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Practical Suggestions for Correct Technical

Development and Good Violin Tone Production

SIEGFRIED EBERHARDT
MT
271
E23
1911
C.l
MUSI

MASTERY AND ARTISTIC USES

1.50

Carl Fischer
INC.

184-

62 Cooper Square, New York 3


BOSTON CHICAGO DAllAS lOS

ANf.ElCS

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ran

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TS MASTERY

AND ARTISTIC USES

Practical Suggestions for Correct Technical

Development and Good Violin Tone Production

.SIEGFRIED
]

ranslated from the

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EBERHARDT

German by Melzar Chaffee

CarlFischer,

,Nc.

COOPER SQUARE, NEW YORK

184-

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I.

^T

is

only

in

recent years that the problems of violin technic have been

given more careful consideration than


essary.

It is

culties

may

was

formerly thought nec-

true that directions for overcoming certain technical

be found

many

the

in

they rarely touch the essence of the

diffi-

schools of violin playing, but


difficulty,

and usually neglect

and separate a difficult passage into its simplest forms. The


number of works which treat only of violin technic is small in comparison to
the great number of theoretical works at the disposal of the pianist. This may,
in part, be due to the more difficult and complicated movements necessarily
entirely to analyze

connected with the playing of the


alone result in

and supporting of which


complications of the technical apparatus which do not exist in

the case of the piano or

The

the holding

violin,

'cello.

playing of either of these instruments permits of a hanging position

of the arms, and the movements of playing do not

make such great demands


upon the strength of the player.
Although the movements of playing the piano are comparatively simple,
they are considered of special importance.

In

they form the basis of the

fact,

method of a master.
In playing the violin, the problems of technic are

by the

fact

number of
It is

that

each arm performs a

treatises give attention to the

strange that one function of the

has rarely been mentioned.

which

made more

different function.

complicated

Naturally, a large

problems of bowing and of the

left

hand.

hand, and the most important one,

left

In the following,

wish

to call attention to

a point

of the greatest importance to the whole technical apparatus employed


in playing the violin,
I will say at once, however, that we are concerned here
is

with a purely technical problem, and not with the interpretive side of playing,
nor with the declamation of an art work. "We will discuss here only those
functions and conditions

medium

which enable us

what we

express

to

feel

through the

ofbeautiftil tone.

It is

time that

we

finally

determine what belongs to the spiritual side of

music, and what, in contrast thereto, belongs alone to the technic of playing.
First of

V^ery

many

all,

from

my

violinists, pupils

personal experience, the following;

and amateurs, complain that even when they know

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how

a piece of music ought to sound, they are unable to plaj'


with the desired beauty of tone. Such a player, for example, might possess

or can imagine
it

technical equipment

sufficient

and the necessary powers of interpretation

a Mozart Concerto without, however, being able


artistic expression which he makes upon himself.

What

to satisfy fully the

to play

demand

for

the difference, then, aside from interpretation, between the artist

is

and the amateur?


of an artist "sounds" always, and at

The playing
sentially

one

of quality.

point, in point

greater technical

who

amateurs
ly

facility lo

It

is

not, as

which the

can be overcome even

in

of his playing

is

On

able to arouse enthusiasm.

with unassuming

little

It

is

There are

due.

They

apparent-

Were

diffi-

a mat-

it

with their limited knowledge, would

the other hand, an artist like Burmester

an audience

pieces, to hold the attention of

impression upon his listeners.

make a deep

to believe, the

only astonishing that such

such an inadequate manner.

ter of technical facility alone, they too,

evening and

most people seem

finish

nothing.

in reality,

It differs es-

strive in vain for artistic perfection, in

astonish by their playing of Paganini Caprices.

do everything, but

culties

who

from the playing of others

times.

all

able,

is

a whole

for

For very many

men, the enjoyment of an evening in a concert hall reaches


a great artist is induced to play a simple little encore piece.

bk.

lay-

climax

when

Could the

artist

its

with a prodigious technic interpret simple pieces perfectly, then all players who
perform technically difficult tasks should be able to charm with simple means.
This, however,

not

is

the case.

would here again emphasize the point which many accept as a matfinish
ter of course, and of which so few seem to realize the full significance:
in playing does not necessarily come from agility of fingers acquired by techniI

cal study.

maintain that the quality of a performance

technical work.

beginners

certain

whom we

amount of

finish

are accustomed to

is

is

develops.

This

noticeable in the playing of those

consider specially talented.

violinist

to the li-nit of

who, starting with these

endurance at his

of successful result.

sad unto death."


of progress
playing,
NI084

The gen-

a great mistake!

is

Let us here depict the diseased condition,


a

never the result of

that the tonal finish of their playing will improve as their technic

eral belief

sion, of

is

is

He

Of him

it

studies, but

might

and

Nevertheless, he

in comparison with others upon

is

in

inelegant

expres-

exerts

himself

conceptions,

never arrives at any degree

justly be said:-

studies faithfully,

apparent.

false

who

use an

to

many

"Jubilant unto

Heaven

respects a certain degree

not entirely satisfied with his

whom

own

he looks as more highly favored

of

in point

talent, .he finds

certain something

is

own work

his

lacking

in

crude and

search

it

without being able to satisfactorily define the thing that he

is

last,

him

and

effort,

one day he

his tone

that the time has

is

there.

He

carefully practiced, responds lightly

and

he has found

feels that

Each passage

can do everything.
without

and

there, calls

At

of.

that a

but which consti-

trifling thing,

tutes the very essence of musical delivery, he searches for here

in

feels

himself which seems to be natural to others.

This extra something, which can be but some

inspiration, soul,

He

lifeless.

so

uncommon

possessed of

come when

his

brilliancy.

efforts are to

arduous

It is

it.

It

seems

to

be crowned with

That he might be heard now! The next morning however, he makes


success.
the discouraging discovery that the old conditions still exist. His fingers, which
yesterday seemed to go of themselves, today refuse to operate in the same masterly

Most

begin anew.

people, following

selves that a fortunate

improvement

rarely, if ever, to

the hope that


I

his

in

all this

have never seen

mood

false train

of thought,

now

say to them-

or disposition had, for the time, removed

certain

apparent optical, or more correctly speaking, auricular

hindrances; hence the

is

The whole work must

His playing again lacks brilliancy and repose.

manner.

playing!

Mood,

The

be depended upon.
will

this

Unfortunately the player's

indeed!

erratic reasoning

is

continued in

be permanently corrected by increased technical

hope

mood

facility.

realized.

must often struggle against indisthe mercy of what they call indisposition.

Violinists of recognized artistic ability


position.

Their

in

At times they are even

many

respects masterly

at

command

of the fingerboard

stroyed by influences w^hich they cannot explain.

own

ability.

