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Master Plumber Board Exam mathematics

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You are on page 1of 66

REVIEW OUTLINE:

1.

2.

3.

4.

RELATION OF UNITS

MESURATION

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY

FLOW OF FLUIDS AND PUMPS

I.

RELATION OF UNITS

A. LENGTH

1in

= 2.45cm

= 25.4mm

1cm = 10mm

1ft

= 12in

1m

= 3.281ft

= 100cm

= 1000mm

1km = 1000m = 0.6214 mile

1mile = 1.6km

= 5280 ft

1yard = 3 ft

1rod = 5.5 yards

= 16.5 ft

1furlong= 40 rods

= 220 yards

1nautical mile = 6080ft

= 1853 km

1 league = 3 1nautical miles

1mil = 0.001in

B. AREA

1 FT 2 = 144

2

1m

= 1000

cm

1 H ectare or ha = 10,000

= 2.47 acres

1acre = 100 sq.m

1acre = 43560 sq.ft

C. VOLUME

1 FT

= 1728

1gal.(us) = 4 quarts

= 231

= 3.785 liters

3

1m

= 1000L

1quart

1barrel

1drum

= 2pints

= 42gal.

= 55gal.

= 200L

D. ANGLE

= 400 grads

= 6400 mils

1lb

= 4.448 N

= 70,000 grains

1kg

= 2.205 lbs

= 9.81 N

= 1000 gram

= 1kilo gram

1metric ton = 1000kg

1English ton or ton = 2000lb

1kip

= 1kilopound

= 1000 lb

1N

1 long Ton = 2400lb

1 kg . m

s2

F. PRESSURE

1atm. = 14.7 psi

= 760 mm Hq.

= 34 ft. of

h2 O

= 1.033 kg. /

cm 2

= 101.325 kpq

= 29.92 in. Hq

1 barometer or 1bar = 100 kpa

1 torricelli or 1torr

= 1 mm Hg

1 Btu

= 778 ft. lb

= 1.055 KJ

= 252 Cal.

2

1 cal.

= 4.187 J

1kcal

= 4.187 KJ

1 English HP = 550 ft. lb / s

=

=

=

=

Metric Hp or Ps

0.746 KW

2545 Btu /hr

1.014 Metric Hp

1N = 1kg.m / s

= 0.013 Metric Hp

1KW = 3413 Btu / hr.

= 1.34 hp

1W = 1 J/S

1KW = 1 KJ/S

= 1KN.M / S

MP EXAM AUG. 28 1990

ii. FILL IN THE BLANKS

1. 1 m

= 1000liters

3. 1sq.km = 100 hectares

4. 1 ft

5. 1m

= 7.481 gals

= 39.36 in.

6. 1 m

= 35.28

ft 3

8. 1in. = 2.54 cm

9. 1atm = 14.7 p

10.1gal = 3.785 liters

NOTE:

a.) SI Prefixes

12

10

= Tera, T

109

= Giga, G

106

= Mega, M

103

= Kilo, K

100

=1

103

= Milli, M

106

= Micro,

1drum = 55 gal.

= 200 L

F = ma

3

109

= Nano, n

1012 = Pico, P

b.) 1ft

1 ft

2

= 144

1 ft

ft 2

1pa = 1n/ m

= 10,000

= 1728

1psf = 1lb /

1m = 100cm

1 m

s2

1N = 1 kg.m /

= 12in

2

s2

1N = 1 kg.m /

cm 2

2

2

1mPa = 1 n/ mm

J- Joute

Cal-Calorie

1J = 1N.m

1KJ = 1KN.m

1cal = 4.187 J

1Kcal = 4.187 KJ

g.) 1hp = 550 ft.lb / s

= 33,000 ft.lb / min

= 2545 Btu / hr.

= 0.746 KW

1Metric = 0.736 KW = 75 kg.m / s

1English Hp = 1.014 Metric Hp

HP =

Qh

75 X eff . Metric horse power

h = Total dynamic Head (TDH) in meters

Example :

Pump Efficiency = 70%

Total Dynamic Head = 45 meters

Discharge , Q = 190 liters per second

Required = Hp ?

Hp =

l

(190 )(45 m)

s

m

(75 kg . )( 0.70)

s

= 162.86 hp

Use: 175 hp

2. MENSURATION

A. Plane Areas

Let A cross sectional area or Area

P Perimeter

C Circumference

a.) Square

a

A=

P = 4a

b.) Rectangle

a

A= ab

P= 2a+2b

= 2(a+b)

b

c.) Parallelogram

b

a

h

A= bh

P= 2(a+b)

d.) Trapezoid

a

c h

A= (a+b) h

P= a+b+c+d

e.)Triangle

5

A= bh =

a

P= a+b+c

a+b+ c

where:

2

S=

A= s (sa)( sb)(sc)

p

2

S=

S=

a+b+ c

2

f.) Circle

r

A=

r

d

4

r=

d

2

C = 2 r

d= 2r

= D

d

g.)Circular Sector

(drawing)

2

A= r

= r l = arc length

Note: should be expressed in radians

If is outside of a trigonometric function

It should be expressed in radians

revolution

1 revolution

Ex:

radians = 360 degrees

= 50

r = 10 mm

6

2

A= r

rad

= 43.63 mm2

rad

180

= (10)(50 x

= 8.7266 mm

(drawing)

Area of a Circular Segment, As

Sol. As = Asec - A

( )

sin 2

a

r

; a= rsin25

= 10sin25

= 4.2262 mm

A = s ( sr ) ( sr ) ( s2 a )

S=

2 a+ 2r

2

= 14.2262 mm

= 38.3023 mm2

As = 43.63-38.3023

= 5.3277 mm 2

B.) ELLIPSE

b

A= ab

P= 2

a2 +b2

(drawing)

a

7

1.) Parabolic Segment

(drawing)

A= 2/3 base x height

= 2/3 Lh

2.) SOLIDS

Let V = Volume

SA = Lateral surface area or surface area

L = Slant height

a.)

CUBE

(drawing)

V= a3

SA= 6a2

b.)

Rectangular Parallelopiped

(drawing)

V= abc

SA= 2ac + 2bc + 2ab

= 2(ac+bc+ab)

c.)CYLINDER

(drawing)

SA = 2 rh

V= Bh

B=

V=

d

h

4

d.)

d

4

= dh

2

= r h

CONE

(drawing)

V= 1/3 Bh

= 1/3

d2

(

) h

4

;B=

d

4

= r

SA = CL

8

d2

h

12

= 1/3 r

2

2

= (2 r r +h

2

2

= r r +h

= rL

e.)

