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PLUMBING ARITHMETIC

REVIEW OUTLINE:
1.
2.
3.
4.

RELATION OF UNITS
MESURATION
PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY
FLOW OF FLUIDS AND PUMPS

I.

RELATION OF UNITS
A. LENGTH
1in
= 2.45cm
= 25.4mm
1cm = 10mm
1ft
= 12in
1m
= 3.281ft
= 100cm
= 1000mm
1km = 1000m = 0.6214 mile
1mile = 1.6km
= 5280 ft
1yard = 3 ft
1rod = 5.5 yards
= 16.5 ft
1furlong= 40 rods
= 220 yards
1nautical mile = 6080ft
= 1853 km
1 league = 3 1nautical miles
1mil = 0.001in
B. AREA

1 FT 2 = 144
2

1m

= 1000

cm

1 H ectare or ha = 10,000

= 2.47 acres
1acre = 100 sq.m
1acre = 43560 sq.ft

C. VOLUME

1 FT

= 1728

= 7.481 gallons (us)


1gal.(us) = 4 quarts

= 231

= 3.785 liters
3

1m

= 1000L

1quart
1barrel
1drum

= 264.2 gallons (us)


= 2pints
= 42gal.
= 55gal.
= 200L

D. ANGLE

360 degrees = 2 radians


= 400 grads
= 6400 mils

E. FORCE AND MASS


1lb
= 4.448 N
= 70,000 grains
1kg
= 2.205 lbs
= 9.81 N
= 1000 gram
= 1kilo gram
1metric ton = 1000kg
1English ton or ton = 2000lb
1kip
= 1kilopound
= 1000 lb
1N

1 short Ton = 2200lb


1 long Ton = 2400lb

1 kg . m
s2

F. PRESSURE
1atm. = 14.7 psi
= 760 mm Hq.

= 34 ft. of

h2 O

= 1.033 kg. /

cm 2

= 101.325 kpq
= 29.92 in. Hq
1 barometer or 1bar = 100 kpa
1 torricelli or 1torr
= 1 mm Hg

G. ENERGY AND POWER


1 Btu
= 778 ft. lb
= 1.055 KJ
= 252 Cal.
2

1 cal.
= 4.187 J
1kcal
= 4.187 KJ
1 English HP = 550 ft. lb / s
=
=
=
=

Metric Hp or Ps

33,000 ft. lb / min


0.746 KW
2545 Btu /hr
1.014 Metric Hp

1metric Hp or Ps = 75 kg.m /s = 0.736 KW


1N = 1kg.m / s

= 0.013 Metric Hp
1KW = 3413 Btu / hr.
= 1.34 hp
1W = 1 J/S
1KW = 1 KJ/S
= 1KN.M / S
MP EXAM AUG. 28 1990
ii. FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. 1 m

= 1000liters

2. 1mile = 5280 ft.


3. 1sq.km = 100 hectares
4. 1 ft

5. 1m

= 7.481 gals
= 39.36 in.

6. 1 m

= 35.28

ft 3

7. 1Btu = 778 ft.lb


8. 1in. = 2.54 cm
9. 1atm = 14.7 p
10.1gal = 3.785 liters
NOTE:
a.) SI Prefixes
12

10

= Tera, T

109

= Giga, G

106

= Mega, M

103

= Kilo, K

100

=1

103

= Milli, M

106

= Micro,

c.) 1barrel = 42 gal.


1drum = 55 gal.
= 200 L

d.) 2nd Law of Newton

force = mass x acceleration


F = ma
3

109

= Nano, n

1012 = Pico, P

b.) 1ft
1 ft

e.) 1psi = 1lb /


2

= 144

1 ft

ft 2

1pa = 1n/ m

= 10,000
= 1728

1psf = 1lb /

1m = 100cm
1 m

s2

1N = 1 kg.m /

= 12in
2

s2

1N = 1 kg.m /

cm 2

2
2

1mPa = 1 n/ mm

f.) Btu - British Thermal Unit


J- Joute
Cal-Calorie
1J = 1N.m
1KJ = 1KN.m
1cal = 4.187 J
1Kcal = 4.187 KJ
g.) 1hp = 550 ft.lb / s
= 33,000 ft.lb / min
= 2545 Btu / hr.
= 0.746 KW
1Metric = 0.736 KW = 75 kg.m / s
1English Hp = 1.014 Metric Hp

HP =

Qh
75 X eff . Metric horse power

Q = liters per second, lps (discharge)


h = Total dynamic Head (TDH) in meters
Example :
Pump Efficiency = 70%
Total Dynamic Head = 45 meters
Discharge , Q = 190 liters per second
Required = Hp ?

Hp =

l
(190 )(45 m)
s
m
(75 kg . )( 0.70)
s

= 162.86 hp
Use: 175 hp
2. MENSURATION
A. Plane Areas
Let A cross sectional area or Area
P Perimeter
C Circumference
a.) Square
a

A=

P = 4a

b.) Rectangle
a

A= ab
P= 2a+2b
= 2(a+b)

b
c.) Parallelogram
b
a
h

A= bh
P= 2(a+b)

d.) Trapezoid
a
c h

A= (a+b) h
P= a+b+c+d

e.)Triangle
5

A= bh =
a

s (sa)( sb)( sc)

P= a+b+c

a+b+ c
where:
2

S=

A= s (sa)( sb)(sc)
p
2

S=

S=

a+b+ c
2

f.) Circle
r

A=
r

d
4

r=

d
2

C = 2 r

d= 2r
= D

d
g.)Circular Sector
(drawing)
2
A= r

= r l = arc length
Note: should be expressed in radians
If is outside of a trigonometric function
It should be expressed in radians

revolution
1 revolution
Ex:

radians = 180 degrees


radians = 360 degrees

= 50
r = 10 mm
6

Reqd : Area & Arc Length


2
A= r
rad

= (10)2 (50 x 180


= 43.63 mm2

rad

180

= (10)(50 x

= 8.7266 mm

h.)Circular Segment of a Circle


(drawing)
Area of a Circular Segment, As
Sol. As = Asec - A

( )
sin 2

a
r

; a= rsin25

= 10sin25
= 4.2262 mm
A = s ( sr ) ( sr ) ( s2 a )
S=

2 a+ 2r
2

= 14.2262 mm
= 38.3023 mm2
As = 43.63-38.3023
= 5.3277 mm 2

B.) ELLIPSE
b

A= ab

P= 2

; b= major side , a= minor side


a2 +b2

(drawing)
a
7

Ellipsoid V = 4/3 abc


1.) Parabolic Segment
(drawing)
A= 2/3 base x height
= 2/3 Lh
2.) SOLIDS
Let V = Volume
SA = Lateral surface area or surface area
L = Slant height
a.)
CUBE
(drawing)
V= a3
SA= 6a2

b.)
Rectangular Parallelopiped
(drawing)
V= abc
SA= 2ac + 2bc + 2ab
= 2(ac+bc+ab)

c.)CYLINDER
(drawing)

SA = 2 rh

V= Bh
B=

V=

d
h
4

d.)

d
4

= dh

2
= r h

CONE

(drawing)

V= 1/3 Bh
= 1/3

d2
(
) h
4

;B=

d
4

= r

SA = CL
8

d2
h
12

= 1/3 r

2
2
= (2 r r +h

2
2
= r r +h

= rL
e.)
PYRAMID
(drawing)
V= 1/3 Ah
A= area of base
f.) Frustum
(drawing)

SECOND PROPOSITION OF PAPPLES


-The volume area generated by a solid of revolution

equals the
Product of the generating area and the distance
traveled by its
Centroid.
V=

h
3

A1 A2
(A1+A2+

g.)
SPHERE
(drawing) V= 4/3 r
SA= 4 r
=

V= A x 2 r

3
2

SA= 4base
B= r
=

d2
4

SOLID OF REVOLUTION (PAPPUS THEOREM)


FIRST PROPOSITION OF PAPPLUS The surface area generated by a surface
of revolution equals the product of the length of the generating Arc and the
distance traveled by its centroid.
AS= L x 2 r

h.)

