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The Qing Dynasty: China 1644-1911

Manchu / Ming Dynasty / Banner System
Part I: The Rise of the Qing
I. The Qing
a. Place of Origin: Northeastern region of the Ming Dynasty outside of the Great Wall of
b. Cultural Background:
i. Largely a peasant class organized under a Ming vassel.
ii. Organized into banner groups.
iii. Known collectively as the Manchu.

c. Lifestyle:
i. Small farm agriculture.
ii. Some hunting and fishing culture.
iii. Dress and Appearance:
I. Main style of clothing was the banner dress.
II. Hairstyle is the queue hair.
a. Forced the conquered Han peoples to adopt Manchu dress and hair known as
the queue order.

II. Rise to Power

a. Qing Conquest of the Ming (1618-1683)
i. Started with the Seven Grievances
I. Primary personal and land grievances against the Ming.
ii. Kills over 25 million.
iii. Warlords clash throughout China
iv. Eventual pacification of warlords by 1683.
III. Organization of China
a. Banner System
i. China was organized into 8 banner armies. Members of the banner armies could not
work a trade or manual labor.
ii. Acted as the army for the feudal areas of China.

Part II: The 1700s

East India Company / Chinese Rites Controversy / White Lotus Rebellion
I. Enter the British
a. 1711 East India Company establishes a post in Ghangzou.
i. Gives the British an official trading outlet in China.
II. Chinese Rites Controversy
a. Catholic missionaries had been very active in China.
b. Many Chinese practiced Confucianism
i. Reliance on honoring ancestors.
c. Chinese Rites ruling by the Pope says that it is OK to attend Confucian ceremonies and
be a Catholic.
III. Development of the Canton System
a. Thirteen factories (trading centers) were organized into 1 company called the Cohong,
which held the monopoly on foreign trade
b. Led to immense corruption and further segmentation of Chinese society.

IV. The White Lotus Rebellion

a. The White Lotus Society
i. Spiritual Liberals
ii. Allowed men and women to interact freely.
iii. Strict vegetarianism.
b. Rebellion
i. Stemmed from a tax dispute of the lower classes.
ii. White Lotus Society promises better lives.
iii. Lasts about 10 years with around 100K deaths.
c. End of the Rebellion
i. Disproves the myth that the Qing army was unbeatable.
ii. Leads to more rebellions in the 1800s.