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UsinganAnalyticalScaletoMeasuretheMassLossofEggshellsExposedto

DietPepsi,DietMountainDew,andDiet7Up

CharlesDebczak,ImranRashid,andSebastienRivest

MacombMathematicsScienceandTechnologyCenter

Chemistry

10A

Mrs.Hilliard,Mr.Supal,Mrs.Dewey

21May2015

TableofContents
Introduction...1
ReviewofLiterature.4
ProblemStatement.14
ExperimentalDesign..15
DataandObservations..18
DataAnalysisandInterpretation..26
Conclusion...38
Appendix1:BlowingoutEggInnards.45
Appendix2:RandomizationofTrials..46
Appendix3:TakingthepHoftheSodas48
Appendix4:MassLossFormulas49
Appendix5:StatisticalTestSampleCalculations.50
WorksCited.51

Introduction
ThecarbonatedsoftdrinkmarketintheUnitedStatesalonein2008was
73billiondollars(Singleton).Carbonatedsoftdrinksarebecomingverycommon
refreshmentformanypeopleintheUnitedStates.However,theharmfulside
effectsofsodaonteethtendtobeoverlooked.Itisunfortunatelyeasytoassume
thateachtypeofsodaavailablewilldothesamethingtoapersonsdental
health,oreventhatdietsodawillnotharmapersonsdentalhealth.Thepurpose
ofthisexperimentwastotesttheeffectsofDietPepsi,DietMountainDew,and
Diet7Upontheenamelofhumanteeth,andtodeterminewhichsodacauses
themosttoothdecay,basedontheirpHlevels.Whentheenamelofhumanteeth
breaksdown,toothdecaybeginstoform(Valadez).
Theexperimentwasrunbysimplyplacingeggshellsintoeachdifferent
sodafor48hours,measuringthemassbeforetheeggshellsweresoakedand
themassaftertheeggshellsweresoaked.Thirtycupsofeachsodawereused,
andoneeggshellwasplacedintoeachcupforatotalofthirtytrialspersoda.
Whiletheeggshellssatinthesoda,thepHlevelofthesodawastakenevery
twentyfourhours,startingrightbeforetheeggshellwasdroppedintothesoda.
Additionally,threecontrolsofdistilledwaterwereconductedtoensurethatsoda
trulydoeshaveaneffectontheeggshellsratherthansomethingelse.The
experimentwasconductedtakingthepHeverydaytoobserveifthesodawith
thelowestaveragepHwouldcausethemostdamagetotheeggshell.Eggshells
wereusedastheyaremucheasiertoworkwithandgetaholdof,andreact

similarlytohumanteethinthepresenceofacids(Garcia).Thisprocedurehas
accomplishedtheobjectivesandpurposebecausethemasslossoftheegg
shellsaccuratelyrepresentsthedeteriorationofteethduetotheirsimilarcalcium
compounds(Jacobson).
Theresultsoftheexperimentcanbeusedtodeterminewhichsodaoutof
thoseused,isthemostdamagingtoapersonsdentalhealth.Thisinformationis
veryusefultothegeneralpublic,giventhatthesodaindustryissolarge.People
wouldhaveinformationtohelpmakeawiserchoicewithwhattheydrink.Many
peoplemaybelievethatdietmeansithasnoharmfuleffectsontheirdental
health,asdietsodascontainnosugar(Valadez).However,giventhatthereis
stillacidindietsodas,deteriorationisstillexpected,contrarytopopularbelief
(Valadez).Additionally,thewaypeopledrinksodasisoftensippingthemallday
(Valadez).Theeffectsofthesodasacidonteethlastabouttwentyminutes,and
theprocessrestartswitheverysipofsoda(Valadez).Thismeansthattooth
brushingcannothelppreventerosionoftoothenamelunlessteetharebrushed
betweeneverysipofsoda,andassuchknowingwhatsodacausesthemost
damagetoapersonsteethcanbeveryusefulforthosewhosipthesodaallday.
Additionally,dentalstudiescouldbenefitfromthedata.Dentistscoulduse
thedatatorecommendcertaintypesofsoftdrinksoverotherstopatients,or
perhapstothegeneralpublic.Thedatacollectedmayalsohelpdentists
diagnoseorevenfindnewwaystotreatpatientswithtoothdecaycausedby
soda.Furthermore,studiesandresearchsuchasthiscouldhelplarge

corporationsincludingtheUSFoodandDrugAdministration(FDA),decidewhat
theyshouldallowthegeneralpublicbeexposedtoandhowitisaffectingtheir
health.TheFDAorgovernmentcouldtakeactionsuchasrequiringlabelson
sugardenseandaciddensesodasthatareharmfultodentalhealth.Thiscould
makethepublicawareofwhatsodasareprobablybestavoided.

ReviewofLiterature

Drinkingsodascausescavitiesbecausesodassugareventuallybreaks
downtheenamelofthetooth.Thebacteriainthemouthbreakdownsugar
containedinsodasintoacids.Acidsarewhatbreaksdownandweakenthe
enameloftheteeth,whichleadstotoothdecay(Valadez).MountainDewisa
goodexampleofthisprocess.Dentistshaveevennamedtheconditioninwhich
childrendrinkheavyamountsofMountainDewasMountainDewMouth.Itis
causedbyMountainDewsheavysugarlevels,andleadstomanycavities
(Main).Dietsodasdonotcontainsugar,butdocontaintheirownacids.These
acidsworktobreakdownandweakentoothenamelaswiththoseformedby
mouthbacteria(Valadez).
Thehumantoothismadeupoftwomajorparts,thecrownandtheroot.
Thecrownisthevisiblepartofthetoothandcontainsenamel.Theenamelacts
asaprotectiveshieldingfortherootofthetoothasitisthehardestsubstancein
thebody.Thesecondlayerofthetoothisthedentine,whichismoresensitive
thanenamel.Thedentinelayersoverthepulp,asoft,fleshytissuethatcontains
thenervesandbloodsupplyforthetooth.Therootofthetoothisembeddedin
thegumsandiscoveredbyahardtissuecalledcementum.Therootofatoothis
supportedbyabone(DentalHealthFoundationIreland).Adiagramdepicting
thestructureofatoothcanbefoundinFigure1.

Figure1.DiagramofaTooth
Figure1showsthemaincomponentsofatoothlabeled.Thetoothis
shownwithinthegumsanditsrootissupportedbyabone(DentalHealth
FoundationIreland).
ThepHscaleisusedtorepresentthechemicalacidityofasubstance.pH
standsforpowerofhydrogen,Hbeingcapitalizedbecauseitistheelemental

symbolofhydrogen(Anderson).Thescalemeasurestheconcentrationof
+
hydrogenions(H
)todeterminetheacidityofasubstance.Thescaleranges

from014andatbothendsofthescaleareextremes.ApHreadingof7is
consideredneutral.Asubstancewithareadingbetween7and14wouldbea
baseandasubstancewithareadingbetween7and0wouldbeanacid.Mixing
acidswithbasescanneutralizethesolution.ThepHscaleislogarithmic,andthe
formulacanbefoundbelow(Anderson).
pH=log
[
H+
]
10
Logarithmicmeansthateachintegervaluethatdeviatesawayfrom7is
tentimesmoreacidicorbasicthantheonebeforeitrespectively.Allthis
aforementionedinformationcanbeseeninFigure2foundbelow(Anderson),
alongwiththeexpectedpHvaluesthatcanbeseeninTable1(von
Fraunhofer).