SPHERICAL SEGMENT
9

(Drawing)

V=

h2
3

(3r-h)

C= 2 r
= d
Area of Zone , z = 2 rh = dh
= ch

iii. D. What is the radius of a circle whose area is equal to that of a


trapezoidal cross section whose two parallel sides are 2.50 meters and 1.80
meters respectively and the distance between them is 1.50 meters?

Solution :
a=1.8 m
r
1.5 m
b=2.5m

Required : radius , r
Ac = At
r 2 = (a+b)h
r2 =
r =

0.5 ( 1.8+2.5 ) 1.5

0.5 ( 4.3 ) 1.5

r = 1.013 meter
iv. The dimension of a rectangular tank are as follows:
L=12ft. , W=6ft. , h=8ft.
10

Compare the maximum volume of h2O in gallons that the tank can
accommodate.
Solution:
(drawing)

V= L x w x h
= 12 x 6 x 8
Volume of h2O in gallons
V= 576ft3 x

7.481
3
1 ft

gal.

= 4309.06 gallons
iv. The area of a circle is equal to the product of a constant and the
square of the radius. If the diameter of a tank is 96 inches, find the area in
sq.ft (use: =3.14)
Solution:
Ac =

r2

or

d = 2r , r =
=

d
2

Ac =
=

96

( 2 )2

d2
4
12

2
2
4 (96) x ( 1 ft )

= 50.27 sq.ft

12
Ac = 7238.23 in x ( 1 ft )2

= 50.27 sq.ft
*In a certain plumbing installation, three pipes have a diameter of 2, 2
and 3 inches respectively. What is the diameter of a pipe having an area
equal to the three pipes?
Given:
d1 = 2in
d2 = 2 in
d3 = 3in
11

Required: Diameter of a pipe with an area to the three,


Solution:
Let d be the diameter
A = A1+A2+A3
d
4

=
d =
2

d =

d 21
4

4 [

+
d 21

d 22
4

d 23
4

2
2
+ d2 + d3 ]

1 2
+ ( 3 )2
2

( )

( 2 ) 2+ 2

d = 4.39 inches
ii. Give the formula of the ff. figures:
1. Circumference of the circle
2. Area of an ellipse
3. Lateral surface area of a sphere
4. Volume of a cylinder
5. Area of trapezoid
Answer:
1. C= 2 r , C= d 3. 4 r2
2. A= ab

5. A= (a+b)h

4. 1/3 r2h

TRY:
1. A rigid circular conical vessel is constructed to have a volume of
100,000 liters. Find the diameter and the depth if the depth is to be
1.25 times. Give answer in metes.
Solution:
(drawing)
V = 1/3 Bh
d2
= 1/3 ( 4 )h

H = 1.25d
d2
= 1/3 ( 4 ) 1.25d
12

d3 = 305577.4qL x

1 m3
1000 L

d = 6.74 m
h = 1.25 (6.47)
= 8.42 m
2. Three sides of a triangle are given a= 68m, b= 52m and c= 32m. Find
the area of the triangle.
Solution:
S=
=

a+b+ c
2

A= s (sa)(sb)(sc)

68+ 52+ 32
2

= 76(7668)(7652)(7632)

= 76m

= 801.28 m2

3. A machine foundation has the shape of a frustum of a pyramid with


lower base 6mx2m, upper base 5.5mx1.8m and altitude of 1.5m. Find
the volume of the foundation.
Solution:
(drawing)
h

A1 = 6x2
= 12m

V= 3
2

A2 = 5.5 x 1.8
= 9.9 m2

[ A 1 + A 2 + A 1 A 2 ]

1.5
3 [ 12+9.9+

(12)(9.9) ]

= 16.40 m3

4. A cylindrical tank with a diameter of 1meter and height of 2meters is


filled with water to a depth of 0.75 meter. How much water is in the
tank?
(drawing)
Solution:
13

d2
4

A=

(1)2
4

V = Ahw
2

(1)
4

(0.75)

= 0.59 m3
-PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRYMatter anything that occupies space and has weight
Mass, m amount of matter in a substance
Weight, w force exerted due to gravity
Volume, v space occupied by matter
English Unit
mlb mass
wlb force
v
ft3

Metric Unit
kg mass
kg force

SI Unit
kg
N

m3

m3

Note: Have on earth at constant acceleration due to gravity.


English Unit
lb = lb mass
= lb force
; W = m = lb
Metric Unit
kg = kg mass
= kg force ; W = m = kg
SI Unit
W is in Newton , m is in kg ; W m
weight
volume

Specific weight or weight density , =


Density or Mass density , =
Specific Volume , v =
weight
force

volume
mass

mass
volume

;v=

w
v

m
v

= mass x acceleration
= kg x

m
sec 2

=N
SPECIFIC WEIGHT OR WEIGHT DENSITY
14

At constant acceleration due to gravity


English Unit

1b
= ; ft 3

kg
= ; m3

Metric Unit

SI Unit

Note: for SI Unit Only


m / sec2

N
3
m

;=

kg
3
m

= g ; g = gravitational acceleration , g = 9.81

kg
m

3
= ( m ( sec2 )

N
m3

kg . m
sec 2

=N

-FOR WATER
1b
ft 3

English Unit

= = 62.4

Metric Unit

= l = 1000

SI Unit

= 9.81

KN
3
m

= 8.33
kg
m3

=1

1b
gal .
kg
L

; 1ft3 = 7.481 gal.


; 1m3 = 1000L

; = 1000 kg / m3 = 1kg/L

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OR RELATIVE DENSITY, SG


a.)

