A mid semester presentation at IIT Kharagpur, Department Of Aerospace Engineering

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Study of different flows over typical bodies by Fluent

A mid semester presentation at IIT Kharagpur, Department Of Aerospace Engineering

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 56

Under the supervision of

Dr. M.K. Laha

RAJIBUL ALAM

14AE60R03

DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE

ENGINEERING

IIT KHARAGPUR

Contents

Viscous Flow over a Flat Plate

Supersonic flow over a cone

Flow past a sphere at low Reynolds number (Creeping

flow)

Inviscid flow over a wedge is governed by continuity, momentum and energy

equations which are given as follows.

Continuity equation:

Momentum equation:

dv V .dS 0

t

.V 0

t

t

Du

p

f

x

Dt

x

Dv

p

f

y

Dt

y

Dw

p

f

z

Dt

z

Energy equation:

.

2

V2

V

(

e

)

dv

(

e

)

V

.

dS

dv pV .dS ( f .V )dv

2

t

2

.

D

V2

(e

) q . pV ( f .V )

Dt

2

Assumptions:

Flow is steady

Flow is adiabatic

There are no viscous effects on the sides of the control volume

which includes the shock wave.

There is no body force.

With above assumptions, the normal shock equations become as

follows:

u u2

11

2

Continuity:

Momentum:

Energy:

p u2 p u

1

11

2

2

V2

V2

1

h

h 2

1 2

2

2

thermodynamic relations, system becomes of 5 equations and 5

p 2 2 RT

h 2 c p T2

unknowns.

M 2 sin 2 1

1

tan 2 cot

2

M ( cos 2 ) 2

1

1 [( 1) / 2]M 2 sin 2

2

2

1

M sin ( )

2

2

2

M sin ( 1) / 2

1

p

2 1 2 ( M 2 sin 2 1)

p

1 1

1

( 1) M 2 sin 2

2

1

2 2

1 2 ( 1) M1 sin

T

p

2 2 1

T

p

1

1 2

15o M1 3, p1 1atm, T1 300 K

With the previous relations, we can determine,

M 2.2968

2

p 2.78atm

2

T 416.477

2

1.5m

1.259

m

0.991m

0.5m

Meshing:

Faced mapping is used which create quadrilateral meshing elements. The

size of each element is taken as 0.05m. Also density based approach is used

which is suitable for supersonic flow.

Material:

Fluid is assumed as ideal gas with specific heat constant 1000.43 J/Kg.K and

molecular weight 28.966 Kg/mol. The wedge material is assumed as Aluminum.

Boundary conditions:

Symmetry: symmetry boundary condition

Pressure far field: pressure far field boundary condition

Solution method:

Courant number is given as 5

Convergence criteria for continuity, x-velocity, y-velocity and energy are

given as 10^-6.

Solution converges in 65 iterations.

Results:

Mach variation:

15 , M 3

3.50E+00

3.00E+00

2.50E+00

2.00E+00

1.50E+00

1.00E+00

5.00E-01

0.00E+00

4.00E-01

6.00E-01

Numerical

8.00E-01

1.00E+00

15 , M 3

Analytical

1.20E+00

1.40E+00

1.60E+00

Pressure variation:

15 , M 3

3.50E+05

3.00E+05

2.50E+05

2.00E+05

1.50E+05

1.00E+05

5.00E+04

0.00E+00

4.00E-01

6.00E-01

8.00E-01

1.00E+00

1.20E+00

1.40E+00

15 , M 3

: Numerical

: Analytical

1.60E+00

Pressure coefficient:

15 , M 3

3.50E-01

3.00E-01

2.50E-01

2.00E-01

1.50E-01

1.00E-01

5.00E-02

0.00E+00

4.00E-01 6.00E-01 8.00E-01 1.00E+00 1.20E+00 1.40E+00 1.60E+00

15 , M 3

Temperature variation:

15 , M 3

4.50E+02

4.00E+02

3.50E+02

3.00E+02

2.50E+02

2.00E+02

1.50E+02

1.00E+02

5.00E+01

0.00E+00

4.00E-01

6.00E-01

8.00E-01

1.00E+00

1.20E+00

1.40E+00

1.60E+00

MESH REFINEMENT:

It has been seen that changes across the shock wave is gradual whether in

real cases, such changes are instantaneous. For a better picture of the

situation, mesh refinement is done.

