You are on page 1of 8

Report on prefabrication, post

tensioning and pre tensioning

SUBMITTED BYDHARNA GARG


B.ARCH. VII SEM
1221018

PREFABRICATION
What is prefabrication?
PREFABRICATION IS THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
WHICH INCLUDES ASSEMBLING COMPONENTS OF
A STRUCTURE IN A MANUFACTURING OR PRODUCTION
SITE, TRANSPORTING COMPLETE ASSEMBLIES OR PARTIAL
ASSEMBLIESTO THE SITE WHERE THE STRUCTURE IS TO BE
LOCATED.
IT IS COMBINATION OF GOOD DESIGN WITH MODERN HIGH
PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS AND QUALITY CONTROLLED
MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES.
THE PREFABRICATION AS DEFINED WILL BE DONE IN STAGESMANUFACTURING AT FACTORY CONDITION AND ERECTION OF
COMPONENTS AT THE REQUIRED LOCATION.
THIS REQUIRES CERTAIN STAGES OF PREPARATION. THEY ARE
CASTING, CURING, TRANSPORTATION AND ERECTION.
CASTING: PRECAST COMPONENTS ARE CASTED WITH
CONTROLLED CEMENT CONCRETE IN MOULDS OF
REQUIRED SHAPE AND SIZES. THE VIBRATOR IS USED TO
VIBRATE CONCRETE AND THIS REMOVES ANY
HONEYCOMBING INSIDE THE COMPONENTS.

CASTING OF CONCRETE BLOCKS

CURING:AFTER 24 HOURS OF CASTING, THE CASTED


COMPONENTS ARE RELEASED FROM THE MOULD AND
TRANSPORTED TO CURING TANKS.

CURING OF CONCRETE BLOCKS

TRANSPORTATION AND ERECTION: AFTER COMPLETE


CURING IS DONE THE COMPONENTS ARE TRANSPORTED
TO THE SITE WITH HEAVY TRUCKS AND ERECTION WILL BE
DONE USING CRANES WITH SKILLED LABOUR FORCE.

ERECTION OF BUILDING

ADVANTAGES OF PREFABRICATION SAVING IN COST, MATERIAL, TIME & MANPOWER.


SHUTTERING AND SCAFFOLDING IS NOT NECESSARY.
INSTALLATION OF BUILDING SERVICES AND FINISHES CAN
BE DONE IMMEDIATELY.
INDEPENDENT OF WEATHER CONDITION.
COMPONENTS PRODUCED AT CLOSE SUPERVISION SO
QUALITY IS GOOD
CLEAN AND DRY WORK AT SITE.
POSSIBILITY OF ALTERATIONS AND REUSE
CORRECT SHAPE AND DIMENSIONS AND SHARP EDGES ARE
MAINTAINED.
VERY THIN SECTIONS CAN BE ENTIRELY PRECAST WITH
PRECISION.
CONTINUING ERECTION IN WINTER TIME UNTIL -20 C

QUALITY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM


ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY WAY OF BUILDING WITH
OPTIMUM USE OF MATERIALS, RECYCLING OF WASTE
PRODUCTS, LESS NOISE AND DUST, ETC.
DISADVANTAGES OF PREFABRICATION HANDLING AND TRANSPORTATION MAY CAUSE
BREAKAGES OF MEMBERS DURING THE TRANSIT AND
EXTRA PROVISION IS TO BE MADE.
DIFFICULTY IN CONNECTING PRECAST UNITS SO AS TO
PRODUCE SAME EFFECT AS MONOLITHIC. THIS LEADS TO
NON-MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION.
THEY ARE TO BE EXACTLY PLACED IN POSITION,
OTHERWISE THE LOADS COMING ON THEM ARE LIKELY TO
GET CHANGED AND THE MEMBER MAY BE AFFECTED.
HIGH TRANSPORT COST
NEED OF ERECTION EQUIPMENT
SKILLED LABOUR AND SUPERVISION IS REQUIRED.
LEAKS CAN FORM AT JOINTS IN PREFABRICATED
COMPONENTS.
PRE FABRICATED BUILDING COMPONENTS

