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UNIT

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

Apply co-ordinate geometry techniques to points and lines.

Objective:

M7-1

References:

Theta Mathematics (New) Chapters18, 19

[(Old) Chapters16, 20]

Workbook: IAS 2.1

Read the textbook; make notes; follow through worked examples and explanations; do the exercises
GRAPHICS calculators
- speed up the work and can enhance it
Lesson

Objectives
Given two points on a line (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) sketch them!
The Distance between the points: =

( x1 x 2 ) 2 ( y1 y 2 ) 2

This is Pythagoras at work!


1
plus homework time

Midpoint of the line between the points:

x1 x 2 y1 y 2
,

2
2

The midpoint is way between the two xs and way between the two ys

Gradient of the Line:

m=

rise
run

difference in y ' s
tan
difference in x ' s
= =

Workbook

Do Achieved
questions first!
Distance
P3-6, #1-22
Midpoint
P7-10, #23-60
Gradient
P11-13, #61-83
Do Merit/Ex
questions when
revising, next term!

Where is the angle the line makes with the positive x-direction

Equations of Lines:
through point (x1, y1) with gradient, m:
2
plus homework time

This is the ONLY formula provided in the assessment:

y y1 = m(x x1)

Sometimes, it will be easier to use this form of the straight line:


y = mx + c where gradient is m, and y-intercept, c

More about Lines:


4
plus homework time

Parallel Lines

have equal gradients i.e. m1 = m2

Perpendicular Lines: have gradient product = 1 i.e. m 1. m2 = 1

Do Achieved
questions first!
Equations
P14-18,
#84-115
Do Merit/Ex
questions when
revising, next term!
Only Achieved
questions!
// and lines
P19-24,
#116-132

Collinear points: lie on the same straight line

Draw straight lines, from their equations:


5
plus homework time

6
plus homework time

7-8
plus homework

plot the y-intercept, then use the gradient to get another point; draw the line through
the two points
put x = 0 to find y-intercept; put y = 0 to find x-intercept; draw the line through the
two intercepts
Write equations for straight lines, from their graphs:
identify the gradient and y-intercept and substitute into the equation: y = mx + c
identify two points on the line; substitute their co-ordinates into the equation:
y y1 = . (x x1)

Intersections between lines


Solve the equations simultaneously by substitution / elimination / graphics calculator.
There may be no solutions (lines do not meet at all they are parallel).

Applications of Straight Lines - ALWAYS DRAW PICTURES !!!


Practise assessment-type questions

Do Achieved
questions first!
Linear Graphs
P25-27,
#133 148
Do Merit/Ex
questions when
revising, next term!
Do Achieved
questions first!
Intersections
P28 - 31,
#149 - 160
Go back and do
M/E questions if
there is time
Applications
P32 - 40,
#161 - 169