal Blue Rit Clothing Dye

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(1) 20 Pack of 5.5 cm x 5.5 cm x 1.5 cm circular Petri Dishes
(2) Gallons of Distilled Water
(5) 9 mL Test Tubes
(1) Roll of 2.5 cm Scotch Masking Tape
(1) Thin-Tip Black Sharpie
(2) Boxes of Vinyl Gloves
(3) 1 mL Eye Droppers
(1) 20 oz. Bottle of Rubbing Alcohol
(1) 4 L Cooking Pot
(1) Hot Plate
(1) Ruler (cm)
(1) Pair of Scissors
(2) 6.1 L Hefty Storage Containers
(1) 300 mL Beaker
(1) Box of Tinfoil
Procedure:
1. Using the hot plate, set the cooking pot filled with 2 liters of water on top
of it and set the hot plate to high.
2. After the water has come to a boil, use a thermometer to make sure the
temperature is above 100 Celsius.
3. Cut out two 2 cm by 4 cm swatches of material from the 100% cotton tshirt.
4. Cut out two 2 cm by 4 cm swatches of material from the 100% polyester tshirt.
5. Cut out one 2 cm by 4 cm swatch of material from the 60%-40% cotton
blend t-shirt.
6. Using the Scotch Masking tape and Sharpie, label each Petri dish by the
last names of experimenters, the date, the material of the swatch, the color of the
swatch, and the trial it is from.
7. Sterilize the 1 mL droppers by submerging the end into the boiling water
and squeezing the top part of the dropper a few times.
8. To keep the droppers sterilized, keep them in the 200 mL beaker that is
filled with 3 mL of rubbing alcohol and 197 mL of distilled water.
9. Using one 1 mL dropper, fill each Petri dish with 1 mL of rubbing alcohol.
10. While wearing latex gloves, rub the alcohol around inside each Petri dish,

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sterilizing both the lid and the base.
11. Sterilize each swatch of material by submerging it under the boiling water
for 30 seconds using the tongs.
12. Once one swatch is sterilized, place it into the base of a Petri dish and put
the lid with the correct label on to prevent from bacteria getting in.
13. After all of the swatches have been sterilized and placed into separate Petri
dishes, fill both of the Hefty storage containers with 300 mL of distilled water
using the 200 mL beaker.
14. Shake the Rit Royal Blue and Rit Cherry Red clothing dye so that their
consistency levels are close to a match.
15. Using the Scotch Masking tape and Sharpie, label both Hefty storage
containers by the color dye thats going into them.
16. Add 3 mL of Rit Royal Blue clothing dye to one container of water and 3
mL of Rit Cherry Red clothing dye to the other container of water.
17. Put on a new pair of latex gloves.
18. Pick up one swatch of the polyester fabric and soak it in the blue dye
container for 30 seconds.
19. Place the dyed swatch back into the same Petri dish it came from.
20. Repeat the dye process with one swatch of the cotton fabric in the blue dye
container.
21. Place the dyed swatch back into the same Petri dish it came from.
22. Pick up the second swatch of the polyester fabric and soak it in the red dye
container for 30 seconds.
23. Place the dyed swatch back into the same Petri dish it came from.
24. Repeat the dye process with one swatch of the cotton fabric in the red dye
container.
25. Place the dyed swatch back into the same Petri dish it came from.
26. Using the Scotch Masking Tape and the Sharpie, label one wire hanger
cotton, another polyester, and the last one cotton-poly blend.
27. Using the Scotch Masking Tape and the Sharpie, write directly on the role
of tape: last names of experimenters, the date, the material of the swatch, the color