FLOORS
ROOFS
BEAMS
COLUMNS
WALLS
STAIRCASE
LINTELS
SUNSHADE
PREFABRICATED SLAB
TO BEAM CONNECTION

PREFABRICATED
COLUMN TO COLUMN
CONNECTION

APPLICATIONS

HOUSING APARTMENTS
OFFICE BLOCKS
WAREHOUSES
FACTORY BUILDINGS
DETACHED HOUSES
COTTAGES

PREFABRICATED
COLUMN TO BEAM
CONNECTION

LOG CABIN
METRO TRACKS

PRE-TENSIONING AND POST TENSIONING


PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PRESTRESSED CONCRETE IS A METHOD FOR OVERCOMING
CONCRETE'S NATURAL WEAKNESS IN TENSION.
RESTRESSING TENDONS (GENERALLY OF HIGH TENSILE
STEEL CABLE OR RODS) ARE USED WHICH PRODUCES A
COMPRESSIVE STRESS THAT OFFSETS THE TENSILE STRESS
THAT THE CONCRETE COMPRESSION MEMBER WOULD
OTHERWISE EXPERIENCE DUE TO SELFWEIGHT AND
GRAVITY LOADS.
TRADITIONAL REINFORCED CONCRETE IS BASED ON THE USE
OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT BARS, REBAR, AND INSIDE
POURED CONCRETE.
PRESTRESSING CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED IN TWO WAYS:
PRE-TENSIONED CONCRETE
POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE
PRE-TENSIONED CONCRETE
PRE-TENSIONING IS ACCOMPLISHED BY STRESSING WIRES
OR STRANDS, CALLED TENDONS, TO PREDETERMINED
AMOUNT BY STRETCHING THEM BETWEEN TWO
ANCHORAGES PRIOR TO PLACING CONCRETE.
THE CONCRETE IS THEN PLACED AND TENDONS BECOME
BOUNDED TO CONCRETE THROUGHOUT THEIR LENGTH.
AFTER CONCRETE HAS HARDENED, THE TENDONS ARE
RELEASED BY CUTTING THEM AT THE ANCHORAGES.
THE TENDONS TEND TO REGAIN THEIR ORIGINAL LENGTH BY
SHORTENING AND IN THIS PROCESS TRANSFER THROUGH
BOND A COMPRESSIVE STRESS TO THE CONCRETE.
THE TENDONS ARE USUALLY STRESSED BY THE USE OF
HYDRAULIC JACKS.
THE STRESS IN TENDONS IS MAINTAINED DURING THE
PLACING AND CURING OF CONCRETE BY ANCHORING THE

ENDS OF THE TENDONS TO ABUTMENTS THAT MAY BE AS


MUCH AS 200M APART.
THE ABUTMENTS AND OTHER FORMWORK USED IN THIS
PROCEDURE ARE CALLED PRESTRESSING BENCH OR BED.
MOST OF THE PRE-TENSIONING CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
ARE PATENTED ALTHOUGH THE BASIC PRINCIPLE USED IN
ALL OF THEM IS COMMON AND IS WELL KNOWN.

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLAB

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DIAGRAM

POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE
IN A POST-TENSIONED, THE TENDONS ARE STRESSED AND
EACH END IS ANCHORED TO THE CONCRETE SECTION
AFTER THE CONCRETE HAS BEEN CAST AND HAS
ATTAINED SUFFICIENT STRENGTH TO SAFELY WITHSTAND
THE PRESTRESSING FORCE.
IN POST-TENSIONING METHOD, TENDONS ARE COATED
WITH GREASE OR A BITUMINOUS MATERIAL TO PREVENT
THEM FROM BECOMING BONDED TO CONCRETE.
ANOTHER METHOD USED IN PREVENTING THE TENDONS
FROM BONDING TO THE CONCRETE DURING PLACING AND
CURING OF CONCRETE IS TO ENCASE THE TENDON IN A
FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE BEFORE PLACING IT IN THE FORMS.
THE METAL HOSE IS REFERRED TO AS SHEATH OR DUCT AND
REMAINS IN THE STRUCTURE.

AFTER THE TENDON HAS BEEN STRESSED, THE VOID


BETWEEN THE TENDON AND THE SHEATH IS FILLED WITH
GROUT.
THUS THE TENDONS BECOME BONDED TO CONCRETE AND
CORROSION OF STEEL IS PREVENTED.
IN POST-TENSIONING IT IS NECESSARY TO USE SOME TYPES
OF DEVICE TO ATTACH OR ANCHOR THE ENDS OF THE
TENDONS TO THE CONCRETE SECTION. THESE DEVICES ARE
USUALLY REFERRED TO AS END ANCHORAGES.

ROLLS OF POST TENSION CABLES

PULLING ANCHORS FOR POST-TENSION CABLES

Post-tension cable ends extending from


concrete slab

POSITIONED POST TENSION CABLES

HYDRAULIC JACKS FOR TENSIONING

ADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PRESTRESSED MEMBER IS FREE FROM CRACK,SO THE


RESISTING IMPACT, SHOCK AND REVERSAL OF STRESSES IS
MUCH MORE THAN REINFORCED CONCRETE.
IT IS MORE DURABLE THAN REINFORCED CONCRETE.
THE SECTION OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE MEMBER IS LESS
COMPARED TO RCC MEMBER AS IT UTILIZES THE MAXIMUM
TENSION AND COMPRESSION OF CONCRETE, SO IT REDUCES
THE COST.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE CAN BE USED IN LONG SPANS AS
THE SECTION OF MEMBER CAN BE REDUCED.
AS THE SECTIONS ARE LIGHTER, THEY CAN BE
TRANSPORTED EASILY.
THE CONCRETE DIAGONAL TENSION CAN ALSO BE
REDUCED.
SHEAR RESISTANCE CAN BE INCREASED USING CURVED
TENDONS.
NO JOINTS ARE VISIBLE AS IT IS MONOLITHIC STRUCTURE.
DISADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE THE MAJOR PROBLEM WITH PRESTRESSED CONCRETE IS
THAT IT NEEDS SPECIALIZED CONSTRUCTION
MACHINERIES LIKE JACKS ANCHORAGE ETC.
ADVANCED TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AND STRICT
SUPERVISION IS VERY IMPORTANT.
FOR CONCRETE PRESTRESSING, HIGH TENSILE
REINFORCEMENT BARS ARE NEEDED WHICH COSTS
GREATER THAN GENERALLY USED MILD STEEL
REINFORCEMENT BARS.
HIGHLY SKILLED LABOR IS NEEDED FOR PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS.
APPLICATIONS OF POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

METRO TRACKS
BRIDGES
HIGH RISE APARTMENTS
OFFICE BLOCKS
PARKING GARAGES
LARGE SPAN STRUCTURES
WAREHOUSES