In the earlier case, simulation was done with 713 meshing elements. For mesh

refinement purpose, number of elements is increased to 90,000. Following are

the results obtained.

Mach variation:

15 , M 3

15 , M 3

Pressure variation:

15 , M 3

15 , M 3

Pressure coefficient:

15 , M 3

15 , M 3

Temperature:

15 , M 3

15 , M 3

Now the free stream Mach number is increased to 5 keeping the geometry same

and numerical solution is obtained with same type of meshing and size as that

of for M=3.

Analytical solution:

p 2 4.78 atm

M=3.5,

Numerical solution:

Mach Number:

T2 520.8 K

15 , M 5

15 , M 5

Pressure:

15 , M 5

15 , M 5

Pressure coefficient:

15 , M 5

15 , M 5

Temperatu

re

15 , M 5

Numerical vs.

Analytical

15 , M 5

(u

Y-momentum equation:

u

u

2 u p

v ) 2

x

y

y

x

v

v

2 v p

v ) 2

x

y

x

y

Assumptions:

v

v<<u, x 0, y 0, x y

T

T

x

y

p

0

y

Now for a flat plate, since u= =CONSTANT and v=0 outside the boundary

p

layer, hence X-momentum

0equation gives,

x

Continuit

y

Momentu

m

u v

0

x y

u

u

2u

v

2

x

y

y

T T

2T

2

x y

y

Energy

Analytical Solution

Procedure:

equations into a single ordinary differential equation.

variable.

Blasius reasoned that when non dimensional velocity is plotted against non

dimensional distance, it gives

same variation at any point along the plate.

Now introducing,

u

g ( )

U

f g ( )d

the two differential equations can be transformed into a single ordinary differential

equation as, 3

2

d f

d f

f

0

d 3

d 2

df

U u=

It can be shown that

d

1 U

df

v and (

f)

2

x

d

Now above ODE is solved by Runge Kutta method with known boundary

equations.

On solving, following values are obtained.

df

u

d U

d2 f

d 2

0.332

0.5

0.042

0.166

0.331

0.166

0.33

0.323

1.5

0.487

0.303

0.37

0.65

0.63

0.267

2.5

0.996

0.751

0.217

1.397

0.846

0.161

3.5

1.838

0.913

0.108

2.306

0.956

0.064

4.5

2.79

0.980

0.034

3.283

0.992

0.016

5.5

3.781

0.997

0.007

4.28

0.999

0.002

Thus when

u

x

x

0.992, 5.0 y /

/

U

U

U

This gives,

Similarly, w

5

U / x

U d 2 f

0.332 U

u

y 0 U

0

2

y

x d

Rex

C f ,x

0.664 / Rex

Numerical solution:

The flow field and boundaries are shown in the following figure.

Meshing:

The upper and lower edges are given 500 divisions with no biasing.

On the other hand, the left and right side edges are given 500 numbers of divisions

and biasing with biasing factor of 200.

Set up:

Since the flow is incompressible one, hence pressure based solver is used.

Energy solution is kept off and viscous laminar type flow is chosen.

Boundary conditions:

Inlet is given as velocity inlet boundary condition with inlet velocity 1m/s .

Plate is given as wall boundary condition while outlet is given as pressure outlet

with gauge pressure=0.

Results:

Normalized velocity vs. normalized distance

at quarter chord point

at half chord point

at three quarter chord point

at the edge of the plate

plane to prove Blasius assumption.

First we will consider a general cone with z-axis as the axis of

symmetry and aligned with the axis of the cone. Also free stream

velocity is this direction i.e. along the axis of the cone.

coordinate system (r, z) then properties become independent of

.

If a supersonic passes through such a body, shock wave created is also of the form of

conical shape.

