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HELLIER

WELCOME TO THE
UT THICKNESS
COURSE

24 Hour Course.
Class Hours: 8:00am to 4:30pm.
Breaks: At the discretion of the instructor.
Lunch: 1 hour - 11:30 - 12:30
Restrooms:
Safety:
HELLIER

COURSE OBJECTIVES
Purpose: Present the body of knowledge of
Ultrasonic Thickness Testing
Objective: Impart an understanding of the
following topics of UT Thickness Inspection

Principals and Theory


Equipment and Materials
Techniques and Calibrations
Inspection Variables
Procedures and Specifications
HELLIER

STUDENT OBJECTIVES

Purpose: Learn the body of knowledge


for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

Objectives: To achieve an
understanding of UT thickness
inspection and a proficiency in using
portable ultrasonic thickness gages for
taking thickness measurements.

HELLIER

LETS GET ACQUAINTED.

Name:
Company:
Job Title:
Background:

HELLIER

CLASS FORMAT
Instructor led presentation of information
Informal open discussion
Ask pertinent questions
Be respectful of others

HELLIER

PERSONNEL CERTIFICATION

SNT-TC-1A
NAS 410
CP 189
ISO 9712
ACCP
CSWIP
CGSB
AWS-NDE

Employer Certification

Central Certification

HELLIER

NDT PERSONNEL
QUALIFICATION AND
CERTIFICATION
Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A:
Guidelines for NDT PQ&C to assist the
employer
Published by ASNT
Uniform procedures for the qualification and
certification
Satisfy the employer's specific requirements.
HELLIER

QUALIFICATION AND
CERTIFICATION

HELLIER

NDT NAMES
NDT Nondestructive Testing
NDI Nondestructive Inspection
NDE Nondestructive Examination or
Evaluation
Common Names Zyglo test, Magnaflux
test, Sonic test, etc.

HELLIER

ELEMENTS OF A
NONDESTRUCTIVE TEST

Source which provides a probing medium


Changes to the probing medium
Detect the changes
Record or indicate the changes
Interpret the cause of the changes
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DEFINITIONS
Indication - Response from an NDT Test
False - Caused by improper technique;
usually not repeatable
Non-relevant - Condition in the part;
intentional or unintentional
Relevant - Unintentional discontinuity in
the part
Discontinuity - An interruption in the
physical structure of the test piece that
may be intentional or unintentional
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DEFINITIONS
Flaw An unintentional discontinuity, an
imperfection; which may, or may not be,
rejectable
Rejectable Discontinuity - A flaw related to
a relevant indication that exceeds the
acceptance criteria; a rejectable, relevant
indication.
HELLIER

DEFINITIONS
Defect a discontinuity that will cause the
part not to be used for its original purpose.
A condition that will render the part not
useable or that could cause part failure or
malfunction

HELLIER

NDT Interpretation/Evaluation Flowchart


Indication
Evaluation
False?

No

NonRelevant?

Yes

Interfere
with
Inspection?

Yes

No

No

Relevant
Indication

Interpretation

Ignore
No

Violate
Acceptance
Criteria?
Use?

Yes

Re-Process

Yes

Accept

HELLIER

Reject

MAJOR NDT METHODS


VT
PT
MT
UT
RT
ET

AE
NRT
TIR
AE
VA
Laser Methods
HELLIER

ADVANTAGES OF NDT
All of these methods of NDT share some
common advantages:
Increased product reliability
Increased product safety
Increased productivity
Increased profitability
Increased product serviceability
Minimized product liability
HELLIER

ADVANTAGES OF NDT
However, they also share a common
limitation:
The NDT method applied, regardless of
the equipment and materials used, will
only be as effective as the inspector skill
allows. It is not a panacea!

HELLIER

ULTRASONIC INSPECTION
Inspection method using sound
Introduces high frequency sound
waves into test object.
Measures two quantities:
time for sound to travel.
amplitude of received signal.
HELLIER

HISTORY
1880 Curie brothers discovered piezoelectric
principle.
Certain crystals develop a voltage when
pressure is applied.
1881 Lippman discovered the piezoelectric
principle operates in reverse.
Piezoelectric crystals will change shape
when a voltage is applied.
HELLIER

HISTORY (CONTINUED)

1929 Sokolov performed thru-transmission.


Continuous wave travels through material
under test.
Displays transmitted and received signals.

