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ME 354

ASSIGNMENT NO 4

1. An insect walks along the surface of a spherical balloon whose radius is a specified function r(t). Describe in terms of
both Cartesian and Spherical coordinates the constraint imposed on the motion of the insect by the condition that it
remains on the surface. Express the results for each set of coordinates as a configuration constraint and as a velocity
constraint.
2. Classification of constraints. Consider a constraint equation in 3 variables (one variable may be time t)which is written
as
P (x, y, z)dx + Q(x, y, z)dy + R(x, y, z)dz = 0
(1)
Note that the same constraint given in Eq. (1) can also be written in an equivalent form as
P (x, y, z)x + Q(x, y, z)y + R(x, y, z)z = 0
We would like to know whether the constraint is holonomic or not. Recall that the constraint will be a holonomic
constraint if it can be written in the form f (x, y, z) = c. Hence we need to determine whether it is possible to integrate
the constraint given Eq. (1) and write it in the form f (x, y, z) = c. The necessary and sufficient condition for Eq. (1)
to be integrable is (see Ordinary Differential Equations by E. L. Ince, Dover Publications, 2003, pg 53)






Q
R P
P
Q R

+Q
+R
=0
(2)
P
z
y
x
z
y
x
Now consider a constrain equation in N variables which is written as
N
X

Ai (u1 , u2 , . . . , uN )dui = 0

(3)

i=i

The necessary and sufficient conditions for Eq. (3) to be integrable that the following equations are satisfied






A
A
A
A
A
A
A

+ A
+ A
= 0, , , = 1, 2, . . . , N
u
u
u
u
u
u

(4)

3. Consider a system which consists of two bars A and B which are pinned together at a point and the velocity of the
free end of bar B is directed towards the free end of bar A. The constraint equation was obtained in the class for this
system. Is the constraint holonomic.
4. Problems: 6.1 - 6.6 (constraint classification) - see attachment in assignment 3.
5. Problems 6.7, 6.8. using DAlemberts principle - see attachment in assignment 3.
6. Problem 3 in assignment 3 using DAlemberts principle.
7. Problems 2 and 3 in Quiz2 using DAlemberts principle.