Figure2.pHScale
Figure2showsthevaluesonthepHscaleandlabelswhichvaluesare
alkalineandwhichareacidic(AbundantHealthCenter).Thesodasusedinthe
experimentarelabeledonthescale.Allthreeofthesodasareconsideredacidic.
MountainDew,asstatedabove,ishighinsugars.MountainDew
containshighfructosecornsyrup,whichisaliquidformofsugarmadefromcorn
starches.MountainDewalsocontainsacids,suchascitricacid,whichareused
toaddflavortothedrink(KeyCell,LLC).DietMountainDew,however,contains
sugarsubstitutessuchasaspartame(C
H
N
O
)andacesulfamepotassium
14
18
2
5
(C
H
KNO
S),anditdoesnotcontainhighfructosecornsyrup(PepsiCo.).Diet
4
4
4
MountainDewhasapHof3.27.AnotherpopularsodaisDietPepsi.DietPepsi,
justlikeDietMountainDew,alsocontainsmanysugarsubstitutesthatalterthe
pHlevelofthedrink.DietPepsihasapHof2(vonFraunhofer).Furthermore,
Diet7Up,which,unliketheothersodas,hasahigherpHof3.71.AspH
decreasesinsoftdrinks,theybecomemoredangerousforteeth(Lloyd).The
informationforDietMountainDew,Diet7Up,andDietPepsiwereallusedto
designtheexperiment.Table1depictstheacidityandcorresponding14day
2
weightlossoftestteethinmg/cm
foreachbeveragerespectively(von

Fraunhofer).

Table1
pHofBeverages

Table1abovewascreatedtoshowthepHofmanydifferentbeverages
(vonFraunhofer).Analyzingthistable,itcanbeseenthatallbeveragesare
acidic.ThisisduetothefactthatallofthepHvaluesarewithintherangeof0
and7onthepHscale(Anderson).Itshouldbenotedthattheweightlossin
MountainDewismuchgreaterthanthatoftheothersodascomparatively.
However,theacidityofMountainDewisnotmoreextremethantheothersodas.
Thereasonforthisis,aspreviouslystated,thevariousuniqueingredientsinboth
regularandDietMountainDew,suchasthehighamountofcaffeineinboth
sodas(CaffeineContentofDrinks,Ipatenco).Additionally,DietMountainDewis

knowntocontainaspartame(CaffeineContentofDrinks).Aspartameisaknown
sugarsubstitute(SugarSubstitutes|Aspartame).
Whenteethareexposedtoacids,sugarsandothersubstancesthatcan
furthererodetheirstructure,theyshowidentifiablevisualandphysicalsigns.The
teethwilloftenshowyellowdiscolorationduetotheexpositionoftheunderlying
dentine("AcidAttack!").Asmoreerosionandacidicdissolutionofthetooth
occurs,moredentineisexposedandyellowdiscolorationwouldincrease.Also,
transparencycanbeevidentinthebitingedgesoferodedteeth.Thecracksand
wearingawayaswellasdentsandcuppingintheteetharethemosteasily
identifiableastheyarerelatedtomasslossinthetooth(Lloyd).Theexperiment
usedmassloss,asitisthemostanalyticaloftheaforementionedsigns.Assuch,
masslossandpercentmasslosswereusedintheexperiment.Theothersigns
wererecordedintheobservationstablehowever.
Thecitricacidinthesodasmayhaveaneffectonthemasslossofthe
eggshells.Thecitratewillworktoerodethecalciumcompoundsandresultin
deteriorationandmassloss(Pearson).ThecitrussodasDietMountainDewand
Diet7Up,containlargeramountsofcitricacidthanthecola,DietPepsi.
Furthermore,DietMountainDewcontains54mgofcaffeineper12fl.oz
can,whileDietPepsicontains35mgandDiet7Upcontainsnocaffeine
(CaffeineContentofDrinks).Drinkingcaffeinatedbeveragesstainsteethand
erodestoothenamel(Ipatenco).Thereisacorrelationbetweentheamountof
caffeineintakeandtheamountoftootherosionandstainingpresent(Ipatenco).

Thestainingcomesmostlyfromthereactionbetweenthesodaandasubstance
inthetoothsplaque,andisadentalhealthconcern(TheCaffeine/DentalHealth
Connection:1800Dentist.com).Artificialsweetenersnegateanypossiblehealth
benefitsgainedfromcaffeine,andcaffeinewillincreasetherateatwhichthe
processoferosionandbreakingdownofcalciumcompoundswilltakeplace(The
Caffeine/DentalHealthConnection:1800Dentist.com,Fesler).
Theeffectsofacidicdrinkscanbeverydrastic.Ithasbeenshownthat
excessiveandcarelessconsumptionofthesedrinkscanyieldresultssimilarto
thatofamethamphetamineuser(Bassiouny).Figure3showsanorthopedic
xrayoftheerodedanddamageddentineofadietsodadrinker.

Figure3.DietSodaXRay
InFigure3aboveanxrayoftheteethfromanexcessivedietsodauser
areshown(Bassiouny).

Discolorationisnotevidentfromthexraybuttheerosionofthedentine
andouterenamelareveryclear.Also,sugarscancauselargeamountsof
plaquetoformonthetoothenamel,asseenabove(Bassiouny).

Figure4.MethamphetamineUserXRay
Figure4aboveshowsanorthopedicxrayofamethamphetamineuser
thesimilaritiesbetweenthesodauserandmethamphetamineuserareevident.
Thedamageddentineanderodedenamelisverysevereinbothcases
(Bassiouny).

Figure5.HealthyTeethXRay
Figure5aboveshowsanxrayofhealthyhumanteeth(Boerner).The
teethareallintactandnodeteriorationorerosionoftheteethisevident.
Thestudyconductedonthesimilaritiesbetweenmethamphetamine,
cocaine,anddietsodaseffectsonteethshowedthatdietsodacausestooth
decay.Thesubjectusedtoobservetheeffectsofdietsodaontoothdecay
reportedthatshehadnothadanydentalhealthservicesfortwodecades.She
additionallyreportedthatshedrank2litersofdietsodaeverydayforthreetofive
years,andthatshechosedietsodabecauseshefearedtoothdecaycausedby
sugarinregularsodas.However,anoralexaminationshowedthatdietsoda
erodedherteeth.Therewasadark,yellowishdiscolorationofthedentinonher
teeth(Bassiouny).Thisinformationshowsthatdietsodasdoindeedcausetooth
decay,whichallowedtheuseofdietsodasintheexperiment.
Eggshellsmakeapracticalalternativetoenamelduetotheirsimilarities,
andhavebeenusedinotherexperimentsasanalternative(Garcia).Bothare

composedofcalciumcompounds(Jacobson).Botheggshellsandtoothenamel
losemineralsinthepresenceofacids.Thisisbecausetheacidiccompounds
reactwiththecalciumcompoundsresultingintheformationofnewcompounds
andthereleaseofcalciumions,whichweakensbothenamelandeggshells
(Jacobson).Therearesomenotabledifferencesbetweentoothenameland
eggshells.Onemajordifferenceisthattoothenamelismainlycomposedof
calciumphosphate(Ca
(PO
)
)whileeggshellsarecomposedofcalcium
3
4
2
carbonate(CaCO
).Despitebeingmadeoftwodifferentcalciumcompounds,
3
botheggshellsandtoothenamelreactsimilarlyinthepresenceofacid,which
makesthisdifferenceinsignificanttotheresearch(Jacobson).Thechemical
equationsforthesetwocompoundsreactingwithphosphoricacid(H
PO
)are
3
4
shownbelow.
ReactionofCalciumP hosphateandP hosphoricAcid :
H 3P O4 + C a3(P O4)2Ca2+ + H 6(P O4)2
ReactionofCalciumCarbonateandP hosphoricAcid :
H 3P O4 + C aCO3HCa2+ + (P O4)2(CO3)3
Whentheacidsreactwitheggshells,thecalciumcarbonateformscalcium
ionsandcarbondioxide.Whentheacidsreactwithenamel,hydrogenions
combinewithcarbonateionsorphosphateions,resultinginthereleaseof
calciumions(Jacobson).Thisdoesnotsignificantlyaffecttheresearchbecause
thereactionsbothresultinthelossofcalciumandtheitembeingmeasuredand

analyzedisthemasslossasaresultofthereactionofeggshellswithacidsfound
indietsodas.
Anumberofdifferentexperimentsexisttotesttheeffectsofsodaontooth
enamel.Suchexperimentsuseeggshellsastheyarefarmoreattainable.Placing
hardboiledeggsintodifferentsodasorevenotherdrinksallowsinformationto
begatheredonhowthesedrinkscanerodeorstainteeth(Braun).The
experimentconductedcomparedsodaswithdifferentpHlevelsandother
properties.Thepercentofmasslossoftheeggshellsfrombeingsoakedinsoda
willbemeasuredingrams,ratherthananobservationonthestainingsodahas
ontheeggshells.