PYRAMID

(drawing)

V= 1/3 Ah

A= area of base

f.) Frustum

(drawing)

-The volume area generated by a solid of revolution

equals the

Product of the generating area and the distance

traveled by its

Centroid.

V=

h

3

A1 A2

(A1+A2+

g.)

SPHERE

(drawing) V= 4/3 r

SA= 4 r

=

V= A x 2 r

3

2

SA= 4base

B= r

=

d2

4

FIRST PROPOSITION OF PAPPLUS The surface area generated by a surface

of revolution equals the product of the length of the generating Arc and the

distance traveled by its centroid.

AS= L x 2 r

h.)

SPHERICAL SEGMENT

9

(Drawing)

V=

h2

3

(3r-h)

C= 2 r

= d

Area of Zone , z = 2 rh = dh

= ch

trapezoidal cross section whose two parallel sides are 2.50 meters and 1.80

meters respectively and the distance between them is 1.50 meters?

Solution :

a=1.8 m

r

1.5 m

b=2.5m

Required : radius , r

Ac = At

r 2 = (a+b)h

r2 =

r =

r = 1.013 meter

iv. The dimension of a rectangular tank are as follows:

L=12ft. , W=6ft. , h=8ft.

10

Compare the maximum volume of h2O in gallons that the tank can

accommodate.

Solution:

(drawing)

V= L x w x h

= 12 x 6 x 8

Volume of h2O in gallons

V= 576ft3 x

7.481

3

1 ft

gal.

= 4309.06 gallons

iv. The area of a circle is equal to the product of a constant and the

square of the radius. If the diameter of a tank is 96 inches, find the area in

sq.ft (use: =3.14)

Solution:

Ac =

r2

or

d = 2r , r =

=

d

2

Ac =

=

96

( 2 )2

d2

4

12

2

2

4 (96) x ( 1 ft )

= 50.27 sq.ft

12

Ac = 7238.23 in x ( 1 ft )2

= 50.27 sq.ft

*In a certain plumbing installation, three pipes have a diameter of 2, 2

and 3 inches respectively. What is the diameter of a pipe having an area

equal to the three pipes?

Given:

d1 = 2in

d2 = 2 in

d3 = 3in

11

Solution:

Let d be the diameter

A = A1+A2+A3

d

4

=

d =

2

d =

d 21

4

4 [

+

d 21

d 22

4

d 23

4

2

2

+ d2 + d3 ]

1 2

+ ( 3 )2

2

( )

( 2 ) 2+ 2

d = 4.39 inches

ii. Give the formula of the ff. figures:

1. Circumference of the circle

2. Area of an ellipse

3. Lateral surface area of a sphere

4. Volume of a cylinder

5. Area of trapezoid

Answer:

1. C= 2 r , C= d 3. 4 r2

2. A= ab

5. A= (a+b)h

4. 1/3 r2h

TRY:

1. A rigid circular conical vessel is constructed to have a volume of

100,000 liters. Find the diameter and the depth if the depth is to be

1.25 times. Give answer in metes.

Solution:

(drawing)

V = 1/3 Bh

d2

= 1/3 ( 4 )h

H = 1.25d

d2

= 1/3 ( 4 ) 1.25d

12

d3 = 305577.4qL x

1 m3

1000 L

d = 6.74 m

h = 1.25 (6.47)

= 8.42 m

2. Three sides of a triangle are given a= 68m, b= 52m and c= 32m. Find

the area of the triangle.

Solution:

S=

=

a+b+ c

2

A= s (sa)(sb)(sc)

68+ 52+ 32

2

= 76(7668)(7652)(7632)

= 76m

= 801.28 m2

lower base 6mx2m, upper base 5.5mx1.8m and altitude of 1.5m. Find

the volume of the foundation.

Solution:

(drawing)

h

A1 = 6x2

= 12m

V= 3

2

A2 = 5.5 x 1.8

= 9.9 m2

[ A 1 + A 2 + A 1 A 2 ]

1.5

3 [ 12+9.9+

(12)(9.9) ]

= 16.40 m3

filled with water to a depth of 0.75 meter. How much water is in the

tank?

(drawing)

Solution:

13

d2

4

A=

(1)2

4

V = Ahw

2

(1)

4

(0.75)

= 0.59 m3

-PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRYMatter anything that occupies space and has weight

Mass, m amount of matter in a substance

Weight, w force exerted due to gravity

Volume, v space occupied by matter

English Unit

mlb mass

wlb force

v

ft3

Metric Unit

kg mass

kg force

SI Unit

kg

N

m3

m3

English Unit

lb = lb mass

= lb force

; W = m = lb

Metric Unit

kg = kg mass

= kg force ; W = m = kg

SI Unit

W is in Newton , m is in kg ; W m

weight

volume

Density or Mass density , =

Specific Volume , v =

weight

force

volume

mass

mass

volume

;v=

w

v

m

v

= mass x acceleration

= kg x

m

sec 2

=N

SPECIFIC WEIGHT OR WEIGHT DENSITY

14

English Unit

1b

= ; ft 3

kg

= ; m3

Metric Unit

SI Unit

m / sec2

N

3

m

;=

kg

3

m

kg

m

3

= ( m ( sec2 )

N

m3

kg . m

sec 2

=N

-FOR WATER

1b

ft 3

English Unit

= = 62.4

Metric Unit

= l = 1000

SI Unit

= 9.81

KN

3

m

= 8.33

kg

m3

=1

1b

gal .

kg

L

; 1m3 = 1000L

; = 1000 kg / m3 = 1kg/L

a.)

lL

SGL = l w

Density of water

ls

; SGs = l w

15

mL

mw

If

; w =

w

g

ls

SGL = l w

; SGs = l w

w

But = V

SGL =

L

g

L =

g

= g ; =

lL

ms

mw

wL

Ww

wL

= VL ;

Ww

Vw

; VL = Vw

Ws

; SGs = Ww

Summary:

1. SGL =

lL

lw

2. SGs =

ls

lw =

L

w

s

w =

b.)

mL

mw

ms

mw =

wL

ww

ws

ww

mass ratio

weight ratio

For Gases

SGq =

MWq

MWa

Molecular Weight of Air

= 29 kg / kg mole

Elements

1. Carbon, C

2. Hydrogen, H2

Molecular Weight

Unit

12

lb mole or kg mole

2

16

3. Oxygen, O2

4. Nitrogen, N2

5. Sulfur, S

32

28

32

Example:

a.)