HELLIER

HISTORY (CONTINUED)
1941 Floyd Firestone (US) and James
Sproule (England) developed pulse - echo test
instruments.
Echoes reflected from material boundaries
and discontinuities provide test signals.

HELLIER

UT THICKNESS APPLICATIONS
Discontinuity detection.
Thickness measurements.
Corrosion/Erosion.
Pipe Wall Thickness.
Vessel Wall Thickness.
Plastics
Precision Measurements

HELLIER

UT - ADVANTAGES

Deep penetration into material.

Portable equipment: battery powered.


Pulse echo requires one sided accessibility only.
Accurate for thickness measurement and
discontinuity location.
Permits volumetric examination.
Suitable for go/no-go testing: audible & visible
alarms.
No known hazards

HELLIER

UT - LIMITATIONS

Test object must be able to conduct sound.


Fine grained, elastic material.

Liquid couplant is required.


Requires a trained operator.
Discontinuities just below surface may not be
detected.
Dead Zone
HELLIER

WHAT IS SOUND

Mechanical energy
propagating through a
material in the form
of pressure waves.
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GENERATION OF SOUND
UT instrument produces an electrical pulse
Transducer:
Converts electrical pulse to sound energy.
which travels through the material
Returning echoes are converted back into
an electrical signal
UT instrument processes the returning
signals for display
HELLIER

ULTRASONIC TESTING
Ultrasonic Transducer
Like a speaker when transmitting;
Like a microphone when receiving
Piezoelectric Effect:
Apply electrical energy, mechanical
energy is produced
Apply mechanical energy, electrical
energy is produced
HELLIER

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT
When exposed to an alternating current an element expands and contracts

HELLIER

WAVE MOTION
The pressure in the sound waves displace
the molecules in the material.
Various wave modes can be generated.

Longitudinal, Shear, and Surface

Wave modes are defined by their particle


motion relative to direction of sound wave
travel.
HELLIER

VELOCITY OF SOUND
The speed that sound goes through a
medium.
Depends on two material properties:
Density: How tightly packed
are the
molecules.
Elasticity: Restoring force of the electrical
bonds.
And the Type of
the Sound Wave
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VELOCITY
Measured in distance travelled per unit of time.

Inches/second (in/sec)
Inches/microsecond (in/sec)
Kilometers/second (km/sec)
meters/second (m/sec)
centimeters/microsecond (cm/sec)

Velocity is affected by temperature


HELLIER

LONGITUDINAL WAVES
Also known as Compressional Waves
Particle Vibrations parallel to the direction
of wave propagation.

Propagation
Particle vibrations
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LONGITUDINAL WAVES
Alternating zones of compression (high
pressure) and rarefaction (low pressure)
Propagation

Particle vibration
Travel in solids, liquids and gases.

Highest velocity of all wave modes.


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SHEAR WAVES
Vibrations at right angles to the direction of propagation.
Finds flaws not parallel to the surface

Not used with thickness gages


Particle vibration

Propagation
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SURFACE WAVES
Elliptical vibrations
Special wave at the surface of the part
Finds cracks and scratches
Not used with thickness gages

HELLIER

SOUND WAVE MEASURMENTS


Cycle: A complete repetition of particle
motion
Frequency: Number of cycles of vibration
per second
Wavelength: Distance the sound wave
travels during a cycle

HELLIER

FREQUENCY
Frequency Ranges:
Audible range: 20 to 20,000 Hz.
Ultrasound: above 20,000 Hz.
Commercial testing: 100 kHz to 25 MHz.

Frequency units:
Hertz (Hz): cycle per second.
Kilohertz (KHz): thousand cycles per second.
Megahertz (MHz): million cycles per second.
HELLIER

WAVELENGTH

Distance sound travels during one cycle.

Measured from one point on cycle to an


identical point on the next cycle.

