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homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 1

The phase is the angle in the argument of the


Question 1, chap 15, sect 2. sine function, and from the problem state-
part 1 of 1 10 points ment we see it is
The equation of motion of a simple har- π
φ = πt+
monic oscillator is 3
h πi
d2 x = (π rad/s) (5.9 s) +
= −9 x , 3
dt2 = 19.5826 rad .
where x is displacement and t is time.
What is the period of oscillation?
2π Question 3, chap 15, sect 1.
1. T = part 1 of 3 10 points
9
2. T = 6 π A 529 g mass is connected to a light spring
of force constant 9 N/m and it is free to os-
3 cillate on a horizontal, frictionless track. The
3. T =
2π mass is displaced 6 cm from the equilibrium
9 point and released form rest.
4. T =
2π 6 cm
2π 9 N/m
5. T = correct x
3 529 g
Explanation:
For a simple harmonic oscillator, the equa-
d2 x
tion of motion can be written as = x=0
dt2
−ω 2 x, where ω is the angular frequency, so Find the period of the motion.
the period of oscillation is Correct answer: 1.5233 s (tolerance ± 1 %).
2π 2π 2π Explanation:
T = =√ = .
ω 9 3 This situation corresponds to the special
case
Question 2, chap 15, sect 2. x(t) = A cos ωt ,
part 1 of 1 10 points
with A = 6 cm = 0.06 m . Therefore, the
A body oscillates with simple harmonic mo-
frequency is
tion along the x-axis. Its displacement varies
with time according to the equation r
k
A = A0 sin(ω t + π/3) , ω=
sm
where ω = π radians per second, t is in sec- 9 N/m
onds, and A0 = 9.9 m. =
0.529 kg
What is the phase of the motion at t =
5.9 s? = 4.12471 s−1 .
Correct answer: 19.5826 rad (tolerance ± 1
%). For the period we find
Explanation:
Basic Concepts: 2π
T =
ω
x = A0 sin(ω t + φ) = 1.5233 s .
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 2

The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .


Question 4, chap 15, sect 1.
part 2 of 3 10 points 9 kg
What is the maximum speed of the mass? k µs = 0.324
Correct answer: 0.247483 m/s (tolerance ± 1
%). 20 kg

Explanation:
The velocity as a function of time is given
by
What maximum amplitude of oscillation
v(t) = −ω A sin(ω t) ,
can the system have if the block is not to slip?
so the maximum speed of the mass is equal to Correct answer: 4.7591 cm (tolerance ± 1
%).
vmax = ω A
Explanation:
= (4.12471 s−1 ) (0.06 m)
= 0.247483 m/s .
Given : mb = 20 kg ,
mt = 9 kg ,
Question 5, chap 15, sect 1. f = 1.3 Hz , and
part 3 of 3 10 points
µs = 0.324 .
What is the maximum acceleration of the
mass? N
Correct answer: 1.02079 m/s2 (tolerance ± 1
%). fs
Explanation:
mg
The acceleration as a function of time is
given by Newton’s 2nd law
a(t) = −ω 2 A cos(ω t) , ~ = m~a .
X
F

so the maximum acceleration of the mass is For simple harmonic motion, we have
equal to
x = A cos(ω t + φ) and
2
amax = ω A
= (4.12471 s−1 )2 (0.06 m) d2 x
a= 2
= −A ω 2 cos(ω t + φ)
= 1.02079 m/s2 . dt
The force of friction is

Question 6, chap 15, sect 1. fs ≤ µ N .


part 1 of 1 10 points Now we will write down Newton’s 2nd law
A large block with mass 20 kg executes in the horizontal direction. Block B only feels
horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides the force of friction, so the law reads
across a frictionless surface with a frequency
fs = m a .
1.3 Hz . Block smaller block with mass 9 kg
rests on it, as shown in the figure, and the The maximum frictional force is
coefficient of static friction between the two is
µs = 0.324 . fs = µs N = µs m g .
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 3
since the setup is horizontal. (If it were not, The incremental mass (9 m = 747 kg) defines
the normal force would also depend on the the force on the springs, so
angle of inclination.) The acceleration a is
F = 9mg = kx
2
a = −A ω cos(ω t + φ) , 9mg
k= (1)
x
where (747 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )
=
(0.0089 m)
ω = 2 π f = 2 π (1.3 Hz) = 8.16814 rad/s , = 822539 kg/s2 .