ProblemStatement
ProblemStatement
:
Howdodifferentdietsodaswithdifferentpropertiesbreakdowntooth
enamelandcausemasslossofthetooth?
Hypothesis
:
WheneggshellsaresoakedinDietPepsifor

approximately48

hours,the
masslossingramsandpercentmasslosswillbethegreatestwhencomparedto
Diet7UpandDietMountainDew.
DataMeasured
:

TheindependentvariableoftheexperimentistheaveragepHleveltaken
duringtheexperimentevery24hoursforeachsampleofsoda.Theconstants
werethetypeofsodausedandthetypeofeggshellsused.Thedependent
variableoftheexperimentisthemasslossoftheeggshellsingrams.Thisis
measuredbymeasuringthemassoftheeggshellingramsbeforetheeggshellis
soakedinsoda.Aftertheeggshellhasbeensoakedforapproximately48hours,
theeggshellsmassismeasuredagainingrams.Thedifferencebetweenthe
initialmassoftheeggshellandthefinalmassoftheeggshellisthemasslossin
grams.Threematchedpairsttestswillbeusedtocomparethemassofthe
eggshellsbeforebeingsoakedinsodatothemassoftheeggshellsafterbeing
soakedinthesodaforeachtypeofsodaseggshells.

ExperimentalDesign
Materials
:
3LDietPepsi
3LDietMountainDew
3LDiet7Up
300mLDistilledWater
250mLBeaker
AnalyticalBalance(0.0001gprecision)

Procedure
:
1.

3WeighBoats
93Eggshells
93266mLPlasticCups
93StickyNotes
100mLGraduatedCylinder

BlowtheyolkoutoftheeggasseeninAppendix1toobtain93eggshells.

2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.

14.

15.

Placetheeggshellintoaneggcartonandallowtheeggshelltodryfor24
hours.

Measureout100mLofthedesignateddietsodaordistilledwaterina250
mLbeakerusingthe100mLgraduatedcylinder.
Transferthesodaintoaplasticcupandlabelwhattypeofsodaitcontains
onastickynoteplacedonthecup.

RepeatSteps34withoutwashingthegraduatedcylinderorbeakerif
pouringthesamesodainsuccession.Ifpouringadifferentsoda,washout
thegraduatedcylinderandbeakerwithtapwaterandthenrepeatSteps
34.
RandomizethecupsofsodaandtrialsusingthemethodseeninAppendix
2.
RecordthepHlevelsofthesodasasseeninAppendix3usingthe
randomizationmethodseeninAppendix2.

Placeaneggshellontoaweighboat.
Recordthemassoftheeggshellusingananalyticalbalanceto0.0001g
precisiononaplasticcupsstickynoteandinadatatable.

Placetheeggshellintotheplasticcupwiththestickynotecorresponding
tothemassoftheeggshellbeingplacedintheplasticcup.
Repeatsteps810foralleggshells.

Lettheeggshellssoakforaperiodofapproximately24hours.
RepeatSteps67after24hoursoflettingtheeggshellssitinthesodaand
distilledwaterforallcups.
Afterthe48hourperiod,repeatSteps67againforallcups.
Removealleggshellsandplacetheeggshellsbackintothecartonsand
labelonthecartonswhattrialtheeggshellis,washingtheeggshellsout
withtapwateroverasink.

16.

Allowtheeggshellstositanddryfor24hoursinthecarton.

17.

After24hours,placeaneggshellontoaweighboat.

18.

Usetheanalyticalbalance(0.0001gprecision)tomasstheegg.

19.

Recordthemassoftheeggshellusingananalyticalbalanceto0.0001g
precisionaftersoakingonthesamestickynoteandinadatatable.

Calculateandrecordinadatatablethemasslossusingthepresoaking
andpostsoakingmassesasseeninAppendix4.

20.

21.

22.

Repeatsteps1720until30trialshavebeenconductedforeachsodaand
3trialshavebeenconductedfordistilledwater.
Cleanupworkareaandallmaterialsappropriately.

Diagram
:

Figure6.Materials
Figure6aboveshowstheuncommonanduniquematerialsusedinthe
experiment.Thethreesodasthatwereusedintheexperimentareshown,along
withthecupsusedandaneggused.

DataandObservations
Table2
DietPepsiTrialAveragepHLevelsandMasses
Trial
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Averag
e

Average
pH
6.29
6.24
6.21
6.17
6.24
6.27
6.24
6.16
6.28
6.28
5.72
5.75
5.74
5.71
5.76
5.69
5.69
5.71
5.66
5.65
5.98
6.10
6.22
5.93
5.87
5.86
5.92
6.13
5.91
5.81
5.97

Initial
Mass(g)

FinalMass MassLost
(g)
(g)

6.4094
6.8906
6.7835
6.4209
6.5183
6.4609
6.8936
6.7271
6.9500
5.9784
7.7406
5.7523
6.3297
6.3531
6.5780
7.1860
5.8177
5.6578
6.1955
6.3706
6.6327
5.0771
6.1730
6.7766
6.3059
6.9234
6.2389
6.2370
6.4518
6.2358

5.9645
6.4481
6.0847
5.4253
5.5521
6.0701
6.6478
6.3767
6.7942
5.5191
5.9393
5.1184
5.5811
5.5593
5.6392
6.4146
5.3062
4.9207
5.5996
5.7987
6.0119
4.2099
5.5375
5.6646
5.5120
5.8548
5.3264
5.3737
6.0740
5.3283

6.4355

5.7218

0.445
0.443
0.699
1.00
0.966
0.391
0.246
0.350
0.156
0.459
1.80
0.634
0.749
0.794
0.939
0.771
0.512
0.737
0.596
0.572
0.621
0.867
0.636
1.11
0.794
1.07
0.913
0.863
0.378
0.908
0.714

Percent
MassLost
(%)
6.94%
6.42%
10.3%
15.5%
14.8%
6.05%
3.57%
5.21%
2.24%
7.68%
23.3%
11.0%
11.8%
12.5%
14.3%
10.7%
8.79%
13.0%
9.62%
8.98%
9.36%
17.1%
10.3%
16.4%
12.6%
15.4%
14.6%
13.8%
5.86%
14.6%
11.1%

Table2aboveshowstheaveragepHleveloftheDietPepsitrialsoverthe
48hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththemassof
theeggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsaftersoaking.The
masslostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.Thetrialsare
inorderofthefirstDietPepsitrialtothelastDietPepsitrial.Thesearemerely
themeasurementsfortheDietPepsitrialsonly.
Table3
DietMountainDewTrialsAveragepHLevelsandMasses
Trial
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

Average
pH
5.24
5.53
5.67
5.54
5.54
5.43
5.58
5.66
5.84
5.72
5.96
5.91
6.07
6.14
6.22
5.79
5.96
6.11
5.93
6.09
5.90
6.03
6.10
5.99

Initial
Mass(g)
6.2864
6.5543
6.0574
6.3787
5.7298
6.1307
7.1541
7.5140
7.4635
5.8723
6.9497
6.7334
6.7501
6.4987
5.7623
6.8402
7.2398
6.2483
6.3871
6.3877
6.0242
6.8570
6.1615
6.2565

FinalMass MassLost
(g)
(g)
5.7239
5.7360
5.2183
5.3749
5.3518
5.4866
5.7624
6.8489
6.0141
5.1309
6.0316
5.9962
5.9937
5.7712
5.1278
6.4698
6.5572
5.5905
5.6103
5.4390
5.1884
5.9918
5.1883
5.4631

0.563
0.818
0.839
1.00
0.378
0.644
1.39
0.665
1.45
0.741
0.918
0.737
0.756
0.728
0.635
0.370
0.683
0.658
0.777
0.949
0.836
0.865
0.973
0.793

Percent
MassLost
(%)
8.90%
12.5%
13.9%
15.7%
6.60%
10.5%
19.5%
8.90%
19.4%
12.6%
13.2%
10.9%
11.2%
11.2%
11.0%
5.40%
9.40%
10.5%
12.2%
14.9%
13.9%
12.6%
15.8%
12.7%