HELLIER

WAVELENGTH / FREQUENCY

V = f

V = velocity
f = frequency
= wavelength

Frequency and wavelength are inversely


proportional
frequency increases, wavelength decreases
frequency decreases, wavelength increases
HELLIER

SOUND BEAM GEOMETRY


Near
Field
Intensity
varies

Far
Zone

Yo
Beam Diverges
(Spreads)

Distance
HELLIER

SOUND BEAM AREAS


Near Field:
Far Field:
Yo (Near Field Length): Distance

HELLIER

THE SOUND BEAM


The length of the near field can be
calculated from the following formula:

D ff
D
NN 4 V
4 V
22

Where:

N = Near Field Length (mm)

f = Frequency (MHz)

D = Crystal Diameter (mm)

V = Velocity (Km/sec)
HELLIER

NEAR ZONE
2

D
Near Zone
4

D f

4V

The larger the diameter the longer the


near zone
The higher the frequency the longer the
near zone
The lower the velocity the longer the near
zone
HELLIER

THE SOUND BEAM


Beam Divergence can be calculated from
the following formula:

Where:

1.22 V
arcsin

D f

= Beam Divergence Angle

f = Frequency (MHz)

D = Crystal Diameter (mm)

V = Velocity (Km/sec)
HELLIER

BEAM SPREAD

K
KV
Sine
or
2 D
Df
The larger the diameter the less the beam spread
The higher the frequency the less the beam spread
The lower the velocity the less the beam spread

HELLIER

ATTENUATION
Material Loss Attenuation:
Scattering of sound by grain structure of
the material.
Conversion of sound energy into heat
Sound amplitude lost due to:
Attenuation
Beam Spread.
HELLIER

SOUND AT AN INTERFACE
Interface: Boundary between two materials
Incident Wave

Reflected

Interface

Interface

Transmitted

At an acoustic interface sound will be reflected


and/or transmitted across the interface
HELLIER

ACOUSTIC INTERFACE
Boundary between two materials with
different acoustic impedance values.

The amount reflected


and transmitted
depends upon the
acoustic impedances
of the two materials.

Reflected
Acoustic
Interface

Transmitted
HELLIER

ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE (Z)


Impedance: Opposition a material offers to the
propagation of sound travelling through the
material.
The greater the ratio (mismatch) between the
two impedances of the materials,
The greater the percentage of sound reflected.

Z=Vx
V = Velocity

= Density
HELLIER

REFLECTION PRINCIPLES
Formula for reflected energy (RE):
2

Z 2 Z1
100
% RE
Z 2 Z1
Z1 = impedance of the first material the sound is in
Z2 = impedance of the material the sound reaches
Note: Due to the Law of Conservation of Energy
Transmitted Energy = 100% - Reflected Energy
HELLIER

TRANSDUCER DESIGNS FOR


THICKNESS GAGING

Single crystal: materials > 1/2 thick.

Dual crystal: corroded and eroded


materials.
Delay line: thin materials with parallel
surfaces.

HELLIER

CONTACT TRANSDUCER
DESIGN

Crystal thickness determines frequency of


vibrations.

Electrodes establish electrical contact


with the crystal.
Wear plate provides protective contact
surface.
Damping controls crystal ringing;
absorbs rear sound waves.
HELLIER

SINGLE ELEMENT
TRANSDUCER
Electrical
Leads

Connector

Electrical
Network

Inner
Sleeve

External
Housing

Backing

Active
Element

Electrodes

Wear
Plate

Used on thicker materials; > 1/2.


HELLIER

DUAL ELEMENT TRANSDUCER


Transmitting
Element

Acoustic
Barrier

Receiver
Element

Connector

External
Housing

Delay
Material
Test Sample

Angular
Sound
Path

Thickness gaging of corroded and eroded


materials.
HELLIER

DUAL CRYSTAL
Sound beam is reflected and refracted into
the receiving element
Transmitter Receiver

Used to detect reflectors


approximately parallel
to test surface.
Measure: Thickness
Corrosion
Erosion
HELLIER

DUAL ELEMENT TRANSDUCER


Sound reflecting off of bottom of test piece
back into the transmitting side of the
transducer.
Material is too thin for the transducer

This is referred to as DOUBLING.