Carbon Dioxide , CO2

MWco2 = C+O2

= 12+32 = 44 lb/lb mole or 44 kg/kg mole\

SGco2 =

b.)

MW co2

Mwa

44

29

= 1.52

Carbon Dioxide, CO

SGco =

MWco

MWa

12+16

29

= 0.97

c.)Methane, CH4

SGch4 =

MW ch4

MWa

12+ 4(1)

29

= 0.55

Specific gravity is 8.4

Given: SGb = 8.4

d = 6 in

Solution:

b=

, reqd = Wb

wSG

b

= (62.4 lb/ft3)(8.4)

= 524.16 lb/ft3

Vb= 4/3 r

17

= 4/3

= 4/3

6

2 )3

(3in)3

12

= 113.10 in3 x ( 1 ft )3

= 0.0654 ft3

Wb= bVb

= 524.16 lb/ft3 x 0.0654 ft3

= 34.2801 lbs.

iii. Find the weight of a cast iron cone whose mass is 533.4 kg and the

diameter at the base is 25mm. specific gravity of a cast iron is 7.22

Solution:

Force = W=ma

Weight of cast iron cone ,Wc = 533.4 kg x 9.81 m/s 2

= 5232.65 N

Note: Force = mass x acceleration

iv. A spherical tank is 5h full of water and 2h full of compressed air. If the

tank is 8ft in diameter,

a.) Compute the volume of water in cm3.

b.) Compute the volume of air in cm3.

c.)What is the weight of water in kg?

Solution:

Drawing

VST =

4

r

3

r=

d

2

8

2

= 4ft.

3

= 3 (4)

18

1

12

1 ft )3 x ( 2.54 cm )3

= 268.0826 ft3 x (

= 7591253.858 cm3

5

a.) Vh2O = 7

VST = 7

(7591253.858)

= 5422324.184 cm3

= 5.4223 m3

2

7

b.) VA =

2

= 7

VST

(7591253.858)

= 2168929.673 cm3

c.)Wh2O = h2O Vh2O

= 1000kg x 5.423 m3

= 5422.3242kg

WORK, POWER AND HEAT

A.) WORK, Wk

Wk = Force x Distance ; F= Force , S= Distance

Wk = FS

B.) POWER

Work

Power = Time

wk

P = t

Velocity =

; Wk = Work , t = time

Fs

t

distance

time

; p=power , v=velocity

s

; V= t

P = FV

19

Drawing

Power , P = F (2 RN)

= 2 FRN

= DFN

Torque , T = FR

Power , P = 2 TN

= Tw ; w=angular velocity = 2 N

1 English Hp or Hp = 33,000

= 550

ft .lb

min

ft .lb

s

= 0.746 kw

= 0.746 kw

1 Metric Hp or Ps = 4500

kg . m

min

= 0.736 kw

= 75

kg . m

s

= 0.736 kw

1kw = 1 kJ / s =KN.m / s

Note: English Unit Conversion

Power = 2

rad

rev

x ft.lb x

rev

min

1 ps

kg .m

4500

mm

= hp

Metric Unit Conversion

20

rad

Power = 2 rev

x kg.m x

rev

min

1 ps

kg .m

4500

min

Power = Ps

SI Unit Conversation

rad

Power = 2 rev

kN . m

s

kJ

s

rev

1 min

x 60 sec )

or kw

C.)HEAT

Q= mc t

Where: m- mass of a substance

C- specific heat of a substance

Q= mc t

= tb x

Btu

lbR

x R

= Btu

Q= mc t

= kg x

kJ

kg k

x K

= kJ

Q= mc t

= kg x

kcal

kg k

x K

= Kcal

21

Note:

Specific Heat

a.)

For Air, Ca = 0.24 Btu / lb-R

= 0.24 Kcal / kg-K

= 1.01 kJ / kg-K

t F = t R

b.)

t C =

t K

9

C - temperature in degree Celcius ;C =

5

9

[C] + 32

(F 32)

R - F + 460

TK- Absolute temperature in degree Kelvin

K- C + 273

Conversion of Units

1 Btu = 1.055 kJ

= 778 ft.lb

1 cal = 4.186 Joules

1 kcal = 4.186 kJ

c.)Thermometer Scale

Drawing

9

5

1 Btu

= 1.8

= lb R

1.8 F

1.8 R

or

1C

1 K

d.)

1.055 kJ

1 Btu

= 4.187

=1

2.205 lb

1 kg

1.8 R

1 K

kJ

kg . K

1 Btu

lb R

kcal

kg . K

22

kJ

kg . K

= 4.187

t

e.)

t

= 5F

T

= 10C

=5 R

= 10K

f.) m = 50kg

C = 0.25 kJ / kg. K

t = 15C

Q= mc t

kJ

kg K

= 50kg x 0.25

t

note: t = 15C ;

x 15K

= 15K

= 187.5 kJ

g.)

Btu

lb R

Convert 1

Btu

= 1 lb R

Btu

1 lb R

= 4.187

to

kJ

kg . K

1.055 kJ

1 Btu

2.205 lbs

1 kg

1.8 R

1 K

kJ

kg . K

vi. What is the horse power required to raise 40000 lbs, 200ft high in 5

minutes?

Solution:

P=

wk

t

Fs

t

(40000 lbs)(200 ft )

5 min

= 1600000

ft .lb

min

1 hp

ft . lb

33,000

min

= 48.48 hp

23

ix. How much heat in Btu are required to raise one pound of water from 55F

to 212F? How many units of work in ft.lb that this represent?

Solution:

Q= mc t

m= 1 lb

Cw= 1Btu / lb-R

t = 212F - 55F = 157K = 157R

Q= (1lb)(1 Btu/lb-R)(157R)

= 157 Btu

778 ft . lb

1 Btu

W= 157 Btu x

W= 122146 ft.lb

PV

T

=C

V

T

V1

T1

p1 V

= C ; t1

p2 V

t2

V2

T2

24

P1 V 1

T1 =

P1

T1

P2 V 2

T2

; V= V1 = V2 = C

P2

T2

P1 V 1

T1 =

P2 V 2

T2

; T1 = T2 = C

P1V1 = P2V2

For Adiabatic or isoutropic conditions (no heat exchange)

k

k

P1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

Note:

a.)

