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Introduction
Imagine being at a family party, with family members consuming alcohol. Do you
ever wonder how long the alcohol will be in their system? With kinetics, this can
determine by finding the rate of the reactions of alcohol. This is not only used with
alcohol, but many other situations. This lab inspected six different reactions.
This purpose of this paper is to display how the rates of six different reactions are
found, and what this means. The six reactions come from either crystal violet (C N H Cl),
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malachite green (C H ClN ), or phenolphthalein (C H O ) mixed with either 0.01 or 0.02
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M sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Crystal violet is an intense, beautiful, deep purple solution,
when mixed with sodium hydroxide it will dissolve, and become almost colorless over
time. Malachite green and phenolphthalein are both in the same class of chemicals with
crystal violet. Malachite green is a vibrant green solution, while phenolphthalein is a
colorless compound. Although when mixed with sodium hydroxide, create a pink
solution.
In this experiment, a colorimeter was used to determine the absorbance of the
reactions. With this raw data, the rate of the reaction was determined, using three
different equations. First, Beer’s law was used to take the raw absorbance and determine
the micromolar concentration of the crystal violet, malachite green, or phenolphthalein
(See Appendix B for sample calculation). With the micromolar concentration, the order of
the reaction was determined by taking the natural log and reciprocal of the concentrations
recorded. Whichever of the graphs had a better regression would determine the order of
the reaction. The more appropriate regression model is chosen by the graph that contains
less error and a smaller amount of residuals. After the order of the reaction is determined

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the rate law can be used to determine the rate of the reaction (See Appendix B for sample
calculation). The rate of the reaction is recorded in concentration (M) vs time (s).
The rate of these specific reactions does not necessarily have many real world
applications, although it is very useful to do this experiment. The step by step procedure
from taking the absorbance and getting the rate of the reaction is done in this lab. For
example, go back to the alcohol reference; the rate of the reaction can be used to
determine how long alcohol is in someone’s body. This is because alcohol has a certain
ionization rate, this ionization rate displays how long it takes alcohol to metabolize. With
this information the amount of alcohol metabolized can compared to the amount of
alcohol absorbed in the bloodstream.

Review of Literature

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The purpose of this experiment was to determine the order and rate of reaction for
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and; crystal violet (C N H Cl), malachite green (C H ClN ),
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and phenolphthalein (C H O ), using spectroscopy and graphical analysis (Chen). Crystal
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violet is a unique, purple compound that belongs to the group of triphenylmethane dyes,
which is a class of intense colorful organic compounds (Compound). Malachite green and
phenolphthalein also belong to the same group as crystal violet. Malachite green is a deep
green substance, while phenolphthalein is colorless. Although phenolphthalein is
colorless, when it reacts with sodium hydroxide it becomes a deep pink.
Kinetic chemistry is a branch of science in which the rates of chemical reactions
occur, or how quickly reactants turn into products. The rate of a reaction is measured in
concentration vs. time (s), and when a catalyst is present, there are four major factors that
can affect the reaction rate. First, the concentration of the reactant. Second, the
concentration of the catalyst, then the temperature, and finally, the surface area of the
solid reactant and catalyst. Although, all reactions do not need a catalyst, and the surface
area of the reactant and the catalyst is not a factor when the reaction occurs between two
aqueous solutions.
In a reaction, there are many steps that occur. There is an activation energy (E )
a

needed for every reaction to take place. This activation energy is the minimum amount of
energy required to get the chemicals to move and collide with one another to create new
substances, or the products in a reactant. The molecules get this activation energy from
their kinetic energy, which is the speed of the chemicals. When energy is added to the
reactants, they can transition in a reaction to form the products.

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Figure 2. Activation Energy (E ).
a

Figure 2 displays an example of an exothermic reaction. The substances A
and B are mixed together to start the reaction. The maximum of the graph, or peak, is
when the reaction begins. That is this reaction's activation energy.
The molecules in a reaction also have to collide with each other at certain places
and in the right way, called the steric factor. An atom must hit another atom with the
correct orientation to react, if they do not hit in the right way, the molecules will not

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react. To compare, if the backs of two velcro strips are rubbed together, they will never
stick, they must come in contact on the right side (Khan).
Rate of reaction is a multistep process. The speed of the reaction is only as fast as
its slowest step. To analyze the rate of the reaction, a spectrophotometer or colorimeter
needs to be used (Chen). The reaction that took place was simulated like this:
CV + OH → CVOH
This is a simple equation used to represent the actual reaction. The crystal violet
(C N H Cl), CV , is purple when alone. Although, when it was mixed with sodium
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hydroxide (NaOH), represented with OH, the end product came out to be colorless. Also,
an equation can be used to calculate the rate of the reaction:
Rate = k[CV] [OH]
n

m

In this reaction, k is a rate constant used for a reaction taken place at a particular
temperature. The exponents n and m are defined as the order of reaction for each reactant,
as the inputs for the solutions are the concentration, or molarity, of the substances. With
this equation, the rate of reaction was calculated. The rate of a reaction describes the
speed, concentration over time, of the reaction, at the temperature where the reaction took
place.
Multiple previous works have been found. Many are very similar, in which they
discussed kinetics and rate of reactions. Most of these labs have also used crystal violet
and sodium hydroxide as reactants in these reactions. One lab shows crystal violet
reacting with sodium hydroxide to get the absorbance and concentration of crystal violet,
then analyzed the natural log, and inverse of the concentrations (Lee). Another displayed
different amounts of crystal violet reactions over the effect of time (Vang). This lab tends

Beer’s Law is used in this experiment to state that the optical absorbance of a chromophore in a transparent solvent varies with both the sample cell and the chromophore concentration (Beer's). Beer’s Law is equal to absorbance. 10 mL of 0. It was concluded through the multiple works read. malachite green. Crystal violet being tested with sodium hydroxide to react. times the wavelength of the colorimeter used to record the data. In this experiment the unknown value will be the concentration of the substance. and at varying temperatures.02 M and then 5 mL of 0. Similar outcomes were expected between this lab and previous searched. The same reaction rates were unlikely to be found due to the fact that each reaction has its own concentration and occurs at a certain temperature. A. path length.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 6 to be different due to the contrasting treatments used. over amounts of time. See Appendix B for an example of concentration being solved for. is given. c. were going to be used in this lab. e. and absorbance is recorded. or phenolphthalein. times the path length. this can be solved for because the wavelength. .01 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used in this lab with 10 mL of crystal violet. equals concentration of the solution. or width of the cuvette used to hold the solution (A=c*e*l). The Flynn Scientific Lab was used as a basis for this lab.