55
56
Trial
57
58
59
60
Averag
e

6.01
5.72
Average
pH
5.95
5.92
6.03
6.07
5.85

6.3032
6.4687
Initial
Mass(g)

5.7691
5.6037

0.534
0.865

FinalMass MassLost
(g)
(g)

5.7290
6.6242
6.2270
6.3563

4.8837
5.8016
5.6359
5.8648

6.4649

5.6875

0.845
0.823
0.591
0.492
0.777

8.50%
13.4%
Percent
MassLost
(%)
14.8%
12.4%
9.50%
7.70%
12.0%

Table3aboveshowstheaveragepHleveloftheDietMountainDewtrials
overthe48hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththe
massoftheeggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsafter
soaking.Themasslostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.
ThetrialsareinorderofthefirstDietMountainDewtrialtothelastDietMountain
Dewtrial.ThesearemerelythemeasurementsfortheDietMountainDewtrials
only.
Table4
Diet7UpTrialAveragepHLevelsandMasses
Trial
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70

Average
pH
6.41
6.34
6.51
6.38
6.57
6.47
6.54
6.53
6.51
6.55

Initial
Mass(g)
5.8341
6.1790
6.0421
6.6561
6.3541
6.5568
6.7901
6.3690
6.7801
7.0193

FinalMass MassLost
(g)
(g)
4.9908
5.3491
5.2248
5.6356
5.5277
5.8877
5.9747
5.0613
6.0696
5.4026

0.843
0.830
0.817
1.02
0.826
0.669
0.815
1.31
0.711
1.62

Percent
MassLost
(%)
14.5%
13.4%
13.5%
15.3%
13.0%
10.2%
12.0%
20.5%
10.5%
23.0%

71
72
73
Trial
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
Averag
e

6.57
6.62
6.53
Average
pH
6.43
6.20
6.61
6.37
6.40
6.48
6.54
6.30
6.29
6.13
6.31
6.28
6.19
6.32
6.16
6.02
6.29
6.39

5.7430
5.8784
6.4559
Initial
Mass(g)

4.8404
5.0049
5.7261

0.903
0.874
0.730

FinalMass MassLost
(g)
(g)

6.1682
5.8189
6.7530
6.3505
6.2945
6.4272
6.0353
6.8437
6.5045
5.8802
6.8780
6.1925
6.4973
6.3949
6.6331
6.2859
6.5414

5.5978
5.3690
6.1663
5.8761
5.8634
6.0900
5.3541
6.3842
6.0355
5.5400
5.1800
5.5700
5.7700
5.7900
6.0200
5.7300
6.0900

6.3719

5.6374

0.570
0.450
0.587
0.474
0.431
0.337
0.681
0.460
0.469
0.340
1.70
0.623
0.727
0.605
0.613
0.556
0.451
0.735

15.7%
14.9%
11.3%
Percent
MassLost
(%)
9.20%
7.70%
8.70%
7.50%
6.80%
5.20%
11.3%
6.70%
7.20%
5.80%
24.7%
10.1%
11.2%
9.50%
9.20%
8.80%
6.90%
11.5%

Table4aboveshowstheaveragepHleveloftheDiet7Uptrialsoverthe
48hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththemassof
theeggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsaftersoaking.The
masslostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.Thetrialsare
inorderofthefirstDiet7UptrialtothelastDiet7Uptrial.Thesearemerelythe
measurementsfortheDiet7Uptrialsonly.
Table5
DistilledWaterControlTrialsAveragepHLevelsandMasses

Trial
91
92
Trial
93
Averag
e

Average
pH
6.72
6.54
Average
pH
7.05
6.77

Initial
Mass(g)

Percent
MassLost
(%)
0.320
5.80%
0.616
9.25%
Percent
MassLost
MassLost
(g)
(%)
0.0944
2.04%

FinalMass MassLost
(g)
(g)

5.5122
6.6571
Initial
Mass(g)

5.1923
6.0411
FinalMass
(g)

4.6357

4.5413

5.6017

5.2582

0.343

5.70%

Table5showstheaveragepHlevelofthedistilledwatertrialsoverthe48
hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththemassofthe
eggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsaftersoaking.Themass
lostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.Thetrialsarein
orderofthefirstdistilledwatertrialtothelastdistilledwatertrial.Theseare
merelythemeasurementsforthedistilledwatertrialsonly.Thecalculationsfor
masslossandpercentmasslossforalltrialscanbeseeninAppendix4.
Table6
ObservationsofAllTrials
Trial
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Observations
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

13
14
15
16
17
18
Trial
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Egghadalargeamountofcracking.
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Observations
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Eggwascracked,portiondidn'tgetsoaked
Eggwascracked,portiondidn'tgetsoaked
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Smallamountofcrackingoneggshell
Couldnotbesubmergedagain,filledextrasoda
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Submergedagainafterfloatingtothesurface
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Extrasodawasaddedtofullysubmergeegg
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Egghadtobesubmergedagain
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Extrasodawasaddedtofullysubmergeegg
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Significantlycracked
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Moresodawasaddedtofullysubmergeegg

52
53
54
55
56
Trial
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Eggcrackedasitwasbeingsubmergedagain
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Observations
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Eggshellwascrackedslightly
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Smallamountofcrackingineggshell
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Couldnotbecompletelysubmerged
Eggwassubmergedagainafterfloatingtosurface
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Egghadtobepushedbackdowntosubmergeitagain
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

91
92
93

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror
Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

Table6showstheobservationsmadeforalltrialsintheexperiment.

Figure7.EggshellColorsafterSoaking
Figure7aboveshowsthecolorsthattheeggshellsturnedafterbeing
soakedintheirrespectivesodaorwater.Intheupperlefthandcornerarethe
Diet7Upeggshells,whichdidntchangecolor.Inthelowerlefthandcornerare
theDietPepsieggshells,whichchangedtoabrownishcolor.Intheupperright
handcorneraretheDietMountainDeweggshells,whichturnedbrightgreen.
Andfinallythedistilledwatercontroleggshellsinthelowerrighthandcorner
didntchangecoloreither.

DataAnalysisandInterpretation

Datacollectionfortheexperimentwasrelativelysimple.Alleggshellswere
sortedonacartwithfourlevels.Eachlevelwasdesignatedtoatypeofsoda,
andthetoplevelheldthedistilledwatercontrolsandsupplies.Thirtycupsper
sodawereplacedontheircorrespondinglevelonthecartandseparatedinto
groupsoften.Thethreecontrolsweretreatedasthreeseparategroups.
RandomizationoccurredwhiletakingtheinitialmassandpHlevelseveryhours.
Eachsetoftenandeachcontrolweregivenavalueonethroughthreeandthe
randomintegerfunctionontheTINSpirewasusedtoassignthesetstoeach
researcher.Afteranyprocedureontheeggswasdone,theeggswereputback
intheiroriginalcupstoensurereplicationwouldbeeasy.Therandomization
contributedtoavoidinganybiasinthedata.Equipmentwasalsocleaned
properlytoensureprevioustrialsdidnotaffectlaterones.Thecontrols,
randomization,andreplicationallworkedtokeepthedataaccurateandvalid.
Eachcuponthecartwasgivenastickynotetowriteallinformationon,
includingobservations.Duringthefirstdatacollection,thepHofthesodaand
initialmassofalleggshellswastaken.TwentyfourhourslaterthepHofall
sodaswastakenagain.TwentyfourhourslaterthepHofallsodaswastaken
againandtheeggscleaned.Twentyfourhourslaterthefinalmasswastaken.

Becauseallstickynotesandeggshellswereputbackonthesamecup,
replicationwasmucheasieraseverythingwasorganized.Thedatawasthen
testedandanalyzedusingtheMatchedPairsttestoneachsoda.Thistestwas
appropriateforthisexperimentbecauseitcanbeusedtoanalyzeandcomparea
samplebeforeandafteratreatment.Inthisinstance,beforeandaftersoaking
theeggshellsinthedifferentsodaswerethetwocategories.Theconditionsfor
thistestarethatitisasimplerandomsampleandthatthedataisrelatively
normalorthesamplesizeisgreaterthanthirty.Also,descriptivestatisticswere
usedonthedata.Thedatawasputintographs,chartsandspreadsheetsand
thenanalyzedtoidentifytrends,skewness,andoutliersinthedata.
AboxplotwasusedtoobservethemasslossvaluesoftheDietPepsi
trials.

