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# Western University

Faculty of Engineering
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

## ECE 4433: Digital Communication Systems

EXERCISE-03
Try these problems (you need not submit solutions)
1. Fig. 1 shows the waveforms of four signals (), = 1,2,3,4. Using Gram-Schmidt
orthogonalization procedure, find an orthonormal basis for this set of signals. Construct
the corresponding signal-space.
2. Fig. 2 shows a pair of signals 1 () and 2 (). Show that these signals are orthogonal to
each other. Construct the signal constellation for this pair of signals.
3. Consider the three waveforms, , = 1,2,3, shown in Fig. 3. Use these orthogonal

## waveforms to approximate the function () = ( 4 ) over the interval 0 4 by the

linear combination
3

() = ()
=1

Determine the coefficients , = 1,2,3, that minimize the mean square approximation
error
4

= [() ()]2
0

## Determine the residual mean square error

4. Determine a set of orthonormal functions for the four signals shown in Fig. 4.
5. Given () = [ ( 1)0 ], = 1,2,3,4,5, where
1
() =
[() ( 0 ]
0
Sketch the signals represented by: i) (-1,2,3,1,4), ii) (3,-2,3,4,1), iii) (-2,4,2,2,0), and
(2,1,-4,-4,2) in signal space. Find the energy of each signal. Also, find pairs of signals
that are orthogonal.