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Building construction

long span structure

SUBMITTED TO:
AR. SHOBHIKA

SUBMITTED BY:
DHARNA GARG
B. ARCH. 7 SEM.
ROLL NO. 1221009

Introduction of hall of nation


LOCATION: NEW DELHI, DELHI,
INDIA
PROJECT COMPLETED: 1972
AN INTERNATIONAL TRADE
FAIR TO BE HELD AT NEW DELHI
IN 1972, REQUIRED LARGE
EXHIBITION HALLS.

THE PERMANENT EXHIBITION


COMPLEX IS DESIGNED TO FORM THE
FOCUS OF 130 ACRES OF EXHIBITION
GROUND DESIGNED BY RAJ REWAL IN NEW
DELHI.
THE DESIGN WAS EVOLVED TO MEET THE
CONSTRAINTS OF TIME, AVAILABILITY OF
MATERIALS AND LABOUR,
BUT ABOVE ALL, TO REFLECT SYMBOLICALLY AND TECHNOLOGICALLY, INDIA'S
INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY IN THE 25TH YEAR OF ITS INDEPENDENCE.
THE DEPTH OF THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM WAS UTILIZED AS A SUN BREAKER AND
CONCEIVED OF IN TERMS OF THE TRADITIONAL 'JALI',
A GEOMETRICAL PATTERN OF PERFORATION THAT SERVES TO OBSTRUCT
DIRECTS RAYS OF THE HARSH SUN WHILE PERMITTING AIR CIRCULATION.
THE MAIN PAVILION OF THE HALL OF NATIONS HAS A CLEAR SPAN OF 78 METRES AND
A HEIGHT VARYING FROM THREE METRES TO 21 METRES,
THEREBY PROVIDING A VAST CAPACITY FOR ITEMS TO BE EXHIBITED, FROM
BOOKS TO BULLDOZERS.
THE MAIN HALL IS REQUIRED TO
HAVE A FREE AND UNOBS TRUCTED SPACE
OF 670 SQ. M. WITH AN APPROPRIATE HEIGHT
OF 30 M. AND WAS NAMED AS HALL OF
NATIONS.

SHAPE AND FORM


FOR COVERING SUH A LARGE AREA
SEVERAL OPTIONS E.G. SHELLS, FOLDED
LATES, HYPAR SHELLS WERE CONSIDERD AND
REJECTED ON THE GROUND OF ECNOMICS.
EVENTUALLY THE SOLUTION NARROWED
DOWN TO A DOUBLE LAYERED SPACE
FRAME..
THE HALL OD DIMENSIONS HAVE A BASE
DIMENSION OF 73 M X73 M. WHICH REDUCED
TO ALMOST HALF AT THE ROOF.
WHILE THE INVESTIGATING THE
CONFIGURATION OF SPACE FRAME IT WAS
IDENTIFIED THAT THE MOST APPRORIATE
SYSTEM TO CREATE SPACE FRAME WAS THE
ONE WHICH USED PYRAMID AS A BASIC
ELEMENT.

STEEL AND CONCRETE WERE GIVEN


DUE CONSIDERATION AND IT WAS
FOUND THAT CONCRETE WAAS THE
MST ECONOMICAL MATERIAL , WITH
STRUCTURAL STEEL BEING 30%
MORE EXPENSIVE.THUS CONCRETE
WAS THE FINAL CHOICE.

FOR CLADDING, GUNITED TRIANGULAR PLATES WERE PROVIDED WHILE ROOF


OF THE HALL WAS COVERED WITH THE PRECAST LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE
PLANKS.

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS

A STUDY OF THE CONFIGURATION


REVEALED TE STRUCTURE WOULD BE
STABLE ONLY AFTER CONSTRUCTION
HAD REACHED AT LEVEL , WHERE IT
RECEIVED THE FIRST AROUND
CONTINUITY AND BEFORE THAT IT
WOULD REST ON SCAFFOLDING
ERECTED FROM GROUND.
HOWEVER THIS RESULTED IN FIVE
DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS WITH
INTRODUCTION OF EACH ADDITIONAL
RING BEYOND LEVEL 5. THEREFORE
ANALYSIS WAS CARRIED OUT FOR ALL
FIVE DIFFERENT CONFIGURATION TO
FIX FINAL MEMBER SIZES

