REPLICATION OF DNA

-THEORIZED BY JAMES DEWEY WATSON & FRANCIS CRICK

THE DNA MOLECULES UNWINDS AND EACH HALF ACTS A TEMPLATE FOR NUCLEOTIDE UNITS TO COLLECT ON AND FORM A NEW CHAIN.

- ADENINE (A) CAN ATTRACT AND HOLD ONLY THYMINE (T) - CYTOSINE (C) CAN ATTRACT AND HOLD ONLY GUANINE (G)

IT FORMS COMPLEMENTARY CHAIN THAT COIL UP AGAIN & FORM 2 NEW DNA MOLECULES

THE REPLICATION OF DNA INVOLVES ENZYMES SUCH AS DNA POLYMERASE & DNA LIGASE

TRANSFER OF INFORMATION

THE MESSENGER RNA (mRNA) MOLECULE CARRIES THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE DNA MOLECULE

TRANSCRIPTION:
- DNA UNZIPS & SYNTHESIZES 2 NEW CHAINS TO PRODUCE 2 IDENTICAL MOLECULES - WHEN THE DNA MOLECULE SYNTHESIZES mRNA, THE DNA AGAIN UNZIPS

- ONLY ONE PART OF ONE STRAND OF DNA ACTS AS A TEMPLATE FOR THE FORMATION OF mRNA - THE ENZYME REQUIRED IS RNA POLYMERASE

DIFFERENCES OF RNA TO DNA

- THE PARTNER OF ADENINE (A) IS URACIL (U) AND NOT THYMINE - CONTAINS PENTOSE RIBOSE WHILE DNA CONTAINS PENTOSE DEOXYRIBOSE

TYPES OF RNA

mRNA
CONCERNED WITH THE TRANSMISSION OF GENETIC INFORMATION FROM DNA TO THE RIBOSOMES

rRNA
- MAJOR FACTION OF THE TOTAL RNA - COMBINES WITH PROTEINS TO FORM THE RIBOSOMES

- RIBOSOMES ARE AN EXAMPLE OF NUCLEOPROTEIN - TRANSLATION TAKES PLACE IN THE RIBOSOMES

tRNA
- TRANSFER RNA HOLDS A SPECIFIC AMINO ACID FOR INCORPORATION INTO A PROTEIN MOLECULE

hRNA
- HETEROGENEOUS RNA IS FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS OF THE CELL AND MAY BE A PRECURSOR FOR mRNA

THE FUNCTIONS OF mRNA AND tRNA IN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

- THE mRNA MOVES FROM THE NUCLEUS TO THE CYTOPLASM AND THEN TO THE RIBOSOMES, WHERE IT ACTS AS A TEMPLATE FOR THE FORMATION OF PROTEIN

- IN THE CYTOPLASM IS THE tRNA , WHICH IS CLOVERLEAF FORM OF RNA CONTAINING RELATIVELY FEW NUCLEOTIDES

- AT ONE END OF THE tRNA ARE 3 NUCLEOTIDES THAT ARE SPECIFIC FOR A CERTAIN CODE ON THE mRNA

- AMINO ACIDS IN THE CYTOPLASM ARE ACTIVATED BY ATP AND ARE COUPLED TO THE OTHER END OF tRNA

- IF THE mRNA CONTAINS THE CODED ACU, THE tRNA THAT WOULD ATTACH ITSELF MUST HAVE THE CODE UGA

- IF THE CODED MESSAGE IN mRNA is UCG, THE CORRESPONDING CODE IN tRNA MUST BE ACG

- AS THE mRNA TRAVEL ACROSS THE RIBOSOME, THE FIRST CODED GROUP PICKS UP AND HOLDS A CORRESPONDING tRNA

- AS THE SECOND CODED GROUP OF THE mRNA PASSES, IT TOO PICKS UP A CORRESPONDING tRNA

- ATTACHED TO THE OPPOSITE END OF EACH tRNA IS AN AMINO ACID

- THE AMINO ACID ATTACHED TO THE END OF THE SECOND tRNA BECOMES BONDED TO THE AMINO ACID AT THE END OF THE FIRST tRNA

- THE AMINO ACID AT THE END OF THE THIRD tRNA IN TURN BECOMES BONDED TO THE SECOND AMINO ACID

- AS EACH tRNA ATTACHES ITSELF TO THE mRNA , THE tRNA GIVES UP ITS AMINO ACID TO FORM A CHAIN OF AMINO ACID OR A PROTEIN

- AFTER GIVING UP ITS AMINO ACID, THE tRNA LEAVES THE mRNA AND GOES IN SEARCH OF ANOTHER AMINO ACID THAT IT CAN PICK UP AND USE TO REPEAT THE SEQUENCE