Although

their

They

lose

is

at times

de-

confidence in their

musical taste prevents them from playing badly,

only in comparatively few cases do they ever reach that degree of absolute
finish

which distinguishes the playing of the

to all

manner of expedients

in trying to

fi-ee

really great

virtuoso.

They

turn

themselves from these "hindrances."

Thus, recently many have tried massage, and not without beneficial results
the reason for this I will mention later but whatever they do, they still fail to
reach that degree of perfection which characterizes the real virtuoso. Even he
may suffer at times ft-om indisposition, but he is usually in form. Rarely indeed
The exception but proves the rule. The concertizing
is he really indisposed.
virtuoso, who performs here today, and tomorrow elsewhere, cannot afford to
ba often indisposed, thereby imperilling his reputation, perhaps to the extent of
njining his whole career. Is this state of "perpetual preparedness" a sign of

extraordinary violin talent?

Allow
at first

N1084

me

here to

call

the attention of teachers to a

phenomenon which

glance seems possible of being explained by the fact that different pupils

Certain pupils, considered talented, play

possess different degrees of talent.

\vell

Often the playing of pupils materially improves as soon ?s

from the beginning.

they attempt to play "with feeling."

may

Talented pupils

group

today

varies;

is

it

The

be divided into two groups.

good, but

playing of one

other times, not so good.

at

As regards

hand uncertain. The playing of the


second group, on the contrary, is very even always, and one is never unpleasantly surprised by the appearance of indisposition of any kind. They take
up the violin and their playing "sounds." They may have practiced but little,
but the comparatively good quality of their work never seems to suffer, even
when their technic is inadequate. We listen to them with more pleasure than
tone quality,

to others

who

uneven and the

is

it

left

possess greater technical

the listener a fair idea of their ability, even


nically

How is

beyond them.

even astonishes, the

listener

this to
Is

it

Whatever they

facility.

when

be explained

play, they give

playing something that

W^hat

is it

here that

the manifestation of emotion

tech-

is

satisfies,

For the present we leave these questions unanswered and, by way of


comparison, look into the process of evolution of the great
he, too,
is,

charms

of artistic

finish.

Violin School

his technic

from the beginner's stage,

his playing,

of artistic

even before

his listeners,

As a

thoroughly ripened

is

child
;

that

already stamped with the quality

is

quote here a few sentences from the Rode-Kreutzer-Baillot

which help

finish.

artist.

to illustrate the essential characteristics of this quality

The author speaks of

of tone of vio-

different character

the

and continuing, says: "but aside from this pliant, peculiar sound of the
instrument, there is still another tone which the individual emotion of the musician begets. This tone is so characteristic that the same violin, played upon by
lins,

different musicians,

two
the

theme

is

appears not to be the same instrument.

and before the

ended,

the composition, this tone fastens

listener

itself

is

upon

able

his

to

Even

before

comprehend the idea of

senses and

stirs his

emotion.

what the first glance is to the eye; in it lies the


magic power of the irresistible charm and of the deep indissoluble impression.
Paganini's tone and that of Tartini are still so clearly remembered that one is

The

first

tone

is

the ear

to

For a long time

well able to distinguish the individual character of each.


expressive tone has been
forgotten.

heart.

To

Imperishable

silent,
is

its

but

its

hold upon us

imprint,

which

lives

is

such that

in

the

it

will

memory

Viotti's

never be
as in the

acquire a beautiful tone, the pupil should prepare himself by the

Beauty of tone begets emotion, and deep


discovers the spring from which he draws the power

given mechanical exercises.

in

own

to

soul the pupil

the souis of others."


NI084

his
stir'

"Even

before

position,

this tone

Here we

find exactly

The

tone!

the

fastens itself

what

able

is

upon

comprehend the idea of the comsenses and stirs his emotions," etc.

to

his

said above: the intellect plays

no part

"Beauty of tone begets emotion; and, deep


from which he draws the power

pupil discovers the spring


I

listener

in the matter.

own

in his

soul, the

to stir the souls of others.''

desire to call particular attention to this last sentence.

First of

the author

all,

more than anything else, takes hold of the listener


and keeps him under its spell. That is precisely what I would again emphaSound, particularly beautiful sound, is the most important
size here, namely:
rightly states that the tone,

factor of the art of playing the violin.

Perhaps more or

The

"sound."

less

conscientiously, each

beautiful

sound,

sential characteristic of the

whose

pupil

technic

with such a

rich,

was

whole

make

his technic

tone that is the esremember the playing of a


but who played a Mozart Concerto
fine, soulful

art of delivery.

not extraordinary,

The

in the soul, etc."

soul of the artist, then

is

Our

reflect-

This sentence contains a grave error, a fundamental error,

the tone.

in

one endeavors to

the so-called

tone that he completely captivated his audience.

full

author continues, "deep


ed

All players strive for the beautiful tone.

which

offers opportunity for the

preted

it

becomes but a

most preposterous conclusions.

half-truth.

If the

Rightly inter-

here considered of such great

tone,

importance, reflects the soul, then the beautiful tone should reveal a noble and
deeply sympathetic nature.

should

my

part

generally possess
I

cannot believe

with the crudest natures

And every
a deep

or sympathic

nature,

their instruments

the soul

sought "dee^

nature

more

play "with feeling,"

has been

it

sometimes play

are not able to

find

what they inwardly


and tone?

in the soul?"

Is

pupils,

all

experience that persons

in

often

whom

not a trace of

play

with beautiful

the exceptional

feel.

Now how

does the matter stand

something which must be

creates individuality of tone?

produced;

do not dispute, however, that tone

is

qualifications

adequate means of expressing upon

the beautiful tone

What

my

be discovered,

to

really true

it

a most deeply affecting manner.

in

found that some


is

Is

nobility of character than other people?

for

this,

Tlie tone is hfaittifiil lolioi cor redly


I

many violinists

on the contrary, possessing

tone, while others,

betv^een

may

teacher will have

of a soulful

since so very

ask the psychologically not uninteresting question:

like to

that violinists

For

And

it

is

My

answer

is:-

no/ an expression of the soul.

individual.

Wilhelmjs tone and Sara-

Yet both charmed the world with beauty of tone


large number of works upon the suDJect of beautiful tone have appeared,

sates tone differed essentially.

cifferinp;

N1084

the student

all

manner of nonsensical methods

for

acquiring

it.

Nobody

will dispute

that Flesch,

Burmester, Ysaye, Marteau and Wittenberg, for ex-

ample, each have a beautiful tone.

In

the case of Sarasate

not necessary to add the attribute "large."


tively

weak

"small tone" must

common
mine

is

across

of

great artists

all

we

player from another?

comer

The

How may we

we

Could

violin.