V Volume, m3

M mass, kg

R specific gas constant, kJ / kg-K

T absolute temperature, T

M=

PV

RT

N

3

xm

2

m

KN . m

x K

kg K

K

M =

N.m = Joules

M= kg

25

lb 144 2

(

)( ft 3 )

2

2

ft

ft lb

x R

lb R

M=

M=lb

If m=

PV

RT

P1 V 1

RT1 =

b.)

P2 V 2

RT 2

P1 V 1

T1

P2 V 2

T2

PV

T

KJ

kg K

ft .lb

= 53.34 lb R

=C

lb

Mwa = 29 lbmole

= 29 kg/kg.mole

R

Mw

kJ

kg . mole K

= 8.3143

Mw = molecular weight

Example:

a.)

lb

R

Ra = MWa

kJ

kg . mole K

kg

29.0

kg . mole

8.3143

26

= 0.287

KJ

kg . K

ft .lb

lb . mole R

lb

2g

lb .mole

1545

Ra =

ft .lb

= 53.34 lb R

b.) For CO2

MWco2 = C + O2

= 12+2(16)

= 44

Rco2 =

kg

kg . mole

KJ

Kg. mole K

kg

44

kg . mole

8.3143

R

MW co2

= 0.189

If MWa = 30

Ra =

KJ

kg . K

kg

kg . mole

R

MWa

KJ

kg . mole K

KJ

30

kg . mole

8.3143

= 0.2771

kJ

kg . K

27

pumped to 45 pounds gage pressure, find air volume and volume of water in

the tank?

Solution:

Since there is pumping operation there will be pressure and volume

change (P C ; V C). The process is isothermal T=C.

P1 V 1

T1

P2 V 2

T 2 ; T1=T2

P1V1 = P2V2

P1 = 14.7 Psia

V1 = 400 gallons

P2= 45 Psia

P2= Pgage+Patm

= 45+14.7=59.7

V2 =

P1 V 1

P2

lb

2

(14.7)(400)

59.7

Final vol. of air in the tank

a.)

Pabs = Pgage+Patm

Patm=Pb

P atmospheric = P barometric

b.)

Pabs = Patm-Pvac

Pvac- Vaccum pressure

PB = Patm = 1 std atm. = 101.325 Kpa

= 14.7 Psia

= 1.033 kg/cm2

= 760 mm. Hg

= 29.92 in Hg

= 34 ft. of water

28

Also, P=Pg= h

Force

Area

F

A

P= A 2

1 in 2

F

h=

A

Liquid surface, F= hA

(drawing)

iii. 3. A force of 100 lbs is exerted on a piston whose area is 20in 2. Find the

pressure the piston exert on the cylinder.

Solution:

(drawing)

100 lb

F

P= A = 20 2 =5

lb

2

, 5 Psi or 5 Psig

4. Find the pressure at a depth of 8ft. in a swimming pool filled with water.

Solution:

ii. The pressure in bonds per square inch at the bottom of any container is

determined by finding the depth of water in feet and dividing it by 2.31 or

multiply it by 0.433. find the pressure at the base of stand pipe full of water

that has a height of 200ft.

Solution:

(drawing)

h

P= 2.31

200

= 2.31

=86.6 Psi

29

Or, P= h =

62.4 (200)

144

= 86.6 Psi

ii. A boiler gage reads 150 Psi. Determine the absolute pressure in

a.) Psia if barometer reads 29.6 in Hg.abs

b.) Kpa abs.

Solution:

a.)

b.)

Pabs

14.7 Psi

29.92 ) = 164.54 Psi

101.325 Kpa

= Pq + Pb = 150 Psi ( 14.7 Psi

) + 101.325 Kpa = 1135.25 Kpaabs

iii. A viewing window 1ft in diameter is installed 10ft below the surface of an

aquarium tank filled with water. Determine the force the window must stand.

Solution:

(drawing)

F= hA

= (62.4

lb

D2

ft 3 )(10ft)( 4 )

= (62.4

' 2

lb

(1 )

3 )(10ft)(

)

ft

4

= 490.09 lbs

iv. A condenser registers a vacuum of 620 mm Hq. Determine the absolute

pressure in

a.) Kpa abs, referred to a 762 torr. Barometer

b.) Kq/cm2 . abs

30

Solution:

a.) Pabs = Pa + Pb

= [(762torr)(

1 mm Hq

101.325 Kpa

) 620 mm Hq]( 760 mm Hq )

1 torr

b.) Pabs = Pb - Pxac

= (1.033

kq

cm2 )-(620 mm Hq)(

kq

cm 2 )

760 mm Hq

1.033

2||

= 0.190

cm

kq

Note:

a.) Gage Pressure = Pq = (+) gage pressure

=Pvac = (-) gage pressure

Ex. -2 Psi = 2 Psi vacuum or 2 Psi vac

b.) Example: Pb = 15 Psi barometric

Pvac= -2 Psi

Find: Pabs

Pabs = Pb - Pvac

= 15-2

= 13 Psi abs or 13 Psia

Note: negative sign has no effect in subtracting it to the 15 Psi barometric

pressure.

FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF FLUIDS FLOW

31

H=

v2

2q

+z

Q= Av

Where:

H= Total Energy hed

P

= Pressure Head

P= Gage Pressure

= specific weight of liquid

v2

2 q = velocity head

V= velocity of liquid

q= acceleration due to gravity

= 32.2 ft/s2

= 9.81 m/s2

z= elevation head

Q= discharge or volumetric flow rate

A= cross-sectional area of pipe

Note:

Units Application

P

a.)

lb/

lb/ ft 3

2

lb

x

144

2

2

ft

3

lb / ft

cm 2

kg

x

2

cm

= ft

100

P

kg/cm

3

kg /m

=m

32

V2

2q

b.)

kN /m 2

= kN /m3

KPa

kN /m3

P

=

ft /

=m

ft ;

V2

2q

m/s

=m

a.)