HELLIER

DUAL ELEMENT TRANSDUCER


Sound reflecting off of bottom of test piece
reflects beyond the receiving side of the
transducer.
Material is too thick for the probe
Mode Conversion occurs
Shear Wave gives the
thickness readout.
1 TIMES THICKNESS
HELLIER

DELAY TRANSDUCER
Introduces sound perpendicular (normal) to the test surface.

Improves near surface resolution.


Detection

of discontinuities near test surface.


Thickness measurement of thin materials
Electrical connectors

Crystal

Plastic delay tip

Damping
HELLIER

ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENT
FUNCTIONS
Theinstrumentcontainssixbasicsections:

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Connecting a probe and coupling it to the
test object completes the test system

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
The Power Supply provides voltage from the
AC or batteries to drive the other instrument
circuits

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
The clock initiates the chain of events that
results in one complete cycle of an
ultrasonic test

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
The clock emits s trigger signals, repeated
at the pulse repetition frequency (PRF)
Depending on instrument, the PRF may be:
Set by the operator
self-adjusting/ or both

The proper PRF depends on the part


thickness
When PRF is too fast, wraparound (display
of echoes from previous test cycles) occurs
HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
TheclocktriggerstheTimebaseandPulser
atregular,evenlyspacedintervals

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
The timebaseinitiatestime/distancedisplay
ontheinstrumentshorizontalscale
usedfordistancereadout

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Thepulsersendsinitialpulsetotransducer,
causingsoundtoenterthetestobject
initialpulsegoesthroughtheReceiver/Amplifier
tothedisplay

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
The Initial Pulse is a fast rising, high
voltage pulse that activates the transducer
Duration of transducer ringing determines
the length of the dead zone
Dead zone is the depth range in the test
material where relevant indications are
hidden inside the Initial Pulses indication
HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Sound travels through the test object as
time elapses along the display

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Soundreflectsfrommaterialboundaries
anddiscontinuities

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Transducerechovoltageisprocessedbythe
receiveranddisplayed

Echo height is determined by reflected sound


HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Time base Controls
Zero Offset Control
adjusts when the horizontal display starts
relative to the activation of the initial
pulse
Range Control
adjusts the amount of time displayed
along the horizontal scale to correspond
with sound travel time through a specific
thickness of material
HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Time base Controls
Velocity Control
adjusts the amount of time displayed
along the horizontal scale to
correspond with sound travel time
through material of a particular
velocity

HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Pulser Controls
Pulser Energy Control
adjusts the size of the Initial Pulse
Damping Control
adjusts transducer performance for
resolution versus penetrating power
Note: Both Pulser Energy and Damping
affect duration of the dead zone
HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Receiver processes and amplifies signals
going to the Display
Processing is provided by detector and
filter sub-circuits
Detector sub-circuit can provide choice of
various types of signal passing through the
receiver RF or Selected video mode
HELLIER

INSTRUMENT FUNCTIONS
Comparison of RF and all Video modes

Negative half is often used to present a more


narrow echo (better resolution) for thickness
testing
HELLIER

COUPLANTS
Liquid (usually) used to exclude air from
the path of the sound beam.
Considerations
Wetting Ability
Viscosity
Reactivity
Ease of removal
Expense
HELLIER

TYPICAL COUPLANTS

Water

Oil
Cellulose and water mixture
Grease/Petroleum Jelly
Commercially prepared
High temperature couplants
HELLIER

THICKNESS INSPECTION
Thickness inspection incorporates:
Pulse Echo Technique
Resonance Method
Measurements are made of:
Thickness of new parts
Erosion / Corrosion
HELLIER

THICKNESS CONSIDERATIONS

Calibration procedure should be followed


Couplant should be thin as possible
Part surfaces should be smooth
Part surfaces should be parallel
Gage gives reading of first large echo
Need to verify actual reflector at times
A-Scan Gages provide this verification
HELLIER

THICKNESS CONSIDERATIONS
Use two point calibration when possible
Calibration block
Known, documented NIST thickness
Same material as part being inspected
Similar temperature to the part

