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Sene C, Volume XXIII

Fascicle: Mechanics, Tribology, Machine Manufacturing Technology



MAY21-22,2009 PAPERS

Baia Mare, ROMANIA Nyiregyhaza, HUNGARY


)J_'\l L ~f(J\lA..j lUi'll'" L [VI UL J ~ UI':)LIYLLJ:-.l~,\.l"\"I I_.Vl'lr.t:.l:U:..L\I ..... .t:. !fi1 EDITION



dr. ing. Rezmires Daniel, ing. Bocanet Vasile: S. C Sirca .. _ Piatra Neumt p. i. ¥ftmflll'liini Alfredo; S. C Rima Spa -Italy

IU'(ll dr. iII;;.: Rucocea CeZII!", Conf.dr.lng. Racocea Cristina: Technical Univetsil), -Iasl

Abstruct: The papa presents () 11mlmy mode], which IS proposed 10 describe the quasi-static behaviour ofa nel·" etas» n/hall beannv« with .. /0 6 con/ad potnts (IS (),1 extension to 2,3 or -I coruact points (-I rcn» models). 111~ model j'U.I~ /11)(1 degrees (~/freed{Jl'J'{ ,.vld (lUOWS lO predict {he internal load distribution and culcvtate the rig/-day matrix.

Key words: hall /><3"1'111[;8 toaa distribution. " !'CJJ1J, rigidify mutrix, radial load. new cluss (J(I"r!1 bearing«, 00['


The paper presents a new type of hall bearing ·:rJ[1] having simultaneously 3 to G contact points under the influence of radial force effects, which bas been designed at SIRCA SA .. - Pialra Nearnt, Romania, and Rima Spa _ Italy [2,3]. This hearing may be used especially in the heaviest applications, where the radial load is significant. It may also be used to increase the radial load bearing capabilities in the small ball bearings and to augment the working speed of the existing ball bearings, by minimising the existing ball bearing size. The vast majority of large ball bearings are designed to work mainly under axial leads and tilting moments. There are, however, applications where tbe radial load IS predominant, as, for example, In gyratory solar panels, tunnelling mae-hines, cranes and derricks, excavators, hoist drum systems, a.S.D This type of:' bearing can work WIth discontinuous or continuous radial stiffnesses, but ill all cases it takes more radial load than a four contact pomts ball bearing commonly used ill slewing nngs constructions. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the bearing stiffnesses through extensions of the existing models of four contact points ball bearings in the analysis presented in [4,5].


Figures I A, I B and I C show a 5 contact points ball bearing designed with 2 point contact in the. ball - outer ring region, named 8. The two contact points arc 5 and 4. At the inner ring level, named 7, 3 contact points, named J ,2 and 3, ale produced. The main effect of this class of construction is to decrease the contact pressme at the inner ring level, by adding a supplementary raceway, named 2 in this case. Figure I.A shows the case when all 5 contacts occur at the same time and the bearing has a continuous radial stiffness. FIgures 1.13 and I.C, result from Fig. I.A, when, according to the real machined surface, there appear, initially, one or two contact points.Wheu the radial load increases, all the .5 contact pornts contribute to transmit the load. Figures l B and 1 C show the class of hearings with discontmuous stiffnesses


Fig. lA

Fig. 1E

Fig. ic

Fig, 1. Ball bearing with 5 contact points

Figures 2A, 2B and 2C show a 6 contact points ball bearing designed with 3 contact points in the ball- outer ring area, named 8. The contact points are 4, 5 and 6. At the inner ring level, named 7, 3 contact points, named 1, 2 and 3, are created The main effect of this class of construction is to decrease the contact pressure, by adding supplementary raceways, named 2 and 6, in this case. Figure 2.A shows the case when all 6 contacts occur 81 the same time and the bearing bas a continuous radial stiffness. Figures 2.E and 2.C, are derived frorn Fig. 2.A, When the radial load increases, all the 6 contact points contribute to transrmt the load. FIgures 2E and 2C show the class of bearings WIth discontinuous stiffness.

Fig. 2A

Fig. 213

Fig. 2C

Fig.2.1Jall bearing with 6 contact points.

The procedure was similar in the case of the class of ball bearings with 4 contact points, according to figures 3A, 3B and 3C. Tn all these cases, in the inner ring are created 3 raceways, 1, 2 and 3. The effect, in this case, is to decrease the load distribution at the inner ring level.