Drawing

BY EHE : H1 = H2

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1

P2

V 22

2q

+ z2

V 22

2q

+ z2

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2

A1V1 = A2V2

A1 = A2 =

b.)

d2

4

Drawing

BY EHE : H1=H2

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1

P2

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2

A1

d2

= 4

d2

A2 = 4

33

A 1 A2

V 1 V2

Drawing

BY EHE : H1=H2 + hL12

Where : hL12 = head loss from point 1 to point 2

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1

P2

V 22

2q

+ z2 + hL12

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2

A1V1 = A2V2

Drawing

BY EHE :

H1 + h = H2 + hL12

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1 + h =

P2

V 22

2q

+ z2 + hL12

BY CFE : Q=Q1=Q2=Qp

A1V1 = A2V2

Note:

a.)

If liquid surface is exposed to atmosphere P=O.

b.)

For a reservoir or large tank, liquid surface will drop or rise slowly,

V=O

c.)At datum line or reference point, z=O.

POWER REQUIREMENT

34

Drawing

Where:

EPi = Electric power input

Bp = Brake power, shaft power, electric power output or pump power input

Wp= Water power, pump power or pump power output

FOR ELECTRICAL & MECHANICAL DEVICES

Efficiency =

a.)

BP

EPi

Nmo =

b.)

Np =

Power output

Power input

Pump Efficiency

BP

BP

Nc = NmoNp = ( EPi ( BP ) =

EPi

WP = Q h

Where:

Q= discharge

=specific weight

h= pump head

RELATION OF UNITS:

WP =Q h

WP =

ft 3

s

lb

ft 3

x ft =

ft .lb

hp

35

WP =

m3

s

WP =

m

s

kq

3

m

KN

3

m

xm=

xm=

kq . m

s

KN . m

s

Ps or metric hp

KJ

s

or KW

HEAD LOSS

Total head loss, hL = hf + hm

hf= major head loss or ; pipe friction head loss

=f

L V2

D 2q

; darcy-weisbach equation

L = pipe length

D = pipe diameter

q = 32.2 ft/s2

= 9.81 m/s2

hm= minor head loss or head due to pipe fittings

2

k 2Vq

2

V

= Ke 2 q

+ Kq

V

2q

+ + etc.

Kq = coefficient due to effect of gate value

iii.

a.) Given a capacity of 800 qpm flowing through 8in diameter pipe line.

Find the velocity in fps.

Solution:

Q= 800 qpm

36

800 qal/min

1 min

3

In, ft /min or cfm, Q= ( 7.841 gal/ft ( 60 sec

3

From Q= AV

Q

A

V=

= 1.782 ft3/s

1 ft

2

12

82

4

1.782 ft 3 /s

ii.

a.) A pump is to handle 300 qpm of water against 50ft. of total dynamic

heads, what is the water horse power?

b.) If the same pump handling brine having a specific gravity to 1.2, what

is the horse power?

c.)If in problem b, the pump efficiency is 65%, what is the brake horse

power?

Solution:

a.)

1 ft 3

3

WP = Q

h = (300gal/min)(62.4 lb/ft )(50ft)( 7.481 gal (

1 hp

ft . lb

33,000

min

b.)

= 3.791 hp

H pump is handling brime with SGb=1.2

= (300

1 hp

3

gal

1 ft

ft

.

lb

3

( 7.481 qal

min )(74.88 lb/ft )(50ft) x ( 33,000

min

= 4.55 hp

c.)Brake Power, BP =

Np

4.55

0.65

= 7hp

37

vii. How many gallons of water can a 75hp engine raise 150ft. high in 5hrs?

one gallon of water weight 8 1/3 lbs.

Solution:

From, WP = Q h

Q=

33,000 ft . lb /min

)

1 hp

lbs

(8.33

)(150 ft )

qal

(75 hp)(

= 1980.08 qpm

= (1980.08 qpm)(5x60)

= 594023.761 gallons

iv. How fast will water leak through a hole 1cm 2 in area at the bottom of a

tank in which water level is 3 meter high?

Solution:

Drawing

H1=H2+hL12 ; hL12 = 0

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1 =

3=

P2

V 22

2q

+ z2 + hL12

V 22

2q

V2 = 3 ( 2 ) ( 9.81 )

=7.7 m/s

v. What gage pressure is required in a fire hose if the stream of water is to

reach a height of 60ft.?

Solution:

Drawing

38

H1=H2

V 12

2q

P1

P1

= 60

+ z1 =

P2

V 22

2q

+ z2

P1 = (60ft)

12

= (62.4lbs/ft )(60ft)( 1 ft

= 26 psi

iii. A Horizontal pipe whose diameter changes gradually from 18in. dia at A

to 36in. dia at B carries 30 cfs of water. If gage pressure at A is 10 psi and

that of B is 10.9 psi det. The head loss from point A to B.

Solution:

Drawing

Q=QA=QB=30 ft3/s

QA=AAVA

VA =

QA

AA

18 2

12

4

30 ft 3 /s

= 16.977 ft/s

QB = ABVB

VB =

36 2

12

4

30 ft 3 /s

= 4.244 ft/s

HA = HB + hLAB

39

hLAB = HA - HB

PA

=[

V A2

2q

PB

+ zA] [

V B2

2q

+ zB ]

16.977

= [ (10)(144)

+

624

(10)(144)

+ 0]-[

624

4.244

+ 0]

= 2.12 ft

TRY:

1. A right circular conical vessel is constructed to have a volume of

100000 liters. Find the diameter and depth if the depth is 1.25 times

the diameter. Give answer in meters.

Ans: d= 6.74 m ; h= 8.42 m

2. The three sides of a triangle are given as a=68 meters, b=52 meters

and c=32 meters. Find the area of the triangle.

Ans: A= 801.28 m2

PROBLEM:

-From a reserver whose surface elevation is at 30 meters, water is pumped

at an elevation of 95m. The total length of 60m diameter suction pipe is

1500 meter and that of 0.50m diameter discharge pipe is 1000m. Determine

the water power if the discharge is to be maintained at 0.48 m 3/s. Pipe

friction factor is 0.02 for both pipes. Minor losses is 10% of major head loss.

Required: WP

Answer: 405.20 Kw

Water Power, WP=Q h

PROBLEM:

-The Distance pressure gage of a pump heads 1020.42 Kpa. The suction

pressure gage is attached 1.22m below the center line of the discharge gage

and reads 50.8 mm Hqvacuum. The pump is delivering 0.0378 m 3/s of water.

The diameter of suction and discharge pipe are 127mm and 102mm

respectively. Determine the pump efficiency if power input tp pump is 61 kw.