Figure8.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDietPepsi
Figure8aboveshowsaboxplotofthevaluesformasslossfortheDiet
Pepsi.Theplotshowsthatthedatafellbetween0.1558gand1.112g,disclosing

outliers.Thisgivesthedataarangeof0.9562g.Thedataappearstobeslightly
leftskewed,withanoutlieronthehigherendofthedataset.Thisoutlierhadan
averagepHof5.72,whichislowerthantheaveragepHforalltrialsat5.97
however,othertrialshadaloweraveragepHthan5.72andstillhadnormalmass
loss.Thiseggshellmayhavejustbeenveryweakandmoresusceptibletothe
acidsintheDietPepsi.Thedatameetstheaforementionedrequirementsof
havingthirtytrialsandhavingalltrialsbeingrandomlysampledwithequal
likelihood.ThehypothesesfortheMatchedpairsttestareshownbelow.
H o : = 0
H a : > 0
Figure9.NullandAlternativeHypothesesforDietPepsiMassLoss
Figure9showsthenullandalternativehypothesisforthematchedpairs
ttestonthemasslossforDietPepsi.Thesymbol ismu,whichrepresents
themeanmasslossoftheDietPepsitrials.Thenullhypothesisstatesthatthere
isnomassloss,asthedifferencebetweentheinitialmassandfinalmassis
comparedtozero.Thealternativehypothesisstatesthattheinitialmassis
greaterthatthefinalmass.Thettestresultsarebelow.Theactualequationsfor
amatchedpairsttestcanbeseeninAppendix5.

Figure10.ttestCalculatorPageandpgraphforDietPepsiMassLoss
Figure10abovedisplaysapgraphandcalculatorpageforthematched
pairsttestconductedonthemasslossdataforDietPepsiusingtheTINSpire
StudentSoftware,alongwiththeresultsofthematchedpairsttest.
Unfortunately,thepvaluewassosmallitwasnotvisibleonthegraph.The
tvalueis12.1827,whichmeansthattheaveragemasslossforDietPepsitrials
is12.1827standarddeviationsawayfromzero.Thepvalueis3.13554*10and
13

thetvalueis12.1827.Thepvalueisbelowthealphalevelof0.05soH
was
o

rejected.Thereisevidencetosupportthatthereissignificantmasslossbetween
theinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmassoftheeggshells.Thereisonly
a3.13554*10%thatmasslossthisextremewouldhaveoccurredbychance
13

alone.

ThecontrolforDietPepsihadamasslossof0.3199g,whichisabitlarger

thanexpectedofthecontrol.Thecontrolswereexpectedtolosevirtuallyno
mass,around0.1g.Thismasslossisnonethelesssignificantlylessthanthe
meanmasslossforDietPepsiat0.714g,andassuchcanstillbeconsidered
abletoprovethatthetreatmentofDietPepsihadasignificanteffect.Itcan
thereforebeconcludedthatDietPepsicausesmasslossofeggshells.

AboxplotwasusedtoobservethemasslossvaluesoftheDietMountain
Dewtrials.

Figure11.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDietMountainDew
Figure11showsaboxplotofthevaluesformasslossfortheDiet
MountainDew.Theplotshowsthatthedatafellbetween0.3704gand1.0038g,
disclosingoutliers.Thisgivesthedataarangeof0.6334g.Thedataappearsto
beslightlyleftskewed,withtwooutliersonthehigherendofthedataset.The

twooutliersbothhaveloweraveragepHlevelsthanthemeanpHlevelforall
DietMountainDewtrials.Theaverageforalltrialsis5.855,theoutlierat1.3917g
hadanaveragepHof5.58,andtheoutlierof1.4494ghadanaveragepHof
5.84.ThefirstoutliermentioneddidhaveasomewhatloweraveragepHthanthe
meanforallDietMountainDewtrials,butthesecondmentionedoutlierhasapH
veryclosetothemeanforallDietMountainDewtrials.Theseeggshellsmay
havebeenveryweak,orwhiletheeggshellswerebeingwashedasmallpieceof
eggshellmayhavebrokenapartandfallendownthedrain.Thedatastillmeets
thettestassumptions,however.Thedatawasrandomlysampledandthere
werethirtytrialsconducted.ThehypothesesfortheMatchedpairsttestare
shownbelow.
H o : = 0
H a : > 0
Figure12.NullandAlternativeHypothesesforDietMountainDewMassLoss
Figure12showsthenullandalternativehypothesisforthematchedpairs
ttestonthemasslossforMountainDew.Thesymbol ismu,which
representsthemeanmasslossoftheDietMountainDewtrials.Themassloss
dataisthedifferencebetweentheinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmass
oftheeggshells.Thenullhypothesisstatesthatthereisnomassloss,asthe
masslossdataiscomparedto0.Thealternativehypothesisstatesthattheinitial
massisgreaterthatthefinalmass.TheTINSpirespreadsheetandpgraphused

forthettestisseenbelow.Theactualequationsforamatchedpairsttestcan
beseeninAppendix5.

Figure13.ttestCalculatorPageandpgraphforDietMountainDewMassLoss
Figure13displaysaTINspirecalculatorpageofthematchedpairsttest
conductedwithTINSpireStudentSoftwareforDietMountainDewmassloss
results,alongwiththepgraphofthetvalueforthettest.Unfortunately,the
pvaluewassosmallitwasnotvisibleonthepgraph.Thepvalueis1.4289*10
17

andthetvalueis17.9851.Thetvalueindicatesthattheaveragemasslossfor
DietMountainDewis17.9851standarddeviationsawayfromzero.Thepvalue
isbelowthealphalevelof0.05soH
wasrejected.Thereisevidencetosupport
o

thatthereissignificantmasslossbetweentheinitialmassoftheeggshellsand
thefinalmassoftheeggshellsforDietMountainDewtrials.Thereisonlya
1.4289*10%thatsuchextrememasslosswouldhaveoccurredbychance
17

alone.

ThecontrolforDietMountainDewhadamasslossof0.616g,whichis

considerablylargerthanexpectedoftheDietMountainDewcontroltrial,which

shouldhavebeenaround0.1g.Thismasslossislessthanthemeanmassloss
forDietMountainDewat0.7774g,butitishighenoughtoshowthattheremay
havebeensomethingwrongwiththeDietMountainDewcontrol.ThepHforthis
controlwaslowestofallthecontrolsat6.54,sotheremayhavebeenan
unintentionaltransferofsodaintothecup,causingextramassloss.Thisis
otherwiseunusualasthedistilledwaterforallcontrolscamefromthesamejug.
ThisstillmeansthatitcanbeconcludedthatDietMountainDewcausesmass
lossofeggshells.However,becausetheDietMountainDewcontrolisveryclose
totheaveragefortheDietMountainDewtrials,tosaythatDietMountainDew
causesmasslossofaneggshellisincorrect,andforthisparticularsetofdatait
wasnotconcludedthattheMountainDewalonecausedmassloss.However,the
totalofallcontrolsyieldedanaveragemasslossof0.343g,whichisconsiderably
smallerthantheDietMountainDewtrialsaveragemasslossof0.7774g.And
giventhattheDietMountainDewcontrolhasalowerpHlevelthananyother
trialitissafetoassumethattheDietMountainDewtreatmentiswhatcaused
themasslossoftheeggshells.
AboxplotwasusedtoobservetheDiet7UptrialsMassloss.

Figure14.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDiet7Up

Figure14showsaboxplotofthevaluesformasslostfortheDiet7Up.