When the regression line of the natural log of the concentration of the solution is better than the regression line of the inverse of the concentration of the solution. With the reaction order. This is then plugged . a lot can be done.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 7 Figure 1. this is to determine the reaction order. The rate order is determined simply by looking at the graphed plots of the natural log and reciprocal of the concentration of the solution. The data shown on the figure is just an example of a reaction. the natural log and reciprocal of the concentration is taken. If neither of the linear regression lines look anywhere near the plotted data points. the reaction is second order. this is a crucial part in determining the rate of the reaction. First things first. As shown. If the regression line of the reciprocal of the concentration of the solution is better than the natural log regression line. there is a linear relationship between the two variables. then the reaction is zero order. Beer’s Law Example. the reaction is first order. which is what beer’s law stated. Once concentration is determined. k can be found. Figure 1 shows an example of beer’s law. The units were absorbance vs concentration (M).

to experiment with. are made every day. to dissolve. Spectroscopy can also be used to study. There are many variables that can be changed to experiment with. quantify. to help. With many factors that can affect a reaction. the colorimeter determines the concentration of a solution. This experiment used a colorimeter to determine the absorbance level of the reactions that took place (Vernier). See Appendix B for a sample of solving for k. and identify those materials. Spectroscopy is a technique for scientific measurement that measures lights that is emitted. A reaction rate was used as part of the experiment to measure the change in concentration (if any) of the reactants. it’s purpose is to analyze and there are various types of spectroscopy that can be used to analyze. The k value is then plugged m into the rate law to determine the rate of the reaction. scattered. or be put to personal use. After analyzing the reactions color intensity. or absorbed by materials (Wiggins). The colorimeter has different wavelength readings. Solutions of all kinds. and more. Rate of reactions can be controlled and monitored to produce the solution that was hoped for. it is applied to many occurrences that happen to people in their everyday lives. which were used for the different chemical reactions that occurred (see Appendix A for the used wavelengths). is a much broader topic than just rate of reactions. there are many possibilities that could occur. Overall. The reaction rate is described as the change in concentration of a substance divided by the time interval. although.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 8 in form in the equation kʹ= k[X] to determine the k value. Kinetics. .

Data Measured: . which will change the rate of reaction according to k.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 9 Problem Statement Problem Statement: What is the reaction order and rate of reaction for each reaction between sodium hydroxide and: crystal violet. or phenolphthalein solutions? Hypothesis: Crystal violet and both concentrations of sodium hydroxide will be first order. malachite green and both concentrations of sodium hydroxide will be second order. and phenolphthalein along with both concentrations of sodium hydroxide will be zero order. malachite green.

0000001 precision) Data collection software (LabQuest) 5 Pipets. Experimental Design Materials: Crystal violet (C25N3H30Cl). 50 mL Kimwipes or lens paper 1 Pipet bulb or pipet filler Water.1 x 10-5M solution. malachite green. 4 L . 2. 0. 10-mL 2 Beaker. When absorbance is found. 30 mL Sodium hydroxide solution. 2. 3.02 M. 1% alcoholic. which helps to determine the rate of each particular reaction with the rate.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 10 The data that will be measured is the absorbance between the chemical reaction of sodium hydroxide and.7 x 10-7 M solution. serological. 500 mL 3 Volumetric flask. crystal violet. 1% alcoholic. borosilicate. 1% alcoholic. NaOH. it will be used to find the reaction order and k value. distilled or deionized. 25 mL Malachite green (C23H25ClN2). 25 mL Phenolphthalein (C20H14O4). or phenolphthalein. 1000 mL 7 Cuvettes or test tubes 1 Stirring rod Colorimeter (0.5 x 10-5 M solution.

3. . set to a wavelength of 565 nm (unless otherwise told or needed). If liked. Diagram 1 displays the materials used in the lab. Before doing anything else. Materials. an apron may also be worn to protect from staining your clothes or skin.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 11 Diagram 1. Warm the colorimeter up for 10 to 15 minutes. 2. Procedure: 1. goggles must be put on to keep the chemicals from irritating the eyes. *Note* For safety reasons wear goggles and a lab coat or apron. See Appendix A for appropriate wavelength. Add 1 mL of crystal violet solution to the 1000 mL volumetric flask.

[CV] vs. The slope will be the pseudo-rate constant k.01 M NaOH. Place cuvette into colorimeter. Once the absorbance is recorded. make sure the arrow is pointing through the clear side of the cuvette and close the lid. After the 15 minutes remove the cuvette from the spectrophotometer. 14. Add the sodium hydroxide into the 50 mL beaker with crystal violet. The first couple measurements may be blank since the cuvette was not placed when started. and then phenolphthalein. The graph that gives a straight line (linear equation with slope) will be the rate of reaction for CV+. to create solution for a blank. (See Appendix B for conversions) 13. Once all data is recorded. Mix 10 mL of NaOH and 10 mL of H2O in a beaker. Mix and immediately press “Collect” to begin recording data (on LabQuest). “[CV]” equals the absorbance. Time (first order). and 1/[CV] vs. Make sure the arrow is pointing through the clear side of the cuvette and close the lid. Repeat steps 5-10 with 0. Time (Zero Order).02 M sodium hydroxide in a serological pipet. 11. (See Appendix C for LabQuest setup) 8. 6. Time (Second Order). 7. Fill the volumetric flask to the 1000 mL (or 1 liter) mark with distilled water to dilute the crystal violet. 5. and select calibrate (to set absorbance to zero). Repeat steps 3-19 but substitute crystal violet for malachite green. Fill a cuvette with the created mix. Measure 10 mL of 0. Record absorbance measurements every 20 seconds for 15 minutes. 10. Diagrams: . and 1/(micromolar concentration). (See Diagram 2) 9. convert it to micromolar concentration.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 12 4. graph ln [CV] vs.0 mL of the crystal violet solution within the 1000 mL volumetric flask and add it to a clean 50 mL beaker. Transfer the reacting solutions to a cuvette and clean the outside with a lint-free wipe. ln(micromolar concentration). Using a serological pipet. Always mix well before dispensing. Place into the colorimeter. 12. measure out 10.

with the smooth side facing the arrows.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 13 Diagram 2. Diagram 2 displays the cuvette being placed into the colorimeter the correct way. Example of Cuvette Placement. Data and Observations Data: Table 1. Crystal Violet(10 mL) with Sodium Hydroxide(10 mL) . as the colorimeter is plugged into the LabQuest to record the data. Crystal Violet Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide.

045876 0.058364 0.322624 1.798182 0.192749 -0.344018 0.065471 0.966146 0.255872 0.507317 86.978678 88.555240 1.363188 -0.604279 88.756073 0.660428 87.975370 90.070865 0.642988 0.154805 1.708916 0.002835 1.250086 -0.143932 -0.043223 0.454399 89.042126 0.832192 0.087669 0.594963 .062947 0.720489 81.124276 83.087142 87.151408 89.586393 83.824689 0.778734 0.720489 81.182789 1.756802 0.048398 0.718883 [CV] (micromolar ) 0.110962 -0.183692 0.064229 0.865947 0.057196 0.082201 0.044679 Trans (%T) Abs 90.894973 0.877017 0.954778 84.002831 -0.222117 1.212578 1.005964 86.330831 82.084438 0.086817 1.052545 0.391047 ln[CV] 1/[CV] -0.068997 0.410604 1.920118 0.086607 1.388888 -0.417482 -0.064863 1.252847 1.354728 1.067546 0.900764 0.291587 1.967625 0.053819 0.278653 -0.033458 1.149179 0.032910 0.004233 91.596163 86.344884 88.944405 85.344018 0.330057 0.279618 0.802442 0.735592 89.949269 0.358608 1.868034 89.053442 1.920296 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 14 Time (s) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 Time (s) 580 600 620 640 660 Trans (%T) Abs 81.736047 0.039962 0.284136 1.225418 0.201095 84.344018 0.861415 0.987336 1.418394 0.437907 1.755891 83.410604 1.038966 [CV] (micromolar ) 1.062846 -0.321349 1.708916 0.052063 0.475339 1.818252 0.209133 91.220095 -0.110168 1.774241 0.695455 0.518134 1.075955 0.425011 87.658703 0.055623 0.104512 0.087669 0.087669 0.160881 1.167875 -0.708916 0.845459 0.223866 0.755736 91.077864 0.997173 0.061974 0.012745 -0.677810 0.693728 84.051254 0.410604 1.466851 1.072149 0.047035 0.049872 0.040938 0.252281 86.306461 0.939088 0.080272 0.083060 -0.074682 0.303601 -0.246195 1.034441 -0.117352 1.701319 87.738155 0.035041 1.083254 0.140229 1.626974 ln[CV] 1/[CV] 0.201645 1.441630 -0.012826 0.131229 0.526858 90.310610 85.720489 82.200585 0.060046 0.