At

it

is

of

This
quality

then deter-

the difference in character of tone

lies

hear one after the other of the great

the open strings of his

distinguish one

in the farthermost

beauty.

is

our main question wherein

Let us imagine that

bow

full

as in the immediate vicinity of the stage.

have possessed extraordinary carrying-power.

to the tone

this

Hall,

see that

Nevertheless, Sarasate 's compara-

tone sounded just as distinct and

the large Philharmonic

we

draw his
an adjoining room

in

we might

best

artists

be able to

tell

Wil-

helmj from Sarasate, because the tone of one would be stronger than that of the
This,

other.
piano,

it

is

plain, is

only a dynamic difference.

Should

all

play equally

then every possible difference would be completely removed.

has been confirmed by prominent


artist differs

pretation

on the open
another.

from the playing of another

only

in

one respect, and that

strings,

artist

is

in

the tone of one artist

Individuality of tone

are placed upon the strings.

Nevertheless,

scientists.

can

arise only

These fingers

aside

is

have

just

inter-

seen that

not distinguishable from that of

when

the fingers of the

They

vibrate.

Difference in vibrato begets difference in tone.

playing of one

from difference of

We

tone.

the

This fact

The

left

hand

vibrate differently.

reply to this will be that

have long been known, but has the importance of this apparently insignificant little movement, in its bearing upon the action of the left hand and
upon the work of the right arm, been fully realized ? Are we to believe that the
these facts

vibrato of every famous violinist

as

is

correct,

even when the

effect is different?

The answers to these questions are in no respect simple. Far reaching


they are, they make clear the devious and erroneous paths into which

some

in the past

have been

led,

because of a

false

conception of the fiinctions

here discussed.
In the following chapters

quote instances from various works which

appear to have important bearing upon our problem.

From more

than 100

works at my disposal, only the Joachim-Moser School and Tottmann's "Booklet on the Violin" touch the heart of the subject.
N1084

Leopold Mozart: "An Attempt at an Elementary Violin School."

I.

(Augsburg, 1756) Chapter V.

How to bring

good tone from the Violin by

forth a

^
"It

may

ful in

when one
and

in

bringing forth a pure tone at the

enough

that he

and to

all

the other signs,

am,

introduced

is

in

the

wrong

first

place,

become

learning to hold the violin.

must necessarily

do to correctly observe

to

and with great pains must give his attention,


time,

is

the beginning, in order that the pupil might

same time

considers that in order tc play the beginner

further, that he has

manipulation of the Bow.

1.

appear to some that the present discussion

should preferably have been inserted

skillful

all

learn to

draw

skillStill,

the bow,

the prescribed, necessary rules,

to the stroke, then to the notes,

believe, not to be

and

blamed

and

to the

having postponed this

for

discussion until the present time.

^
It

2.

has already been mentioned above that the violin should from the beginning be strung

with thick strings,

with firm pressure of the fingers and a forcible retention of the bow,
the muscles become hardened and a powerful, masculine stroke is thereby acquired.
For what
that,

sounds more insipid than the playing of one who, lacking the confidence
instrument, barely touches the string with the

thereby a sort of
indistinct

to

artificial

and veiled as

in

bow

(often held with but

properly attack the

to

two

fingers)

producing

whisper, so that only a note here and there can be heard, and

a dream.

Therefore, use heavier strings; try also,

produce a pure tone, whereby a division of the

bow

into its strong

when

all is

as

using force,

and weak parts

will

be of

great value.

n
Every
wise

it

forcibly attacked tone

would not be a

tone, but

parts,

precedea by an almost imperceptibly weaker sound.

an unpleasant and

be heard at the end of each tone.

and weak

is

One must

learn

this

unintelligible noise.

how

This weakness

to divide the violin

and by means of an even pressure, produce beautiful and

^
Let

3.

be the

first division:

tone; increase the tone

bow

Otheris

also to

into its strong

effective tones.

4.

Begin the up or

down

stroke with an agreeable softness of

by a scarcely perceptible and gradual pressure;

apply the greatest

pressure at the middle of the bow, and modify this by gradually relaxing the pressure, until, at
the end of the bow, the tone becomes inaudible. This must be practiced slowly and with as

much

retention of the

bow

as possible, so that one

a long, pure and delicate tone.

It is

similarly

most

may

in

an adagio movement, to hold

when

a singer holds a long, beautiful

be able,

effective

note without taking breath, and alternates between soft and loud.
NI084

Here

it

must be

especially

noticed that with soft tones the hngprs of the

the bridge toward the finger-board

hand

may

be loosened and ihe

bow moved from


but with loud tones, tne fingers must press the strings
t^rmly
left

and the bow move nearer the bridge.

5.

In this

first part particularly, as in the following, the fingers


of the Ml hand should make a
slow movement, not sidewise, but forward and backward, alternately toward
the bridge
and scroll of the violin; with light bow-pressure, slowly, and with stronger
bow-pressure

slight,

quicker."

Here

follow a large

number

of paragraphs

upon dynamics and expression.

Chapter 'XII.
"All depends

composer

upon good execution.

charmed and

Daily experience confirms this

upon hearing

fact.

Many

an embryo

works performed by a good player who is


able to make effects and lend character to the musicof which he himself had never
dreamed; thus,
by good performance alone, the player makes the whole miserable inanity at least bearable.
And

who

is

flattered

has not oflen heard the best compositions so miserably executed that the composer
nad
own works."

difficulty in recognizing his

N1084

his

10

"The Duties

II.

an Orchestra VioHnist," by

of

Johann Friedrich Reichhardt (Berlin


I.

"a good

tone

high nor too low

produced as follows

is

good,

left

too forcibly against the string, so that

as

we

and do not

shall presently see,

Reasons
exact spot
of a tone

upon the

may

all

the hair and not, as

bow always

the

rest

permissible to withdraw

it is

hold

it

commonly

is

upon the

draw

bow

the

in a

but do not press

firmly,

the case, the side-hair

strings, particularly

where,

it.

not only necessary on account of pure intonation, to place the finger in the

It is

let

away

too far

not a hair too

the exact place

in

hand be as firm as possible

straight line, not too near the bridge, but not

only touch the string

tone.

full

have each finger

the pressure of the

let

1776).

The

string, but particularly so in order to obtain a fine, clear, fall tone.

be correct even to the finest ear, yet an ear that

is

pitch

able to distinquish quarter tones

and even the eighth and sixteenth part of a tone cannot hear the thirty-second and sixty-fourth
part of a tone,

when perhaps

tone clear ana

full,

which

is

That the pressure


finger,

by shortening the

rect the tone will


it

only the one-hundred-twentieth part

when

the case only

of the

left

The bow should

make

lacking to

the stopped

the vibrations are perfect.

hand should be as firm as

string, fixes the limit of vibration,

be impure.

is

not be

possible,

and should

drawn

is

necessary because the

this not

be perfectly cor-

obliquely, as the tone will whistle

should not be drawn too close to the bridge, because there the tension of the strings

and

in

if,

when

the string

not be

same

order to vibrate the strings strongly, exceptional force

drawn

applied to the bov/, especially

entire length, a disagreeable, jarring tone will result

at its

away from

greatest,

the bridge, because then the force of the

bow

but

it

should

will not be in the

relation to the tension of the string."