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of the swatch, and the trial it is from.
28. Put on a new pair of latex gloves.
29. Hang the red and blue polyester swatches spread apart on to the wire
hanger labeled polyester using the labeled pieces of tape.
30. Hang the red and blue cotton swatches spread apart on to the wire hanger
labeled cotton using the labeled pieces of tape.
31. Hang the white cotton blend swatch on the wire hanger labeled cottonpoly blend using the labeled pieces of tape.
32. Allow the swatches to hang in a room-temperature environment for for 24
hours.
33. Re-label each petri dish with the last names of the experimenters, the new
date, the material of the swatch, the color of the swatch, and the trial it is from.
34. Sterilize the 1 mL droppers by submerging the end into the boiling water
and squeezing the top part of the dropper a few times.
35. To keep the droppers sterilized, keep them in the 200 mL beaker that is
filled with 3 mL of rubbing alcohol and 197 mL of distilled water.
36. Using one 1 mL dropper, fill each Petri dish with 1 mL of rubbing alcohol.
37. While wearing latex gloves, rub the alcohol around inside each Petri dish,
sterilizing both the lid and the base.
38. Fill each petri dish to the rim with distilled water.
39. Put on a new pair of latex gloves.
40. Carefully remove each swatch from the hanger and separately place them
into the correctly labeled Petri dish.
41. Allow the pieces of material to soak in the room-temperature distilled
water for 24 hours.
42. Sterilize each test tube by submerging it under 100 celsius water for 30
seconds using the tongs.
43. Label each test tube with the last names of the experimenters, the new
date, the material of the swatch, the color of the swatch, and the trial it is from.
44. Use the 1 mL eye dropper to transfer 5 mL of water from each Petri dish
into the designated labeled test tube.

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45. Cover each test tube with tinfoil after the water has been transferred into
it.
46. Examine the amount of light that is reflected through each test tube under
the spectrometer that is set to -1.0.
47. Record the amount of light that reflects through each test tube in
percentage of light reflection through bacteria.
48. Subtract 100% from the percentage of light reflected through bacteria to
come up with the percentage of bacteria in each test tube.
49. Dispose of the swatches of material that have been examined and the dye
that was used.
50. Repeat steps 3-49 for each trial.

Table 1
DOE Data Collection of Bacteria on T-shirts

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Data and Observations


Data:
Table 2
Design of Experiment Values

Table 2 is the design of experiment values. The table includes the standard values,
the high values, and the low values for each factor. The standard for material type was
chosen as 60% cotton and 40% polyester blend because it had the common blend of
cotton and polyester that is in most t-shirts. The standard for material color was chosen as
white because there would be no dyes in the material. The high value for material type

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was 100% cotton and the low value for material type was 100% polyester. The high value
for material color was red and the low value for material color was blue. To prepare the
high and low values for the material color, the researchers individually dyed each swatch
of material in a red or blue clothing dye depending on which t-shirt was being tested.
Table 3
DOE Data Collection of Bacteria on T-shirts

Table 3 shows how many trials were performed for each combination of high and
low values and how many standard trials were performed. The table also shows the
results in percentage of bacteria in each trial conducted.
Observations:
Table 4
Observations
Date

Observation

3/26/14

The cotton absorbs dye easily and the color of the material quickly
changes.
Polyester seems to not absorb dye as well as the cotton does and the color
of the material is not as vibrant as that of a swatch of cotton material.

3/27/14

The color of the polyester faded while the color of the cotton seemed to
stay vibrant.
The 60% cotton 40% polyester blend swatch does not absorb the distilled
water as well as the 100% cotton and 100% polyester swatches.

3/28/14

The distilled water taken out of each 100% polyester swatch appears to
be the same color that the swatch was dyed.

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The distilled water taken out of each 100% cotton swatch also appears to
be the same color that the swatch was dyed, however, the color is not as
vibrant as the 100% polyesters.
The distilled water taken out of the 60% cotton 40% polyester blend
swatch is not colored like the 100% cotton and 100% polyester swatches.
3/31/14

No new observations.

4/1/14

No new observations.

4/2/14

The distilled water taken out of the 100% polyester swatches seems to be
darker in color than the distilled water taken out of the 100% cotton
swatches.

4/3/14

No new observations.

4/4/14

No new observations.

Table 4 tells the observations found by the researchers throughout their


experiment.