For liquid and Solid

SG of any liquid and solid =


lL

SGL = l w

Density of any liquid solid


Density of water

ls

; SGs = l w

15

mL
mw

If

; w =

w
g

ls

SGL = l w

; SGs = l w
w

But = V

SGL =

L
g

L =
g

= g ; =
lL

ms
mw

wL
Ww

wL

= VL ;

Ww
Vw

; VL = Vw

Ws

; SGs = Ww

Summary:
1. SGL =

lL
lw

2. SGs =

ls
lw =

L
w

s
w =

Density ratiosp. Wt. ratio

b.)

mL
mw
ms
mw =

wL
ww
ws
ww

mass ratio

weight ratio

For Gases

Specific Gravity for any Gas, SGg =

SGq =

MWq
MWa

Molecular weight of any Gas


Molecular Weight of Air

where :MWq = 29 lb / lb mole


= 29 kg / kg mole

Elements
1. Carbon, C
2. Hydrogen, H2

Molecular Weight
Unit
12
lb mole or kg mole
2

16

3. Oxygen, O2
4. Nitrogen, N2
5. Sulfur, S

32
28

32

Example:
a.)
Carbon Dioxide , CO2
MWco2 = C+O2
= 12+32 = 44 lb/lb mole or 44 kg/kg mole\
SGco2 =

b.)

MW co2
Mwa

44
29

= 1.52

Carbon Dioxide, CO

SGco =

MWco
MWa

12+16
29

= 0.97

c.)Methane, CH4
SGch4 =

MW ch4
MWa

12+ 4(1)
29

= 0.55

ii. What is the weight of a solid ball 6 in diameter?


Specific gravity is 8.4
Given: SGb = 8.4
d = 6 in
Solution:
b=

, reqd = Wb

wSG
b

= (62.4 lb/ft3)(8.4)
= 524.16 lb/ft3
Vb= 4/3 r

17

= 4/3

= 4/3

6
2 )3

(3in)3

12
= 113.10 in3 x ( 1 ft )3

= 0.0654 ft3
Wb= bVb
= 524.16 lb/ft3 x 0.0654 ft3
= 34.2801 lbs.
iii. Find the weight of a cast iron cone whose mass is 533.4 kg and the
diameter at the base is 25mm. specific gravity of a cast iron is 7.22
Solution:
Force = W=ma
Weight of cast iron cone ,Wc = 533.4 kg x 9.81 m/s 2
= 5232.65 N
Note: Force = mass x acceleration
iv. A spherical tank is 5h full of water and 2h full of compressed air. If the
tank is 8ft in diameter,
a.) Compute the volume of water in cm3.
b.) Compute the volume of air in cm3.
c.)What is the weight of water in kg?
Solution:
Drawing

VST =

4
r
3

r=

d
2

8
2

= 4ft.
3

= 3 (4)

18

1
12
1 ft )3 x ( 2.54 cm )3
= 268.0826 ft3 x (

= 7591253.858 cm3
5

a.) Vh2O = 7

VST = 7

(7591253.858)

= 5422324.184 cm3
= 5.4223 m3
2
7

b.) VA =
2

= 7

VST
(7591253.858)

= 2168929.673 cm3
c.)Wh2O = h2O Vh2O
= 1000kg x 5.423 m3
= 5422.3242kg
WORK, POWER AND HEAT
A.) WORK, Wk
Wk = Force x Distance ; F= Force , S= Distance
Wk = FS
B.) POWER
Work
Power = Time
wk
P = t

Velocity =

; Wk = Work , t = time

Fs
t
distance
time

; p=power , v=velocity
s

; V= t

P = FV
19

For rotating body, V= DN , =2 RN ; N = rotative speed , RPN


Drawing
Power , P = F (2 RN)
= 2 FRN
= DFN
Torque , T = FR
Power , P = 2 TN
= Tw ; w=angular velocity = 2 N

1 English Hp or Hp = 33,000

= 550

ft .lb
min
ft .lb
s

= 0.746 kw

= 0.746 kw

1 Metric Hp or Ps = 4500

kg . m
min

= 0.736 kw

= 75

kg . m
s

= 0.736 kw

1kw = 1 kJ / s =KN.m / s
Note: English Unit Conversion
Power = 2

rad
rev

x ft.lb x

rev
min

1 ps
kg .m
4500
mm

= hp
Metric Unit Conversion
20

rad

Power = 2 rev

x kg.m x

rev
min

1 ps
kg .m
4500
min

Power = Ps
SI Unit Conversation
rad
Power = 2 rev

kN . m
s

kJ
s

rev

x (N.mx 1000 )( min

1 min

x 60 sec )

or kw

C.)HEAT
Q= mc t
Where: m- mass of a substance
C- specific heat of a substance

t- temperature difference (drop or rise) on a substance


Q= mc t
= tb x

Btu
lbR

x R

= Btu
Q= mc t
= kg x

kJ
kg k

x K

= kJ
Q= mc t
= kg x

kcal
kg k

x K

= Kcal
21

Note:
Specific Heat
a.)
For Air, Ca = 0.24 Btu / lb-R
= 0.24 Kcal / kg-K
= 1.01 kJ / kg-K
t F = t R
b.)
t C =

t K
9

F temperature in degree Farenheit ;F = 5


C - temperature in degree Celcius ;C =

5
9

[C] + 32
(F 32)

TR Absolute temperature in degree Rankine


R - F + 460
TK- Absolute temperature in degree Kelvin
K- C + 273
Conversion of Units
1 Btu = 1.055 kJ
= 778 ft.lb
1 cal = 4.186 Joules
1 kcal = 4.186 kJ
c.)Thermometer Scale
Drawing
9
5

1 Btu

= 1.8

= lb R

1.8 F
1.8 R
or
1C
1 K

d.)

1.055 kJ
1 Btu

= 4.187

Specific heat for Water, Cw =


=1

2.205 lb
1 kg

1.8 R
1 K

kJ
kg . K

1 Btu
lb R

kcal
kg . K

22

kJ
kg . K

= 4.187
t

e.)
t

= 5F
T

= 10C

=5 R

= 10K

f.) m = 50kg
C = 0.25 kJ / kg. K
t = 15C
Q= mc t
kJ
kg K

= 50kg x 0.25
t

note: t = 15C ;

x 15K

= 15K
= 187.5 kJ

g.)

Btu
lb R

Convert 1
Btu

= 1 lb R
Btu

1 lb R

= 4.187

to

kJ
kg . K

1.055 kJ
1 Btu

2.205 lbs
1 kg

1.8 R
1 K

kJ
kg . K

vi. What is the horse power required to raise 40000 lbs, 200ft high in 5
minutes?
Solution:
P=

wk
t

Fs
t

(40000 lbs)(200 ft )
5 min

= 1600000

ft .lb
min

1 hp
ft . lb
33,000
min

= 48.48 hp
23

ix. How much heat in Btu are required to raise one pound of water from 55F
to 212F? How many units of work in ft.lb that this represent?
Solution:
Q= mc t
m= 1 lb
Cw= 1Btu / lb-R
t = 212F - 55F = 157K = 157R

Q= (1lb)(1 Btu/lb-R)(157R)
= 157 Btu
778 ft . lb
1 Btu

W= 157 Btu x

W= 122146 ft.lb

--IDEAL GAS LAW


PV
T

=C

At constant pressure (isobaric process), P=C


V
T
V1
T1

p1 V
= C ; t1

p2 V
t2

V2
T2

At Constant Volume (isometric process) V=C

24

P1 V 1
T1 =
P1
T1

P2 V 2
T2

; V= V1 = V2 = C

P2
T2

At Constant Temperature (isometric Process), T=C


P1 V 1
T1 =

P2 V 2
T2

; T1 = T2 = C

P1V1 = P2V2
For Adiabatic or isoutropic conditions (no heat exchange)
k
k
P1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