8492425 -0.076692 92.1634105 1.386748 0.9794513 -0.566916 0.921478 0.0574125 0.810757 92.0536365 0.536628 92.679159 -0.0209798 80 87. 900 seconds.577519 91.035234 0.877440 1.3602889 1.660876 92.715959 -0.507043 0.3890051 0.5563237 0.0449199 -0.7647849 -0.2289118 260 89.844962 1.173128 93.6974748 -0.2757643 300 89.0572098 120 87.1828163 1.2435454 1.592300 -0.1819247 0.808142 1.494116 0.1189209 1.629909 -0. Table 2.0418273 100 87.046147 2.0207628 1.1473216 1.5007002 0.3399985 0.033686 0.2681607 1.486424 -0.0551816 0.478113 -0.023815 2.0680498 0.959852 -0.8970356 -0.0596548 0.0563764 0.0505732 0.0487159 0.813728 -0.029715 0. Crystal Violet Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide and Distilled Water Crystal Violet(10 mL) with Sodium Hydroxide(5 mL) and Distilled Water(5 mL) Time [CV] Trans (%T) Abs ln[CV] 1/[CV] (s) (micromolar) 0 110.9458861 -0.704985 -0.000924 93.813462 93.17752 220 88.603634 40 90.030709 0.8000508 -0.1587265 Time [CV] Trans (%T) Abs ln[CV] 1/[CV] (s) (micromolar) 200 88.567544 -0.488723 0.9071028 -0.1024109 160 88.031513 0.0409762 1.521143 0.614821 0.3341231 -0.550199 -0.207479 92.1262808 180 88.612459 -0.6168324 0.737907 1.0527804 0.038211 0.3819402 0.0497232 0.245061 93.3075573 .0517661 0.7838439 -0.6235837 #NUM! -1.2499206 280 89.7227665 #NUM! -1.2061291 1.2005938 240 89.0974995 1.6331421 0.763929 1.0433481 0.22308 1.0475314 0.9237724 -0.4337435 60 86.033104 0.091554 Table 1 shows 10 mL of crystal violet mixed with 10 mL of sodium hydroxide over a 15 minute period.0587868 0.037106 0.8329212 -0.0792896 1.8630164 -0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 15 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 91.515761 -0.542017 0.972219 2.733598 1.390582 92.030374 0.8260926 0.034372 0.651731 -0.0556331 1.553054 0.626490 1.0825178 140 87.532640 0.0075411 0.674912 1.597046 0.1656149 0.7634042 0.0387557 -0.887878 -0.918860 1.032389 0.0608729 0.035850 0.576835 0.3835727 20 109.

0403563 0.0339422 0. 900 seconds.4318044 -0.6145866 -0.7378169 0.4821333 92.4821333 92.7519022 91.03689 0.8762814 1/[CV] 1.0360663 0.5461329 0.5856082 0.5576811 -0.0450145 0.4971963 1.7134825 0.0396919 0.3006847 91.7539173 0.6573644 0.6264895 1.5408644 0.5216116 -0.7076264 1.6438868 1.486424 -0.5212263 1.7711528 1.5905127 -0.4484038 -0.3225671 -0.3680378 -0.0326441 0.5723841 1.0339422 0.1263012 91.0443429 0.5704536 90.0390286 0.5763205 -0.5400338 1.0216711 91.5461329 0.6216401 92.5518867 92.4448967 1.6148211 0.0336147 0.3955935 -0.5725352 0.5716306 -0.6732803 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 16 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 Time (s) 900 89.5441931 -0.3040597 -0.1333662 92.7232174 1. Malachite Green Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide.8049136 1.6624349 1.3564346 -0.8310561 1.5540431 0.452593 -0.0332875 0.9611624 92.884344 91.7726489 89.0388629 0.4282281 1.5658108 1.0430135 0.0309158 92.2379963 92.6279735 0.669807 1.8310561 1.3375974 -0.7794788 1.8145906 90.5351044 -0.4035942 -0.9038665 Table 2 shows 10 mL of crystal violet mixed with 5 mL of sodium hydroxide and 5 mL of distilled water.2936198 90.3264054 1.4658235 90.5082833 -0.564604 0.6359769 0. Table 3.6015273 0.5775186 91.4195168 -0.7242873 0.5935632 0.0382111 0.5803098 0.7001683 0.5355999 0.6565168 Trans (%T) 92.4852655 1.6386468 0. over a 15 minute period.6253077 0.0408552 0.6048929 -0.3775031 92.0363955 0.4695115 -0.0344338 0.5329691 [CV] (micromolar) 0.0458553 0.512708 -0.1541129 90.272873 92.0373849 0.034926 0.0350901 0.0435155 0.7466176 1.4652574 -0. .8565323 91.2824726 -0.0415109 0.8670654 1.0355831 0.6292918 ln[CV] -0.4401916 91.8488922 1.5252469 -0.692091 0.046856 0.265808 91.3553499 1.4015761 1.4053149 91.0372199 0.6493364 0.7867789 91.6847405 1.7589671 0.5992127 1.5988716 0.5619623 0.039526 0.592424 1.9797294 90.6048929 -0.6243679 -0.6679151 0.033124 Abs 0.3806676 1.0418444 0.

Lifshay-Nona-Speed 17 Malachite Green 0(10 mL) with Sodium Hydroxide(10 mL) .

652157 420 92.062055 1.367269 300 87.065516 0.245061 Time (s) 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 Trans (%T) 93.237841 60 85.667941 93.844521 -0.047515 0.055687 1.110595 280 86.167269 220 86.406715 0.046185 2.237841 40 100.229725 -0.859918 120 86.171636 2.387645 0.868637 100 85.195607 320 88.001032 0.575864 400 92.444158 0.966728 200 86.027077 0.054192 -0.643575 2.326862 2.440717 380 92.947882 0.077243 -0.434468 2.947110 160 85.385307 -0.028692 0.706389 2.710919 0.832758 -69.474509 0.177069 -0.492405 2.434118 -0.258254 1.913248 -0.440946 -0.033145 0.064064 -0.606907 93.054984 1.107441 2.110595 360 92.033502 0.025809 0.299652 ln[G] 1/[G] -0.926608 0.460482 0.065769 0.049658 0.997245 180 85.025418 [G] (micromolar ) -0.084936 2.647836 0.579681 2.105554 460 93.063658 1.772275 0.251453 2.375972 0.045251 0.947666 -0.941571 0.703415 -67.978242 -0.643428 0.748089 .680242 0.065549 0.659775 2.028409 0.543601 1.861418 440 93.058515 0.231302 20 100.195607 240 86.972132 -0.401219 0.750774 93.193714 1.321354 480 93.378276 0.026423 0.703415 1.010906 2.341197 -0.063560 -0.554177 2.925665 0.406631 1.031024 0.066165 0.434848 [G] (micromolar ) 0.061714 -0.775481 -0.990706 80 85.479631 0.066161 1.028025 0.064724 0.369496 0.410767 0.837722 0.055513 0.080305 1.001032 -0.132238 94.154190 140 85.470066 1.064658 0.258415 -0.060206 -0.053943 0.458726 2.938418 0.030019 0.049560 260 86.889728 -0.947250 0.079205 1.401219 0.913248 -0.995615 -1.097361 94.363889 ln[G] 1/[G] #NUM! #NUM! #NUM! -0.053526 -0.937945 0.811576 -0.940152 0.026262 0.044943 0.429763 0.076224 -0.750774 93.049560 340 89.315340 Abs -0.294875 1.030374 Abs 0.014770 0.734738 -0.028025 0.032165 0.899643 -0.065623 1.615258 -67.014365 -0.065670 0.014770 -0.488714 0.745474 -0.230328 94.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 18 Time (s) Trans (%T) 0 100.794752 0.034137 0.001003 -0.066210 0.715977 -0.955674 94.492405 2.