He

gives further directions and continues

"These are
yet

is

too far

is

is

all

unimportant details to the pupil

famous virtuosi often stop

and therefore have a poor


sess a fine tone.
scales enough,

NI084

if

The

tone.

true cause

at all."

who can

incorrectly, to a fine ear,

Nothing
is

given

is

more

perhaps only play a simple minuet,

and scratch and whistle with the bow,

rare than violinists and violoncellists

in the first directions.

Pupils are not

who

made

pos-

to play

11

Dexterity and Certainty in Placing the Fingers.

III.

This point
tire

of pre-eminent importance, yet

is

instrumental cantilena depends upon

it

the least thoroughly considered.

is

The

en-

what way, the author does not explain; he

(In

it.

speaks only of "Moving the fingers through various positions.")

Froehlich:

lo

attain a beautiful, singing tone, the author confines himself to the rules for bowing.

Karl Courvoisier:
Furthermore,

uncertainty of pitch

consonant harmony does

I refer to

when

only

Violin Technic.

(Cologne, 1878.)

us dispense with another extreme remedy

let

sanctioned by habitual use

is

Violin School,

this uncertainty

so

really no

more

an extreme case, even

trifling

effect

than that, for

than a soothing one, or the tone wails and whines so that the listener

sympathize with the player.

bow

the stroke of the

then particularly

when

Next
;

The whole

power

real

is

at a loss to

to

Acquire a Large Tone and Expression


and expression

to a finished technic, large tone

these

know whether

primarily in an intelligent accentuation, producing rhythmic clarity, and

they are not the

in

and

ear, rather

of expression lies rather in

gift

of Heaven, only bestowed

two

in Playing."

in playing are the ideals of

upon genius, but they are the

studious observation, proper position of the violin and correct bowing.

success

too distinct

upon the

the increase and decrease of tone power."

"How

Piedohl:

violinist

in

if

means

as to barely be noticeable in a

quick, the tone sounds nervously excited and has a nervous, exciting effect

to laugh at or

of a finger

and give the impression that the player

relieve the tone of stiffness,

it

The shake has

a person of feeling.

is

for

The wavering

the shaking of the finger.

every

result of

With thorough

study,

chief essentials of playing will not be lacking."

Kross.
So that he

may now

direct his attention to acquiring a truly beautiful tone.

the nuances from pianissimo to fortissimo, are in


are in painting.

makes

By

music what the arrangements of

Tone-colors,

light

and shade

these means, in an adagio as well as in the cantUena generally, the violinist

his greatest effect."

Directions for bowing follow.

Joachim-Moser
It is

beginning.

Violin School.

of fundamental importance that the musical imagination of the pupil be fostered from thr

Tartini said:

play a tone before

first

'Fine singing

singing

it,

demands

fine tone.'

The young

violinist

should never

thereby becoming thoroughly conscious of what he intends to

produce.

Book

II.

pression of the

NI084

Next
left

to the portamento, the shake or vibrato

hand.

Spohr said about

it

When

is

the most important

means

of ex-

a singer sings an impassioned movement,

12

a shake ir the voice, similar to the vibration of a bell forcibly struck,


is

able to produce a striking imitation of this, as of

It

consists of a slight

is

produced by a shaking movement of the

must not be too

The

the ear.'

many

other peculiarities of the

wavering of the tone alternately above and below the correct


left

pupil should, therefore, avoid using

Let

fine in

also be enlivened

a crescendo from piano Xo forte

if

The shake may be

increases in power.

it

too frequently and in the

and strengthened by

and becoming quicker with increasing

at first
first

and require much practice

last

two kinds are

to a

slow one be done evenly and not suddenly.

this discussion

rocking

it

difficult,

only necessary to add a

is

in

order that the passing

advice regarding the use of .he shake.

little

by the shake, must not become a cramped kind of trema more or less quick
according to the demands of the passage

of the intonation, caused

hand or arm, but

bling in the

effect is also

tone.

Both of these

To

proper

and becoming slower with decreasing tone, and with very long tones.

from a quick shake

The wavering

The

place.

divided into four kinds

Slower, for broad tones of impassioned cantilena passages.

Slow

to

the shake begins slowly and becomes quicker qs the tone

Quick, for strongly accentuated tones.

Quick at

The

means.

this

2.

3.

wrong

it

movement

to indicate to the violinist its

1.

4.

this

and

be used only as an expression of passion, and to intensify noves marked

it

Long notes may

or ^~.

But

hand toward the bridge.

pitch,

and the deviation from the perfect pitch of the tone hardly noticeable

great,

above mentioned instances, as employed by the singer, serve


application.

The violinist
human voice.

noticeable.

is

movement

tion better the less

The

of the hand, with the wrist kept very loose.


it

is

latter will

perform

'While using the shake

required to support the violin.

it

is

its

func-

therefore

thumb joint (in


instrument does not come in contact

advisable to allow the neck of the violin to rest only upon the inner side of the
the higher positions,

upon the

ball of

the

thumb) so

that the

with any other part of the hand except the finger-tips.


firmly under the chin, the shake will in no
or hand, and

by Spohr,

it

may

is

way

If

the violin be held according to directions,

interfere with the free

only a question of time and practice

when

this

The pupil, however, cannot be


the wrong place."

be acquired.

habitual use, particularly in

II.

The Character of

"Although the production of tone on the

violin

giving body, clarity and pregnance to

ooen string
vibrate;

flat

depends
left

in

a large measure upon good

hand contributes not a

There are three kinds of

little

to-

violin tones

To

The sound

of the covered scales

is

slow passages, tue vibrato

is

clear.

duller than

on the

violin.

that of the free or

same time enhance

equalize this unevenness, and at the

the carrying

employed.

of the vibrato, the vibration of the string (the

made moi e

free tone

be divided into free (with open strings), and covered (without open

of the tone, particularly in

By means
NI084

may

major.)

open-string scales.

the tone

Violin"

and covered tones, which, besides themselves, have no other

strings, as

its

stopped tones which are the double or octave of the open string with which they

Accordingly, the scales

power

the tone.

warned against

the Tone.

bowing, yet the firm, precise stopping of the fingers of the

ward

of thf fingers

of expression, as indicated

too emphatically

Albert Tottmann: "Booklet on the

Part

movements

means

life

of the tone)

is

increased and

13

When

VI.

the pupil

is

able to keep the given position with ease, the teacher should try

to obtain greater surety of the fingers

done

and

two ways.

in

bv emancipating

lower

forth along the neck of the violin, then loosen the

violin neck,

and

lightly

move

paration for the vibrato.

are essential.
side of the
fingers

the lower part of the hand, at

hand from the

more independent

necessary later

violin neck,

'Some

an

slowly and then

be

from the

faster.