Note:
a.)

for characteristic Gas equation

PV = mRT where P absolute pressure, kPa


V Volume, m3
M mass, kg
R specific gas constant, kJ / kg-K
T absolute temperature, T
M=

PV
RT
N
3
xm
2
m
KN . m
x K
kg K
K

M =

N.m = Joules

M= kg

25

lb 144 2
(
)( ft 3 )
2
2

ft
ft lb
x R
lb R

M=

M=lb
If m=

PV
RT

P1 V 1
RT1 =

b.)

consider process 1-2 m1=m2


P2 V 2
RT 2

P1 V 1
T1

P2 V 2
T2

PV
T

KJ
kg K

For Air , Ra=0287

ft .lb

= 53.34 lb R

c.)Specific Gas Constant, R=

=C

lb

Mwa = 29 lbmole

= 29 kg/kg.mole
R
Mw

= universal gas constant


kJ
kg . mole K

= 8.3143

= 1545 ft.lb / lb.mole-R


Mw = molecular weight
Example:
a.)

lb

For air, MWq = 29.00 lb . mole

R
Ra = MWa

kJ
kg . mole K
kg
29.0
kg . mole

8.3143

26

= 0.287

KJ
kg . K

ft .lb
lb . mole R
lb
2g
lb .mole

1545

Ra =

ft .lb

= 53.34 lb R
b.) For CO2
MWco2 = C + O2
= 12+2(16)
= 44

Rco2 =

kg
kg . mole
KJ
Kg. mole K
kg
44
kg . mole

8.3143

R
MW co2

= 0.189

If MWa = 30

Ra =

KJ
kg . K

kg
kg . mole

R
MWa

KJ
kg . mole K
KJ
30
kg . mole

8.3143

= 0.2771

kJ
kg . K

27

iv. If a tank of 400 gallons capacity containing air at atmosphere pressure is


pumped to 45 pounds gage pressure, find air volume and volume of water in
the tank?
Solution:
Since there is pumping operation there will be pressure and volume
change (P C ; V C). The process is isothermal T=C.
P1 V 1
T1

P2 V 2
T 2 ; T1=T2

P1V1 = P2V2
P1 = 14.7 Psia
V1 = 400 gallons

P2= 45 Psia
P2= Pgage+Patm
= 45+14.7=59.7

V2 =

P1 V 1
P2

lb
2

(14.7)(400)
59.7

V2 = 98.5 gallons of air


Final vol. of air in the tank
a.)
Pabs = Pgage+Patm
Patm=Pb
P atmospheric = P barometric
b.)
Pabs = Patm-Pvac
Pvac- Vaccum pressure
PB = Patm = 1 std atm. = 101.325 Kpa
= 14.7 Psia
= 1.033 kg/cm2
= 760 mm. Hg
= 29.92 in Hg
= 34 ft. of water

28

c.)Gage pressure, P=Pgage =


Also, P=Pg= h

Force
Area

F
A

P= A 2
1 in 2

F
h=
A

Liquid surface, F= hA
(drawing)

iii. 3. A force of 100 lbs is exerted on a piston whose area is 20in 2. Find the
pressure the piston exert on the cylinder.
Solution:
(drawing)
100 lb
F
P= A = 20 2 =5

lb
2

, 5 Psi or 5 Psig

4. Find the pressure at a depth of 8ft. in a swimming pool filled with water.
Solution:

ii. The pressure in bonds per square inch at the bottom of any container is
determined by finding the depth of water in feet and dividing it by 2.31 or
multiply it by 0.433. find the pressure at the base of stand pipe full of water
that has a height of 200ft.
Solution:
(drawing)
h

P= 2.31

200

= 2.31

=86.6 Psi
29

Or, P= 0.433h = 0.433 (200) = 86.6 Psi


Or, P= h =

62.4 (200)
144

= 86.6 Psi

ii. A boiler gage reads 150 Psi. Determine the absolute pressure in
a.) Psia if barometer reads 29.6 in Hg.abs
b.) Kpa abs.
Solution:
a.)
b.)

Pabs = Pq + Pb = 150Psi + 29.6 (


Pabs

14.7 Psi
29.92 ) = 164.54 Psi

101.325 Kpa
= Pq + Pb = 150 Psi ( 14.7 Psi
) + 101.325 Kpa = 1135.25 Kpaabs

iii. A viewing window 1ft in diameter is installed 10ft below the surface of an
aquarium tank filled with water. Determine the force the window must stand.
Solution:
(drawing)
F= hA
= (62.4

lb
D2
ft 3 )(10ft)( 4 )

= (62.4

' 2
lb
(1 )
3 )(10ft)(
)
ft
4

= 490.09 lbs
iv. A condenser registers a vacuum of 620 mm Hq. Determine the absolute
pressure in
a.) Kpa abs, referred to a 762 torr. Barometer
b.) Kq/cm2 . abs
30

Solution:
a.) Pabs = Pa + Pb
= [(762torr)(

1 mm Hq
101.325 Kpa
) 620 mm Hq]( 760 mm Hq )
1 torr

= 18.93 Kpa abs


b.) Pabs = Pb - Pxac

= (1.033

kq
cm2 )-(620 mm Hq)(

kq
cm 2 )
760 mm Hq
1.033

2||

= 0.190

cm
kq

Note:
a.) Gage Pressure = Pq = (+) gage pressure
=Pvac = (-) gage pressure
Ex. -2 Psi = 2 Psi vacuum or 2 Psi vac
b.) Example: Pb = 15 Psi barometric
Pvac= -2 Psi
Find: Pabs
Pabs = Pb - Pvac
= 15-2
= 13 Psi abs or 13 Psia
Note: negative sign has no effect in subtracting it to the 15 Psi barometric
pressure.

FLOW OF FLUIDS & PUMPS


FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF FLUIDS FLOW
31

1. Energy Head Equations ( or Bernoullis Equation) (EHE)


H=

v2
2q

+z

2. Continuity Flow Equation (CHE)


Q= Av
Where:
H= Total Energy hed
P
= Pressure Head

P= Gage Pressure
= specific weight of liquid
v2
2 q = velocity head

V= velocity of liquid
q= acceleration due to gravity
= 32.2 ft/s2
= 9.81 m/s2
z= elevation head
Q= discharge or volumetric flow rate
A= cross-sectional area of pipe
Note:

Units Application
P

a.)

lb/
lb/ ft 3

2
lb

x
144
2
2

ft
3
lb / ft

cm 2

kg
x
2
cm

= ft

100
P

kg/cm
3
kg /m

=m

32

V2
2q

b.)

kN /m 2
= kN /m3

KPa
kN /m3

P
=

ft /

=m

ft ;

V2
2q

m/s

=m

FOR IDEAL FLUID (FRICTIONLESS FLOW)


a.)