811286 0.025759 0.338364 0.925696 3.594037 0. Malachite Green(10 mL) with Sodium Hydroxide(5 mL) and Distilled Water(5 mL) Time [G] Trans (%T) Abs ln[G] 1/[G] (s) (micromolar) 0 100.087123 3.127254 1.351544 0.956587 0.022686 0.955402 2.159496 3.212674 0.599833 0.316364 0.113195 1.112569 1.157193 -1.910424 94.073532 -1.601281 0.651029 94.474925 0.482763 0.703344 94.820311 0.617076 100 77.368777 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 19 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 94. 900 seconds.810742 0.036852 95.557951 240 75.502803 94.022098 0.711667 2.997563 -1.180991 3.001051 -0.269899 Table 3 shows 10 mL of malachite green mixed with 10 mL of sodium hydroxide over a 15 minute period.562314 260 74.114524 1.014906 #NUM! -67.316506 0.778365 0.240021 -0.557895 220 74.621932 140 76.821814 0.923503 95.166898 0.015041 #NUM! -66.734248 0.023875 0.127240 -1.001041 -0.055729 0.184759 2.242201 -0.241227 94.083635 -1.792272 0.089284 60 77.083635 -1.954407 0.001041 -0.955402 2.240021 -0.124598 -1.609916 160 77.025307 0.113207 1.617009 180 74.069549 95.607217 0.620545 0.620509 120 77.727709 0.024555 0.760077 2.575695 0.022108 0.015259 -1.494434 0. Malachite Green Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide and Distilled Water.548903 .703344 94.323926 0.078980 3.607894 0.089284 20 100.125190 1.477216 0.110098 1.583484 0.486208 40 100.639570 0.593737 0.844598 2.482871 0.053549 0.341799 0.552094 280 74.124431 0.324783 0.305820 -0.126518 1.792453 0.200337 0.126480 1.339318 94.583585 0.014906 #NUM! -67.338364 0. Table 4.021362 0.023635 0.021959 0.314367 0.125203 1.620721 0.455020 0.576205 0.611581 0.023635 0.362309 0.160920 3.150863 -1.150413 -1.634435 Time [G] Trans (%T) Abs ln[G] 1/[G] (s) (micromolar) 80 77.552260 200 74.045422 -1.022626 0.039032 95.112311 1.124219 1.

612441 0.129187 0.435616 540 74.128219 0.129863 Abs 0.586809 0.797880 1.537875 1/[G] 0.873441 1.520103 0.132257 0.127241 0.131423 0.269952 660 73.609374 0.620621 0.620621 0.603460 520 74.539093 0.483572 460 74.878756 1.921185 820 74.129927 0.620130 ln[G] 0.531489 0.540850 0.543691 0. over a 15 minute period.130655 0.815640 1.544770 0.849777 440 74.555205 0.746801 680 73.143524 860 73.612243 0.537611 0.618162 0.128868 0.844929 1.133594 1.613627 0.555149 0.599733 0.129927 0.675394 480 74.125810 0.593737 0.128474 0.586608 0.801319 1.537611 0.984399 760 74.532267 0.540796 0.129161 0.392020 740 73.019275 840 74.844565 1.835637 1.860083 1.129021 0. .593737 0.599733 0.839279 1.888488 880 73.276491 640 74.125822 0.552260 0.529681 0.821633 1.126823 0.550770 0.859169 [G] (micromolar) 1.638396 0.635481 0.614910 0.887930 1.888664 1.884654 320 74.131923 0.541384 0. Phenolphthalein Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide.548958 0.128843 0.556211 0.648455 0.143524 800 73.204558 580 74.131872 0.552260 0.274311 560 74.821633 1.635870 0.803476 900 73.627777 0.596438 0.614712 0.127940 0.849490 1.522853 Table 4 shows 10 mL of malachite green mixed with 5 mL of sodium hydroxide and 5 mL of distilled water.812195 700 74.126480 0.854967 1.528139 0.298289 600 74.538934 0.125607 0.542026 0.529475 0.548958 0.617867 0.129569 0.328806 500 74.129149 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 20 300 74.545961 0.130860 0.603460 420 74.889013 400 74.810742 1.324447 720 74.860083 1.630610 0. 900 seconds.607391 0.126480 0.154423 Time Trans (%T) (s) 780 74.626212 0.125582 0.588419 0.849125 1.847597 340 74.848942 1.533777 0.810742 1.605208 0.632073 0.131231 0.798242 1.588519 0.855515 1.129608 0.540690 0.893440 1.831632 1.870511 1.734248 380 74.556099 0.847118 1.534613 0.614614 0.801138 1.127241 0.542133 0.912583 0.734248 360 74.198019 620 74.881506 1. Table 5.

484526 90.046824 0.840748 0.754596 -0.046898 0.328798 89.122545 0.752221 -0.671268 -0.398587 1.761750 0.858187 0.123801 1.046856 0.326405 89.885630 -0.885630 -0.281573 1.324021 89.579698 0.885803 -0.479950 1.489718 90.324914 89.676636 -0.046772 0.753408 -0.042168 0.046909 0.121909 88.323129 89.046972 0.055418 0.626930 .042043 0.891338 -0.490091 90.042032 0.284725 1.398587 1.128919 88.124193 1.878026 -0.671268 -0.325511 89.884344 0.129140 88.755784 -0.673616 -0.473879 90.489718 90.284275 1.400587 1.880618 -0.131791 88.121456 1.883555 -0.669927 -0.283148 1.041709 0.766110 0.671100 -0.398837 1.046751 0.055397 0.772649 0.281348 1.752560 -0.129140 88.754426 -0.391119 1.121456 1.329397 89.281798 1.041719 0.615994 91.880618 -0.395095 1.492701 90.614655 -0.041636 0.135567 88.671268 -0.020094 0.779188 0.054892 0.748829 -0.390622 1.489718 90.390870 1.159601 0.192298 0.041719 0.138918 89.042053 0.794447 0.398587 1.676468 -0.755275 -0.525204 0.055042 0.135567 88.840748 0.497196 91.790087 0.159601 0.054730 0.667915 -0.883210 -0.770995 0.127132 1.478634 90.038201 0.054730 0.842928 0.282473 1.041719 0.024454 0.486695 1.678482 -0.096387 0.754766 -0.127132 1.676300 -0.054569 0.838043 0.335419 [P] Trans (%T) Abs (micromolar ln[P] 1/[P] ) 90.289245 1.280000 1.478267 90.041865 0.046940 0.753917 -0.747017 0.046540 0.755211 0.096387 0.094207 0.121473 88.115032 1.773175 0.046888 0.748671 0.114643 1.054913 0.126904 0.055042 0.891684 -0.327302 89.477900 90.325212 89.775354 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 21 Time (s) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 Time (s) 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 Phenolphthalein(10 mL) with Sodium Hydroxide(10 mL) [P] Trans (%T) Abs (micromolar ln[P] 1/[P] ) 88.810231 0.038459 0.132234 88.130079 1.055053 0.403594 1.763930 0.041511 0.618814 -0.387898 1.840748 0.121261 1.280674 1.