Required: hp-pump efficiency

40

Answer: hp=64.8%

PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS

Specific Speed = the speed in rpm required to produce 1qpm thru a head of

1ft.

Ns=

NQ

h3 /4

, rpm

N pumprotative speed, rpm

Q pump volumetric capacity or discharge, qpm / suction

h pump head or total dynamic head, ft/stage

Note: for same type of pump geometrically similar pump, the specific speed

are equal.

PROBLEM:

A single suction pump has a capacity of 19 liters per second with maximum

developed head of 61 meters. Equivalent rotative speed is 1200 rpm. If is

proposed that same type of pump is to be installed but with double suction

and to operate at a head of 30 meters and a discharge of 25 liters per

second. Determine the speed of the proposed pump at which it will operate.

Solution:

For Single suction pump

Q1=

3.28 3

19(60)(7.48)

= 300.91 qpm

N1 = 1200 rpm

Ns1=

NQ

h3 /4

1200 300.91

( 200.1 ) 3/4

= 391.31 rpm

41

3.28 3

25(60)(7.48)

Q2 =

= 395.93 qpm

For same type of pump, Ns are equal

Ns1 = Ns2

Ns1 =

N 2 Q2

h2 3/4

391.31 =

395.93

2

( 98.4)3 / 4

N 2

N2 = 868.91 rpm

qpm= volumetric cap. Of pump or amount of water the pump can deliver

ft/stage=elevation or head of water from water will be delivered

Note:

a.)

Q1 =

(

)

m

ft 3

L 60 s

19 (

)

S min

= 300.91 qpm

b.)

Q = 500 qpm N= 800 rpm

h = 200 ft

Ns =

NQ

h3 /4

42

Ns =

800 500

200

(

)3 /4

3

= _____ rpm

Affinity Law or homologous Relations of Pumps

a.)

Same Pump

1.) Specific speed, Ns are equal

2.) For a constant rotative speed & varying impeller diameter

2.1

Discharge is directly proportional to the impeller diameter

Q

Q1

Q2

D1

D2

2.2

Pump head is directly proportional to the square of impeller

diameter

h

h1

h2

D1

)

D2

2.3

Brake power is directly proportional to the cube of impeller

diameter

BP

1

BP D3 B P2

1

= ( D2 )

3.1 Discharge is directly proportional to the rotative speed

Q N

3.2 Pump head is directly proportional to the square of rotative speed

h N2

3.3 Brake power is directly proportional to the cube of the rotative

speed

BP N3

Note:

Drawing

At Constant impeller diameter with varying rpm

Initial Condition

New Condition

Q1

43

h1

BP1

N1

D1

1

Q N Q2

h1

h2

N1

N2

N2

D2

N2

; Q 2 = Q1 ( N 1

N1

N2

2

= ( N 2 ) ; h2 = h1 ( N 1

BP

1

1

2

BP N3 BP2 = ( N 2 )3 ; BP2 = BP1 ( N 1

Q

h

BP

D1 N1

D 2 N2

D3 N3

At constant N at constant D

PROBLEM:

A centrifugal pump designed for 1800 rpm operation and a head of 60m has

a capacity of 11.36 m3/min with a power input of 132 KW

a.)

What effect will a speed reduction to 1200 rpm have in the head,

capacity and power input of pump?

b.)

What will be the change in these variables if the impeller diameter

is reduced from 304 mm to 254mm while the speed is held constant at

1800 rpm?

Solution:

a.)

At constant impeller diameter

b.)

At constant rpm

Answer:

a.)

b.)

Q2= 9.5 m3/min, h2= 50.13m , BP2= 70KW

a.)

b.)

Ns are equal

Q ND3

44

and the cube of the impeller diameter

-h N2D2

-Pump head is directly proportional to the product of the square of

rotative speed and to the square of impeller diameter

-BP N3D5

-Brake power is directly proportional to the product of the cube of the

rotative speed and to the fifth of impeller

Note:

Q

ND

1

ND

2

h1

h2

Q1

Q2

N 1 D1

( )

N 2 D2

N1

D1

2 (

= ( N 2 ) D2 )

BP

1

1

1

BP N3D5 BP2 = ( N 2 )3 ( D 2 )

PROBLEM:

A centrifugal pump discharge 25liters per second against a total head of

15meters at 1400 rpm and the diameter of the impeller is 0.45 meter. A

geometrically similar pump of 0.30 meter diameter is to run at 2800 rpm.

Calculate the head, discharge and brake power ratio required.

Solution:

Pump I

Pump II

Q1 = 25 L/S

h1 = 15m

N1 = 1400 rpm

D1 = 0.45m

BP1

Q2= ?

h2= ?

N2 = 2800 rpm

D2 = 0.30m

BP2

B P2

B P1

Q ND3

45

Q = K ND3 ; K=1

Q = ND3

Q1

Q2

N 1 D31

N 2 D32

N 2 D2

Q2 = Q1 ( N 1 ( D3 )

2800

0.30

= 2.5( 1400 )( 0.45 )3

= 14.81 L/s

h N 2 D2

h = N 2 D2

h1

N 1 2 D1

( )

h2 = ( N 2

D2

N 2 2 D2

h2= h1 ( N 1 ( D1 )

2800

0.30

= 26.7m

BP N3D5

BP 1

N1

D1

)

3 (

BP 2 = ( N 2 )

D2

BP 1

BP 2

2800

0.30

3

= ( 1400 ) ( 0.45 )5

= 1.053

46

TRY:

1. A pressure tank on a hillside is filled by a pump located at a lower

elevation. The difference in elevation between the pump and the tank is

23ft. Assuming a pressure range of 20 to 40 psi, What pressure must be

maintained at the pump?

Answer: 30 to 50 psi

2. Water enters a pump thru a 600mm diameter pipe under a pressure of

14Kpa. It leaves thru a 900mm diameter exhaust 2.5m below the

entrance pressure gage. If 500 liters of water pass the pump each

second, compute the power output of the pump.

Answer: 24hp

3. A pump draws water thru a 38cm pipe from a reservoir in which the

water surface is 3m lower than the pump and discharges thru a 30cm

pipe. At a point in the discharge pipe 2.43m above the pump, a

pressure gage reads 3kg/m2. When the discharge is 0.226 m3/s, head

loss in the suction is 0.09m and head loss in the discharge is 1.05m and

power input to the pump is 94kw, determine:

a.) Efficiency of the pump. Answer: 87.41%

b.) If the pump runs at 1750 rpm, What will be the new discharge,

new head and new power input if the pump speed is increased to

3500 rpm.