Theplotshowsthatthedatafellbetween0.3372gand1.3077g.Thisgivesthe
dataarangeof0.9705g.Thedataappearstoberightskewed,withtwooutliers
onthehigherendofthedataset.Theoutlierof1.6167ghadanaveragepHof
6.55,andtheoutlierof1.6980ghadanaveragepHof6.31.TheaveragepHfor
all7Uptrialsis6.39,meaningthattheoutliershadrelativelynormalpHlevels
whencomparedtotheaverageforall7Uptrials.Thetwooutliersmaytherefore
beenbrokeneggshellsthatlostsomeoftheireggshellpieceswhilebeing
washed.Otherwise,theeggshellsfortheseoutlierscouldhavebeenveryweak,
andthusbrokedownmorethanothereggshellsinthepresenceofDiet7Up.
TheassumptionsforthematchedpairsttestweremetfortheDiet7Uptrials.
Thetrialswererandomlysampledwithequallikelihood,andthirtyDiet7Uptrials
wererun.Thehypothesesforthematchedpairsttestareshownbelow.
H o : = 0
H a : > 0
Figure15.NullandAlternativeHypothesesforDiet7UpMassLost
Figure15showsthenullandalternativehypothesisforthematchedpairs
ttestonthemasslossforDiet7Up.The inthesehypothesisisthedifference

betweentheinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmassoftheeggshells,
knownasmassloss.ThenullhypothesiscomparesthemasslossforDiet7Up
tozero,meaningthatiftheDiet7Uptreatmenthadnoeffecttherewouldbeno
masslossoftheeggshells.Thealternativehypothesisstatesthattheinitialmass
oftheeggshellsisgreaterthanthatofthefinalmassoftheeggshellsforDiet
7Uptrials,meaningthattheDiet7Uptreatmentcausedsignificantmassloss.
TheTINSpirespreadsheetusedforthettestisseeninFigure16.Theactual
equationsforamatchedpairsttestcanbeseeninAppendix5.

Figure16.ttestCalculatorPageandpgraphforDiet7UpMassLoss

Figure16abovedisplaysaTINspirecalculatorpageandpgraphofthe

matchedpairsttestconductedfortheDiet7UpmasslossusingtheTINSpire
StudentSoftware.Unfortunately,thepvaluewassosmallitwasnotvisibleon
thepgraph.Thepvalueis2.6591*10andthetvalueis12.2652.Thetvalue
13

indicatesthattheaveragemasslossforDiet7Uptrialswas12.2652standard
deviationsfromzero.Thepvalueisbelowthealphalevelof0.05soH
was
o

rejected.Thereisevidencetosupportthatthereissignificantmasslossbetween
theinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmassoftheeggshellsforDiet7Up
trials.Thereisonlya2.6591*10%thatmasslossthisextremewouldhave
13

occurredbychancealone.

ThecontrolforDiet7Uphadamasslossof0.094g,whichisaboutwhat

wasexpectedofacontrolasthecontrolsshouldhavehadaminimummassloss
aroundabout0.1g.ThismasslossisratherminutewhencomparedtotheDiet
7Upsaveragemasslossof0.73451g.Thismakesadifferenceof0.64051g
betweentheDiet7UptrialsaveragemasslossandthecontrolforDiet7Up.It
canthereforebeconcludedthatDiet7Upcausesmasslossofeggshellsasthe
distilledwatercontrolshowedveryminimalmasslosswhencomparedtothe
averageDiet7Uptrialsmassloss.
ThedatacollectedfromtheMatchedPairsttestsprovidesveryuseful
information.Furthermore,graphsandchartscanbeillustratedbasedoffthedata.
Inobservingthesegraphsandchartstrendsinthedatacanbeseen.For
example,allthesodasrespectivetrialshadoutlierswithhighmasslossvalues
andnotverylowmasslossvalues.Theoutlierswillpulltheaveragemassloss
towardsthem,causingthemeantobelargerthanthemedian.Forexample,the
medianoftheDietPepsidatais0.766600g,whilethemeanis0.777353g.Both

ofthesevaluesareessentiallymeanttobethecenterofthedata,howeverthe
meanispulledbytheoutliersandthemedianisresistanttothiseffect.
Inordertoensurethedatasvaliditycontroltrialswereconducted.These
controlsuseddistilledwaterratherthansoda.Thiswillshowifthesodaistruly
whatcausesthemasslossoftheeggshell.Acontroltrialwasdoneforeachof
thethreesodas.However,theirvalueswerenotveryconsistent.Theonlycontrol
toprovidedataaswasexpectedwastheDiet7Upcontrol,withamasslossof
0.094g.Theothertwocontrolswerelargerthanpredicted,losing0.3199gand
0.616gforDietPepsiandDietMountainDewrespectively.Lookingatthe
averagepHlevelsforeachcontrol,theDietPepsicontrolhadanaveragepHof
6.72,theDietMountainDewcontrolhadanaveragepHof6.54,andtheDiet
7UpcontrolhadanaveragepHof7.05.ThesepHvaluesdirectlycorrelateto
themasslossvaluesfortheirrespectivetrial.TheDietMountainDewcontrolhad
thelowestpHandthegreatestmassloss.TheDietPepsicontrolhadapHlevel
andamasslossvaluebetweentheDietMountainDewControlandDiet7Up
control.TheDiet7UpcontrolhadthehighestpHandtheleastmassloss.
Whilethemasslossvaluesforthecontrolswerenotallwhatwas
expected,thepHlevelsoftheDietPepsiandMountainDewcontrolscorrelateto
theirrespectivemasslossvalueswhenthecontrolswerecomparedto
oneanother.Additionally,sincethepHandmasslossvaluesforthecontrols
correlatetoeachother,itmakessensethattheDietPepsiandMountainDew
controlslostthemassthattheydid.ThetwocontrolshadlowerpHlevelsthan

Diet7Up.Thisallowstheconclusionthatthesodascausedthemasslossofthe
eggshellstobeaccepted,asthereisavalidreasonastowhytheDietPepsiand
MountainDewtrialsbehavedthewaytheydid.
Theinconsistencyofthecontrolswouldhinttowardapoorprocedureand
executionofthetrials.However,theaverageofthecontrols,0.3433g,ismuch
smallerthanthegrandaverageofallsodatrials,0.741882g.Additionally,the
averagepercentmasslossforthecontrolswas5.698%.Thepercentmassloss
forDietPepsi,DietMountainDew,andDiet7Upwere11.094%,11.988%,and
11.483%respectively.Becausethereisaclearaveragedifferencebetweensoda
anddistilledwater,thetreatmentisacceptedasavalidwaytostatethattheDiet
sodatreatmentshadaneffectontheeggshells.
ThesodathatcausedthemostmasslossoftheeggshellswasDiet
MountainDewwiththehighestaveragemasslossof0.7774gandthelowest
pvalueof1.4289*10.
17

Conclusion
Insocietytoday,sodasareverypopular.However,peopledonot
understandtheeffectsofsodaontheirdentalhealth.Theproblemofthis
researchwashowdodifferentdietsodaswithdifferentpropertiesbreakdown
toothenamelandcausemasslossofthetooth.Itwashypothesizedthatwhen

teetharesoakedinDietPepsiforapproximately24hours,themasslossin
gramswillbethegreatestwhencomparedtoDiet7UpandDietMountainDew.
Thecontrolsfortheexperimentyieldedunexpectedresults.TheDiet
PepsicontrolhadanaveragepHof6.72andamasslossof0.320g.TheDiet
MountainDewcontrolhadanaveragepHof6.54andamasslossof0.616g.
TheDiet7UpcontrolhadanaveragepHof7.05andamasslossof0.094.
Lookingattheseresults,theaveragepHofthecontrolsandthemasslossare
inverselyproportional.ThelowerthepHlevelisthemoremasslossofthe
eggshellforthecontrol.ThisisbecausepHlevelslowerthan7areconsidered
acidic,andeggshellslosemassandcalciuminthepresenceofacid(Anderson,
Jacobson).Thecontrolsweresetupwiththeassumptionthattheywouldallhave
apHof7.BecausethispHisconsideredneutralandnotacidic,nomasslossof
theeggshellsinthecontrolswasexpected(Anderson).However,sincethe
averagepHlevelsoftheDietPepsiandDietMountainDewcontrolswerelower
than7,theeggshellsforthoselostmassproportionaltohowmuchlowerthe
averagepHlevelwasfrom7.SincethecontrolwithanaveragepHcloseto7lost
virtuallynomasswhiletheothercontrolslostmassproportionaltotheiraverage
pHlevels,thecontrolswerestillacceptedasproofthatthesodatreatmentsin
theothertrialswerewhatcausedthemasslossoftheeggshells.
Thehypothesiswasrejectedbecauseitwasnotsupportedbythedata.
TheaveragemasslossoftheeggshellssoakedinDietMountainDewwas
0.777g.TheaveragemasslossforDietPepsieggshellswas0.714g,andforDiet