Table 6.660428 0.022866 0.121456 1.23130 0 -0.980886 -0.885630 -0.022726 0.23784 20 -0.127132 1.023755 0.650587 1.128919 120 87.121473 0 60 87.980029 1.632014 91. Phenolphthalein(10 mL) with Sodium Hydroxide(5mL) and Distilled Water(5 mL) [P] Time Trans (%T) Abs (micromolar ln[P] 1/[P] (s) ) 100.665674 2.006042 -0.384629 0.695228 91.664533 Table 5 shows 10 mL of phenolphthalein mixed with 10 mL of sodium hydroxide over a 15 minute period.784599 94.135567 1 100.365664 0.375300 -0.616329 2.871188 94.121456 1.677186 94.023895 0.731681 94.015840 #NUM! -63.501131 -0.023315 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 22 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880 900 91.973624 -0.425011 0.023505 0.666817 2.037653 0.058364 0.001117 0.001032 0.037953 0.600999 2.999915 -1.115032 1.770917 0.023475 0.384468 0.055623 0.734755 2.644146 2.057196 0.121909 80 87.367911 0.060046 0.718050 2.669344 2. Phenolphthalein Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide and Distilled Water.644489 94.382215 0.599911 2.773097 94.037230 0.637562 1.891338 -0.129140 100 87.378194 0.087142 0.377712 0.114643 1.978678 0.512431 -0.738220 94.961772 -0.880618 -0.374979 0.647522 2.493208 -0.023305 0.375140 0.972348 -0.885803 -0.885630 -0.955477 -0.001003 -0. 900 seconds.610664 0.891684 -0.129657 2 100.023325 0.121261 1.023905 0.25746 40 -0.129140 .980457 -0.901705 94.955896 -0.605845 0.599038 0.775277 94.646669 94.

647522 .271822 90.599911 2.493208 -0.005887 90.046909 0.999915 -1.610664 0.327302 1.324021 1.387898 -0.289245 -0.486695 -0.382215 0.752560 0.328798 1.794447 89.391119 -0.718050 2.981909 90.676636 0.319777 90.763930 89.671268 0.044731 0.878026 0.149753 90.044731 0.615994 1/[P] 1.335419 1.599038 0.390622 -0.755275 0.131791 1.046972 0.398837 -0.046856 0.274002 90.766110 89.324914 1.479950 ln[P] -0.772649 89.378194 0.138918 1.130079 -0.046772 0.127955 Trans (%T) 90.044542 0.053819 0.284725 -0.271822 90.280674 -0.676300 0.754426 0.618814 [P] (micromolar ) 0.489718 1.045036 0.755211 89.678482 0.614655 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 23 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 Time (s) 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840 88.484526 1.671100 0.344884 88.779188 89.045866 0.046266 0.123801 -0.045120 0.477900 1.046424 0.044448 0.046888 0.136675 90.212967 90.748829 0.377712 -0.761750 89.278361 0.752221 0.868034 89.044448 0.124193 -0.883555 0.501131 -0.046898 0.329397 1.669927 0.883210 0.046540 0.755784 0.046751 0.325511 1.044217 0.045246 0.754766 0.365664 0.051254 0.403594 -0.972348 -0.281348 -0.044416 0.395095 -0.045099 0.626930 1.973624 1.400587 -0.044931 0.044584 0.045961 0.046319 0.473879 1.478267 1.390870 -0.753917 0.046708 0.132234 1.957931 89.748671 89.862021 89.637562 1.398587 -0.489718 1.883818 89.977550 89.605845 0.283148 -0.006042 -0.281573 -0.803166 89.106158 90.044437 0.490091 1.673616 0.243485 90.754596 0.669344 2.671268 0.604279 88.600999 2.052545 0.734755 2.497196 1.046824 0.045729 0.489718 1.478634 1.838043 89.667915 0.045845 0.398587 -0.384468 0.492701 1.961772 -0.282473 -0.325212 1.955896 -0.045141 Abs 0.252204 90.046940 0.671268 0.790087 89.676468 0.644146 2.284275 -0.384629 0.281798 -0.212967 90.650587 1.616329 2.753408 0.132315 90.512431 -0.894717 89.398587 -0.955477 -0.171551 90.367911 0.326405 1.323129 1.280000 -0.

Observations: Table 7.550836 0. over a 15 minute period.374979 0.980886 -0.375140 0. . Tria l Observation 1 Researcher A extracted crystal violet solution from the volumetric flask. Researcher C started collection and placed mix in colorimeter. Other times.043108 0.665674 2. 900 seconds. and stirred in beaker.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 24 860 880 900 90. Many of the reactions done were not fully completed.980457 -0. Observations Taken during Lab.980029 2. during the 15 minute measurement readings. it is impossible to take a natural log of a negative number.043108 0. The definition #NUM came out because the absorbance and micromolar concentration are negative. and stirred in beaker. then the sodium hydroxide. the LabQuest may have been uncooperative.439666 90. Researcher B started collection and placed mix in colorimeter.375300 -0.666817 2. Then extracted crystal violet from the volumetric flask.550836 90.664533 Table 6 shows 10 mL of phenolphthalein mixed with 5 mL of sodium hydroxide and 5 mL of distilled water. the absorbance reading would plummet to zero in the middle of a reaction.043641 0. This represents the time in which it took after the colorimeter was started to put the mixture in a cuvette and put the cuvette in the colorimeter. The six recorded trials were the most appropriate to be used in analysis. Most of the trials above contain at least one or two data points recorded as “#NUM”. For some trials. 2 Researcher B withdrew sodium hydroxide and water and placed into a beaker.

5 Researcher B extracted phenolphthalein solution from the volumetric flask. Researcher B started collection and placed mix in colorimeter. The absorbance is collected over a 15 minute period of time.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 25 3 Researcher C extracted malachite green solution from the volumetric flask. the combined solutions make a color. then the sodium hydroxide. The lab displays the color of the solution going from a color to colorless. Table 7 shows observations taken place during the lab. 4 Researcher A withdrew sodium hydroxide and water and placed into a beaker. Some of the mixed spilled while pouring into cuvette. There are six different lab reactions done that were recorded. Researcher B started collection and placed mix in colorimeter. . then the sodium hydroxide. When sodium hydroxide and 23 25 2 20 14 4 one of the three other solutions react. and stirred in beaker. 6 Researcher A withdrew sodium hydroxide and water and placed into a beaker. One always being sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the other being either crystal violet (C H ClN ). Then extracted malachite green from the volumetric flask. Researcher C started collection and placed mix in colorimeter. 25 30 3 malachite green (C H ClN ). and stirred in beaker. and stirred in beaker. or phenolphthalein (C H O ). Researcher A started collection and placed mix in colorimeter. thus the rate law can be determined. Then took out phenolphthalein from the volumetric flask. Data Analysis and Interpretation This experiment displays a series of reactions between two solutions. and stirred in beaker.