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Figure 1. Test Tube Prepared for Reading


Figure 1 shows one sample from DOE 4. The test tube is filled with blue tinted
water because it was from a trial that included dying either a 100% cotton or a 100%
polyester swatch blue. In one DOE, there is a total of five test tubes. The test tube in the
figure above and an additional test tube were both filled with blue tinted water by the
time it was ready to record the data. Two other test tubes were filled with red tinted water
because they included dying either a 100% cotton or a 100% polyester swatch red. The
leftover single test tube was filled with what appeared to be clear water from the trial that

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did not require dying any swatch of clothing. The test tubes, as stated, were filled with
different colored water, but they all contained bacteria. Each test tube held a different
amount of bacteria due to the different combinations of high and low values of each
factor.
The amount of bacteria in each test tube was found using the spectrometer. Each
test tube was placed one at a time into the spectrometer to find the percentage of light that
passed through it, first. The amount of light that passed through each test tube was
affected by the amount of bacteria that was in the distilled water. The more bacteria that
was in a test tube, the lower the percentage of light passing through would be. If there
was not a lot of bacteria in a test tube, then the percentage of light passing through would
be higher. The percentages would then have to be subtracted from 100 in order to come
up with the percentage of bacteria in each test tube instead of the percentage of light
reflected through each test tube.

Data Analysis and Interpretation


In this experiment, swatches of t-shirts were used to test which type of material
and which material color attracts and grows the most airborne bacteria. The researchers
had hung the different colors and types (shown below in Table 5) of t-shirt swatches out
to collect the bacteria. The researchers then placed the swatches into distilled water to
both soak off and grow bacteria. Finally, the researchers calculated the amount of bacteria
by transferring the distilled water into test tubes and putting the test tubes into the
spectrometer. The response variable was the percentage of bacteria inside of the test tube.

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This was found by subtracting the percentage of light that passed through the test tube
inside of the spectrometer from 100.
Table 5
Design of Experiment Values

Table 5 is the design of experiment values. The table includes the standard values,
the high values, and the low values for each factor. The standard for material type was
chosen as 60% cotton and 40% polyester blend because it had the common blend of
cotton and polyester that is in most t-shirts. The standard for material color was chosen as
white because there were no dyes in the material. The high value for material type was
100% cotton and the low value for material type was 100% polyester. The high value for
material color was red and the low value for material color was blue. To prepare the high
and low values for the material color, the researchers individually dyed each swatch of
material in a red or blue clothing dye depending on which t-shirt was being tested.

Table 6
Average Percentages of Bacteria

Table 6 shows the results for percentage of bacteria for each combination of highs
and lows and each DOE. It also shows the average of each combination of the factors.

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The grand average is all four averages added together and divided by four. In this
particular experiment, the grand average was 67.56% bacteria.
Table 7
Effect of Material Type

Figure 2. Effect of
Material Type
Table 7 and Figure 2 show the effect of material type. The effect of material type
is found by subtracting the low values average from the high values average. In this
particular variable, the low values average was 57.65%, while the high values average

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was 77.48%. This means that the effect of material type on percentage of bacteria was
19.83%. This effect is not considered statistically significant because it is found inside of
the doubled range of standards. Although it is not statistically significant, the data
averages display that the material type did have quite an effect. As seen in Table 7 above,
when the material type was held low, the average percentage of bacteria attracted and
grown was only 57.65%. When material type was held high, however, the average
percentage of bacteria attracted and grown was 77.48%. 77.48% is much larger than
57.65%, meaning that material type was partially significant. Based on Table 6, the 100%
cotton t-shirts attracted and grew more bacteria than the 100% polyester t-shirts did.
Table 8
Effect of Material Color

Figure 3. Effect of Material Color


Table 8 and Figure 3 show the effect of material color. The effect of material color
is found by subtracting the low values average from the high values average. In this
variable, the low values average was 67.15%, while the high values average was
67.98%. This means that the effect of material color on the percentage of bacteria was .
83%. Similar to material type, this variables effect is not considered statistically
significant because it is found inside of the doubled range of standards. In this particular