The quasi-static analysis shows a good radial stiffness evolution, according to flgA, where are schematically presented the sti ffnesses evolution of a normal 4 contact points ball bearing, or of a 3 contact points ball bearing versus the A, Band C classes shown in figures lA, 2A, 3A for class A, IB, 2B and 3B for class E, and rc, 2C and 3C for class C. The symbolic analysis is made considering the same ball bearing size, but adding the raceways 2 and 6.

Taking into account these geometrical considerations made it possible for the mathematical model [4,5] to be extended by adding two supplementary functions, in order to describe the 2 and 6 contact regions, besides the presented models.


rig. 3A

fi" 3B

• i;"

Fig. 1C

Fig.3. Ball bearing with 4 contact [JOInts.



Fig.4. Radial stiffness asfunction ofbearing class.


A study has been elaborated to show the radial stiffness in the 6 contact points bail bearing versus 4 contact points ball bearings, III this study a single ball was considered. SD represents the distance between the ball and the contacts 2 and 6. Figure 5 shows the load evolution trend as a function of SD value, considering: a single ball, a constant value for the inner ring displacement dr, dr=O.13, conformities f2=f6~-{).5S, fl=G=f4=O.52, initial contact angles U 1 =U2=U3=U4=45 deg. If SD> 0.15, iii 6 point contact ball bearing is similar to a 4 point contact ball bearing. Thus, 2 to 6 contacts become loaded for the same value of the radial displacement dr and the resulting load, as against the 4 point contact ball bearings, Increases by 0% when SD> O. J 5, and by 70% when SD becomes 0.02, SD being the local diametre clearance.






:!~~--:::_--IJ--=!""~. ---0--<' __


a ._- 1 ~ ~~ -r- --- ,---..,_..-- r -----r- ---,- __ .,.- -,._-., 5


0. O_(J2 0..04 O.C15 0..08 0.1 0..12 0..14 01B 0.18 0..2

Fig.S. Load over a hall as function ofSl) value.

31 J

Fig. 6 show-s the radial stiffnesses of the inner ring (considering a single ball) and different values for the radial load FR. The computed model verifies the expectations and reproduces the trend from rigA.

Fig.6. Evolution of radial stiffness as afunction ofradialforce value, considering a constant value for 8D.


This new class of ball bearings helps the constructors of slewing rings to increase the capacity of hall bearings to take over radial loads and to increase the factor of safety in the application where the ball bearing is used. Most slewing ring Constructors indicate for equivalent axial load a relation of the type Feq+ Fa+(4 ... 5)*Fr. By using the 6 contact points bearings, Fcq can become Feq=Fa+I 4 ... ,S)Fr, as a function of the SD parameter value and of raceways conformities, without any non Hertzian contacts with the bearing surface in the form or a truncated ellipse[4,6,7].This class is an extension of the SSRB structure as it IS presented in [4].

Because of the bearing stiffness, from the radial load view point, the slewing ring dimensions can be minimised, or It is possible to replace the 42CrMo4B steel with a 42CrM.o4N steel, or C45B with C45N, with obvious economic effects, the decrease of production costs. Lower costs imply low prices and, in effect, a bearing constructor may survive in the market place and get safely over the economic crisis.


1. RC7.l11ircl'1 Daniel, Bocancl Vasile, Allredo M ... Rulmcnt Radial axial ell bile, ell rigiditatc radiala disc~nti1\tl;)~ - AlJ061J -OSIM

2. Re~nlirc~ f)., Nclias D., Racocea C .• Hcrtzian an Non Hertziun Contact Anal 's;, in Bull Bearings. ·1110 Aonals or University "Dunarca de Jos' of Galati, Fascicle Vll, p.105-108 .. 20fl4

3. Rezmires n, Racucea C., (2004), iV!uudliug of the hall oearing geometry using the object oriented plOe,romminl'., ACME 2004, Bul, [PI., TomulL, Fasc GA, 261-266, 2004

4. Ramires n, Racocon C, Nclius D., Approximativ« Solutions to Hcrzian <the! Non-Hertzian Coruact Elas(icil}', The Annals "r Uniwrsity "Dueareu de Jos" otGuluti, Fnscicle VlI, p6'!-72, 2IJ04

5. Rczniircs D Theoretical and Experimental Research Regurding the Dynum ius ul Spherical Roller Bearingo, Phd. Thesis, (bl\ldN;mi'\:.\:!!iil.llllrC.:lJtiP.Q9~~Q!P'), 2001

(i Rima Sra -~J~)'!-'::..!:im.~@.:i!

7. Siren SRJ... - ~:'.!l'0.-!~2n:,;_u:om .ru