Time (0.02 M NaOH) Figure 2 displays the raw data recorded. Figure 3. the absorbance is substituted into Beer’s Law (see Appendix A).02 M NaOH) Figure 3 displays the micromolar concentration of crystal violet. . Time (0. the absorbance.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 26 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Crystal Violet Figure 2. Absorbance of Crystal Violet vs. To determine the amount of micromolar crystal violet contained. Micromolar [Crystal Violet] vs. This value can now be used to determine the order and rate of reaction. This absorbance is used to determine the amount of micromolar crystal violet contained in the solution. using Beer’s Law and raw absorbance found.

can be determined when the order is defined using the graphs above. The equation for rate law is: Rate = k[X]m[Y]n . the reaction is second order. Time (0. Time (0. ln[Crystal Violet] vs. The order of the reaction is crucial when determining the rate of reaction. If neither of the linear regression lines look anywhere near the plotted data points. If the regression line of the reciprocal of the concentration of the solution is better than the natural log regression line. The two graphs in figure 4 can be used to determine the order of the reaction. whereas an exponential model or any other models may represent the data better. These graphs are important because the rate law. using the rate law. which is what the whole purpose of the lab is. then the reaction is zero order.02 M NaOH) The left graph of Figure 4 displays the natural log of the concentration of crystal violet solved for above.02. the reaction is first order.02 M NaOH) and 1/[Crystal Violet] vs.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 27 Figure 4. When the regression line of the natural log of the concentration of the solution is better than the regression line of the inverse of the concentration of the solution. next to the reciprocal or 1/ the concentration of crystal violet when the molarity of the present sodium hydroxide is 0. Each of the two graphs above show a linear regression line.

and second order reactions result in m equaling 2. All the variables are known and can be substituted in to calculate the answer. Meaning the rate of this reaction is 3. Since the concentration and m is known. if it is first order m and n are 1. [X] and [Y] being the concentration of the X and Y solutions. and the molarity of the sodium hydroxide is 0. this is used to determine the rate of reaction.001267= k[0. The rate law is needed so fellow researchers can conduct future research. rate is equal to k[X]m[Y]n. Figure 3 shows that this reaction is in fact a first order reaction. This means that k is the only unknown. As a result.5*10-5]1[0. [X] again means the concentration of X. Using simple algebra k was found to be 0. If the reaction is zero order then m is 0. the equation: kʹ= k[X]m kʹ is equal to the negative slope of the regression line that was determined to be the best of all.02]1. k must be solved for.001267. . The rate law is. and m and n being the reaction order. Rate law is measured in concentration vs.06335. The negative slope of the natural log of the concentration of crystal violet is 0.02]1). k is the only thing that needs to be found (k[0.06335 [2. so everything needed to find k is set: 0. and m is the reaction order.02.02]1. To solve for k.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 28 k being the constant solved for (explained next). which is needed for the rate law (k[X]m[Y]n). As a result the rate law is equal to 0.1675 * 10-8. time(s).

.01 M NaOH) Figure 6 displays the natural log of the concentration of crystal violet solved for above. Time (0. Unlike when the molarity of the sodium hydroxide was 0. k equals -10.5*105 2 ] [0. Figure 6.01]2 this equation was used to solve for k.01 M NaOH) and 1/[Crystal Violet] vs. and morality of the sodium hydroxide were used once again. reaction order. Although the absorbance graph has been removed.67.01 M NaOH) Figure 5 displays the micromolar concentration of crystal violet when the molarity of the sodium hydroxide is held to 0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 29 Figure 5. Time (0.02.67[2. this reaction is second order meaning that m will equal 2 for both the rate law and solving for k (k[X]m). ln[Crystal Violet] vs. To solve for k.001067= k[0. next to the reciprocal or 1/ the concentration of crystal violet when the molarity of the present sodium hydroxide is 0. Meaning the rate is equal to-6.01.66875*10-13. -0.01. Micromolar [Crystal Violet] vs.01]2. Time (0. the micromolar and absorbance graphs are similar. making the rate law equation for this reaction is -10. the negative slope.

Lifshay-Nona-Speed 30 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Malachite Green .

or ln() of each of the micromolar malachite green concentrations. The green of the chemical was still visible after being mixed with the NaOH. The reciprocal of malachite green concentration is shown to be more appropriate than the ln of the concentration of malachite green. Micromolar [Malachite Green] vs.02 M NaOH) Figure 8. m The [NaOH] being the molarity of the sodium hydroxide in the mixture and m is equal to the order of the reaction. The reaction between malachite green and sodium hydroxide is a second-order reaction. The raw absorbance data was taken to calculate the micromolar concentration of malachite green contained in the solution as the reaction took place. These graphs are 23 25 2 not as constant as the crystal violet at first glance. The regression line and residuals were found for both graphs. ln[Malachite Green] vs.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 31 Figure 7. The left graph in figure 8 shows the natural log. Time (0. K is found by using the equation kʹ= k[NaOH] . kʹ is equal to m . Time (0. Time (0. displayed in figure 7. The right graph shows the reciprocal of micromolar malachite green concentration.02 M NaOH) For the previous set of graphs. chosen by looking at the sum of squares and residual plot to determine which had the line of best fit. the reaction took place between 10 mL of malachite green (C H ClN ) and 10 mL of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The rate constant k can now be determined with the rate law equation.02 M NaOH) and 1/[Malachite Green] vs. k[NaOH] .

47.02).02]2 . Time (0.47[2.01 M NaOH) .Lifshay-Nona-Speed 32 the opposite of the slope of the regression line (-0. or -2. K is then calculated to be -7. and m is equal to the order of the reaction. Time (0. which equals 2. Micromolar [Malachite Green] vs.01 M NaOH) and 1/[Malachite Green] vs. Figure 9. [NaOH] is equal to the molarity of the used sodium hydroxide (0. ln[Malachite Green] vs. the rate of this reaction m n concludes to -7. k[X] [Y] . substituting variables into the rate law equation.7*10-5]2[0.002988). Now.01 M NaOH) Figure 10. Time (0. because it is a second-order reaction.17825*10-12.

The same variables can be plugged in the equation.01]2.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 33 For this set of graphs. where the absorbance is rising. This is turn has different slopes and lines on the other graphs. chosen by looking at the sum of squares and residual plot to determine which had the line of best fit.009. or otherwise -6. K is then calculated to be 0. or ln() of each of the micromolar malachite green concentrations. the same chemicals are being used. The regression line and residuals were found for both graphs. k[NaOH]m. displayed in figure 9.009[2. kʹ is equal to the opposite of the slope of the regression line. and 5 mL of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). K is found by using the equation kʹ= k[NaOH]m. The reaction between malachite green and 5 mL sodium hydroxide is a second-order reaction. The left graph in figure 10 shows the natural log.7*10-5]2[0. This 23 25 2 2 data set is different from the others. The green of the chemical was still visible after being mixed with the NaOH and distilled water. which in this case is -0. The right graph shows the reciprocal of micromolar malachite green concentration. except for the distilled water. The same processes have been done on these graphs. the reaction took place between 10 mL of malachite green (C H ClN ). Once again. This makes sense since.561*10-16.00009. . Meaning the rate of the reaction is -0. 5 mL of distilled water (H O). The rate constant k can now be determined with the rate law equation. The reciprocal of malachite green concentration is shown to be more appropriate than the ln of the concentration of malachite green. the raw absorbance data was taken to calculate the micromolar concentration of malachite green contained in the solution as the reaction took place.

Time (0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 34 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Phenolphthalein Figure 11.02 M NaOH) . Micromolar [Phenolphthalein] vs.

or ln() of each of the micromolar phenolphthalein concentrations. ln[Phenolphthalein] vs. For kʹ= k[NaOH]m. 10 mL of phenolphthalein (C H O ) and 10 mL of sodium hydroxide 20 14 4 (NaOH) were poured into a beaker to measure their reaction rate. using simple math techniques.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 35 Figure 12. they begin reacting to form a light pinkish colored solution. The natural log of the phenolphthalein concentration is shown to be more appropriate than the reciprocal of the concentration of malachite green. The regression line and residuals were found for both graphs. which is 0.05295. K. The right graph shows the reciprocal of micromolar phenolphthalein concentration.001059. Repeated. Time (0. . The reaction between phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide is a first-order reaction. kʹ is equal to the opposite of the slope of the regression line.02 M NaOH) and 1/[Phenolphthalein] vs. Phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide are both colorless chemicals. when mixed together.02 M NaOH) Here. although. The absorbance was then taken with the colorimeter. The left graph in figure 12 shows the natural log. displayed in figure 11. the raw absorbance data was taken to calculate the micromolar concentration of phenolphthalein contained in the solution as the reaction took place. is then calculated to be 0. Time (0.

