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PERIKANAN
INDONESIA DALAM
KONTEK GLOBAL
Suadi,, Ph.D.
Suadi
Lab. Sosial Ekonomi Perikanan
Jurusan Perikanan UGM
E-mail: suadi@ugm.ac.id
http://suadi.staff.ugm.ac.id

Sumber: SOFIA 2010

Sumber: SOFIA 2010

Sumber: SOFIA 2010

Sumber: SOFIA 2010

Annual growth rate


Aquaculture vs agriculture
2000-2009

Meat
Milk
Eggs

1990-1999

Cereals
Fruit

1980-1989

Vegetables
Aquaculture
1970-1979

Source: Slide from Vannuccini, 2011

10

12 %

Produksi Perikanan Indonesia

PRODUKSI HASIL PERIKANAN 2006 - 2010

10.86

12.00

9.82
8.86

10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00

7.49
4.81
2.68

8.24

5.04
3.19

5.00
3.86

5.11
4.71

5.48
5.38

2008

2009

2010

2.00
-

2006

2007

Capture Fisheries
Total Production (MT)

Aquaculture Fisheries

PDB Perikanan

Permintaan ikan dunia

Sumber: Josupeit and Franz 2003

Utilization of fish production


and per capita fish supply
Fish production

Per capita fish supply


(kg)

(million tonnes)

150

18.0

Fish for human consumption

125

15.0

Non-food uses
Per capita food fish supply

100

12.0

75

9.0

50

6.0

25

3.0

0
1950

1960

1970

Source: Slide from Vannuccini, 2011

1980

1990

2000

0.0
2010

Fish Exports in Value (2004)

Molluscs
(other)
5%

Fishmeal
3%

Crustaceans
(others)
Fish oil 7%
1%

Cephalopods
5%
Groundfish
15%
Small pelagics
Salmon Tuna
7%
9%
9%
Sumber: Josupeit 2006

Others
21%

Shrimp
16%

Freshwater
2%

Perikanan mendominasi
ekspor produk pangan

Perikanan = komoditas ekspor

Sumber:: SOFIA 2008


Sumber

EKSPOR HASIL PERIKANAN 2006 - 2010


US$
BILLION
4,500,000
1,109,495

MT
1,200,000

1,000,000

926,477

911,674
854,329

800,000

600,000

881,413

3,500,000

2,860,000
2,699,683
2,466,201
2,258,920
2,103,472

400,000

2,500,000

1,500,000

2006

2007

Volume (MT)

2008

2009

2010

Value (US$ Billion)

EKSPOR KOMODITAS UTAMA, 2010


1,200,000

1,056,399
1,000,000

898,039

800,000

622,932
600,000

383,230

400,000

200,000

145,092

317,738
208,424 191,564

122,450

21,537
0

Shrimp

Tuna,
skipjack

Volume (MT)

Other fish

Crab

Value (US$ Billion)

Other

Ekspor komoditas pangan Indonesia

Fisheries as the main


agricultural export
commodities

Source: Deperindag online


17

Negara tujuan ekspor produk perikanan Indonesia

Japan as the main partner

Source: Deperindag online

Suadi Japan-Indonesia Fisheries - IASA 2008


18

Indonesias fisheries export performance, 1962-2007

Source: UN Comtrade SITC Rev.1 code 03

19

Suadi JapanIndonesia Fisheries IASA 2008

Indonesian Shrimps Export Strategies


20

Tantangan Supply/Stok
Sumberdaya Ikan

Fisheries toward a limits on growth


Production

Fishers

Fishing vessels

Productivity

Motorized boat
Period

Average
(ton)

Growth
(%)

Average
(people)

Growth
(%)

Average
(units)

Growth
(%)

(%)

Growth
(%)

Fishers
(ton/
fishers)

Vessels

Growth
(%)

(ton/
vessels)

Growth
(%)

1951-1955

375,200

6.2

389,200

9.4

97,340

11.6

0.5

57.1

1.0

-3.0

3.9

-4.8

1956-1960

413,400

-0.4

619,000

12.6

154,220

6.9

1.2

17.7

0.7

-11.5

2.7

-6.8

1961-1965

574,600

5.9

859,000

2.6

219,940

4.8

2.9

10.2

0.7

3.2

2.6

1.1

1966-1970

734,800

2.9

866,500

n.a.

266,342

5.4

2.7

-12.2

0.8

n.a.

2.8

-2.4

1971-1975

898,200

5.0

n.a.

n.a.

270,024

-2.5

4.3

23.4

n.a.

n.a.

3.4

7.7

1976-1980

1,236,000

6.6

910,571

8.0

254,029

2.8

10.9

23.5

1.4

-1.3

4.9

3.7

1981-1985

1,623,200

6.7

1,279,102

2.4

306,664

1.7

28.0

6.4

1.3

4.2

5.3

4.9

1986-1990

2,150,347

5.4

1,427,071

2.9

318,095

0.0

31.1

0.0

1.5

2.4

6.0

3.4

1991-1995

2,897,800

6.7

1,814,857

4.7

380,805

-0.8

36.5

3.2

1.6

2.0

7.6

3.3

1996-2000

3,642,200

3.0

2,262,590

4.9

427,948

1.8

44.9

5.2

1.6

-1.8

8.5

1.0

2001-2005

4,230,356

2.7

2,370,315

-5.3

512,443

4.4

60.2

13.0

1.7

4.4

8.3

-1.6

Sources: Calculated from various series of Fisheries Statistics,


22 Krisnandhi 1967

GRAFIK TARGET LAJU PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI


PERIKANAN BUDIDAYA 2005-2014
Produksi
(Juta
Ton)

Pencapaian

Target

Ekspor - Impor Perikanan (US$)


250000000

3,000,000,000

2,500,000,000

200000000

2,000,000,000
150000000
1,500,000,000
100000000
1,000,000,000

50000000

500,000,000

Fish Export

Fish Import

NILAI IMPOR HASIL PERIKANAN 2006 - 2010


MT

US$ Billion

650,000

450,000

391,815
500,000

350,000

300,261
267,659
350,000

369,282
165,720

250,000

331,893
142,750

280,179

200,000

150,000

184,240
145,227
50,000

50,000

2006

2007
Volume (MT)

2008

2009

Value (US$ Billion)

2010

Importir Ikan di Indonesia


0%
9%

Japan

4%

Hongkong

8%

3%

Rep of Korea
Taiwan

8%

China

3%

Thailand
Singapura
Malaysia
Myanmar

14%

27%

Vietnam
India
Pakistan

4%

Australia
USA

1%
1%
3%

7%

6%
1%

1%

Chile
Peru

Sistem Perikanan
Kebijakan dan
Perencanaan

Pengelolaan
perikanan

PengembaPenelitian
ngan
perikanan
perikanan

Faktor eksternal

Faktor eksternal seperti kebijakan


pemerintah

Nelayan

seperti perubahan iklim

dan sarana
penangkapan ikan
Pemukiman

Pasca

dan

Panen &

komunitas

pasar

Faktor eksternal seperti kebijakan ekonomi makro,


struktur pasar, dll

Sumber: Widodo dan Suadi 2006, modifikasi dari Charles 2001