7Uptheaveragemasslosswas0.735g.Additionally,thematchedpairsttests
conductedoneachtypeofsodasmasslossdataindicatedthatDietMountain
Dewhadthegreatestmassloss.ThetvaluefortheDietMountainDewtrials
wassignificantlyhigherthanthoseofothersodas,andthepvaluewasthe
lowestwhencomparedtotheothersodatrials.DietMountainDewalsohadthe
lowestaveragepHat5.855.Thisseemsodd,asthepHchartfromaprevious
studythatwasutilizedtomakethehypothesisstatedthatDietPepsishouldhave
alowerpHthanDietMountainDew(vonFraunhofer).However,interestingly,the
chartalsoindicatesthatDietMountainDewthananyothersodausedinthe
otherstudy(vonFraunhofer).Colas,whilehavingveryacidicpHlevels,donot
causeagreatermasslossoftoothenameloreggshellsthanothersodas
(Lloyd).
Giventhatthisexperimentsdatasupportsthisfinding,thisindicatesthat
pHhaslessoveralleffectontheerosionofenamelthanexpected,andindicates
thatotherprocessesworkedtobreakdowntheeggshells,andthustooth
enamel.
DietMountainDewcontainsmorecaffeinethantheothertwosodasused
inthisexperiment.DietMountainDewcontains54mgofcaffeineper12fl.oz
can,whileDietPepsicontains35mgandDiet7Upcontainsnocaffeine
(CaffeineContentofDrinks).Drinkingcaffeinatedbeveragesstainsteethand
erodestoothenamel(Ipatenco).Thereisacorrelationbetweentheamountof
caffeineintakeandtheamountoftootherosionandstainingpresent(Ipatenco).

Thestainingcomesmostlyfromthereactionbetweenthesodaandthetooths
plaque,andisadentalhealthconcern(TheCaffeine/DentalHealthConnection:
1800Dentist.com).Artificialsweetenersnegateanypossiblehealthbenefits
gainedfromcaffeine,andDietMountainDewisknowntocontainaspartame
(TheCaffeine/DentalHealthConnection:1800Dentist.com,CaffeineContentof
Drinks).Aspartameisaknownsugarsubstitute(SugarSubstitutes|Aspartame).
Whencaffeineispresentduringtheerosionprocess,caffeinehelpstospeedup
theseprocesses(Fesler).Thispairingofhighcaffeinelevelsandanartificial
sweetenerlikelyledtoafasterbreakdownofthecalciumcompoundsonthe
eggshell,whichmadetheDietMountainDewtrialslosethegreatestaverage
massoutofallthreesodasusedinthisexperiment.
Furthermore,DietPepsicontainsamuchlowerconcentrationofcitricacid
comparedtotheothersodas(Pearson).ThisisalargefactorastowhyDiet
Pepsiandcolasalikecauselesstoothdecayandmasslossdespitetheirmore
acidicpHlevels(vonFraunhofer,Lloyd).Citricacidisespeciallyharmfultoteeth
andcausesdeteriorationofcalciumcompounds(Pearson).
Diet7Updidnothavesurprisinglyunexpecteddata.Whileitdidnothave
anycaffeine,thehighconcentrationofcitricacidcausedmasslossand
deterioration(Pearson).Citricacidworkstobreakdowntoothenamelanderode
thedentineofteeth(Pearson).ThiscausedDiet7Uptoresultinagreatermass
lossthanDietPepsi.HoweverDietMountainDewhadthegreatestmassloss
duetotheconcentrationsofbothcitricacidandcaffeine,bothbreakingdown

calciumcompoundsovertimeandweakeningthestructureofeithertooth
enamel,eggshells,oranyothersubstanceswithsimilarmolecularmakeups
exposedtothecitricacidorcaffeine(Pearson).
Thisexperimentisaccurateandgivesusefulinformationinseveralways.
Oneofthesewaysistheuseofeggshellstosimulatetoothenamel.Itmadethe
experimentmuchcheaperandeasierasgettingaholdofhumanteethcanbe
toughandexpensive.Anotherwaytheexperimentisaccurateisthatmanytrials
wererunforeachsoda.Thirtytrialspersodahelpedtoallowstatisticalteststo
beusedtoanalyzethedatabeyondbasiccalculationsdonewiththedata.This
followedalltheconditionsfortheanalyzingoftheexperimentaldata.Finally,the
organizationoftheexperimentwasefficient.Theuseofa4levelcartandsticky
noteshelpedtoaccuratelyandeasilyrunlargeamountsoftrialsinashortspan
oftime.
Thisexperimentisalsopoorinsomeways.Oneofthewaysthe
experimentisbadistheuseofthepooraccuracyofthepHsensors.Additionally,
thecontrolsfortheexperimentwereinconsistent.Toavoidtheissueswiththe
controlsfortheexperiment,threecontroltrialsshouldberunforeachsoda,and
theaveragemasslossandpHofeachcontrolsetcouldbecomparedtothe
averagemasslossandpHofeachrespectivesodatrials.
Oneoftheproblemsencounteredduringresearchwasthecrackingofthe
eggshellsused.Foramajorityoftheeggshellsused,therewaslittletono
cracking.However,someoftheeggshellshadminorcracking,andafew

eggshellshadmajorcracking.Noneoftheeggshellscrackedtothepointwhere
largeportionswerecompletelybrokenofformissing,soitmostlikelydidnot
haveasignificanteffectontheresults.However,thereisstillreasontobelieve
thecrackedeggswouldhavelessmassthanthewholeandunbrokenonesdue
tosmallpieceschippingofforbeingwashedoff.
Anotherproblemencounteredduringresearchwastheeggshellsfloating
tothetopofthecup.Althoughmosteggshellswerelodgedinthecuptowhere
theywerecompletelysubmerged,therewereafeweggshellsthatwerenot
completelysubmerged.Someeggshellsweretoobigtobecompletely
submerged,whilesomeeggshellsjustwouldnotstaylodgedinthecup.When
eggswerefoundtonotbecompletelysubmerged,attemptsweremadeto
resubmergetheeggshells.Bynotbeingcompletelysubmerged,lesssurface
areaisexposedtotheacidicsodaeacheggshellisplacedin.However,thesoda
stillcoveredmostofthesurfaceareaandwasinsidetheegg.Furthermore,the
eggsthatdidfloattothesurfacewerenotoutliersintheexperimentandwerenot
notablydifferentthanothertrials.Also,sincefeweggshellswerenotcompletely
submerged,thishadlittlesignificanteffectontheresults.
Asidefromfixingerrors,therewasonemajorthingthathadtobe
excludedfromtheexperimenttheuseofregularsodascontainingsugar.The
issuewithusingregularsodasisthatregularsodascontainsugar,whichwillbe
brokendownintoacidsinthemouthbysalivaandbacteria(Braun).Because
therewasnoaccesstomouthbacteriaorsalivaforthisexperiment,collecting

dataonhowmuchregularsodabreaksdownenamelwouldbeinaccurate,as
sugarwouldbeavariableunaccountedfor.Furtherresearchonthesubjectof
sodaerosionontoothenamelcouldfindawaytoaccuratelyexperimenton
regularsodasthatcontainsugarbysimulatingahumanmouthbycontaining
mouthbacteria.Thiswouldallowresearcherstofindoutwhatregularsodasare
themostdamagingtohumanteeth.
Furthermore,eggshellswereusedtorepresentteethintheexperiment.
Whilethecalciumcompoundsintheeggshellsandthecalciumcompoundsin
theteetharesimilar,theyarenotexactlyalike.Thesecompoundsarecalcium
phosphate(Ca
(PO
)
)andcalciumcarbonate(CaCO
)forteethandeggshells
3
4
2
3
respectively(Jacobson).Usingactualhumanteethintheexperimentwouldlikely
yieldmoreaccurateresultsinplaceoftheeggshells.Howevertheyarefairly
expensiveanddifficulttoacquire.Usingteethinthisexperimentcouldbedonein
furtherresearch.
Infurtherresearchitwouldbeessentialtochoosesodaswithamuch
largerrangeofpHtoaccuratelyidentifythepatternofmassloss.Thelarger
rangeofpHwillgivemoreconvincingresultsontheeffectofacidityandpHlevel.
Thesmallrangecausesthedatatoshowlessofapatternanddoesnotshow
much.Increasingtherangecouldgreatlyimprovetheexperimentasawhole
(Lloyd).PossiblesodastouseinfurtherresearchmaybeDietPepsi,DietSprite,
andDietA&WRootBeer,astherangepHinthesesodasisroughlytwiceas
largeasthatofthesodasusedintheexperiment(vonFraunhofer).