Pre-

emancipation of the inner

positions

in shifting

is

and

for

making the

caused by the shaking movement of the

used

human

in

voice in

moderation, or

moments
it

finger.

of pas-

becomes

senti-

Leopold Mozart early protested against a too frequent use of the vibrato.

shake on every note, as though they had a

violinists

joint of the first finger

fine for the

imitation of the trembling

vibrato, like the portamento, should only be

and annoys.

Only a quick vibrato makes a good

speed.

may

Vibrato.

minute, intentional impurity of pitch

The

sion.

This

thumb slowly back

"Method of Violin-playing and Violin-teaching."

Therein originates the vibrato

irental

the

of the hand."

The

first

move

In this exercise, a firm placing of the fingers and flexibility of the hand

Both of tnese exercises are exceptionally

Joseph Bloch

from the hand.

the fingers

should require the pupil to

First, the teacher

effect.

The

Its

fever.'

beauty depends upon the

nervous, trembling vibrato, and

still

when used in the proper place, sounds unpleasant and is to be


Some French players use a peculiar kind of vibrato, intended less as a means of expresthan as a means of making the right arm and wrist independent."

more

so,

the slow shake, even

avoided.
sion

Paul Stoeving: "The Art of Bowing."

How may a beautiful,


"Naturally,

upon the quality

much

singing tone on the violin be acquired

depends upon the inborn talent of the pupil, and to a certain extent

of his instrument.

however, unquestionable that, even under the most favor-

It is,

able circumstances, a beautiful tone

is

the result of continuous study, keen observation and

conscientious self-criticism, especially upon these points:


(a)

Special

tone studies

particularly

long notes with slowly

drawn bow, must be

practiced.

The author

continues

(b)

Kinds of bowing.

(c)

Shading of tone.

(d)

No

opportunity of hearing great violinist? and singers should be

be particularly noticed

N1084

how

these artists treat the cantilena, etc."

lost,

and

it

should

14

III.

JET us

"We

confine ourselves to the excerpts quoted.

see that the

majority of these authorities believe that quality of tone depends


essentially

upon the bow.

right

some

attention

admit

the vibrato and concede

its

importance s a means of enhancing the quality of the tone.

any

directions

its

arm upon

this

one movement

fully

The main

left

fine tone,

hand and of the

Nowhere

recognized.

nificance of the vibrato thoroughly understood

significance,

for acquiring

great dependence of the functions of the

the

is

something of

give

to

In none of the violin schools, nor in

how^ever,

who

Also, those

the

is

full

sig-

and emphasized.

point of our subject, then, necessitates a thorough investigation

of the effect of the vibrato-movement upon the

left

hand and the

right

arm.

This movement, the undoubted influence of which must be admitted, has been
or

either entirely neglected,

has been treated as a matter of only secondary

it

more than secondary importance, but it is the


Beauty of tone has always
principal function of the w^hole technical apparatus.
been considered a special gift; and to acquire it we have contented ourselves
with experiments upon the right arm, and have sought for secrets w^here no
importance.

It

is

not only of

secrets exist.

In regard to the vibrato,


Artistic finish in playing

can claim that:

I
is

impossible without a correctly

made

vibrato.

The bow occupies a dependent relationship is dependent upon the left hand.
The left hand is entirely dependent upon the oscillation. No matter how great
the technical

facility,

it

will

unless the vibrato function


the greatest technic

The

not always be "ready"


correct.

is

failing,

if

the

and

to

be depended upon

There always remains the

movements of

the

left

possibility of

hand are

incorrect.

correct vibrato pre-supposes a fiill-sounding technic.

As we have already seen, the playing of


distinguishable when confined to the open strings.

Let us turn back once more.


different

The
as

violinists

is

not

individual characteristics of different artists are also not recognizable as long

the

fingers

are held passive

upon the

only becomes apparent w^hen the vibrato


to distinguish

ence
N1084

Hartmann

ft-om

in their vibratos alone.

strings.
is

The

employed.

difference

We

in

playing

are able at once

Ysaye, Petschnikoff from Flesch, by the

The masters do

not differ essentially in

theii"

differ-

hand-

15

bow, by which only dynamic shadings are obtained; but they do

ling of the

widely

differ

movements of

the

in

the

left

Here

hand.

alone, in

the individ-

ualization of tone, clearly lies the great importance of the vibrato.

Some

have an extremely quick shake

artists

Having excluded

greater amplitude.

is

it

differences in interpretation

necessary to consider only four tones, played

with the shake.

The
sense,

is

of the

definition

word

"vibrato" reads:

Vibration (oscillation)

to alter the pitch.

is

from our ques-

For a

exclude the shifting of positions at this point.

tion, I will also

tion

others a slower one of

clear illustra-

in the first position,

To

a musical

vibrate, in

the forward

and

and backward

movement made by a body or part thereof, held in a fixed position or balance,


when this balance is disturbed by any cause and the body is released to the
which

forces

re-establish the original position

or balance.

complete forward

from the lowest to the highest position and

and backward movement,

for example,

return to the lowest,

reckoned as a vibration, and these are designated as

the

number of

is

vibrations per second of time.

Vibration, then,

is

the alteration of pitch, caused by the

movement

of a

body or part thereof forward and backward of a certain fixed position or balance.
The mistake made by most players is that they confuse trembling with vibratthat

ing;

is,

movement

they tremble with the hand without thereby conveying a specific

to the finger.

The

result

is

a wavering of the pitch, similar to that

of the correct vibrato, but not an alteration of the pitch according to funda-

mental

principles.

the tone

Naturally,

pressed physically by the following


points

/\A/\

instead of

The

movement.

upon

effect

lines:

^^^

waves

all

is

the

as

The

affected.

the

effect

trembling

might be ex-

movement

results in

must be the case with the correct

muscles of the arm, of the trembling

more or less of a convulsive movement can be most convincingly


ascertained by experiments upon one's self or upon pupils. Not only does the
trembling shake hold the hand cramped upon one point, instead of freeing and
shake,

which

lightening

it,

is

but

what

is

much

of

greater importance

its

direction

is

false.

In comparison, imagine a runner with his body inclined in the direction

runner

he goes.

Let

his course

and imagine what

is

exactly the

this

same

idea.

of which continually
original direction.

incline his

his progress

hand

NI084

is

tliereby

in

another direction from

like.

movement

The trembling shake


there are two, each

with the other, tending to throw

it

out of

its

players find particular difficulty in playing scales, be-

cause the lightness of the hand


the

would be

Instead of only one

interferes

Some

body sidewards

is

interfered with

by an incorrect

vibrato,

prevented from moving easily in the desired

and

direction.