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experiment, the color of the material was not nearly as significant as the material type
was. The effect of this variable is very low compared to material type, meaning that the
material type had more of an impact on the data. Another reason why this variable could
not be significant is because of the data. The data is a little unusual for this particular
effect. In Table 8 above, the two low value averages were 55.20% and 79.10%, while the
two high value averages were 75.85% and 60.10%. It is a little strange that the high
values and the low values both have one higher percentage (in the 75% to 81% range)
and one lower percentage (in the 55% to 61% range). This could have been the cause of
such a low effect because the higher percentages and the lower percentages could have
balanced each other out.
Table 9
Interaction Effect

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Figure 4. Interaction Effect


Table 9 and Figure 4 show the interaction effect between material type and
material color. As for the predictor variables and their interaction (see Figure 4 above),

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the slopes of the line segments are different. The solid segment in Figure 4 represents the
100% cotton material and the dotted segment represents the 100% polyester material. The
slope of the solid segment is -1.63, while the slope of the dotted segment is 2.45. The
interaction effect is found by subtracting the slope of the dotted segment from the slope
of the solid segment. The interaction effect of these factors is -4.08%. Like material type
and material color, the interaction effect is not statistically significant because it is found
inside of the doubled range of standards. This means none of the factors in this particular
experiment are considered statistically significant.
As stated in the first paragraph of this anchor, there is an interaction effect. It was
found by subtracting the slope of the dotted segment from the slope of the solid segment,
meaning that the interaction effect is -4.08%. Also stated in the first paragraph of this
anchor, the effect was not considered statistically significant; however, this effect is more
significant than the effect of material color.

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Figure 5. Standards Plot
Figure 5 shows a scatter plot of the results of the standards. The range of
standards contains much variability and is inconsistent. It is possible that the first
standard is an outlier, meaning that its percentage of bacteria is far greater than the
averages of the other three standards. If it had not been for the possible mishap in trial 1
with the first standard, the researchers may have seen a slow escalation in the percentage
of bacteria.

Figure 6. Dot Plot of Effects


Figure 6 shows the effects of the material type (T), the material color (C), and
their interaction (TC). A dot plot can be used when examining significant factors in an
experiment. As stated multiple times in the preceding paragraphs, no factors are
considered statistically significant in this particular experiment because none of the
effects fell outside of the doubled range of standards. Material type, however, is the most
significant factor in this experiment because it caused the most change in data and had
the farthest effect away from zero. When material type was held high, the results were
higher. When material type was held low, the results were lower.

Y% = 67.56 + noise
Figure 7. Parsimonious Prediction Equation

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Figure 7 shows the parsimonious prediction equation. Only statistically significant
effects are used in the parsimonious prediction. Because there were no statistically
significant effects in this particular experiment, the parsimonious prediction equation is
only the grand average plus noise.
If the experiment were re-run with a t-shirt that was made of 75% cotton and 25%
polyester, which is halfway between the standard and high values for material type,
72.52% of bacteria could be expected to produce on average. This result would still
suggest that there would be no statistical significance in material color, but there is in
material type.
All in all, material type had quite an impact on the percentage of bacteria attracted
and grown (see Figure 2). As stated in Figure 3, material color did not have quite as big
of an impact as material type did. When the two variables were combined, the material
type still seemed to matter more than the material color did. As seen in Table 7 above,
when material type was held high, the percentages were higher. Therefore, when material
type was held low, the percentages were lower. Overall, material type was the most
significant variable out of this whole experiment, even though it is not considered
statistically significant.