and the maximum value of the cosine is ±1, Using Eq. 1, when the empty car oscillates on
so the springs, the frequency will be
amax = A ω 2 . r
1 k
f=
Therefore, from Newton’s 2nd law above, or 2 πrM
1 9mg
µs m g = m Amax ω 2 , so =
2π M x
µs g s
Amax = 2 1 (747 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )
ω =
(0.324)(9.8 m/s2 ) 2 π (2398 kg) (0.0089 m)
=
(8.16814 rad/s)2 = 2.94764 Hz .
= 4.7591 cm .
Question 8, chap 15, sect 1.
Note: Neither given mass is required to part 1 of 3 10 points
work this problem.
In an experiment conducted on the space
Question 7, chap 15, sect 1. shuttle (i.e., in free fall), a horizontal rod of
part 1 of 1 10 points mass 52 kg and length 45 m is pivoted about a
point 6.8 m from one end, while the opposite
When nine people whose average mass is end is attached to a spring of force constant
83 kg sit down in a car, they find that the car 98 N/m and negligible mass.
drops 0.89 cm lower on its springs. Then they
get out of the car and bounce it up and down.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . 45 m
What is the frequency of the car’s vibration 52 k g
98 N/m

if its mass (empty) is 2398 kg ? 6. 8 m θ


Correct answer: 2.94764 Hz (tolerance ± 1
%).
Explanation:

Calculate the moment of inertia I about


Let : m = 83 kg , the pivot point.
9 m = 747 kg , Correct answer: 21592.5 kg m2 (tolerance ±
1 %).
M = 2398 kg ,
mtotal = (747 kg) + (2398 kg) Explanation:
= 3145 kg , and
x = 0.89 cm = 0.0089 m . Let : L = 45 m ,
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 4
ℓ = 6.8 m ,
m = 52 kg , and
L
k = 98 N/m . L−ℓ
ℓ y (L − ℓ) θ
θ
Using the Parallel Axis Theorem, the mo-
ment of inertia about a point midway between
the center of mass and the end is

Since θ is in radians, that arc length is just


I = Icm + M d2 y = r θ or, in this case, y = (L − ℓ) θ, where
 2 r = L − ℓ.
1 2 L The restoring force is just Fs = −k y; thus
= ML +M −ℓ
12 2 the magnitude of the restoring torque is
1 ~
~τ = ~r × F
= (52 kg) (45 m)2 + (52 kg)
12
 2 κ θ = [(L − ℓ)] × [−k (L − ℓ) θ]
(45 m)
× − (6.8 m) κ = −k (L − ℓ)2
2
= −(98 N/m) (38.2 m)2
1
= (52 kg) (45 m)2 + (52 kg) (15.7 m)2 = −143006 N m .
12
= (8775 kg m2 ) + (12817.5 kg m2 ) Note: We have assumed the spring acts per-
pendicular to the rod so that the angle be-
= 21592.5 kg m2 .
tween the force and the radius is close to 90◦
(i.e. sin 90◦ = 1).

Question 9, chap 15, sect 1. Question 10, chap 15, sect 1.


part 2 of 3 10 points part 3 of 3 10 points

Assume: θ is small so the small angle ap- Calculate the angular velocity of the result-
proximation may be used. ing simple harmonic motion.
The “torque” equation of motion for simple Correct answer: 2.57351 rad/s (tolerance ±
harmonic motion is of the form τ = −κ θ. 1 %).
When the rod is displaced by a small angle Explanation:
θ from the horizontal and released, calculate Simple harmonic motion is defined by the
κ. equation
Correct answer: 143006 N m (tolerance ± 1 d2 x
%). 2
+ ω2 x = 0 ,
dt
d2 x
Explanation: where is the acceleration and ω the an-
If the rod is slightly displaced by an angle dt2
gular velocity. Thus if we write the equation
θ, the end rises by an amount of motion for our pendulum we have
Iα=τ
y = (L − ℓ) sin θ ≈ (L − ℓ) θ . d2 θ
I 2 = −κ θ
dt
Equivalently, this can be seen as approximat- d2 θ κ
+ θ=0
ing the vertical distance the end of the rod dt2 I
has risen by the arc of a circle which the end d2 θ
of the rod describes. 2
+ω 2 θ = 0 .
dt
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 5
Then k = 96 N/m , and
r
κ A = 0.13 m .
ω=
I
s Applying conservation of mechanical energy
(143006 N m) from the moment of release to the instant of
=
(21592.5 kg m2 ) separation,
= 2.57351 rad/s .
1 1
(m1 + m2 ) v 2 = k A2
2 2
Question 11, chap 15, sect 3.
part 1 of 2 10 points
r
k
An object of mass 10 kg is in equilibrium v=A
while connected to a light spring of constant m1 + m2
s
96 N/m that is fastened to a wall. A second 96 N/m
object of mass 4.9 kg is slowly pushed up = (0.13 m)
10 kg + 4.9 kg
against mass m1 , compressing the spring by
the amount 0.13 m. = 0.329979 m/s .