Drawing

BY EHE : H1 = H2
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1

P2

V 22
2q

+ z2

V 22
2q

+ z2

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2
A1V1 = A2V2
A1 = A2 =

b.)

d2
4

Drawing

BY EHE : H1=H2
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1

P2

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2
A1

d2
= 4

d2
A2 = 4

33

A 1 A2

V 1 V2

FOR REAL OR ACTUAL FLUID (WITH FRICTION)


Drawing
BY EHE : H1=H2 + hL12
Where : hL12 = head loss from point 1 to point 2
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1

P2

V 22
2q

+ z2 + hL12

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2
A1V1 = A2V2

-PUMP PRESENT BET. SECTIONS 1 & 2


Drawing
BY EHE :
H1 + h = H2 + hL12
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1 + h =

P2

V 22
2q

+ z2 + hL12

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2=Qp
A1V1 = A2V2
Note:
a.)
If liquid surface is exposed to atmosphere P=O.
b.)
For a reservoir or large tank, liquid surface will drop or rise slowly,
V=O
c.)At datum line or reference point, z=O.
POWER REQUIREMENT
34

Drawing
Where:
EPi = Electric power input
Bp = Brake power, shaft power, electric power output or pump power input
Wp= Water power, pump power or pump power output
FOR ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL DEVICES
Efficiency =
a.)

Electric Mot or Efficiency


BP
EPi

Nmo =
b.)
Np =

Power output
Power input

Pump Efficiency

BP

c.)Combined Electric Motor-pump Efficiency or overall efficiency


BP

Nc = NmoNp = ( EPi ( BP ) =

EPi

Water Power or Pump Power


WP = Q h
Where:
Q= discharge
=specific weight
h= pump head
RELATION OF UNITS:
WP =Q h
WP =

ft 3
s

lb
ft 3

x ft =

ft .lb

hp
35

WP =

m3
s

WP =

m
s

kq
3
m

KN
3
m

xm=

xm=

kq . m

s
KN . m
s

Ps or metric hp

KJ
s

or KW

HEAD LOSS
Total head loss, hL = hf + hm
hf= major head loss or ; pipe friction head loss
=f

L V2
D 2q

; darcy-weisbach equation

f = pipe friction factor


L = pipe length
D = pipe diameter
q = 32.2 ft/s2
= 9.81 m/s2
hm= minor head loss or head due to pipe fittings
2

k 2Vq
2

V
= Ke 2 q

+ Kq

V
2q

+ + etc.

Ke = coefficient due to effect of elbow


Kq = coefficient due to effect of gate value
iii.
a.) Given a capacity of 800 qpm flowing through 8in diameter pipe line.
Find the velocity in fps.
Solution:

Q= 800 qpm

36

800 qal/min
1 min

3
In, ft /min or cfm, Q= ( 7.841 gal/ft ( 60 sec
3

From Q= AV

Q
A

V=

= 1.782 ft3/s

1 ft
2
12
82

4
1.782 ft 3 /s

= 5.105 ft/s or 5.105 fps


ii.
a.) A pump is to handle 300 qpm of water against 50ft. of total dynamic
heads, what is the water horse power?
b.) If the same pump handling brine having a specific gravity to 1.2, what
is the horse power?
c.)If in problem b, the pump efficiency is 65%, what is the brake horse
power?
Solution:
a.)

1 ft 3

3
WP = Q
h = (300gal/min)(62.4 lb/ft )(50ft)( 7.481 gal (
1 hp

ft . lb
33,000
min

b.)

= 3.791 hp
H pump is handling brime with SGb=1.2

WP = Q h ; b = ( w)(SGb)=(62.4 lb/ft3)(1.2)=74.88 lb/ft3


= (300

1 hp
3

gal
1 ft
ft
.
lb
3
( 7.481 qal
min )(74.88 lb/ft )(50ft) x ( 33,000
min

= 4.55 hp
c.)Brake Power, BP =

Np

4.55
0.65

= 7hp
37

vii. How many gallons of water can a 75hp engine raise 150ft. high in 5hrs?
one gallon of water weight 8 1/3 lbs.
Solution:
From, WP = Q h
Q=

33,000 ft . lb /min
)
1 hp
lbs
(8.33
)(150 ft )
qal

(75 hp)(

= 1980.08 qpm

VOLUME OF WATER, Vw = Q(time)


= (1980.08 qpm)(5x60)
= 594023.761 gallons
iv. How fast will water leak through a hole 1cm 2 in area at the bottom of a
tank in which water level is 3 meter high?
Solution:
Drawing
H1=H2+hL12 ; hL12 = 0
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1 =

3=

P2

V 22
2q

+ z2 + hL12

V 22
2q

V2 = 3 ( 2 ) ( 9.81 )
=7.7 m/s
v. What gage pressure is required in a fire hose if the stream of water is to
reach a height of 60ft.?
Solution:
Drawing
38

H1=H2
V 12
2q

P1

P1

= 60

+ z1 =

P2

V 22
2q

+ z2

P1 = (60ft)
12
= (62.4lbs/ft )(60ft)( 1 ft

= 26 psi

iii. A Horizontal pipe whose diameter changes gradually from 18in. dia at A
to 36in. dia at B carries 30 cfs of water. If gage pressure at A is 10 psi and
that of B is 10.9 psi det. The head loss from point A to B.
Solution:
Drawing
Q=QA=QB=30 ft3/s
QA=AAVA

VA =

QA
AA

18 2

12

4
30 ft 3 /s

= 16.977 ft/s
QB = ABVB

VB =

36 2

12

4
30 ft 3 /s

= 4.244 ft/s
HA = HB + hLAB
39

hLAB = HA - HB
PA
=[

V A2
2q

PB
+ zA] [

V B2
2q

+ zB ]

16.977

= [ (10)(144)
+
624

(10)(144)
+ 0]-[
624

4.244

+ 0]

= 2.12 ft
TRY:
1. A right circular conical vessel is constructed to have a volume of
100000 liters. Find the diameter and depth if the depth is 1.25 times
the diameter. Give answer in meters.
Ans: d= 6.74 m ; h= 8.42 m
2. The three sides of a triangle are given as a=68 meters, b=52 meters
and c=32 meters. Find the area of the triangle.
Ans: A= 801.28 m2
PROBLEM:
-From a reserver whose surface elevation is at 30 meters, water is pumped
at an elevation of 95m. The total length of 60m diameter suction pipe is
1500 meter and that of 0.50m diameter discharge pipe is 1000m. Determine
the water power if the discharge is to be maintained at 0.48 m 3/s. Pipe
friction factor is 0.02 for both pipes. Minor losses is 10% of major head loss.
Required: WP
Answer: 405.20 Kw

Solution: EHE, Parcy-Wlashbach, CFE


Water Power, WP=Q h

PROBLEM:
-The Distance pressure gage of a pump heads 1020.42 Kpa. The suction
pressure gage is attached 1.22m below the center line of the discharge gage
and reads 50.8 mm Hqvacuum. The pump is delivering 0.0378 m 3/s of water.
The diameter of suction and discharge pipe are 127mm and 102mm
respectively. Determine the pump efficiency if power input tp pump is 61 kw.
Required: hp-pump efficiency
40