16

The

scale

Here the

tain point.

of the

a run which moves step by step

is

arm

is

effect of this

another

The groups

result.

cipated from each other,

movement

in

most plainly evident.

is

of muscles,

become numb and

finally

your attention the favorable circumstances of

(here massage

of good effect) the hand

is

Fatigue

eman-

not sufficiently

being connected with the arm, or constantly strained

by the convulsive shake,


to

one direction toward a cer-

fatigued.

would

By some chance

disposition.

brought into a natural

is

recall

state.

At

once the entire technical apparatus operates; the arms become exceptionally
light; the

some reason

for

seem

fingers

move

to

to

the tone sounds

a certain extent of their

The reason

and round.

full

own

volition,

for this

and
that

is

hand and arm, while the incorrect

the correct vibrato relaxes the muscles of the

vibrato contracts them.

The cause
conditions.
easily,

It is

of the uncertainty of the

not natural that on one day passages

and on the next

fail

come out smoothly and

in spite

of their endeavors, continue to

which they believed had long ago been mastered.


Massage is of value because it frees, lightens, and, in the case of musthat are stiffened and cramped by an incorrect vibrato, makes the natural,

in points

fail

cles

easy movements again possible.


degree, to

overcome the

The remarkable
have not practiced
supposed that the

ease with which the

Some

left

one practices, the better he plays.

ppear after a long period of

But not only the

left

motion

causes

it

friction

hand

to saddle,

affected

however,

to be

The
old

playing

is

better

hindrances again

by the vibrato; the

The

intensity

of the

string vibrates freely

tone,

and the

its

becomes complicated only

sets the string

tone depends upon

the

and unhindered from bridge

off.

naturally take for granted.)

comparatively simple matter to

N1084

The

not,

between the bridge and finger-board,

The

independent subject, and, in

functions.

is

where the vibrations are sharply cut

chanical part of bowing,

the)-

it.

to vibrate.

amplitude of the vibrations.

free.

is

also

work.

are also dependent upon

The bow, by

It

is

when

people play particularly well

because the muscles have become rested and

bow

hand sometimes operates,

a considerable length of time.

for
less

continued use will even help, to a certain

Its

fault.

caused by chance conditions.

ter

in these

as though they had never been studied.

entirely,

many who,

This condition discourages

in

hand originates alone

left

meof bowing is an

(Proficiency

The

way, of great importance.

art

It is,

in

the

however, a

make an open string vibrate evenly. The matwhen the fingers of the left hand assume their

If the finger is placed firmly

and immovably upon the

string, the ef-

17

The

the open string.

same as with

be the

feet will

finger shortens the siring

new saddle. The fingers of my left hand, however,


do not remain in repose. They move, that is. they vibrate. The string is then
set in motion at two points: by the bow which vibrates it and by the left
hand, which brings about an alteration in the tone. The oscillation of the tone

and,

is

a way, forms a

in

The bow, which


open

the

string,

even though unnoticeably

bow

hindrance

between the

relationship existing

bow, freed of

When

the string.

pointed line

when

all

easily

would

there

is

hand must

this

is,

the peculiar

to

hand and an improved

left

when

waved and

the

shake

quality of tone (the

to the intensity of vibration) but

it

The

must,

in

may

any

not the

felt

is

even

wave -motion does

regular, even,

string.

hand,

left

contact with

correct

no trembling of the bow, which

The

Never-

defect.

the absence of hindrances in the

bow and

break the contact between

movable

this

left

attention

call

of the

correct, that

is

existing in the slightest degree.

terially injure the

overcomes

disturbing elements, acquires the

the vibrato

created,

is

by

so,

In playing loudly this

to tremble.

disposition

Through

condition of the right arm.


the

Again,

there.

is

made

bow more

not the case, for then the

theless, the

be

will

when on

influences

playing pianissimo the vibrato of the

in

not be over-done or the


is

any outside

not disturbed by

is

affected,

is

For example,

saddle.

caused by the bow.

to the free vibration

added

false vibrato

need not ma-

weak

be too

not

in

proportion

case, effect the absolute purity

of tone.
Alteration of tone

is

only possible at this point.

Given the bow and the

degrees of dynamic variation, from the softest pianissimo to the


loudest fortissimo, are possible. That which we are accustomed to call emotion

open

string, all

proceeds only from the

hand.

left

Courvoisier writes very curiously:

Is
Is

relieves

it

wholly essential that

finger,

This

has

on the

kamed
string,

at the

proper vibrato

we

feel

is

that the player

effect

than that."

a person of feeling?

is

the result of con-ect mechanical treatment.

to play only

upon the open

strings, place the

Let

second

and then move the finger quickly and slowly, backward

proper pitch.

The

movement by a second

surprising change in the tone takes place.


N1084

of

produced by means of a correct vibrato, an expression of


most emphatically deny. Since the vibrato is produced me-

who

and forward,

tone

tone,

chanically, the beautiful tone


pupil,

the

a person of feeling."

a beautiful

feeling?

vibrato

and conveys the impression that the player is


then naively continues: "The shake nas really no more

stiffness,

He

"The

finger

should be

person. (See figure


It

becomes

made
1.)

to

execute the

Immediately, a

metallic, larger

and "emo-

18

tional."

In spite of this apparent "emotion"

"soul" of the pupil has in

way

no

taken pai

it
t

must be acknowledged

in the

performance.

that the

The mistake

consists in confusing a beautiful

sound with an expression of

Many teachers comfort


pupils who would learn to

feeling.

their

play "with feeling," v/ith the ex-

come of
itself w^hen they become older
Then,
and more developed.
planation that this will

naturally, "feeling" finally does


assert itself

The

pupil begins

to imitate, after a fashion, the

of

vibrato

his

teacher.

chance favors, the


will

may

more

acquire a

beautiful tone than his teacher,

the explanation, finally concludes that

The study

the pupil

is

of vibrato, however, should not be

By means

ly the case.

correct,

oscillation

consequently

the tone will be beautiful.

Figure 1.

haps he

be

If

who,

at

Per.

loss for

exceptionally talented.
left to

chance, as

is

common-

of exercises and clear explanation, the pupil should be

very important part of the technic.


This may be done even with beginners, as the correct thing is never
harmful but always of assistance. Very many teachers are opposed to the use
taught the correct manner of acquiring

of the vibrato; in

fact,

they

in-

sist

that in the study of etudes,

the

hand be kept thoroughly

repose.

The

probably

is,

this

in

explanation of this

that fi-om experience

with themselves and with

pupils,

they have found the vibrato to


be detrimental to the develop-

ment of

technic.

The

vibrato

can be detrimental only when


incorrectly

made, and

it

course, better to ignore a

ment

entirely than

incorrectly.
NI084

it

to

is,

of

move-

perform

Figure 2.