High temperature increases part thickness


Insure new reading for each location
HELLIER

SOUND TRAVEL GEOMETRY


Digital Thickness gages measure distances to
reflectors which are parallel to the parts
surface
Straight beam transducer
Dual Element transducer
Delay Transducer

HELLIER

BASIC TEST TECHNIQUE


PULSE-ECHO
Test object information provided by
reflected sound energy
Individual echo signal for each reflector
perpendicular to beam axis

HELLIER

BASIC TEST TECHNIQUE


PULSE-ECHO
Displayed Information: echoes reflected
from acoustic interfaces

HELLIER

BASIC TEST TECHNIQUE


RESONANCE
Resonance tests are used for thickness
measurements
Continuous wave of variable frequency
Resonance occurs when material
thickness equals 1/2 of wavelength
Has been replaced by pulse-echo method
Still used in aerospace for thickness
readings and bond-testing
HELLIER

BASIC TEST TECHNIQUE


RESONANCE
Displayed Information is derived from
fundamental and harmonic frequencies

HELLIER

DATA PRESENTATION
Display hardware
Electro-luminescent displays
Liquid crystal displays
Paper chart recorders
Digital readouts
Computer screens
HELLIER

DATA PRESENTATION
A-scan
horizontal scale:
displays time to
indicate distance
vertical scale:
displays
transducer output
voltage to indicate
echo amplitude
HELLIER

DATA PRESENTATION
Digital Readouts
B-scan
Side view of test object:
profile of interfaces
reflecting sound beam
Immersion Testing
Digital Thickness Gages
Computer Applications
HELLIER

TIME/DISTANCE
RELATIONSHIP

Velocity is different in different materials

Accurate calibration is crucial


Gage converts travel time to thickness

Thickness =

(Velocity) (Time)
2
HELLIER

THICKNESS GAGING
Uses High Frequency Sound Waves
Typically 5.0 MHz thru 20.0 MHz
Longitudinal Sound Energy
Thickness Measurement From One Side
Nondestructive
HELLIER

PRECISION THICKNESS
GAGING

Single Element Transducers

Highly Damped, Delay Transducers


Provides High Degree Of Accuracy
New Materials for Quality Control
Metals, Plastics, Glass and Composites
HELLIER

CORROSION THICKNESS
GAGING
Uses Dual Element Transducers
Erosion/Corrosion
Typically on Metal
Irregular/Pitted Reflecting Surface

HELLIER

DUAL ELEMENT
TRANSDUCER ON CORRODED
MATERIAL
TX RX

Roof angle focuses sound at the base of


pits.
HELLIER

SINGLE ELEMENT
TRANSDUCER ON
CORRODED MATERIAL

Much of the sound is scattered away from


the transducer.
HELLIER

DUAL ECHO AMPLITUDES


TX RX

First Echo is not


always the Largest
Due to:
Roof Angle
Thickness
Material Velocity
Delay Material

First
Backwall
Echo
Second
Backwall
Echo

2 nd Echo
1 st Echo

HELLIER

DUAL ELEMENT
ADVANTAGES
Roof Angle narrows the beam for pits
High Temp. capabilities ( 1,000 F)
Separate Elements
Use Higher Initial System Gain
Better near surface Resolution
Stable Readings on Rough Entry Surfaces
HELLIER

CHOOSING TRANSDUCERS
Material
Carbon steel
Cast material
Aluminum

Thickness Range
Min and Max thickness

Geometry
Min Diameter
Convex/Concave Surface
Surface Condition
HELLIER

TRANSDUCER CRITERIA
Frequency
Higher Frequency -- Better Resolution
Higher Frequency -- Better Sensitivity

Roof Angle
Steeper Angle Will Have Shorter Focus

Delay Material for High Temperature


HELLIER

THICKNESS GAGING
PERFORMANCE VARIABLES
Penetration: Ability to pass through a
material interface.
Improves with longer wavelength.
Wavelength increased by decreasing
frequency.

