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WORKSHOP IN SAFETY IN TUNNELS &

UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

• DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF


TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA
REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
• G. Anello, R. Benigni
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Synopsis

- Projects description
- Design
- Construction
- Conclusion
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Location map

• Al Baha
• Shaar
• Al Jawwah
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

General data

Descent Length ∆H Average Average


gradient Gradient in
(Overall) (%) steeper areas
(km) (m)
(%)
Shaar 57 1,700 3.0 6.5
Al Baha 42 1,800 4.3 5.8
Al Juwwah 24 1,400 5.6 8.2
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Design
• Tunnels
– 4 typical cross sections
• Cut and cover
• Galleries
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Tunnels Design
Rock Temporary Support Final Support
type
Shot- Rock bolts Steel arches (I beam) Lining Inverted
crete arch
(cm) n/m2 Length Type Spaced (cm) (cm)
(m) (m)
T1 10 1/4 2.5 – 3.5 - - 30 -
T2 20 1/2.25 2.5 – 3.5 - - 40 -
T3 25 1/2.25 2.5 – 3.5 NP 14-18 0.8 – 1.5 50 -
T4 25 1/2.25 2.5 – 3.5 NP 14-18 0.8 – 1.5 70 60
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Rock type T1 – sound rock


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Rock Type T2 – Slightly fractured rock


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Rock Type T3 – Weathered rock


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Rock Type 4 – Highly weathered and fractured rocks


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Rock Type 4 – Highly weathered and fractured rocks


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Cut and cover


• Final Support: 80 cm lining
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Cut and cover


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Gallery

• Final support:110 cm lining


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Gallery
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Construction
• NATM (New Austrian Tunnelling Method)
• Convergence of the profile
• Support installed accordingly
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case 1 – Tunnel No. 2 Shaar Descent

• Design adapted to the actual conditions encountered on


site.
– Convergence of the cavity profile shown the unstable conditions of
the crown
– Steel arches installed after evaluating the conditions of the rock
and orientation of the discontinuity sets
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case 1 – Tunnel No. 2 Shaar Descent


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case 2 – Construction of the galleries


• Phase 1 - Cut of slope
• Phase 2 – Cast of foundations
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case 2 – Construction of the galleries

• Phase 3 – Cast of side walls and crown


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case 2 – Construction of the galleries

Phase 4 – Backfilling of the structure


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case No. 3 – Collapse of the crown


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Case No. 3 – Collapse of the crown


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNELS IN ASIR AND IN AL BAHA REGIONS
KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA
G. Anello, R. Benigni

Conclusions
•Design of the supporting structure of tunnels needed to be adapted to
the actual conditions encountered on site.
•For a successful construction of the tunnel, it is therefore essential
flexibility of the design coupled to good engineering practice and
judgement. Although this may lead to increase the costs for the
completion of the structures, it is to be bear in mind that unforeseeable
geological conditions can always be encountered.
•This was described on the remedial measures implemented on the
tunnels of the “Tihama descents” projects: the direct inspection of the
cave allowed to take immediate action to cope with the relevant
problems.