01 M NaOH) and 1/[Phenolphthalein] vs.1*10-5]1[0. Time (0.05295[3. ln[Phenolphthalein] vs.2829*10-8. Time (0.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 36 Meaning the rate of the reaction is equal to 0.01 M NaOH) Figure 14.02 M NaOH) . Time (0.02]1 which is calculated to be 3. Figure 13. Micromolar [Phenolphthalein] vs.

K is found by using the equation kʹ= k[NaOH]m. or ln() of each of the micromolar phenolphthalein concentrations. The reaction between phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide is a first-order reaction. the mixture contains 10 mL of phenolphthalein (C H O ). . The right graph shows the reciprocal of micromolar phenolphthalein concentration.41*10-10.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 37 Now. kʹ is equal to the opposite of the slope of the regression line.01]1 or 3. the raw absorbance data was taken to calculate the micromolar concentration of phenolphthalein contained in the solution as the reaction took place. and 5 mL of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The same variables can be plugged in the equation. K is then calculated to be 0. the same chemicals are being used. the pinkish color solution still occurs. When the phenolphthalein and sodium 2 hydroxide are mixed. The left graph in figure 14 shows the natural log. except for the distilled water. displayed in figure 13. 5 mL of water 20 14 4 (H O). although just a little diluted from the distilled water. Meaning the rate of the reaction is 0. Again.0011. which in this case is 0.1*10-5]1[0. figure 14 was created. Using similar methods as the previous ones done before. This makes sense since.0011[3. The natural log of the phenolphthalein concentration contains a better regression than the reciprocal of the concentration of malachite green.11 for this reaction.

was determined to be a first-order reaction as expected. malachite green (C H ClN ). and phenolphthalein along and both concentrations of sodium hydroxide will be zero order. The hypothesis was that crystal violet and both 20 14 4 concentrations of sodium hydroxide (0. and 25 30 3 23 25 2 phenolphthalein (C H O ) solutions. the orders of reaction found do not match the hypothesis. crystal violet with 5 mL of . The researchers first concluded that the hypothesized order of reactions were not correct. malachite green and both concentrations of sodium hydroxide will be second order.001 M) will be first order.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 38 Conclusion The lab is done to determine the order and rate of reaction between sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and: crystal violet (C H ClN ). Although. This hypothesis was rejected by the researchers. Crystal violet. As seen in the Data Analysis and Interpretation.002 M and 0. with 10 mL of sodium hydroxide.

The two reactions should have the same order of reaction. If the reciprocal of the micromolar concentration had a more precise regression than the natural log. with different molarities. The graphs created in the Data Analysis and Interpretation were used to determine this reaction order. Both of the malachite green reactions. the reaction could be a zero-order reaction. that this reaction will be a second-order reaction. If neither could be chosen. This is plausible due to the fact that the same chemicals were used with the addition of water. Data that had a better regression signified that it was a better model than the other graphs it was . were determined at first-order reactions. but after finalizing the lab. According to previous works observed. phenolphthalein should be a first-order reaction with respect to sodium hydroxide. The first order reactions came from reactions that showed that the natural log of the micromolar concentration had the best regression compared to the reciprocal. Having determined two different orders for similar reactions could have came from experimental errors. being the last portion of the hypothesis.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 39 sodium hydroxide was calculated to be a second-order reaction. it is a second-order reaction. This. The hypothesis for this portion was correct. which none of occurred in this lab. That data and science behind the reaction supports the solutions found. were determined as second-order reaction. Both of the phenolphthalein reactions. Previous analyzed works state that the reaction is a first-order reaction. the phenolphthalein reaction was analyzed to be a first-order reaction. with different molarities. This is very unusual that the same solutions with different molarity sodium hydroxide had different reaction orders. The predetermined reaction order was zero-order. is rejected. The hypothesis was partially correct for this portion.

009. which will either be 0.47. which is the constant for the reaction rate. nevertheless of its sign.01.11. less residuals.02 or 0. The crystal violet vs. The malachite green vs. The crystal violet vs. The malachite green vs. and matched the data. The main objective to calculate is k. After having calculated the order of reaction. The phenolphthalein vs. 0.01 M sodium hydroxide and malachite green vs.01 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a k value equal to -10.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 40 being compared to.02 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a k value equal to 0.01 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a k value equal to 0. 0. Although. 0. the researchers can determine the variables k. Here are the k values found for each reaction. 0. . at the particular temperature they were done at. To solve for k. and m is the reaction order. This means that k is the only unknown.05295. and the rate of reaction. 0. [X] means the concentration of X.02 M sodium hydroxide reactions had a negative k value. k’ (pseudo). After the graphs of the reactions were completed and using algebra to solve. The phenolphthalein vs. the k values were found.06335. due to the fact that the constant rate of k is what is needed. 0. 0. 0.02 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a k value equal to 0.02 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a k value equal to -7.01 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a k value equal to 0. The crystal violet vs.67. this equation must be used: kʹ= k[X] m Kʹ is equal to the negative slope of the regression line that was determined from the line of best fit. The regression models chosen had less errors. the absolute value of the k value is the necessity. which is the constant of the rate of reaction. which in this case is the molarity of sodium hydroxide.

The m and n are equal to the order of the reaction. The X and the Y are the molarities of the two chemicals used in the reaction.17825*10-12. making the data as pure as possible. 0. 0. The rate of reaction was finally calculated towards the end of the inquiry lab. The phenolphthalein vs. The phenolphthalein vs. Here is the rate of reaction for each solution. previous trials could not affect the next trials .02 M sodium hydroxide had a rate of -2.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 41 With the k constant for each reaction found. The crystal violet vs. 0. First things first. The malachite green vs. the rate of reaction (concentration (M) vs time (s)) can be calculated for each. at the particular temperature they were done at. the design was used from Flynn’s official labs. By sterilizing the equipment used. The malachite green vs.66875*10-13. Another positive impact was. the solutions were measured in a precise way. The researchers also sterilized all of the tools before and after each trial. The k is the rate constant that was just found.2829*10-8. There were strong and weak points that came about during this experiment. 0.02 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a rate of 3. The rate equation is: Rate=k[X] [Y] m n This will determine the rate of the reaction that occurred at its particular temperature.561*10-16. The rate of reaction can now be found (see Appendix B for sample calculation).02 M sodium hydroxide had a rate of 3. 0. meaning the lab is certified and has been ran multiple times before. serological pipets were used to gather the exact milliliter amount of each solution whether it be crystal violet or sodium hydroxide.01 M sodium hydroxide had a rate of 3.1675*10-8. 0. The crystal violet vs.01 M sodium hydroxide reaction had a rate of -6.41*10-10.01 M sodium hydroxide had a rate of -6.

that rate law can be used to understand the composition of the reaction mixture. Along with flaws in the experiment there were mistakes. then randomly drop to 0 absorbance which definitely should not be the case. Also the solution was mixed at different rates meaning they could have been over mixed or under mixed. So the next possible lab could be to look into the composition of the reaction closer. This could be the colorimeter or the LabQuest which records the data.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 42 to be done. Finally the lab was not started on the LabQuest at the exact same time. For example. it still contained flaws. After the rates of reactions were determined. Also the temperature can affect the rate in which a reaction takes place. If the materials were not cleaned. . for example occasionally the solution spilled out of the 50 mL beaker. This would give out insufficient information and data. or completely eliminate the sodium hydroxide and substitute it with another chemical. For example the colorimeter had its moments where it occasionally decided to act up. and then in turn would not affect future trials. the colorimeter would be taking data from the solution. the data was recorded on different days. meaning that the lab temperature varied. making the data differ. crystal violet may be noticed in a malachite green solution. The two chemicals also are viewed at different absorbance levels. This experiment’s goal was to calculate the rate of each reaction. Although the experiment had strong features.