Answer: Q2 = 0.452 m3/s

h2 = 148.76m

BP2 = 252 Kw

Problem 1:

Given:

V= 100000 liters

h= 1.25 d

Solution:

Drawing

V= 1/3 base x height

47

1m3

d2

100000 liters x ( 1000 liters ) = 1/3 ( 4 )h

If h = 1.25d

100,000

1000

m3 = 12

d3 =

(d2)(1.25d)

(12)(100000)

( 1.25 ) 1000

d = 6.74m

h = 1.25(6.74)

= 8.43m

Problem 2:

Given: drawing

Required: Area of a triangle

Solution:

A = s ( sa ) ( sb )( sc )

S=

a+b+ c

2

S=

68+ 52+ 32

2

S = 76m

7632

76(7668)(7652)

A=

A=

76 ( 8 )( 24 ) ( 44 )

A = 801.28 m2

48

Problem 3:

Given:

Drawing

Condition: minor losses is 10% of major head losses

Required: Water power, WP

Solution:

BY EHE

Hs + h = Hd + hLsd

P2

V s2

2q

+ zs + h =

Pd

V d2

2q

+ zd + hLsd

h = Zd + hLsd

h = 65 + hLsd

hfs = f

Ls V 2s

D s 2q

2

1500 m

= (0.02)( 0.60 m (

1.698

hfs = 7.35m

Qs = AsVs

2

Vs =

Qs

As

060 m

3

m

0.48

s

= 1.698 m/s

49

Qd = AdVd

2

Qd

Ad

Vd =

0.50

0.48

Vd = 2.44 m/s

hfd= f

Ld V d 2

Dd 2 q

2.44 2

( 2 ( 9.81 ))

= (0.02)(

1000

0.50

= 12.14m

hLsd = [hfs + hfs] + 0.10 [ hfs + hfd]

majorhL

minor hL

= (7.35 + 12.14) + 0.10 (7.35 + 12.14)

= 21.44 m

h = 65 + 21.44

= 86.44 m

WP = Q h

= (048 m3/s)(9.81)(86.44)

= 407.02 KW

Problem 4:

Drawing

Required: Np

Solution:

Hs + h = Hd + hLsd

50

P2

V s2

2q

+ zs + h =

Pd

V d2

2q

+ zd + hLsd

101.325 Kpa

Ps = -50 mm Hq ( 760 mm Hq

Qs = AsVs

Vs =

Qs

As

0.127 m 2

3

0.0378m / s

Vs = 2.98 m/s

Vd =

Qd

Ad

0.102 2

0.0378

Vd = 4.63 m/s

Pd

h=[

Vd

2q

Ps

+ zd ] -[

4.63 2

1020.42

= [ 9.81

Vs

2q

+ zs]

6.67

1.22 ] [ 9.81

2.98 2

0]

= 106.56m

WP = Q h

= (0.0378)(9.81)(106.56)

51

= 39.51 KW

Pin

Np =

x 100%

39.51

61

x 100%

= 64.8 %

TRY Problem 1:

Drawing

H1 + h = H2 + hL12

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1 + h =

P2

P= h

=

V 22

2q

+ z2 + hL12

P1 = 10 + 20 = 30 psi

(62.4)(23)

144

P1 = 10 + 40 = 50 Psi

Prange = 30 to 50 Psi

Problem 2:

Required: output power of pump is Hp

Drawing

BY EHE

H1 + h = H2 + hL12

P1

V 12

2q

+ z1 + h =

P2

V 22

2q

+ z2 + hL12

52

P1

P2

h=[

V 12

2q

+ z1 + h =

P1

V 22

2q ] [

P2

V 22

2q

V 21

2q

Z1]

V1 =

Q

A1 =

0.60 2 m2

3

L

1m

(500 )(

)

s 1000 L

= 0.786 m/s

0.786 2

0.786 2

1.768 2

h= [ 4

][ 4

] [ 14

+ 2.5 ]

+

+

+

9.81

9.81

9.81

h= -3.65m

(-) indicates a downward direction of flow of water

h= |3.65 | m

WP = Q h

= (0.5m3/s)(9.81 kw/m3)(3.65m)

= 17.9 KW.m /s

1 hp

= 17.9 kW.m/s ( 0.746 KW

= 23.99 Hp

Say, WP = 24 Hp

Problem 3:

53

Drawing

Required:

a.)

Pump eff., Np

b.)

Q2, h2 BP2 if Pump runs at 1750 rpm

Ns = 3500 rpm

Solution:

At point s to point a

Drawing

WP = Q h

Np =

94 Kw

Q h

= 94 Kw

BY EHE

Hs + h = Hd + hLsd

Ps

V s2

2q

+ zs + h =

Pd

V d2

2q

+ zd + hLsd

54

PLUMBING CODE

NAMPAP

RMP-20 units

Requirements:

1. Plumbing Layout

1.1 Sanitary Line Layout

1.2 Water Line Layout

1.3 Storm Drainage System

Plumbing Unit:

1 WC 2 FD

1 SH

1 KS

1 LAV 3 FAUCET

1 WM

2. Isometric Diagram or Plumbing Isometry

3. Legend

4. Standard Detail

4.1 Septic Tank

4.2 Catch Barin

5. General Notes & Specification

6. Bill of materials

Ventillation- is important to balance the atmospheric pressure of the

plumbing system to eliminate the ff. probilities:

1. Trap seal loss

2. Retardation of flow

55

Concealed fixture must be provided with individual floor drain.

Materials Used for calking / logging

1. EPOXY A & B

10 times cheaper than lead

2. Lead / Pig Lead

-more durable compared to epoxy

3. Old hemp rope / oakum

Specification must govern over the layout plans / details.

15 meters radius the distance of septic tank from deep well.

High Rise Building is 15 meters & higher

Note: CAULKING

Approximately 8lbs (3.62 kq) brown oakum is used per 100 lbs. (45.3 kq)

of lead

Six (6) lbs (2.7kq) white oakum used per 100 lbs. (45.3 kq) of lead.

Caulking lead in cast iron bell and spigot water mains should be 2 inches

(51mm) deep.