Answer: hp=64.8%
PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS
Specific Speed = the speed in rpm required to produce 1qpm thru a head of
1ft.
Ns=

NQ
h3 /4

, rpm

Where: Ns Specific speed, rpm


N pumprotative speed, rpm
Q pump volumetric capacity or discharge, qpm / suction
h pump head or total dynamic head, ft/stage
Note: for same type of pump geometrically similar pump, the specific speed
are equal.
PROBLEM:
A single suction pump has a capacity of 19 liters per second with maximum
developed head of 61 meters. Equivalent rotative speed is 1200 rpm. If is
proposed that same type of pump is to be installed but with double suction
and to operate at a head of 30 meters and a discharge of 25 liters per
second. Determine the speed of the proposed pump at which it will operate.
Solution:
For Single suction pump

Q1=

3.28 3

19(60)(7.48)

= 300.91 qpm

h1 = 61(3.28) = 200.1 ft.


N1 = 1200 rpm
Ns1=

NQ
h3 /4

1200 300.91
( 200.1 ) 3/4

= 391.31 rpm
41

For double suction pump


3.28 3

25(60)(7.48)

Q2 =

= 395.93 qpm

h2 = 30(3.28) = 98.4 ft.


For same type of pump, Ns are equal
Ns1 = Ns2
Ns1 =

N 2 Q2
h2 3/4

391.31 =

395.93
2
( 98.4)3 / 4

N 2

N2 = 868.91 rpm
qpm= volumetric cap. Of pump or amount of water the pump can deliver
ft/stage=elevation or head of water from water will be delivered
Note:
a.)

Q1 = 19 L/S or ----- qpm

Q1 =

3.28 ft 3 7.48 qal


(
)
m
ft 3

L 60 s
19 (
)
S min

= 300.91 qpm
b.)
Q = 500 qpm N= 800 rpm
h = 200 ft
Ns =

NQ
h3 /4

42

Ns =

800 500
200
(
)3 /4
3

= _____ rpm
Affinity Law or homologous Relations of Pumps
a.)
Same Pump
1.) Specific speed, Ns are equal
2.) For a constant rotative speed & varying impeller diameter
2.1
Discharge is directly proportional to the impeller diameter
Q

Q1
Q2

D1
D2

2.2
Pump head is directly proportional to the square of impeller
diameter
h

h1
h2

D1
)
D2

2.3
Brake power is directly proportional to the cube of impeller
diameter
BP

1
BP D3 B P2

1
= ( D2 )

3.) For a constant impeller diameter and varying rotative speed


3.1 Discharge is directly proportional to the rotative speed
Q N
3.2 Pump head is directly proportional to the square of rotative speed
h N2
3.3 Brake power is directly proportional to the cube of the rotative
speed
BP N3
Note:
Drawing
At Constant impeller diameter with varying rpm
Initial Condition

New Condition

Q1
43

h1
BP1
N1
D1

1
Q N Q2

h1
h2

N1
N2

N2
D2

N2

; Q 2 = Q1 ( N 1

N1
N2
2
= ( N 2 ) ; h2 = h1 ( N 1
BP

1
1
2
BP N3 BP2 = ( N 2 )3 ; BP2 = BP1 ( N 1

Q
h
BP

D1 N1
D 2 N2
D3 N3

At constant N at constant D
PROBLEM:
A centrifugal pump designed for 1800 rpm operation and a head of 60m has
a capacity of 11.36 m3/min with a power input of 132 KW
a.)
What effect will a speed reduction to 1200 rpm have in the head,
capacity and power input of pump?
b.)
What will be the change in these variables if the impeller diameter
is reduced from 304 mm to 254mm while the speed is held constant at
1800 rpm?
Solution:
a.)
At constant impeller diameter
b.)
At constant rpm
Answer:
a.)
b.)

Q2= 7.57 m3/min, h2= 26.67m , BP2= 39.11KW


Q2= 9.5 m3/min, h2= 50.13m , BP2= 70KW

GEOMETRICALLY SIMILAR PUMP


a.)
b.)

Ns are equal
Q ND3
44

-Discharge is directly proportional to the product of the rotative speed


and the cube of the impeller diameter
-h N2D2
-Pump head is directly proportional to the product of the square of
rotative speed and to the square of impeller diameter
-BP N3D5
-Brake power is directly proportional to the product of the cube of the
rotative speed and to the fifth of impeller
Note:
Q

ND
1

ND
2

h1
h2

Q1
Q2

N 1 D1
( )
N 2 D2

N1
D1
2 (
= ( N 2 ) D2 )
BP

1
1
1
BP N3D5 BP2 = ( N 2 )3 ( D 2 )

PROBLEM:
A centrifugal pump discharge 25liters per second against a total head of
15meters at 1400 rpm and the diameter of the impeller is 0.45 meter. A
geometrically similar pump of 0.30 meter diameter is to run at 2800 rpm.
Calculate the head, discharge and brake power ratio required.
Solution:
Pump I

Pump II

Q1 = 25 L/S
h1 = 15m
N1 = 1400 rpm
D1 = 0.45m
BP1

Q2= ?
h2= ?
N2 = 2800 rpm
D2 = 0.30m
BP2

B P2
B P1

= Brake Power Ratio

Q ND3
45

Q = K ND3 ; K=1
Q = ND3
Q1
Q2

N 1 D31
N 2 D32

N 2 D2
Q2 = Q1 ( N 1 ( D3 )

2800
0.30
= 2.5( 1400 )( 0.45 )3

= 14.81 L/s
h N 2 D2
h = N 2 D2
h1
N 1 2 D1
( )
h2 = ( N 2
D2
N 2 2 D2
h2= h1 ( N 1 ( D1 )
2800

0.30

h2= 15 ( 1400 )2( 0.45 )2


= 26.7m
BP N3D5
BP 1
N1
D1
)
3 (
BP 2 = ( N 2 )
D2
BP 1
BP 2

2800
0.30
3
= ( 1400 ) ( 0.45 )5

= 1.053
46

TRY:
1. A pressure tank on a hillside is filled by a pump located at a lower
elevation. The difference in elevation between the pump and the tank is
23ft. Assuming a pressure range of 20 to 40 psi, What pressure must be
maintained at the pump?
Answer: 30 to 50 psi
2. Water enters a pump thru a 600mm diameter pipe under a pressure of
14Kpa. It leaves thru a 900mm diameter exhaust 2.5m below the
entrance pressure gage. If 500 liters of water pass the pump each
second, compute the power output of the pump.
Answer: 24hp
3. A pump draws water thru a 38cm pipe from a reservoir in which the
water surface is 3m lower than the pump and discharges thru a 30cm
pipe. At a point in the discharge pipe 2.43m above the pump, a
pressure gage reads 3kg/m2. When the discharge is 0.226 m3/s, head
loss in the suction is 0.09m and head loss in the discharge is 1.05m and
power input to the pump is 94kw, determine:
a.) Efficiency of the pump. Answer: 87.41%
b.) If the pump runs at 1750 rpm, What will be the new discharge,
new head and new power input if the pump speed is increased to
3500 rpm.
Answer: Q2 = 0.452 m3/s
h2 = 148.76m
BP2 = 252 Kw
Problem 1:
Given:
V= 100000 liters
h= 1.25 d
Solution:
Drawing
V= 1/3 base x height
47