Conclusion

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The original hypothesis which stated more bacteria would attract to and grow on a
red Gossypium [cotton] piece of material was rejected because the material type and color
that attracted and grew the most bacteria was the red Polyethylene terephthalate
[polyester] piece of material. The idea behind this experiment was to find out which type
of material could attract and grow the most bacteria so that it could be known which type
of material to wear if someone were to want their clothing to collect less bacteria. As
stated previously, the red polyester material results showed the highest amount of bacteria
on average. In a prior experiment (Tammelin) that was similar, polyester was found to be
superior to cotton. Polyester collected less bacteria in an operating room according to
Whyte et al. in 1990 and Verkkala et. al in 1998. In this particular experiment, however,
polyester had collected more bacteria, therefore there is not much science behind the
results of this experiment. It is speculated that polyester collected the most bacteria due to
the small ridges that are in the fabric. The cotton fabric did not have any ridges, which
could possibly be the reason why the results were lower. As for color factor, the color did
not have as big of an impact on the results as the material type did (see Two-Factor
Design of Experiment), therefore there was no explanation as to why the red polyester
material collected more bacteria than the blue polyester material did.
This experiment is quite similar to other research that has been completed before.
However, there has not been any other experiments exactly the same as this one. One
experiment completed in 1999 (Neely) tested the survival of Enterococci and
Staphylococci [species of bacteria] on hospital fabrics such as 100% cotton, 100%
polyester, 100% cotton terry, and 60% cotton-40% polyester blend. Staphylococci was
found to survive longer on polyester than any other materials. Although Neelys

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experiment does not examine the attraction of bacteria to materials, it is similar to this
experiment in the way that it examined bacteria and its interaction with materials used in
hospitals.
Another experiment (Takashima) measured the binding of bacteria to materials
such as cotton, nylon, polyester, acrylic, and sheeps wool and tried to characterize
bacterial binding to cloth. Like Neelys experiment explained previously, Takashimas
experiment is similar to this one because it explains the bacterial adherence to clothing
materials found on hospital personnel. It is different, however, because there was no color
factor that could have had an effect on the results. Finally, one last experiment (Bowers)
was found that was helpful to this experiment. The experiment involved collecting air
samples from cities such as Chicago, Cleveland, and Detroit to see how much air-borne
bacteria was actually in the atmosphere. The scientists who conducted the experiment
also explained how harmful some air-borne bacteria from areas such as compost
facilities, feedlots, and wastewater treatment facilities could be on humans. Bowerss
experiment was not as closely related to this one as the other two previously mentioned
experiments were. Bowerss experiment did, however, provide information on just how
much bacteria is in the air and how much of it could be collecting on clothing. All in all,
the first two experiments that were mentioned (Neely and Takashima) were quite like this
particular experiment of examining the attraction and growth of bacteria on clothing.
Both Neely and Takashimas experiments discussed the relationship between bacteria and
clothing, which was the main idea of this experiment. There may not have been any prior
experiments completed that are exactly like this experiment, but there were a few that
were comparable to it.

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Although this experiment collected some fairly good data, there were some flaws
in the experimental design. One flaw in particular was the coloring of the material. At
first, dying the materials by hand was thought to be more accurate in the way that it could
keep the amount of color in each material even with the other colored materials. Handdying the materials was also thought to reduce the chance of bacteria getting on the
materials before they were set out to actually start collecting bacteria. Trying to dye the
materials individually turned out to not be such a brilliant idea. The fact that the materials
could only be dyed one at a time had an effect on how long each swatch of material got to
be hung out to collect bacteria, which overall affected the amount of bacteria that each
swatch attracted and grew. Another flaw in the experimental design was the size of the
material swatches. The swatches were cut out with a regular pair of scissors, which
resulted in the swatches being different sizes, if only by a tenth of an inch in some cases.
There was not a special cutting tool or technique used to cut out the swatches so that they
were guaranteed to be the same size exactly. This probably affected the results because if
a swatch were to be even a little bit larger than another one, it would have the ability to
attract and grow more bacteria at one time.
Along with experimental design issues, errors during the procedures also played a
role in the results. One error that was made during the procedure that was bound to
happen was the attraction of air-borne bacteria to the materials while they were being
prepped. It is nearly impossible for a piece of material to not collect any bacteria at all
while it is being transferred from the boiling pot of water after sterilization to a sterile
Petri dish. The material is also bound to attract bacteria while it is being transferred from
the dye back into the Petri dish and then hung onto a hanger. Finally, another problem