Additionally,animportantimprovementcanbemadeinthedesignofthe
experiment.Onlythreeoverallcontrolswereusedintheexperiment,onefor
eachdietsoda.However,thecontrolswerenotconsistent.Thecontroltrialsmay
havebeenmuchmoreaccurateiftherewerethreecontrolsconductedforeach
soda,ratherthanthreeoverall.Thesethreecontrolscanthenbeaveragedfor
accurateandlegitimatedata.Itisdifficulttoreferenceinaccuratedata.
Theinformationgainedfromthisexperimentcouldbeusedbroadly.The
datacouldbeusedindentistryandtorecommenddrinkingcertainsodasover
others.Also,itisveryusefulforthegeneralpublicandthoseconcernedfortheir
dentalhealth.Theyshouldunderstandthatdietsodas,astheonesusedinthis
experiment,deteriorateteethanddamagedentalhealth.Theexperimenthelpsto
breakthemisconceptionthatdietsodaissafefordentalhealth.Thegeneral
publiccouldalsolearnwhichdietsodaistheworstfortheirteeth,andwhatthey
mightwanttoavoid.

Appendix1:BlowingOutEggInnards

Materials
:

93CountryBrookFarmsGradeALargeEggs
Nail
93Toothpicks
193Straws

Procedure
:

1.
Usethenailtocreatetwoholesonthetopandbottomofanegg.

2.
Beginbreakingaparttheeggyolkinsidetheeggbystickingatoothpick
intobothholesoftheeggandmovingthetoothpickaroundtheinsideof
theegg.

3.
Oncetheyolkisthoroughlybrokenapart,placeastrawontopofoneof
theholesintheeggandbeginblowingtheeggyolkoutoftheotherholein
theeggusingthestraw.Makesurethattheeggyolkfallsintoareceptacle
whilebeingblownout.

4.
Washofftheinsideandoutsideoftheeggusingtapwateroverasink.
5.

Useanotherstrawtoblowtheexcesswateroutoftheeggshell.

6.

Repeatsteps15foreachegguntilalleggshavehadtheiryolksblown
out.Usedifferenttoothpicksandstrawsforeachegg.Keeptheegg
cartonstheeggscamein.

7.

Thoroughlywashhandsoncedonehandlinganyeggyolksandshells.

Appendix2:RandomizationofTrials

Materials
:

30CupsofDietPepsi
30CupsofDietMountainDew
30CupsofDiet7Up
3Cupsofdistilledwater
TINSpireCalculator

Procedure
:
1.

nd
Placethe30cupsofDietPepsiontothe2
levelofthecart.

2.

Placethe30cupsofDietMountainDewontothe3rdlevelofthecart.

3.

Placethe30cupsofDiet7Upontothe4thlevelofthecart.

4.

Placethe3cupsofdistilledwaterontothe1stlevelofthecart.

5.

Separateeachlevelinto3sections.Thelevelswithsodawillbeseparated
intothreegroupsof10andthedistilledwaterwillbeseparatedintothree
groupsof1.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Assign1toDietPepsi,2toDietMountainDew,and3toDiet7Up.
UsetherandomintegerfunctionontheTINSpiretoprintoutarandom
integer1through3untileachintegerhasbeenprintedoffonce.
Markthetrialnumbersonthefirstsetof10cupsonthestickynoteson
thecups.Thefirstintegerthatwasrandomlyprintedoutwillcorrespondto
theassignedvalueforthesoda.Forexample,ifa1wasrandomlyprinted
offfirst,thenthefirst10trialswouldbethefirstsetof10DietPepsicups.
RepeatStep8untilthefirst10setofcupsforallthesodashavebeen
assignedtrials.
RepeatSteps69forthesecondandthirdsetsofcupsforeachsoda.
Assigntheintegers1,2,and3tothedistilledwatercups.
RepeatStep7forthedistilledwater.Whicheverdistilledwaterwas
randomlychosenfirstwillbethefirstdistilledwatertrialandthesecond
chosenwillbetheseconddistilledwatertrialandsoon.

Figure1.CartofRandomizedTrials
Figure1showsavisualofhowallthetrialswereorganizedonthecart.
nd
Theverytopofthecartcontainsthecontrolsandsomesupplies.The2
levelof
rd
thecarthastheDietPepsicups,the3
levelhastheDietMountainDewcups,
th
andthe4
levelhasalltheDiet7Upcups.

Appendix3:TakingthepHoftheSodas
Materials
:

3pHMeters(0.01precision)
LabQuest
3250mLBeakers
300mlDistilledwater
TINSpireCalculator

Procedure
:

1.
SetuptheLabQuestbyplacingthethreepHmetersintotheproperspots
ontheLabQuest.

2.
Place100mLofdistilledwaterintoeach250mLBeaker.

3.
RandomizetheorderinwhichthepHofeachcupofsodawillbetaken
usingthemethodsseeninAppendix2.Exceptdonotlabeltheorderof
thetrialsonthestickynotesmorethanonce.Therandomizationdonefor
thecupsofsodathefirsttimeistheonlythingthatdeterminesthetrial
numberofthecups.

4.
Taketheelectrodesoutofthestoragesolution.

5.
Intheorderoftherandomization,takethepHofeachcupofsodaor
distilledwaterwithanelectrode,oneperperson,andrecorditonthe
stickynoteontherespectivecupandtheinadatatable.

Appendix4:MassLossFormulas

Theequationaboveshowstheformulausedtocalculatethemasslossof
theeggshellsaftertheyweresoakedinthesodafora48hourperiod.An
applicationofthisformulaisseenbelow.

Figure1.MassLossApplication
Figure1aboveshowsasimpleapplicationofthemasslossformula.The
numbers8and6representthemassbeforeandafterrespectivelyand2
representstheoverallmassloss.

Theequationaboveshowstheformulausedtocalculatethemasslossof
theeggsshellsaftertheyweresoakedinthesodafora48hourperiodasa
percentage.

Anapplicationofthisformulaisseenbelow.
50% = 1 12
Figure2.PercentMassLossApplication
Figure2aboveshowsabasicapplicationofthepercentmassloss
formula.The1isusedtofindthemasslossaspercentwhentheratioofmass

beforeandafterissubtractedfromit.The1intheratiorepresentsmassafter
andthe2intheratiorepresentsthemassbefore.

Appendix5:StatisticalTestSampleCalculations
Thematchedpairsttestisusedforcomparingpropertiesbeforeandafter
atreatmentisimposedonthesamesubjects.Itusesthesameformulaasaone
samplettestseeninFigure1below.However,insteadofcomparingthesample
mean x toapopulationmean ,thedifferencebetweenthesubjectsbefore
treatmentandthesubjectsaftertreatmentiscomparedtozero.
t=

(x)
(sn )

t=

(x)
(sn )

t = ((50g0g)

42
)
81sodas

t = 0.1323g
Figure1.OneSampletTestEquation
Figure1showstheequationofamatchedpairsttest.Thedifference
betweentheinitialmassofaneggshellandthefinalmassofthateggshellis x
grams.Thepopulationmeanisrepresentedby ,whichinthecaseofa
matchedpairsttestisalwayszero.Thestandarderrorisrepresentedby( s/n ),
wheresisthestandarddeviation,andnistheamountoftrials.Thisequation

solvesforthetvalue,whichisthenumberofstandarddeviationsaboveorbelow
themeanofzerothatthedifference x is.Thetvalueforthiscalculationis0.1323
grams.

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