Diameter of Difference Pipes

GIP or Copper

Sch. 40

mm

3/8 --- 10

----- 13

----- 20

1 ------ 25

1 ------ 32

1 ------ 40

2 ------ 50

2 ------ 65

3 ------ 75

4 ------ 100

6 ------ 150

UPUC

PUC

SCH. 40

Series 1000

600

CIP

SV standard

XV- Extra Heavy

20

25

32

40

50

65

63

50

90

75

100

150

75

110

150

56

CONCRETE PIPE:

INCHES

4

6

8

10

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

36

42

MM

100

150

200

250

300

375

450

525

600

675

750

900

1050

NRCP

RCP

Classification of Sewage

1. Domestic / Sanitary

2. Industrial

3. Storm

Sources of Water

1. Ground Water ex. Well, spring

2. Surface Water ex. River, lakes, stream, sea

3. Pain / atmospheric water - precipitation

Aquifer- it is the water bearing stratum of the ground

Methods of Water Supply

1. Direct Method

2. Indirect Method

2.1

Overhead Feed System

2.2

Pressure system (hydro pneumatic)

57

Overhead Feed System

Drawing

Design Computation:

1. Service Pipe

Total Fixture Units (F.U)

4WC x 6 = 24

4LAV x 1 = 4

4SH x 2 = 8

4KS x 2 = 8

44 F.U per floor

X 6 floors

264 F.U

For intermetent flow @ 40% demand

For 264 F.U x 7.5 = 1980 gpm

X 40%

792 gpm higher compared to table C

From table C water pipe size:

Q = 69 gpm

D = 50 mm

By interpolation:

48

216 F.U

264 F.U

300 F.U

84

48

84

X=

68 gpm

x

85 gpm

x-68

85-86=17

x68

17

48(17)

84

+ 68

58

= 68.77 gpm

Say, Q = 69 gpm

2. RISER

Total = 264 F.U

Q = 69 gpm

D = 50 mm

3. Down Feed

3.1 DF-a

F.U = 264 F.U

44 x 6 = 264

D = 50 mm

Q = 69 gpm

3.2 DF-b

F.U = 220 F.U

44 x 5 = 220

D = 50 mm

Q = 69 gpm

3.3 DF-c

F.U = 176 F.U

44 x 4 = 176

D = 50 mm

Q = 60.33 gpm

3.4 DF-d

F.U = 132 F.U

44 x 3 = 132

D = 50 mm

Q = 51 gpm

3.5 DF-e

F.U = 88 F.U

44 x 2 = 88

D = 50 mm

Q = 40.33 gpm

3.6 DF-f

F.U = 44 F.U

D = 1 or 38 mm

Q = 26 gpm

4. Horizontal Branch

HB-g

HB-h

FU = 44

Q = 26 gpm

D = 32 mm

FU = 44

Q = 26 gpm

D = 32 mm

59

HB-I

FU = 44

Q = 26 gpm

D = 32 mm

HB-j FU = 44

Q = 26 gpm

D = 32 mm

HB-k

FU = 44

Q = 26 gpm

D = 32 mm

HB-L

FU = 44

Q = 26 gpm

D = 32 mm

5. CISTERN

F.U = 264

Q = 69 gpm

Storage time = 4 hrs.

Vol. = Q x t

= (69

gal

min

)(4 hrs)(

= 16560 gallons x

60 mins

1 hr

1m3

264.2 gals.

= 62.68 m3

If D = 1.5 m water depth

A=

62.68

1.5

Drawing

6. EWT

Storage time = 2hrs Brownout time consideration

60

= 8280 gallons x

V=

d2

4

60 mins

1 hr

1 m3

264.2 gal

= 31.31 m3

If diameter, D = 1.5m

h=

4V

d2

1.5 2

4( 31.34)

try a rectangular reservoir:

if water depth = 1.5m

A=

31.34

1.5

Use: L= 5.25m

W= 4.0 m

H= 1.8m w/ 1.5 water depth

7. Pumps / Motors

Used Formula:

Qh

HP = 75 x eff .

h= total dynamic head, meters

eff= efficiency usually 70% for transfer pump

61

qal

Q= 69 min

x 3.785

liters

qal

1 min

60 s

h= static height + velocity head + friction losses

= 21.3m + 0.29 + 3.5m

= 25.09m

Say h= 26m

Hp=

5 x 26

75 x 0.70

= 2.48 hp

Use:

5 Lps vs. 26m TDH with

3 Hp, 3 , 240v, 60Hz TEF < motor

DRAWING

*PIPE SIZING DESIGN

A. SANITARY SYSTEM

1. Fixture drain sizes

2. Horizontal branch pipe size

3. Soil / waste stack sizes

4. House drain / sewer size

B. Ventilation System

1. Individual vent pipe size

2. Branch vent pipe size

3. Vent stack / main vent

4. Stack vent

TIPS:

62

d

4

h=

3 2

)

12

4

20m x

3.28 ft

1m

7.481 qal

1 ft 3

V = 24.09 gallons

Or, V =

d2

4

h=

3 ft

12

1m

3.28 ft

V= 24.09 gallons

2. Temperature from

Use formula : = 5/9 ( -32)

= 9/5 + 32

3. Pressure of water:

P= h ; where:

h = pressure head

Drawing

As = 2 rL

V= 1/3 base x height

d2

= 1/3 ( 4

)h

Drawing

63

A = A2 A1

= r22 - r12

=

(r22 - r12)

6. Torus Donut

Surface area- first theory of pappus of reduction

Volume 2nd theory of pappus of revolution

Drawing

7. Continuity equation

Q= AV

Q= discharge of water

A= pipe opening area

V= unit discharge per unit time

= velocity

SS = 1

WC = 5

LAV = 5

SH = 5

KS = 5

UR = 3

PER FLOOR

COMPUTATIONS:

64

5WC x 6 = 30 F.U

5LAV X 1 = 5 F.U

5SH X 2 = 10 F.U

5KS X 2 = 10 F.U

3UR X 5 = 15 F.U

1SS X 3 = 3 F.U

73 F.U PER FUR X 6 FLRS = 438 F.U

RISER DIAGRAM

Drawing

For intermetent flow 40% demand

For 438 F.U x 7.5 = 3285 gallons

X 0.40

1,314 gallons higher compared to table C

At NPC table C

300 F.U

85 gpm

438 F.U

x

600 F.U

144 gpm

600300

438300

14485

x85

300(x-85) = (59)(138)

X =

(59)(138)

300

+ 85

= 112.14 gpm

65

66

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