19

With advanced
the

pupils,

of primary importance that the functions of

is

it

hand be minutely examined.

left

In case of the existence of the ftindamental error, against

take the

important that he

first

learn

by rocking the whole


(Figure

left

When

may move

freely

remains

Here

and

it is

itself,

we have

similar condition.
in

preventing the

manner

In this incorrect

some way or
hand from swinging

executed vibrato taxes the


of

The

made.

in its place (firmly

we may

all

incorrect

the

first

pressed against
fi-ee

false vibrato.

often

of

find

vacillating

(Figure

3).

a somewhat

of vibrating, the muscles of the

arm

other, concerned,

at

the wrist,

The

and independent of the arm.

and permits

first

when made with

a typical case of the


finger,

of assist-

easily.

and trembles and does not enliven the tone by a

Also, in the case of the fourth

free

finger

not hindered by the necessity of

is

correctly or incorrectly

is

this finger in vibrating

movement within

always,

is

Let him

movement with each

comparatively easy to detect, particularly

the violin-neck)

are

it

wrist with the right hand; then

the exercises on the instrument may be commenced.

whether the vibrato movement


is

the beginner,

necessary, in the case of advanced pupils, to determine

It is

here

2.)

holding the instrument, and

finger.

left

hand, perform the vibrato

ance to prop up the violin so that the hand

vibrato

For

emancipate the hand from the arm.

to

place the finger upon a table, firmly holding the

Then

we

that should be corrected before proceeding further.

field,

Rules and examples for acquiring the vibrato:

singly,

which

arm musc'es

in

properly

no way,

Through
(by rolling move-

no contraction thereof.

relieving the muscles of contraction

ments or massage)

it

may become

possible,

to

certain extent, to acquire the correct vibrato.

The

difficulty

ing consists
the

left

arm.

ly tends to

arm

in

caused by the position

the fact that

it

is

in play-

necessary to

lift

This taxes the muscles, and natural-

induce contraction.

Therefore, the pupil's

should be pressed downw^ard from the instru-

ment,

in

order to relieve

all

unnecessary tension.

Figitfo 3.

(Figure 4.)

To

free

be practiced.

and lighten the arm,


In this

way much may

of a trained masseur be obtained.


NI084

rolling

movements of every kind should

be accomplished, especially

if

the advice

20

exercises should be played nrst in the fourth position, because

The
the

hand

finds a point of support

and the action of the arm muscles

is

tnere

mini-

Figure 4.

mized. (Figure

5.)

should be played
only the

tip

The same

thing

is

The

true in the third position.

in the first position last.

Here, the position of the

exercises

first finger,

of which should be allowed to come in contact with the instrument,

the greatest importance.

The palm

is

of

of the hand must also be kept from touching

the neck of the violin. (Figure 6.)

Double-stops offer particular

difficulty.

In the study of these

it

is

also

advisable to begin in the

and go

fourth position

the

position last.

first

In

wish

to

to

concluding,

warn

the student

against the nervous, ex-

aggerated vibrato.
the excessive
the voice,
able.

it

One's

Like

tremolo in
is

disagree-

artistic taste

should be his guide.

The
Figure 5.

NI084

experience of

21

Prof. Carl Flesch

He,

of special interest.

is

has

too,

of late given special attention to the correction of the

movements of

vibrato

false

which he kindly explained


the

main

His views,

me, bear directly upon

distinguishes betw^een

too,

an incorrect

pupils.

of our discussion here.

point

He,

to

his

vibrato,

a correct and

and describes the incorrect one as

a movement, the impulse of which comes from some

arm and not from the fingers. The inmovement begins either at the elbow (the

point in the
correct

being a quick, trembling

effect

wrist

(too

cramped

The

oscillation),

Both lack charm and cause a

slow).

of contraction of the

kind

or at the

arm

muscles.

correct vibrato, according to the views of

Flesch,

way

is

Figure

Prof

a combined movement of fingers and wrist

6>

which the arm

in

in

no

participates.

Through
cellent

the kindness of

exercise

for

the

Prof Flesch,

study

of this

am

much

able

by

technic,

of

Rivarde,

Royal

the

branch

violin

prominent French

the

Prof

violinist.

at

present here an ex-

to

neglected

College

teacher

Music,

of

London.

To

of the hand.

directs

that

held

violin

tive violinists.

note

at the last

"With the

the

close

(Figure

C were

7),

like

first

finger (B natural),

on the

to be as
little

flat.

with each finger, not longer than

minutes in succession.

amples.)
N1084.

the

string, hold

This movement should be practiced

five

neck of the
position

taken by beginners or very

ought

played a

palm of the hand


the

makes an extraordinarily quick movement toward the bridge. (Figure 8).


Should an alteration of pitch be
though

Prof Rivarde

to

32nd only the finger

noticeable, the effect

necessary

the

repose

be

''^"'^ '

acquire

(See exFigure 8.

primi-

a whole

22

The

required position minimizes the action of elbow and wrist muscles,

consequently the action

is

confined entirely to the finger.

It

is

important that

the finger be placed as flatly as possible on the string, to allow sufficient play
for the

firmly

forward movement.

upon the

string, thereby, as is well

quality of the tone.

N1084

Disregard of

this

point brings

the finger-nail too

known, diminishing the volume ana

23

Vibrato Exercises.
To

isolate the

hand from the arm, the hand should be placed against the edge of the

olin, and the vibrato made only with the finger while a rocking movement
the hand. The following exercises are to be played in the 4^-" position.

is

vi-

carried out by

I.

string.

string.

xeffite

f^^

a^

ZJSZ

string.

~r-

^
E

-o-

;;3i:

41

t^

iT

Tf"

~rt~

segue

*
3

gftp
4

[2

|:.

fe te
1

string.

segue

#E

^^

CZ2

'

It
1

II.

*S

III.
15'

segue

IV.

^
3

III.

#
*i

Tl"

3Ce:

S T-^ fei
4

-t

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s-

rrrnff

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L_^

#-#

Copyright

&

^
#
feg

MOMXI by Carl Fischer, N.Y.

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izz:

rj

rj

-O-

24

III.

To be played

in

3^ position.

Alleg^ro.

I
;.'

^'

ra

/*

(^i

?2

f trifrf

:<tiK

<5^^

Adagio.

*
n.^S

^0

221

fr

4i

<g

r r r rr'rTf

T~3

0^

Adagio.

a
IIL^^S
I

8-

^^

To be played

in

39

Adagio. ^_

I.

'

I3

tnf

'

IV.

position

scgne

W^ ^

22:

2Z

^^

/5L

Adagio.
tS^

n.3^

22:

I
f

fif

if

TT

^
n:

2ZI

zc

Andante.

^ ?^

m.3^

-n-

i
33E

^Em

TTT

'^

r
The hand should be held
14374-10 NI084

flat,

^ ^

Jjij

so that the lower part touches the edge of the violin.

25

Exercises for Vibrato

in the First Position.

In the first position, the vibrato demands great freedom in the position of the
especially of the first fin^^er. Seei Fig. V.

left

hand, and

I.

string.