HELLIER

THICKNESS GAGING
PERFORMANCE VARIABLES
Resolution: Ability to individually
display reflectors located at slightly
different depths along the sound beam.
Resolution increases with an increase
in bandwidth and/or frequency.
HELLIER

ZERO OFFSET ERROR


Caused by Built In Test Block
ZERO
OFFSET

Worn
Probe
on Zero
Incorrectblock
Zero

Zero
Block

ZERO
OFFSET

ZERO
OFFSET

Worn Probe
on Curved
Pipe

Offsets
With Worn Transducers
On Curved Surfaces
On Rough Surfaces

HELLIER

Rough
Surface

AUTO PROBE RECOGNITION


Optimizes setup and receiver gain.
Transducer V-Path correction.
Accurate measurements over large thickness
ranges.
TX

RX

Sample
True
Thickness

Angular
Sound Path

HELLIER

AUTO ZERO COMPENSATION


Uncouple and Press Zero Key to:
Measures Time Through
Transducer
Tracks Transducer Wear
Compensate For Thermal
Drift At Elevated

Rx
Delay

Temperatures
HELLIER

Tx
Delay

ECHO-TO-ECHO
Sound
Entry

1st ECHO

2nd ECHO

2 METAL+2C

3rd ECHO
2 METAL

2 METAL

COATING

COATING

COATING

COATING

2 METAL
Coating

Metal

Standard
Measurment
Echo-to-Echo
Measurment

Total Thickness
Coating and Metal

[1 Coating]+[1 Metal] + [1 Metal] + [1 Coating]


2
=

[ -1 Coating

]+[1 Metal] + [1 Metal] + [1 Coating]


2

HELLIER

Thickness of
Metal Only

AUTOMATIC ECHO-TO-ECHO

No Gates To Set
Gage Automatically Finds The Two Highest Back wall Signals
Marker Indicates Detected Echoes
Users Verifies Proper Detection

HELLIER

MANUAL ECHO-TO-ECHO

User Selects Detection By Adjusting:


Signal Amplitude
Blanking Gate

HELLIER

TWO POINT CALIBRATION


Cal
Velocity
Enter Max Sample Thickness

Cal Zero

Enter Min Sample Thickness

Try to Calibrate On Actual Samples


Having The Same Surface Conditions
Same Geometry
Same Material
HELLIER

THICKNESS GAGE
ADVANTAGES

Size and Cost


Ease of Calibration and Operation
Auto Probe Recognition
V-Path Correction
Auto Zero Compensation
Greater Data Logging Capability
Thru Paint Echo-to-Echo Measurements
Better Thickness Accuracy
HELLIER

THICKNESS ACCURACY
Thickness measurement accuracy using
A-Scan gages is dependent on:
Detection
Flanking Gate Detection
Peak Gate Detection
Screen Resolution
Number of Pixels
HELLIER

FLANKING GATE DETECTION


Accuracy Affected By:
Coupling Pressure
Echo Amplitude
Leading Edge Shape
Transducer Alignment
Front Surface Condition
Backwall Surface Condition
Material Properties

SIGNAL
AMPLITUDE
AT 50dB
SIGNAL
AMPLITUDE
AT -6 dB
THRESHOLD
GATE

Detection 1
Detection 2

HELLIER

PEAK DETECTION
Dual Signals Have Multiple

PEAK
SIGNAL

Peaks

PEAK
GATE

Peaks Change Due To:

Transducer Alignment
Surface Condition
Coupling Pressure
Backwall Surface Condition
Grain Structure

Peak Detection Is Less Sensitive


to pits

HELLIER

TIME TO
PEAK
PEAK
SIGNAL

PEAK
GATE

TIME TO
PEAK

ALGORITHMS AND DSP

Leading Edge of Echo is Automatically


Detected
Calibrated Accuracy Maintained When Gain
Is Adjusted
System Runs At Lower Gain And Yields A
Cleaner Waveform
HELLIER