96 N/m
(1) 10 kg Question 12, chap 15, sect 3.
part 2 of 2 10 points
96 N/m How far apart are the objects when the
(2) 10 kg4.9 kg spring is fully stretched for the first time?
Correct answer: 6.07899 cm (tolerance ± 1
0.13 m %).
The system is then released, causing both
Explanation:
masses to start moving to the right on the
After the blocks separate, m1 oscillates
frictionless surface. When m1 is at the equi-
with amplitude A′ , so applying conservation
librium point (see (3)), m2 loses contact with
of energy,
m1 and moves to the right with speed v.
v 1 1
96 N/m k A′2 = m1 v 2
(3) 2 2r
10 kg4.9 kg
m1
A′ = v
v k
96 N/m
(4) 10 kg 4.9 kg Its period of oscillation is
r
D m1
T = 2π .
Find the value of v. k
Correct answer: 0.329979 m/s (tolerance ± 1
%). The spring is fully stretched
Explanation: r
1 π m1
T =
4 2 k
Given : m1 = 10 kg ,
m2 = 4.9 kg , after the blocks separate.
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 6
During this time m2 has moved a distance Solution: Let the angle of rotation around
∆x = v t from the point of separation, so the this instantaneous contact point be φ and the
distance between the blocks is angle the center of the sphere makes from the
center of the bowl to the vertical be θ.
D = v t − A′
π rm r
m1
=v
1
−v R
2 k k S is the com-

R−
π  rm mon arc length θ
1

r
= −1 v S = r (φ + θ)
2 k
s S = Rθ r
π  10 kg
= − 1 (0.329979 m/s) φ
2 96 N/m θ
 
100 cm S
×
m
S
= 6.07899 cm .
Note: The dotted curve is a
Question 13, chap 15, sect 3. hypocycloid denoting the path of the
part 1 of 1 10 points contact point at equilibrium as the
sphere rolls back and forth in the
2 spherical bowl.
Given: Icm = m r 2 for a solid sphere.
5 The arc length along the sphere (which rolls
A solid sphere has mass 2 kg , radius 7 cm . back and forth) must equal the arc length
The sphere rolls without slipping in a spheri- along the spherical bowl (both arc lengths are
cal bowl of radius 35 cm . labeled S in the figure).
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Therefore, φ and θ are related by

r (φ + θ) = R θ , or
cm

r φ = (R − r) θ , so
35

dφ dθ
7 cm r = (R − r) ,
dt dt
from the rolling without slipping condition.
Now the torque equation around the point of
contact is
Determine (for small displacements from
equilibrium) the period of harmonic oscilla- X d2 φ
tion which the sphere undergoes. τ : m g r sin θ = −I
dt2
Correct answer: 1.25664 s (tolerance ± 1 %).
d2 φ
I + mgrθ = 0,
Explanation: dt2
Basic Concepts: Let r be the radius of
the sphere and R be the radius of the spher- since sin θ ≈ θ. Substituting θ in place of φ,
ical bowl. The sphere is rolling without slip- we have
ping. Choose the point of contact as our axis.
R − r d2 θ
Around this point, the rotational inertia of I + mgrθ = 0
the sphere is, using parallel axis theorem, r dt2