^^

1
I

:2

i ^-

S
3

n\

m^
*

*.\

rj

rj

tv

mte=>

ilK-t^O ^^5-i5

U>-

fe

segue.

/0\

#S

string.

srgur.

/Z\

I?**-

string.

-o-

Hg

i5^-(5^

On

>^

string.

-o-

r\
tS"-!:^

~<y-

r:\
r-i

'^

iTF

/CN

-o-

-o-

-*-

,0

/7s

i^

.f^i'v-'^.

S F^^

II.

US

Andante

^^^

^^

i!
:

^ c

-er^

m
a
m
^
^
OT
$
^
^
^
jJfri^imq
#
P i^
P^M^^m
m.

Adag-io.

r\
*/

IV.

Alleerretto.
,e^

* '

^^i^o"

^r{[r^iCrf

<

'^""'-

pp^ij^j

14374-10 NI084

Jr

j J
I

ijjJJ?]]

Broad.

^^

*i

i^^

r*

a
I?.C. a I

Fine.

26

Vibrato Exercises in Double Stops.


Thirds.

I.

Begin

in the

G & D

position.

strings.

12-1

12-1

D &A

strings.

A& E

strings^^

bfete

striniis.

A& E

strings.

12

a:^

=8^

tete #te

*gte

i
4

position.

G& D

^^

segne

jjS
1

/^

II.

2
4

2
4

_
-

Sixths.

segue

segue

segue

*^

1^
5L

^SL

^-?4
3

2
1

III.
In the 4*]^ position.

segve

f=f

=^

g g
1

=g:

SI

:5cz=5
I

2
4

5^

4
3

^# fe
S>-

4
14374-10 NI084

z:

^=#
2
4

i5

27

IV

M
s

^K

m-

i^J

%4^
r

-J

:^
r

i 1^
seg-ue

<*

(jp

s=g

-f2-

^ e

/O

z:

-s-o-

OTT
sea~ue
II.

^%(^

-^

-(2.

i2.

5^

tS^

i
J

1*-

-&^

Exercises by Professor Rivarde.


Directions for playing the following exercises will be found on page 30 of the text
Fig. VII.

See

LU times. ^

I.

10 times.

lO times.

.te^/e

~^

^^b^^5^ir^^^Wb^j*^^^>

Practice on

all

3_

strings

Practice with each finger and

on

III,

PhJ*"77 ^'^'' ^"'"^' W^-'W'^g-'


1.

14374-10 NI084

on

all strings.

IV &

with each finger and

all strings.

28

Exercises for the Singing Tone,


with application of the Vibrato.
F.

4n}e Corde..

Mazas.

a^jtressivo

^ a

r-'ST^in

'Tr-FrrFr r^GT-Eri^J^^^^i^

4^

ii*

:ffl

dim.

L> J^i^
^

^i^l lY^

J^i- J
</?>//.

i^

J^

I
/>

y>

8 me Corde...

P^

5^

-sfitm.i

y=

4n}e Corde
Ar

-nij jj

esprrsan'o.

i^

uj^m

q-

nl^

^^

dolce.

MiXij

^-T*(. - 1

iJ

rcT

:rr> ^;-JTriL' ji?r


p

i^clii

talon.

s4

^
^

?iE

^^

4Tne Corde..

14374-10 N1084

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^oco

furX

n^.

^JjiJU-

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29

Lar^o.

-i

Mazas, Qp- 36.

F.

TV

crcsc.

B i.rr#-

--Z7

"tT"

IX

'^

-^

^^

crrsc.

./

"TT-

/>-==^

4J^^F

~rr

ho-

r'*

4
X2.

4_:J-[jJ

^.

'

[,J

j^i,^
crcsc.j

^4j^
P

i^J:i-

crrsc.

?ii

I:

drm.

/>

-f

crrsr.

Pi^

i^

j^

Ji
CtT.SC

J)

'

'"M i[=^
iX

i
^'

fz

zz:

? f.

^o^.
/>

tt^

f>,.^f

=y> -= / -= /

^
14374-10 NI084

"TT"

11

cresc.

'

1^]^^

^^

<,!

^r;

1^

-^^"^

^^

30

Adagio from the Seventh Concerto by Rode.


Adagio.
2

S()lo.

g^^

Tiif:

PP^

///

m P^rW>'^^

:=:

3da Corda

Q:

cv,

^^

Ttztz.

ir^^fF

Minore.
jC/-

era

su una Corda.

r-n

>

,rTTTxi
ig^rji
/i
4 j<

fe

-^

-44-

^^

^fe

h-i-^?

J-

Mag"giore

k--i6>^

wm^
\-^^^<^\iJ

v-^ I

f
4t

fT^
Z\ll'[l'^!

r^ r ^ r^

Tutti.

^W^-u]\^J^^T^^^

Twenty- third Concerto by

^^4^%

o
3E

Viotti, First Solo.

F-^r^^
^fT-^^!
$

f
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14374-10 N1084

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31

Exercise for the Slow Vibrato.

Adagio sostenuto
CAllegro 7nudcrat(>.)

14374-10 NI084

Kreutzer.

32

Exercises for Vibrato in Double Stops.


Kreutzer.

Andante,

i-

rr ^

#t

'LJ^

^'''

(I)

it^=^^^m^

^s ^

M
^

I*

SSfe
^^^:

^:

zz:

li^r

433

^M^

^i^^jmj-j^: p^^JFf

V4
(irl
3

i^ jM=#

2
4

^
/T\

i^
*

3I

ii

Ch. de Beriot.

^
ft

M*.

tsizz
tizrjS

f
P
f

tfr^-jT t3=i:

tteii
j Stif^

Tg^i

^it

!^

ff

l^p;

^
^
f

^
<
I

J),f f,i

iuf

ff

P
r=f=^-^-i S

rT= ;b
f

Moderato.

seeue

^
I

f,,
|

^^

iifTqqb
J

W:
i

vf

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w"

i^

i^^^^f^^ ^

'~
ft
''f

u.
'i

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It

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14374- 10 N1084

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^^

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Techinical IVIaterial
1^

^^iolin

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^HARit

THE ART OF VIOLIN PLAYING

VoL

The most comprehensive and authoritative

of all

1317

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THE ART OF VIOLIN PLAYING

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This is the work that O. Sevcik called "a bible for violinists. " The
wealth of pedagogic research as well as instructive advice contained
in this book covers a lifetime of practical experience and defies description.

BASIC STUDIES (Urstudien)

205

1.50

series of exercises in shape of a condensed extract of the technical


needs of the violin. Comprises the elements upon which the entire
general violin technic is based.

SCALE SYSTEM, Supplement

to Bk.

PROBLEMS OF TONE PRODUCTION

I,

scales in

IN VIOLIN

all

keys

PLAYING

based on the thesis that physiological responses must be


thoroughly understood if the desired violin tone is to be realized.

A work

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