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QUANG HC I CNG

LP L THUYT CA 1 CHIU TH 3
C Nguyn Th
Ho

CHNG III:
PHN CC NH
SNG

KHOA VT L T VT L I CNG HC K 2
NM HC 2013-2014
TRNG I HC S PHM TP.HCM

NI DUNG CHI TIT


CHNG III: PHN CC NH SNG
(Theo gio trnh quang hc ca thy Trc v chng trnh
khung mn hc)

1. nh sng t nhin v nh sng phn


cc
2. Th nghim Malus
3. nh lut Brewster
4. phn cc
5. Mi trng d hng
6. B mt sng thng. B mt sng bt
thng
7. Chit sut
8. Cch v tia khc x. Cch v Huyghens
9. S phn cc do khc x qua mi trng
2
d hng

NH SNG T NHIN V
NH SNG PHN CC
I.1. Tm tt lch s
I.2. nh sng t nhin
I.3. nh sng phn cc
PHN CC NH SNG DO
PHN X TRN B MT

II

III

II.1. Th nghim Malus


II.2. nh lut Brewster
PHN CC DO KHC X QUA MI
TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do
lng chit)
III.1. Cc khi nhim c bn
III.2. Cch v Huyghens v tia khc x
III.3. Bn tinh th mng
HIN TNG PHN CC
QUAY

I. NH SNG T NHIN V NH SNG


PHN CC
I.1. Tm tt lch s

Hin tng phn cc c nghin cu t nm


1669
Cc thy th sau chuyn i n Iceland, khi quay
v Copenhagen em theo cc tinh th trong
sut v xinh p, c nhng c tnh l th: hnh
nh ca mt vt khi c nhn qua nhng
tinh th ny s c nhn i.
Nm 1669, nh ton hc, vt l hc ngi an
Mch Erasmus Bartholinus nghin cu hin
tng, thc hin cc th nghim v cho xut bn
mt tp kho cu dy trn60 trang m t y
v hin tng nhn i hnh nhca mt vt khi
nhn vt qua tinh th . y l ti liu khoa hc
u tin v vn phn cc.
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I. NH SNG T NHIN V NH SNG


PHN CC
I.2. nh sng t nhin

nh sng l mt loi sng in t (H.2) . nh sng l


sng ngang.
+ Ch c phn in trng bin thin gy cho mt cm gic
sng. +Dao ng ca vector cng in trng gi l
dao ng sng.
+ nh sng t nhin c vector cng in trng dao
ng u n theo mi phng vung gc vi tia sng.(H.1)
+ Tt c cc ngun sng trong t nhin u pht ra nh sng t
nhin

H.1

H.2
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I. NH SNG T NHIN V NH SNG


PHN CC

I.3. nh sng phn cc

* Nguyn nhn: do nh sng tng tc vi mi trng vt cht.


* C nhiu phng php lm phn cc nh sng:
Phn x trn
Khc x qua
Tn x
* Phn loi nh sng phn cc:
Phn cc hon ton (phn cc thng): cc vector cng
in trng dao ng theo 1 phng xc nh ti mi im.
Phn cc 1 phn (phn cc trn, phn cc elip): l nh sng
c vector cng in trng dao ng theo nhiu phng,
nhng mnh yu ca dao ng gia cc phng l khc
nhau. u mt ca vector cng in trng chuyn ng
trn mt ng elip hoc trn mt ng trn.
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I. NH SNG T NHIN V NH SNG


PHN CC

I.3. nh sng phn cc

II. PHN CC NH SNG DO PHN X


TRN B MT

II.1. Th nghim Malus v phn cc nh sng do phn x

M1, M2: gng phng ging ht nhau


mt sau bi en.
E: mn nh
Tia ti SI ti M1 gc ti 570
Mn E hng tia phn x JR

Phn tch hin tng


1. Gi tia ti SI c inh, quay gng M1 xung quanh tia ti SI
vi gc ti 570 khng i Cng ca tia phn xa IJ khng
i.
2. Gi tia ti IJ c inh, quay gng M2 quay phng cua tia ti
IJ vi gc ti 570 khng i. Quan sat cng tia phn xa JR
trn mn E, ta thy:
+ Cng tia phn x JR tri qua nhng cc i v nhng cc tiu
trit tiu.
+ Khi 2 mt phng ti SIN1 v IJN2 song song trung nhau ng vi A1
v A3 trn mn E th cng tia phn x cc i.
+ Khi 2 mt phng ti ny vung gc nhau ng vi im A2 v A4 th
cng tia phn x trit tiu.
+ Lp li TN vi gc ti khc 570 th cng cc tiu khng trit 9