THE WAVEFORM
ADVANTAGE
Disbond

Voids, Disbonds And Flaws Can Cause Internal


Reflections
Problem

Disbond Detected

Solution

Disbond Reflection
HELLIER
Blanked Out

SURFACE NOISE
Rough Surface

Aluminum

Sound energy reflects from rough surfaces


and high impedance materials.
Problem

Reading Surface
Reflections

Solution 1

Solution 2

Surface Noise
Blanked Out

Reduce Gain

HELLIER

GRAIN REFLECTION
Large Internal Reflections
From Grain Boundaries
Can Cause False Readings
Problem

Reading Grain
Noise

Solution 1

Grain Noise
Blanked Out
HELLIER

Solution 2

Reduce Gain

FEATURES FOR
HIGH TEMP APPLICATION

Gain Adjust (Add Gain )


Fast Update Rate (20 Reading/Sec)
Freeze Waveform
Probe Zero (Correct for Thermal Drift)
Save Data
Waveform
Thickness
Gain Settings

HELLIER

HIGH TEMPERATURE
COUPLING TECHNIQUES

Use Appropriate Couplant for Temp Range

F-2 Medium Temps Below 260oC (500o F)


E-2 High Temp For 260 - 500oC (500-1000o F)
Apply Couplant To Transducer Tip
Use Firm Coupling Pressure
Limit Contact Time To Five Seconds
Wipe Transducer And Press Zero Key To
Compensate For Transducer Drift
HELLIER

ENSURE
TRANSDUCER LONGEVITY
Limit Transducer Contact Time to Five Seconds
Never Let Transducer Get To Hot To Hold
If Transducer Gets Hot
Cool in Air
Dip Tip in Water
Re-Zero
Avoid Dragging Transducer Cable Across Pipe
HELLIER

DATALOGGER INPUT
PRE-LOAD

HELLIER

BARCODE WAND
Plugs Into RS-232 Port
Reads Standard 3 of 9
(39) Labels

ID:TML 1.00
THk: 0.286

Internal Barcode
BAR CODE WAND

Software Is Standard

0.267

on All 26DL PLUSS


HELLIER

BARCODE WAND
Scan Barcode Tags
TML: 4.00
0.236

From Drawings
Scan Barcode Tags
Located On The

TML: 6.00
0.285

TML: 9.00
0.210

TML: 1.00
0.200

TML: 2.00
0.225

TML: 3.00
0.205

Equipment

TML: 5.00
0.241

DESCRIPTION: REBOILER #3, BLD 142N


DATE: 9/16/96 DRAWING: # 85236
REV: C

TML: 7.00
0.300

TML: 8.00
0.310

TML: 10.00
0.231

COMPANY: XYZ CORPORATION

Build Files As You Go


Jump To Scanned Location In Pre-loaded
File
HELLIER

INTERFACE PROGRAMS

Usually free with gage purchase


Bi-directional communication
Some use standard ASCII data
Store data for future on version/import into:
Other inspection programs
Word processing software
Spread sheet programs
HELLIER

INTERFACE PROGRAMS
Print/Read Files and Waveforms
Edit Files
Produce Color Reports
Create/Load Different File Formats
Create Statistics Reports

HELLIER

INTERFACE PROGRAM
STATISTICS
Identifier

Thickness

HELLIER

COLOR CODED FILE


PRESENTATION

Easy Conversion Of Boiler And Grid Files


Up To Seven Different Ranges And Colors
Change Display Size and File Orientation
Show Colors only
HELLIER

OTHER DATA
MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
Name

Manufacturer

Country

Credo

Chartex Software

UK

Cortran

Rios Software

UK

DataMate

Krautkramer

USA

UltraPipe

Krautkramer

USA

EMPRV

EDS (under development)

USA

EPRI Check/Works

EPRI

USA

IDM

Exxon

USA

Meridium

(under development)

USA

PIPE Sys

Atomic Software

UK

HELLIER

Keyboard Lock
Press
6

Allows the operator to


lock all keys except
ON/OFF and DIFF

Simultaneously

Press again to un-lock the keyboard.

HELLIER

Change Hold/Blank
Press and Hold
Allows the operator
2
to switch between
the display HOLD and
Then Press the display BLANK
conditions when no
MEAS
measurement is
being made (LOS).
and release both

HELLIER

HELLIER