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS


THE ANALYSIS WAS DONE ASSUMING PINNED
JOINTS , AS THE MEMBER WERE SLENDER AND IT WAS
BELIEVED THAT SIGNIFICAT MOMENTS WOULD NOT
DEVELOPED .
AN INDEPENDENT ANALYSIS DONE LATER CONFIRMED
THIS ASSUMPTION AS THE MOMENTS IN MEMBERS
VERY SMALL.
THE SPACE FRAME WAS ANALYSED FOR
EARTHQUAKE AND WINDLOADS USING A THREE
DIMENSIONAL PLAN JOINTED MODEL.MOST
IMPORTANT POINT FOR SELECTING A MEMBER SHAPE
WAS STRENGTH AND EASE OF FABRCATION .
SEVERAL ALTERNATIVES FOR MEMBERS SECTION
WERE CONSIDERED AND FINALLY A RHOMBIC SECTION

WITH CHAMFERED EDGES HAVING AN AREA OF 585


SQ. CM WAS ADOPTED
THE ANALYSIS WAS REVELEAD THAT HORIZANTALL

REFELCTIONS OF NODES NEAR CENTRAL LINES


SYMMETRY WOULD BE LARGE .
TO CONTAIN THERE REFLECTIONS, HORIZANTALL
DIAPHRAGMS WERE INTRODUCED BETWEEN INNER
AND OUTER FACES OF THE SPACE FRQAME AT LEVEL
3,6,8.
THE OBVIOUS CHOICE OF CONSTRUCTION
WAS PRECAAST CONSTRUCTION
TECHNIQUE . IT WAS VISUALLISED THAT THE
MEMBERS AND JOINT WOULD BE PRECAST
SEPERATELY AND PUT TOGETHER WITH
HELP OF BOLTS AND FILLED WELDING OF
SHIM PLATES .
DETAILS OF SUCH PRECAST JOINT ARE
SHOWN IN FIG. UNFORTUNATELY NO
CONTRACTOR CAME FORWARD TO
CONTSRUCT THIS STRUCTURE USING
PRECAST TECHNIQUE ,
HENCE INSITU CONCRETE WAS ADOPTED .
THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSITU JOINT WAS
DIFFICULT OWING TO CONGESTION OF

BARS AT THE JOINT ELEMENT . ON AN


AVG. , 9 MEMBERS MET AT ONE JOINT
AND EVEN WITH 4 BARS PER MEMBERS ,

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS


THERE WOULD BE 36 BARS MEETING AT THE
JOINT , SOME CARRYING TENSION WHILE
OTHERS WERE IN COMPRESSION. IN THE
PRECAST JOINT SOME ASSISTANCE WAS
AVAILABLE FROM STEEL PLATES EMBEDDED IN

CONCRETE BUT IN THE INSITU JOINT THAT


WOULDNOT BE POSSIBLE .

FINALLY A SYSTEM WAS EVOLVED WHERE


ONLY 20 BARS PASSED THROUGH THE JOINT
ELEMENT .BARS FROM LOWER 4 MEMBERS WERE
LAPPED WITH 4 UPPER MEMBERS BARS THUS
CATERING TO 8 MEMBERS .
THE SEQUENCE OF CONSRUCTION WAS TO
CAST STRAIGHT LENGTH OF MEMBERS
FROM JOINT TO JOINT , PLACE IN POSITION
PARTIALLY PREASSEMBLED FORM WORK OF
THE JOINT ALONG WITH PLACED IN
POSITION SHORT LENGTH CURVED BARS .T
THESE BARS WERE WELDED WITH
STRAIGHT BARS OF MEMBERS , FORMWORK
OF THEMEMBER UPTO NEXT JOIT ERECTED
AND THE MEMBER AND THE JOINT
CONCRETED .

THIS SEQUENCE WAS FOLLOWED UPTO


ROOF LEVEL THE CONSTRUCTION OF
SPACEFRAME WAS TAKEN ON ALL 4 SIDES
SIMULTANEOUSLY .

plan

THE PLAN OF THESE PAVILIONS IS SQUARE WITH CHAMFERED CORNERS , PROVIDING


EIGHT ANCHORING POINTS.
THE CORNERS WERE INSPIRED BY THE TOMB OF MUGHUL EMPEROR HUMAYUN'S AND
THE TAJ MAHAL.
IN THE HALL OF NATIONS AN UNINTERRUTED VOLUME IS ACHIEVED WHERE THE
HEIGHT VARIES FROM 3 M TO 30 M.
THIS PERMITS THE DISPLAY OF SUCH DIVERSE OBJECTS AS AIRCRAFT,
EARTHMOVING EQUIPMENT, TRACTORS AND CRANES.
IN THE HALL OF INDUSTRIES THE HEIGHT VARIES FROM 2.5 M TO 15 M. THE SQUARE
PLAN ADOPTED PERMITS ADDITIOINAL UNITS TO BE ADDED AS NEEDED.

Cross -section of Nehru


pavilion