Giai thich:
- Tia ti SI do ngun pht ra l nh sng t nhin nn
vecto chn ng i xng quanh phng truyn
Cng ca tia phan x IJ ti l vi hnh chiu ca
cc vecto in trng ln mt phng ca gng M1
- Khi quay gng M1 hinh chiu ny khng thay i nn
cng tia phn x IJ khng i.
- Hin tng phn x trn gng M1 bin tia phn x IJ
thnh nh sng phn cc thng
- Cng ca tia phn x JR t l vi hinh chiu ca
vector in trng ln mt phng ca gng M2. Khi ta
quay gng M2, hinh chiu ny thay i nn cng ca
tia phn x JR thay i. Tri qua nhng cc i, cc tiu
trit tiu.
- Nu gc ti khc 570 thi tia phn x IJ l nh sng phn
cc elip.
Kt lun:
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II. PHN CC NH SNG DO PHN X


TRN B MT
II.2 inh lut Brewster

Nhn xt:

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II. PHN CC NH SNG DO PHN X


TRN B MT
II.2 inh lut Brewster

Lu :
+ Sng phn x v sng khc x c th khng b phn cc, phn
cc mt phn hoc l phn cc ton phn, n ph thuc vo gc ti
ca sng nh sng.
+ Khi gc ti bng 0 hoc bng 90o: sng nh sng khng b phn
cc
+ Khi tng gc ti v gc khc x bng 90o : sng phn x phn cc
ton phn, sng khc x phn cc mt phn.
+ Cc trng hp khc: c hai sng khc x v phn x u phn
cc mt phn.
+ Sng khc x khng bao gi b phn cc ton phn.

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Chng minh:Khi gc ti l gc Brewster th


tia phan x v tia khuc x vung gc nhau

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III.1. Cc khi nim c bn
Mi trng ng hng l mi trng khi nh
sng truyn theo cc hng khc nhau thi c tnh
cht nh nhau
Mi trng d hng l mi trng m nh sng
truyn qua theo cc hng khc nhau thi c tnh cht
khc nhau.
Tng qut: khi chiu nh sng vo mt mi trng
d hng ta c 2 tia khc x:
+ Tia khuc x Ro tun theo inh lut khuc x
nh sng gi l tia thng.

tng
chit:
+ Hin
Tia khuc
xlng
Re khng
tun theo inh lut khuc
xNguyn nhn: do tng tc gia
sng
mi
trng
d hng.
nh in
sngtlvtia
bt
thng
Mt tia sng truyn qua tinh th thi
tr thnh hai tia phn bit.
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Kt qu: c hai nh ca cng mt

Mt s vi d
minh ha v hin
tng lng

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Vi d v mi trng di hng
Tinh th thch anh
(Tinh th dng)
Hp cht: SiO2

Tinh th bng lan


(Tinh th m)
Iceland spar, calcite
spath
Hp cht: CaCO3

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III.1. Cc khi nim c bn
Quang trc: nhng phng c bit trong tinh th
m nh sng khi truyn theo phng ny thi ging nh
khi truyn trong mi trng ng hng

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III.2. Cch v Huyghens v tia khc x

Nguyn tc:

Thc hin tun t cc bc

sau:
V tt c cc b mt sng ca mi trng ti
v khc x
Keo di tia ti ct b mt sng thng ca n
ti Tt
T Tt ke tip tuyn vi b mt sng
Tip tuyt ct b mt ngn cch 2 mi trng
tiVD
N 1: V tia khc x qua mi trng

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VD 2: V tia khc x qua mi trng d hng (tin


dng)

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VD 3: V tia khc x qua mi trng d hng


(tinh th m)

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III.3. Giao thoa cua nh sng phn cc

a) Th nghim Arago - Fresnel

Xet th nghi m giao thoa bi 2 ban thu knh Billet


t sau ngun S mt Nicol phn cc P
Sau Nicol P l 2 bn thu knh Billet
Sau nh S1, S2 l 2 Tourmaline T1, T2
Quan st hin tng trn mn E bng knh ngm c gn Nicol25A

Trc ht khng dung Nicol A:


+ Trng hp khng co Nicol P:
nh sng ti 2 bn thu knh L1, L2 l nh sng t
nhin
Nu T1//T2 trn mn E c hin tng giao thoa
Nu T1 T2 trn mn E khng c hin tng giao
thoa
+ Trng hp co Nicol P:
- nh sng ti 2 bn thu knh L1, L2 l nh sng phn
cc thng
Xy ra hin tng tng t
Dung Nicol A, v 2 ban Tourmaline vung gc
nhau:
+ Trng hp khng co Nicol P:
- nh sng ti 2 bn thu knh L1, L2 l nh sng t26

III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III.3. Giao thoa cua nh sng phn cc
b) CM s tng hp ca 2 nh sng phn cc thng c
phng dao ng vung gc nhau l nh sng phn
cc elip.