2 7 d2 θ m g r2
I = m r2 + m r2 = m r2 . (1) + θ=0.
5 5 dt2 I (R − r)
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 7
Substituting I from Eq. 1, we have 1 2
since 1−cos θ ≈ θ . Energy is conserved,
2
d2 θ 5 m g r2 therefore E = K +U = constant, and we have
+ θ=0  2
dt2 7 (R − r) m r 2 7 2 dθ
E= m (R − r)
10 dt
d2 θ 5g 1
2
+ θ = 0. (2) + m g (R − r) θ 2
dt 7 (R − r) 2
= constant , so
Equation 2 is the differential equation for sim-
dE 7 d θ d2 θ
ple harmonic motion. The coefficient of θ is = m (R − r)2
ω 2 . Therefore dt 5 dt dt2

+ m g (R − r) θ
dt
s
5g
ω= , and = 0 . Therefore,
7 (R − r) 2
d θ 5g
s
2
+ θ = 0. (3)
7 [R − r] dt 7 (R − r)
T = 2π
5g Equations 2 and 3 are the same equation for
s simple harmonic motion.
7 [(0.35 m) − (0.07 m)]
= 2π
5 (9.8 m/s2 ) Question 14, chap 15, sect 4.
part 1 of 1 10 points
= 1.25664 s .
The acceleration of gravity is 9.81 m/s2 .
Alternative Solution: The kinetic en- Find the length of a pendulum that oscil-
ergy, lates with a frequency of 0.15 Hz.
 2  2 Correct answer: 11.044 m (tolerance ± 1 %).
1 dx 1 dφ Explanation:
K= m + I
2 dt 2 dt Basic Concepts:
 2
1 dθ 1
= m (R − r)2 f=
2 dt T
s
 2
1 2 dφ L
+ mr T = 2π
5 dt g
 2
1 dθ Given:
= m (R − r)2
2 dt f = 0.15 Hz
g = 9.81 m/s2
 2
1 2 dθ
+ m (R − r)
5 dt Solution:
s
 2
7 dθ 1 L
= m (R − r)2 , = 2π
10 dt f g
 2
2 dθ 1 L
since Isphere = m r 2 , v = r ω, and ω = . =
5 dt 2πf g
The potential energy is 
1
2
L=g
2π f
U = mgh  2
= m g (R − r) (1 − cos θ) 2
 1
= 9.81 m/s
1 2π(0.15 Hz)
≈ m g (R − r) θ 2 , = 11.044 m
2
homework 11 – BROWNING, ADAM – Due: Nov 16 2007, 1:00 am 8
side acts as a pendulum with length ℓ − d and
Question 15, chap 15, sect 4. period T2 . For small angles from the verti-
part 1 of 1 10 points cal, these periods are given by the familiar
equation for a simple pendulum,
Note: The pendulum bob is released at a
height below the height of the peg.
s

Assume: Use the small angle approximate T1 = 2 π
(sin θ = θ) to calculate the period. g
s
A pendulum made of a string of length (10.9 m)
10.9 m and a spherical bob of mass 9.2 kg is = 2π
(9.8 m/s2 )
able to swing in a vertical plane. The pen-
dulum is released from an angular position = 6.62644 s , and
s
46 ◦ from vertical as shown in the figure be- ℓ−d
low. The string hits a peg located a distance T2 = 2 π
g
4 m below the point of suspension and swings s
about the peg up to an angle α on the other (10.9 m) − (4 m)
side of the peg. Then, the bob proceeds to = 2π
(9.8 m/s2 )
oscillate back and forth between these two
= 5.27219 s .
angular extremities.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . During a full period T , the pendulum spends
part of its motion on the left side of the peg
and part of its motion on the right side of the
4m

peg. The total period will be given by


m
. 9
10 T =
T1 T2
+
9.2 kg 2  2
π √ √ 
=√ ℓ+ ℓ−d
46 ◦ α g
π
9.8 m/s2 =p
9.8 m/s2
What is the period of the pendulum plus p p 
peg system as shown above? × (10.9 m) + (10.9 m) − (4 m)
Correct answer: 5.94932 s (tolerance ± 1 %).
= 5.94932 s .
Explanation:

Let : m = 9.2 kg ,
ℓ = 10.9 m ,
d = 4 m,
ℓ − d = 6.9 m ,
θ = 46 ◦ , and
g = 9.8 m/s2 .
As shown in the figure, the motion can be
broken into two parts: that before the string
contacts the peg and that after it makes con-
tact. Its motion on the right half of the
diagram is that of a pendulum with length
10.9 m and period T1 ; its motion on the left