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that probably affected the data has to do with the changing of the latex gloves. Latex
gloves were not changed every single time before a new piece of material was handled,
meaning that bacteria from other materials may have transferred to the latex gloves which
then handled the next swatches of material. As stated before, the fact that bacteria is
going to get onto the swatches even when it is not supposed to is inevitable. There is
going to be some extra bacteria attracted to the material even when it is not intended to
because there is no way to prevent all air-borne bacteria from getting onto the swatches.
Even though there were a few experimental design issues and errors in this
experiment, there are some suggestions that could be made to enhance further research.
One suggestion would be to use more material types. In this experiment, only three
different types of material were used: 100% cotton, 60% cotton-40% polyester, and 100%
polyester. Although those three types provided enough data, more materials could be used
to narrow down which material type attracts and grows the most bacteria even more than
the red 100% polyester swatches did. Another suggestion would be to find another
response variable. In this experiment, the percentage of bacteria inside of a test tube was
found by soaking the swatches of material in distilled water for a period of 24 hours after
they had collected the bacteria. The water was then transferred into a test tube where light
was shone through it. The percentage of light reflected back was recorded and then
subtracted from 100% to find the percentage of bacteria inside of a test tube. Although
this response variable was recommended, there might be a more accurate way of
calculating the exact amount of bacteria on each swatch. Finally, a suggestion to improve
further research would be to not hand-dye the materials. As stated above in the paragraph
that discussed the experimental design issues, hand-dying the swatches was a very

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tedious and possibly inaccurate way of going about handling the material color factor. It
is recommended that next time pre-dyed shirts be used. This will save both time and
money and possibly make results more accurate.
This experiment was done for two main reasons: to notify the people of how
much bacteria is on their clothing and possibly improve the health of others. The people
will benefit from this experiment because they will know which material to wear if they
are striving for their clothing to have the least amount of bacteria possible. This is
especially important in places such as hospitals, doctors offices, and operating rooms. As
examined in prior experiments, hospital personnel was the main focus and reason for
experimenting. Patients do not want their nurses, doctors, and surgeons wearing clothing
that will collect a lot of bacteria. They want their health workers to wear clothing that will
attract the least amount of bacteria. Overall, this experiment will hopefully keep people
healthier in a way such that they wear clothing that attracts and grows less bacteria to
keep them from getting sick or contracting bacterial infections.
All in all, this experiment taught a lot. One significant lesson it taught was that it
does not take a long time for a lot of bacteria to collect on clothing. This experiment also
taught that it is very important to keep everything as sterile as possible when testing
because just one little unsterile mishap can cause a big change in data. One last thing that
this research taught was patience. It took quite a bit of time to sterilize the materials and
dye the swatches. It also took patience to hang the swatches up on the hangers because
occasionally a swatch would not stay on the hanger. Overall, the whole preparing
procedure was tedious and it took around an hour to prepare one trial.

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In conclusion, this experiment had a few mishaps but overall could be improved
to create a very helpful research experiment. This experiment taught patience and that
sterilization is the most important contributor when working with bacteria. The main idea
of the experiment was to find out which type of material and which color material could
attract and grow the most bacteria. This experiment was conducted to show the common
people which material and which color is the best to wear when trying to have the least
amount of bacteria on clothing as possible. If the experiment were enhanced and future
scientists went more into depth, the results could possibly help the world with the
reduction of bacterial infections and illnesses that are caused by bacteria commonly
found on clothing. Less illnesses and infections would then lead to a higher population
which could then lead to countless other positive things. Bacteria on clothing is quite
often not thought of as threatening to ones health, but in reality, it can cause quite a bit of
harm. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1.7 million people
contract infections in United States hospitals each year. If hospital personnel could start
wearing clothing that is the most resistant to bacteria, then that number might just lower.

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