Also Mr. Supal for the formatting help when necessary. We would also like to thank our parents for the moral support.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 43 Acknowledgements We would like to thank Mrs. . Dewey for the help and guidance when needed. Hilliard and Mrs. All of the teachers were big helps.

the wavelength of the transmitted light must be at the opposite side of the visible light spectrum. Colorimeter Wavelengths Colorimeter Wavelengths Crystal Violet 590 nm Malachite Green 615 nm Phenolphthalein 555 nm Table one above displays the wavelength the colorimeter should be set to for each of the reactions throughout the lab.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 44 Appendix A: Reference Tables In order to read the absorbance of the reaction. This wavelength is what the colorimeter should be set to. Table 1. .

0783565*1. l is path length and c is concentration. Example Calculation to Determine Concentration . e equals wavelength. or concentration. path length. A=e*c*l Ae*l=c 0.5=c Figure 1. wavelength.1=c 621.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 45 Appendix B: Sample Calculations Beer’s Law can be used for absorbance. A equals absorbance. The equation above displays Beer’s law. A= e*c*l For this experiment the concentration was the only unknown variable.

width of cuvette. rate = k[X]n[Y]n . k is a constant variable needed for the rate law. 1. kʹ is equal to the negative slope of the regression line used.06335=k Figure 2. The rate of reaction is measured in concentration (M) vs time (s) and is unique to its reaction.02)1= k 0. k must be found. kʹ= k[X]m The equation above is used to solve for k. and absorbance is known.001267(0. whether it is zero-order. 0.02)1 0. and m is determined by what order of reaction it is. significant to the temperature the reaction took place at. [X] is the molarity of the used substance. when the wavelength. Example Calculation to Determine k Figure 2 shows how k was solved.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 46 Figure 1 displays Beer’s Law being used to solve for the concentration of the crystal violet. The research uses a descriptive analysis structure.001267= k (0. or 2. or second-order m could be 0. After k is found. first-order. to determine the rate law. the rate law of kinetics can be used to determine the rate of the reaction.

5*10-5]1[0. . rate = k[X]m[Y]n rate = k[CV]m[NaOH]n rate = 0. 5. the concentrations of the crystal violet and sodium hydroxide are that of the experiment. Set data collection to every 20 seconds. Set data collection duration to 900 seconds. Appendix C: LabQuest Setup LabQuest setup is crucial in this experiment. if the data is collected too often. Insert the colorimeter cord to begin heating it up. Example Calculation of the Rate of Reaction Figure three displays an example using the k solved for in the previous example. or for not enough time the reaction will not be properly represented. 2. not often enough.06335 [2. 6. and the order of reaction was determined in lab settings. Plug LabQuest into the wall to assure it will not die. Go to time settings. Procedure: 1. 4.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 47 Using the previous example where k was found. Insert a flash drive and/or connect the LabQuest to a laptop or computer to ensure security of the data. the rate law can be used to determine the rate of reaction by substituting the concentrations of substances X and Y and order of reaction for m and n. 3.02]1 Figure 3.

American Chemical Society. n. Above displays the procedure to set up the LabQuest for appropriate data collection. . <https://www. Works Cited "American Chemical Society. 2015. Web. Click collect to start the data collection when ready.org/content/acs/en/careers/whatchemistsdo/careers/catalyticchemistry.html>. n.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 48 7. Each data point should be collected every 20 seconds. Web.d. resulting in 45 data points." Applications of Kinetics.d." Catalytic Chemistry. "Application of Kinetics. 19 Mar. Unknown. 18 May 2015.acs. the duration of the reaction should be about 900 seconds or 15 minutes.

html>.nlm.pdf>. Web.gov/compound/Crystal_violet#section=Top>. . "Compound Summary. Web.PubChem. 22 Mar. Chen. 2015. Web.6 (2013): n. <http://www.htm>.us/science/Kinetics/Applications%20of %20Kinetics. Inc." Ocean Optics." Chem. Perdue. Wei He. n. 22 Mar.p. David N.. Blauch. Xue Qin An.purdue. n.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch22/rateframe. Zhi Yun.chem. <http://oceanoptics. <http://rrhs. 2015. Chem Fax! Flinn Scientific Inc. Web. Ji Hua Zhao. "Kinetics of Crystal Violet Fading..roundrockisd.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 49 <http://www.sussexvt.k12.ncbi." : Reaction Rates. "Beer's Law. 2015. <http://pubchem. Web. 2014.d. 2015. N." International Journal of Chemical Kinetics 40. 2015.com/knowledge-support/beers-law/>. pag. 2013.nih.edu/vce/Kinetics/ReactionRates. <http://chemed.d. and Wei Guo Shen. 22 Mar. 22 Mar. Ocean Optics.chm.Perdue. National Institutes of Health. 23 Apr.de." Crystal Violet .html>. "Chemical Kinetics. "Chemical Kinetics.davidson. 20 Mar.org/UserFiles/Servers/Server_13045/File/NewFolder/Perez/Kin etics%20of%20Crystal%20Violet%20Fading.d. n.

<http://yasminevangapchem.com/booklets/col-bta. 22 Mar. <http://pleeapchem.blogspot. Pamela Chacha.d. . n. n. 2 Feb. Galaxy Mudda. Vernier Software and Technology. Odufalu.html>. Blogger. 2015.blogspot. Web." . and Andrew Iskander . <http://chemwiki. 18 May 2015. UC Davis.com/2014/02/kinetics-of-crystal-violet-fadinglab." : Kinetic Crystal Violet Fading Lab. Vernier.ucdavis." (n. <https://www. 22 Mar. Vang." Khan Academy. Pang. "Kinetics.html>.Chemwiki. 7 Feb.d.com/2014/02/kinetic-crystal-violet-fading-lab." : Kinetics of Crystal Violet Fading Lab. 10 Feb. Blogger.Web. MXiong29. Blogger. <http://www2.blogspot. "Reaction Rate. "AP Chem's Procedure. Vernier Staff. Web. Web. Khan Academy. Web. 22 Mar.html>. "Colorimeter. "AP Chemistry. pag. 2014. 18 May 2015.pdf>. Web.d. Yasmine. 2014.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Reaction_Rates/Reaction_Ra te>.): n.vernier. Lee." : Kinetics of Crystal Violet Fading Lab. 15 May 2015. 2014. <http://gvapchem.org/science/chemistry/chemkinetics>. 2015.com/2014/02/kinetics-of-crystal-violetfading-lab.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 50 Khan Academy Staff.khanacademy. Florence-Damilola. 2015. "AP Chemistry.

<https://solarsystem. "Spectroscopy.cfm>. Don. 22 Mar.nasa.gov/deepimpact/science/spectroscopy. 2015.Lifshay-Nona-Speed 51 Wiggins. NASA. ." Solar System Exploration.d. n. Web.