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III. 4. Bn tinh th di hng mng

a) Th nghim v phng u i ca bn
tinh th mng.

Chiu mt chm tia sng t nhin ti bn tinh th d


hng mng. 2 chm tia l Ro v Re l nh sng phn
cc thng c phng dao ng vung gc nhau.
Nu b dy e nh Ro Re nh sng l l nh sng
phn cc elip
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Vy: s tng hp ca 2 nh sng phn cc

Thi nghim kim chng::


t bn mng L gi Nicol phn cc P v Nicol phn tch A (mt
phng chnh ca P v A vung gc nhau) quan st cng ca
nh sng sau khi qua Nicol A
nh sng t nhin ti Nicol P cho nh sng l l nh sng phn cc
thng c vec t chn ng sng song song mt phng chnh ca P
nh sng qua bn L cho nh sng phn cc elip
Khi truyn qua nicol A cng nh sng ti mt t l vi hinh
chiu ca chn ng elip ln Nicol A
Khi quay Nicol A thi hinh chiu thay i tri qua nhng cc i v
cc tiu khng trit tiu
Vy: anh sang ti Nicol A phai la anh sang phn cc elip
Vn t bn mng L gi Nicol phn cc P v Nicol phn tch A (mt
phng chnh ca P v A vung gc nhau), quay bn L xung quanh
phng truyn ca tia sng ta thy c 2 phng c bit Ox, Oy
(Ox Oy) ca bn L m cng nh sng n mt b trit tiu.
2 phng c bit l 2 phng u ai ca bn tinh th mng.32

III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III.4 Bn tinh th di hng mng

b)Hiu quang l ca tia thng v tia bt thng


qua bn mng.

c) Kho st nh sng l ra bn tinh th mng. 33

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III. 4. Bn tinh th di hng mng

d) Cc bn mng c bit.
i/ Bn sng

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III. 4. Bn tinh th di hng mng

d) Cc bn mng c bit.
ii/ Bn na sng

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III. 4. Bn tinh th di hng mng

d) Cc bn mng c bit.
ii/ Bn phn t sng

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III. PHN CC NH SNG DO KHC X QUA MI


TRNG D HNG (Phn cc do lng chit)
III. 4. Bn tinh th di hng mng

d) Cc bn mng c bit.
+ Kt lun:
Nu nh sng l phn cc elip tri (A>0, B>0)
nh sng l l phn cc thng OP nm gc phn t
th hai
Nu nh sng l phn cc elip phi (A<0, B<0)
nh sng l l phn cc thng OP nm gc phn t
th nht
Nu nh sng l phn cc tron tri (A>0, B>0)
nh sng l l phn cc thng OP trng phn gic
gc phn t th hai
Nu nh sng l phn cc tron phi (A<0, B<0)
nh sng l l phn cc thng OP trng phn gic
gc phn t th nht.
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d) Cc bn mng c bit.
+ Phn bit cc loi nh sng phn cc
Mun phn bit tinh phn cc ca mt chum tia
sng, ta cho chum tia sng ny i qua Nicol phn
tich A. Quay Nicol A quanh phng truyn ca tia
sng. Quan st cng ca chum nh sng l.
+ Nu cng nh sng l khng i nh sng ti A
l nh sng t nhin hay phn cc tron.
+ Nu cng nh sng thay i tri qua nhng cc
i, cc tiu
Cc tiu trit tiu nh sng ti A l phn cc
thng
Cc tiu khng trit tiu nh sng ti A l phn
cc elip
+ Phn bit nh sng t nhin v nh sng phn
cc tron:
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IV. HIN TNG PHN CC


QUAY

IV.1 Th nghim

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IV.2. inh lut Biot


Tinh th n trc v tinh th v inh hnh c th lm quay
mt phng phn cc ca nh sng phn cc.

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IV. HIN TNG PHN


CC QUAY

IV. 3. Trin quang k


a) B tr TN

(1) en hi Natri pht ra nh sng n sc


(2) Nicol phn cc P bin nh sng t nhin
thnh nh sng phn cc thng
(3) Bn na sng L chn na th trng
(4) ng T ng dung dch trin quang
(5) Nicol phn tch A c th quay xung quanh
phng truyn ca tia sng (trn c vnh chi )
b) Phn tch th nghim
+ Giai on chnh my:

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+ Giai on o:

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CH 1

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