- THUS, AS THE mRNA PASSES THROUGH THE RIBOSOME, IT DIRECTS THE GATHERING OF THE tRNAs

THE TRIPLET CODE

- THE CODE IN THE DNA MOLECULE SPECIFIES INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS

THERE ARE 20 PRIMARY AMINO ACIDS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE

ALANINE ( Ala )

ARGININE ( Arg )

ASPARAGINE ( Asn )

ASPARTIC ACID ( Asp )

CYSTEINE ( Cys )

GLUTAMIC ACID ( Glu )

GLUTAMINE ( Gln )

GLYCINE ( Gly )

HISTIDINE ( His )

ISOLEUCINE ( Ile )

LEUCINE ( Leu )

LYSINE ( Lys )

METHIONINE ( Met )

PHENYLALININE ( Phe )

PROLINE ( Pro )

SERINE ( Ser )

THREONINE ( Thr )

TRYPTOPAN ( Trp )

TYROSINE ( Tyr )

VALINE ( Val )

THERE ARE 20 DIFFERENT CODED GROUPS IN THE DNA MOLECULE

DECODING THE CODE: - DEGENERATE = CODES THAT BEGIN WITH LETTERS GC

- THE FIRST TWO LETTERS OF THE CODE ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE THIRD - THE GENETIC CODE IS UNIVERSAL

REGULATION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

- WHEN mRNA ACTS AS A TEMPLATE FOR PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF THE TOTAL INFORMATION IN DNA IS USED AT ONE TIME TO PRODUCE A CERTAIN TYPE OF PROTEIN.

- DNA MUST NORMALLY BE IN A REPRESSED STATE SINCE PROTEIN IS ONLY SYNTHESIZED AS NEEDED

- A REPRESSOR, A POLYPEPTIDE, BINDS TO A SMALL SEGMENT OF THE DNA CALLED THE OPERATOR SITE

- NO mRNA AND PROTEIN ARE PRODUCED WHEN THE REPRESSOR IS BONDED TO THE DNA

- AN INDUCER IS FORMED WHEN A PARTICULAR PROTEIN IS NEEDED

- ANTIBIOTICS LIKE TETRACYCLINES AND STREPTOMYCIN BIND TO THE RIBOSOMESS OF BACTERIA AND PREVENT PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

MUTATIONS
- A MUTATION WILL OCCUR IF:
- ONE OF THE LETTERS IN A DNA CODE GROUP WAS SUBSTITUTED BY ANOTHER LETTER - IF ONE OF THE CODE LETTERS IS OMITTED OR ADDED - IF THE CODE LETTERS ARE REARRANGED.

THE CHANGE IN THE SEQUENCE OF NUCLEOTIDES MIGHT HAVE THE FOLLOWING EFFECTS:

- GIVE NO DETECTABLE EFFECT, PARTICULARLY IF THE CHANGE IS IN THE THIRD LETTER Of THE CODE - CAUSE A DIFFERENT AMINO ACID TO BE INCORPORATED INTO THE CHAIN

- CAUSE THE TERMINATION OF THE CHAIN PREMATURELY SO THAT THE PROTEIN CANNOT FUNCTION NORMALLY

MUTATIONS OCCUR BECAUSE OF EXPOSURE TO RADIATION AND EXPOSURE TO CERTAIN CHEMICALS

THE TRIPLE HELIX

COLLAGEN

- THE PRIMARY MACROMOLECULE

OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE - EXIST AS A TRIPLE HELIX, A COILED STRUCTURE OF THREE POLYPEPTIDE SUBUNITS

AMINO ACID GLYCINE CONSTITUTES ONE THIRD OF ONE OF THE CELLS

- THE

TRIPLEX DNA

- TRIPLE STRANDED DNA - USED AS MOLECULAR SCISSORS FOR CUTTING STRANDS OF DNA AND AS AGENT FOR TREATING VIRAL DISEASES

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