1m3
d2
100000 liters x ( 1000 liters ) = 1/3 ( 4 )h

If h = 1.25d
100,000
1000

m3 = 12

d3 =

(d2)(1.25d)

(12)(100000)
( 1.25 ) 1000

d = 6.74m
h = 1.25(6.74)
= 8.43m
Problem 2:
Given: drawing
Required: Area of a triangle
Solution:
A = s ( sa ) ( sb )( sc )
S=

a+b+ c
2

S=

68+ 52+ 32
2

S = 76m
7632
76(7668)(7652)

A=

A=

76 ( 8 )( 24 ) ( 44 )

A = 801.28 m2
48

Problem 3:
Given:
Drawing
Condition: minor losses is 10% of major head losses
Required: Water power, WP
Solution:
BY EHE
Hs + h = Hd + hLsd
P2

V s2
2q

+ zs + h =

Pd

V d2
2q

+ zd + hLsd

h = Zd + hLsd
h = 65 + hLsd
hfs = f

Ls V 2s
D s 2q
2

1500 m
= (0.02)( 0.60 m (

1.698

hfs = 7.35m
Qs = AsVs
2

Vs =

Qs
As

060 m

3
m
0.48
s

= 1.698 m/s
49

Qd = AdVd
2

Qd
Ad

Vd =

0.50

0.48

Vd = 2.44 m/s

hfd= f

Ld V d 2
Dd 2 q

2.44 2
( 2 ( 9.81 ))

= (0.02)(
1000

0.50

= 12.14m
hLsd = [hfs + hfs] + 0.10 [ hfs + hfd]
majorhL
minor hL
= (7.35 + 12.14) + 0.10 (7.35 + 12.14)
= 21.44 m
h = 65 + 21.44
= 86.44 m
WP = Q h
= (048 m3/s)(9.81)(86.44)
= 407.02 KW

Problem 4:
Drawing
Required: Np
Solution:
Hs + h = Hd + hLsd
50

P2

V s2
2q

+ zs + h =

Pd

V d2
2q

+ zd + hLsd

101.325 Kpa
Ps = -50 mm Hq ( 760 mm Hq

= -6.67 Kpa or 6.67 Kpa vacuum


Qs = AsVs

Vs =

Qs
As

0.127 m 2

3
0.0378m / s

Vs = 2.98 m/s

Vd =

Qd
Ad

0.102 2

0.0378

Vd = 4.63 m/s
Pd
h=[

Vd
2q

Ps
+ zd ] -[

4.63 2

1020.42
= [ 9.81

Vs
2q

+ zs]

6.67
1.22 ] [ 9.81

2.98 2

0]

= 106.56m
WP = Q h
= (0.0378)(9.81)(106.56)
51

= 39.51 KW

Pin

Np =

x 100%

39.51
61

x 100%

= 64.8 %
TRY Problem 1:
Drawing
H1 + h = H2 + hL12
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1 + h =

P2

P= h
=

V 22
2q

+ z2 + hL12

P1 = 10 + 20 = 30 psi

(62.4)(23)
144

P1 = 10 + 40 = 50 Psi

= 9.97 psi say 10 psi

Prange = 30 to 50 Psi

Problem 2:
Required: output power of pump is Hp
Drawing
BY EHE
H1 + h = H2 + hL12
P1

V 12
2q

+ z1 + h =

P2

V 22
2q

+ z2 + hL12

52

P1

P2
h=[

V 12
2q

+ z1 + h =

P1
V 22
2q ] [

P2

V 22
2q

V 21
2q

Z1]

by: Q = AV = A1V1 = A2V2

V1 =

Q
A1 =

0.60 2 m2

3
L
1m
(500 )(
)
s 1000 L

= 0.786 m/s
0.786 2
0.786 2
1.768 2

h= [ 4
][ 4
] [ 14
+ 2.5 ]
+
+
+
9.81
9.81
9.81

h= -3.65m
(-) indicates a downward direction of flow of water
h= |3.65 | m
WP = Q h
= (0.5m3/s)(9.81 kw/m3)(3.65m)
= 17.9 KW.m /s
1 hp
= 17.9 kW.m/s ( 0.746 KW

= 23.99 Hp
Say, WP = 24 Hp
Problem 3:
53

Drawing
Required:
a.)
Pump eff., Np
b.)
Q2, h2 BP2 if Pump runs at 1750 rpm
Ns = 3500 rpm
Solution:
At point s to point a
Drawing
WP = Q h
Np =

94 Kw

Q h

= 94 Kw

BY EHE
Hs + h = Hd + hLsd
Ps

V s2
2q

+ zs + h =

Pd

V d2
2q

+ zd + hLsd

hLsd = hLs + hLd = 0.09 + 1.05 = 1.14m

54

PLUMBING CODE
NAMPAP

National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines, Inc.

Ra 1378 Jan 29, 1959


RMP-20 units
Requirements:
1. Plumbing Layout
1.1 Sanitary Line Layout
1.2 Water Line Layout
1.3 Storm Drainage System

Plumbing Unit:
1 WC 2 FD
1 SH
1 KS
1 LAV 3 FAUCET

1 WM

- Each fixture or group of fixtures shall be provided with gate value


2. Isometric Diagram or Plumbing Isometry
3. Legend
4. Standard Detail
4.1 Septic Tank
4.2 Catch Barin
5. General Notes & Specification
6. Bill of materials
Ventillation- is important to balance the atmospheric pressure of the
plumbing system to eliminate the ff. probilities:
1. Trap seal loss
2. Retardation of flow
55

3. Deterioration of pipe quality


Concealed fixture must be provided with individual floor drain.
Materials Used for calking / logging
1. EPOXY A & B
10 times cheaper than lead
2. Lead / Pig Lead
-more durable compared to epoxy
3. Old hemp rope / oakum
Specification must govern over the layout plans / details.
15 meters radius the distance of septic tank from deep well.
High Rise Building is 15 meters & higher
Note: CAULKING
Approximately 8lbs (3.62 kq) brown oakum is used per 100 lbs. (45.3 kq)
of lead
Six (6) lbs (2.7kq) white oakum used per 100 lbs. (45.3 kq) of lead.
Caulking lead in cast iron bell and spigot water mains should be 2 inches
(51mm) deep.
Diameter of Difference Pipes
GIP or Copper
Sch. 40
mm
3/8 --- 10
----- 13
----- 20
1 ------ 25
1 ------ 32
1 ------ 40
2 ------ 50
2 ------ 65
3 ------ 75
4 ------ 100
6 ------ 150

