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CARDIAC CYCLE

ALDENS MAGDALENA TUALAKA 10-160

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PARASYMPATHE TIC = ASETILCOLINE SYMPATHETIC = ADRENALINE .

CARDIAC CYCLE SISTOLE (VENTRICLE CONTRACTIO N) • ISOVOLUMIC CONTRACTION • EJECTION DIASTOLE (VENTRICLE RELAXATION) • ISOVOLUMIC RELAXATION • RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING • SLOW VENTRICULAR FILLING • ATRIAL CONTRACTION .

8 s .Normal HR =60-100 bpm 1 Cardiac Cycle = 0.

ISOVOLUMIC CONTRACTION • CONTRACTION OF THE VENTRICLE • THE VENTRICLE PRESSURE > THE ATRIAL PRESSURE → THE AV VALVE SHUT • THE PRESSURES IN ARTERIES OF BOTH SYSTEMIC AND PULMONARY CIRCULATIONS DECREASE CONSTANTLY • THE FIRST HEART SOUND (S1) DUE TO THE CLOSURE OF THE AV VALVES .

EJECTION • VENTRICLES PRESSURES > AORTA AND PULMONARY ARTERY PRESSURES → BLOOD IS EJECTED FROM THE VENTRICLES • AV VALVES ARE CLOSED • RAPID EJECTION-SLOW EJECTION-STROKE VOLUME (70mL)END-SYSTOLIS VOLUME (60mL)-EJECTION FRACTION(N:60%) • SYSTOLIC PRESSURE: MAXIMUM VALUE OF PRESSURE IN THE BIG ARTERIES DUE TO THE RAPID EJECTION (120 mmHg & 25mmHg) .

ISOVOLUMIC RELAXATION • AT THE END OF SYSTOLE. THE VENTRICLES PRESSURES DECREASES RAPIDLY → BLOOD INERTIA→DICROTIC NOTCH→SEMILUNAR VALVES ARE CLOSED • AV VALVES ARE STILL CLOSED • BLOOD FLOWS FROM THE VEINS TO ATRIA • THE SECOND HEART SOUND (S2) APPEARS DUE TO CLOSURE OF SEMILUNAR VALVES .

DUE TO THE RAPID BLOOD FLOW • DIASTOLIC PRESSURE: MINIMUM PRESSURE WITHIN ONE CARDIAC CYCLE IN BOTH CIRCULATIONS (80 mmHg & 8 mmHg) .RAPID VENTRICULAR FILLING • VENTRICULAR PRESSURE FALLS BELOW THE ATRIAL PRESSURE→THE AV VALVES ARE OPENED→BLOOD FLOWS TO THE VENTRICLES • THE SEMILUNAR VALVES ARE STILL CLOSED • THE THIRD HEART SOUND (S3) OCCURS RARELY.

SLOW VENTRICULAR FILLING • THE AV VALVES REMAIN OPEN WHILE THE SEMILUNAR VALVES ARE STILL CLOSED→ THE SMALL VOLUME OF BLOOD FLOWS INTO THE VENTRICLE→THE PRESSURE IN BOTH VENTRICLES ARE CLOSE TO ZERO→THE PRESSURE IN ARTERIES DECREASE CONSTANTLY→AT THE END OF THIS PHASE. DEPOLARIZATION SPREADS FROM SA NODE TO ALL DIRECTIONS IN ATRIA→P WAVE .

ATRIAL SYSTOLE • THE LAST PHASE OF DIASTOLE • THE AV VALVES ARE STILL OPENED AND THE SEMILUNAR VALVES ARE STILL CLOSED→THE ATRIA CONTRACT→ BLOOD FLOWS TO THE VENTRICLE UNTIL 130 mL(END-DYASTOLIC VOLUME)→THE ATRIAL DEPOLARIZATION IS COMPLETED AND SPREADS TO THE AV NODE→PR SEGMENT • THE FOURTH HEART SOUND (S4) OCCURS RARELY IN HEALTHY PERSON DUE TO AN INCREASE IN VENTRICULAR PRESSURE .