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Hue Duong

Yolanda Hua
Roseanne Hui
Carolyn Leong
Social Structure & Interaction
Decide which of the following questions each member of your group will answer. (For example
if your group has 4 people in it, one person will take question 1, another question 2, etc.)
1. How do ascribed and achieve statuses serve to identify who a person is in a culture?
What are reference groups? How are reference groups experienced in society? (Hue)
Ascribe status generally fixed at birth and is assigned to a person by society without regard for
the person's characteristics. However, achieved status is based on what we do in society whether
it is good or bad. It gives us a guide on how to treat one another and how others expect to be
treated. Reference groups are groups that use evaluating themselves and what that should be
doing. We can compare ourselves in this group, and it has to purpose in our society. There are
two different kind of reference groups. First, the group should be small, face to face interaction
and friendly relationship. Next, the group has large amount of people, short conversation and
formal relationship. Reference groups are shaped the person because we always reference to
someone we want to become. We look at a group of people act a certain way to become one of
them. It may affect us to change the way we wear, act and speak.
2. What is a social role (give examples)? How does one violate his or her role? What is
meant by role exit? And how does role exit relate to the socialization process?
Distinguish between primary and secondary groups (give examples). (Yolanda)
Social role is a set of rights, duties, expectations, norms, and behaviors that are given to people
who have a social status in society. An example of this would be firefighters it is their duties as
firefighters to help protect the public in emergency situations. We as society expect the
firefighters to be their and most likely putting out fires for us. People violate their roles by not
doing what is expected of them. Policemen are expected to protect the people and apprehend the
criminals. Policemen would violate their roles if they chose not to protect the people and allow
criminals to walk free. Role exit is when we choose to leave one social role and identity behind
and create a new social role and identity. An example of this would be an occupational change.
Role exit relates to the socialization process because transitioning into a new role people will
need to go through the socialization process to learn new skills to maintain that role. Primary
groups can be describe as a small group, intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation.
Primary groups can be people like family or best friends. Secondary groups can be describe as
formal, impersonal, little social intimacy. Secondary groups are like people we meet and
befriend during volunteer work, but we rarely see or talk to them outside of volunteer work.
3. What is meant by in-group and out-group? How is in-group connected to primary group?
How is out group connected to secondary group? (Carolyn)

A group consists of any number of people who consistently interact with one another who
share the same values, goals, and norms. These people can be divided as in-group or out-group,
primary or secondary groups. In-groups are the individuals who can identify and develop a sense
of belonging to their group. An example would be a teenage girl who is a volleyball player or a
United States citizen who lives in California. The teenage girl is part of the volleyball group team
just as a Californian is part of the United States group of citizens. Indifference, there are outgroup people who do not fit in or are categorized as not belonging. For instance, in a litter of
puppies, a kitten does not belong. The out-group individuals correlate with those secondary
groups because both share an impersonal misconnection with the rest of society. Secondary
groups and out-group are connected because the persons within these groups do not feel a close
bond with anyone and are considered outsiders. A secondary group would be the audience in an
auditorium but, a primary group would be the persons performing on stage in the auditorium.
Primary groups are small, friendly, intimate groups who have face-to-face interactions. Many ingroups consist of primary groups and vice versa because people within the group have at least a
common interest, belief, or goal. Our family represents a primary group just as we are an ingroup with our family. (Carolyn Leong)
4. What are the five functional prerequisites that a society must satisfy if it is to survive?
Describe the differences between organic and mechanical solidarity. (Roseanne)
The first prerequisite is to replace members, which means that the new generations will
eventually replace the older generation by producing offspring. Instead of the members of
society remaining stagnant, there is a cycle that allows the successors to take their place.
The second prerequisite is socialization. In order for the cycle of members to be successful, it is
imperative that the new members be able to integrate themselves, otherwise society would be
interrupted and the cycle would cease to exist.
The third prerequisite is production and distribution. If members were running on a platform that
did not provide a steady flow of goods and services, society would evidently collapse causing a
halt in distribution and socialization.
The fourth is the use of power to maintain order. All successful governments have prevailed with
one strong leader that has its peoples best interest at heart. With this power, society can maintain
social order and balance and use its power to provide protection. For example, we use our police
force to maintain order while the military keeps chaos out.
The final prerequisite is purpose. Society needs to define its purpose by working towards a
common goal. As a result, members find are able to connect and socialize with one another over
similar interests. They often think of others and sacrifice their own welfare for the benefit of
Mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity both allude to the concepts of solidarity. Mechanical
solidarity usually happens in smaller environments such as families or educational institution.
For example, students come together during college because they strive to learn in order to
achieve higher degrees. Organic solidarity arises from the social interactions that result from
individuals who complement one another. This type of development usually happens in modern
or industrial societies.