UPUC

PUC

SCH. 40

Series 1000
600

CIP
SV standard
XV- Extra Heavy

20
25
32
40
50
65

63

50

90

75
100
150

75
110
150

56

CONCRETE PIPE:
INCHES
4
6
8
10
12
15
18
21
24
27
30
36
42

MM
100
150
200
250
300
375
450
525
600
675
750
900
1050

NRCP

RCP

Classification of Sewage
1. Domestic / Sanitary
2. Industrial
3. Storm
Sources of Water
1. Ground Water ex. Well, spring
2. Surface Water ex. River, lakes, stream, sea
3. Pain / atmospheric water - precipitation
Aquifer- it is the water bearing stratum of the ground
Methods of Water Supply
1. Direct Method
2. Indirect Method
2.1
Overhead Feed System
2.2
Pressure system (hydro pneumatic)
57

Hydro pneumatic System


Overhead Feed System
Drawing
Design Computation:
1. Service Pipe
Total Fixture Units (F.U)
4WC x 6 = 24
4LAV x 1 = 4
4SH x 2 = 8
4KS x 2 = 8
44 F.U per floor
X 6 floors
264 F.U
For intermetent flow @ 40% demand
For 264 F.U x 7.5 = 1980 gpm
X 40%
792 gpm higher compared to table C
From table C water pipe size:
Q = 69 gpm
D = 50 mm
By interpolation:
48

216 F.U
264 F.U
300 F.U

84

48
84

X=

68 gpm
x
85 gpm

x-68
85-86=17

x68
17

48(17)
84

+ 68
58

= 68.77 gpm
Say, Q = 69 gpm
2. RISER
Total = 264 F.U
Q = 69 gpm
D = 50 mm

3. Down Feed
3.1 DF-a
F.U = 264 F.U
44 x 6 = 264
D = 50 mm
Q = 69 gpm
3.2 DF-b
F.U = 220 F.U
44 x 5 = 220
D = 50 mm
Q = 69 gpm
3.3 DF-c
F.U = 176 F.U
44 x 4 = 176
D = 50 mm
Q = 60.33 gpm
3.4 DF-d
F.U = 132 F.U
44 x 3 = 132
D = 50 mm
Q = 51 gpm
3.5 DF-e
F.U = 88 F.U
44 x 2 = 88
D = 50 mm
Q = 40.33 gpm
3.6 DF-f
F.U = 44 F.U
D = 1 or 38 mm
Q = 26 gpm
4. Horizontal Branch
HB-g

HB-h

FU = 44
Q = 26 gpm
D = 32 mm
FU = 44
Q = 26 gpm
D = 32 mm
59

HB-I

FU = 44
Q = 26 gpm
D = 32 mm
HB-j FU = 44
Q = 26 gpm
D = 32 mm
HB-k
FU = 44
Q = 26 gpm
D = 32 mm
HB-L
FU = 44
Q = 26 gpm
D = 32 mm
5. CISTERN
F.U = 264
Q = 69 gpm
Storage time = 4 hrs.
Vol. = Q x t
= (69

gal
min

)(4 hrs)(

= 16560 gallons x

Repair consideration for water main


60 mins
1 hr

1m3
264.2 gals.

= 62.68 m3
If D = 1.5 m water depth
A=

62.68
1.5

= 41.79 say 42 sq.m

Therefore use dimension: L= 7m ; W= 6 ; H= 1.5 + 0.30 air space


Drawing
6. EWT
Storage time = 2hrs Brownout time consideration
60

Vol. = 69gal/min x 2hrs x

= 8280 gallons x
V=

d2
4

60 mins
1 hr
1 m3
264.2 gal

= 31.31 m3

h for cylindrical tank

If diameter, D = 1.5m

h=

4V
d2

1.5 2

4( 31.34)

h = 17.73 m not feasible


try a rectangular reservoir:
if water depth = 1.5m
A=

31.34
1.5

= 20.89 sq.m say 21

Use: L= 5.25m
W= 4.0 m
H= 1.8m w/ 1.5 water depth
7. Pumps / Motors
Used Formula:
Qh
HP = 75 x eff .

Where: Q= total distance, Lps liters per second


h= total dynamic head, meters
eff= efficiency usually 70% for transfer pump
61

qal
Q= 69 min

x 3.785

liters
qal

1 min
60 s

Q= 4.35 Lps say Q= 5 Lps


h= static height + velocity head + friction losses
= 21.3m + 0.29 + 3.5m
= 25.09m
Say h= 26m
Hp=

5 x 26
75 x 0.70

= 2.48 hp
Use:

2units transfer pump rated at


5 Lps vs. 26m TDH with
3 Hp, 3 , 240v, 60Hz TEF < motor

*SANITARY PUMPING DESIGN


DRAWING
*PIPE SIZING DESIGN
A. SANITARY SYSTEM
1. Fixture drain sizes
2. Horizontal branch pipe size
3. Soil / waste stack sizes
4. House drain / sewer size
B. Ventilation System
1. Individual vent pipe size
2. Branch vent pipe size
3. Vent stack / main vent
4. Stack vent
TIPS:
62

1. No. gallons in 3 pipe 20 meters high


d
4

Vol. = Base x height =

h=

3 2
)
12
4

20m x

3.28 ft
1m

7.481 qal
1 ft 3

Or, Vol. = 3.22 ft3 x

V = 24.09 gallons
Or, V =

d2
4

h=

3 ft
12

1m
3.28 ft

)2 x 20m x 264.2 qal/1m3

V= 24.09 gallons
2. Temperature from
Use formula : = 5/9 ( -32)

= 9/5 + 32

3. Pressure of water:
P= h ; where:

= specific weight per unit volume


h = pressure head

4. Surface Area & Volume & right circular cone


Drawing
As = 2 rL
V= 1/3 base x height
d2
= 1/3 ( 4

)h

5. Annulus or washer area


Drawing
63

A = A2 A1
= r22 - r12
=

(r22 - r12)

6. Torus Donut

Volume > surface area


Surface area- first theory of pappus of reduction
Volume 2nd theory of pappus of revolution
Drawing
7. Continuity equation

Q= AV
Q= discharge of water
A= pipe opening area
V= unit discharge per unit time
= velocity

DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE FF. FIXTURE PER GIVEN BELOW:


SS = 1
WC = 5
LAV = 5
SH = 5
KS = 5
UR = 3

PER FLOOR

1. SERVICE PIPE SIZING


COMPUTATIONS:
64

5WC x 6 = 30 F.U
5LAV X 1 = 5 F.U
5SH X 2 = 10 F.U
5KS X 2 = 10 F.U
3UR X 5 = 15 F.U
1SS X 3 = 3 F.U
73 F.U PER FUR X 6 FLRS = 438 F.U

RISER DIAGRAM
Drawing
For intermetent flow 40% demand
For 438 F.U x 7.5 = 3285 gallons
X 0.40
1,314 gallons higher compared to table C

At NPC table C
300 F.U

85 gpm
438 F.U
x
600 F.U
144 gpm

600300
438300

14485
x85

300(x-85) = (59)(138)
X =

(59)(138)
300

+ 85
= 112.14 gpm
65

66