However difference of such a flow from two flow is that when the flow passes the

shock wave, it curves continuously downstream and becomes parallel to the surface

at infinity.

Thus it creates a dilemma with the flow properties and it is assumed that flow

properties are constant along any ray. It is later proved by experimental results.

Formulation:

r

1 2

1

( r Vr )

( V sin )

( V ) 0

2

r sin

r sin

r r

2 Vr V cot

V

0

On simplification,

When Bernoullis equation is associated with the above equation, it gives TaylorMcColl equation given by,

dV

dV d 2Vr

dVr

dVr dVr d 2Vr

( 1) 2

(Vmax Vr2 ( r ) 2 )(2Vr r

)

(

V

(

)) 0

r

2

d

d

d 2

d

d

d d 2

Numerical solution:

fluent.

symmetrical about the coordinate axes.

Meshing:

All the surfaces of the parallelepiped are named as far field boundary and cone

surface is named as cone surface.

Set up:

Fluid material is chosen as ideal gas. Far field surfaces are given pressure far field

boundary condition while cone surface is given wall boundary condition.

Solution:

In the CFD post, pressure, temperature and density are plotted along a ray with

coordinates (0, 0, 0) and (1, 1, 1) and following results are obtained.

(Creeping flow)

Creeping flow is the one that flows past a small sphere at very low Reynolds

number. Stoke gave solution for such a flow.

(1)

Relevant Equations:

onsider a flow past a sphere as shown in figure. Let the flow is in Z-direction. Due to axial symmetry,

Continuity:

V 0

1 2

1

1

( r Vr )

(V sin )

V 0i.e.

2

r r

r

r sin

1 2

1

(r Vr )

(V sin ) 0

2

r r

r

Momentum equation:

Neglecting inertia,

p

2V 0

V V sin

These give,

V 2 2

r sin , r

2

a3

3ar

gives,

(r 2

)

Now associating this with continuity, momentum

2

2r

2

a 3 3a

)

2r 3 2

a 3 3a

V V sin (1 3 )

4r

2r

Vr V cos (1

Hence,

and

Drag:

1

2

err

Radial strain is given by,

Vr

3a 3a 3

V cos ( 2 4 )

r

2r

2r

err 0

On the sphere surface, r=a. Hence,

Hence, rr p

V

1 Vr

3 Va 3

Tangential strain is giveneby,

r

(

)

sin

r

4

3V

er

sin

2a

r r

At r=a,

rr cos r sin

Thus, total stress in Z direction=

2 r

3 V

p cos =

2 a

be determined as,

6Va

D=

CD

24

Red

Numerical solution for an inviscid flow past a small sphere at low Reynolds

number:

Geometry:

A sphere of 0.1m radius is considered in a free stream of velocity 1 m/s. A spherical

geometry is created through primitive geometry.

Meshing:

Default meshing is created with 65502 elements. Inlet and outlet surfaces are named

as inlet and outlet while other surfaces are named as boundary wall. Sphere wall is

named as sphere wall.

Set up:

Inlet is given as velocity inlet boundary condition, outlet is given as pressure outlet

boundary condition while all other surfaces are given as symmetry boundary condition.

Result:

Plots from CFD post for drag and lift coefficients are obtained.

Convergent results

table:

Iteratio

n

265

266

267

Continu

ity

xvelocit

y

8.9615e- 1.0145e

08

-06

8.8382e- 1.0089e

08

-06

yvelocit

y

4.7521e

-07

4.6785e

-07

zvelocit

y

9.6569e

-07

9.6178e

-07

Energ

y

1.321

8e-16

1.311

7e-16

9.0248

e-07

9.1195

e-7

8.8382e- 1.0046e

08

-06

4.6123e

-07

9.5837e

-07

1.327

4e-16

9.1759

e-07

CL

CD

5.2368

e-06

5.2367

e-6

5.2384

e-06

Remarks:

From Stokes theorem as well from symmetry, it is evident that drag as

well lift are zero and hence their coefficients. This is obtained from the

numerical solution too.

References:

Modern Compressible Flow- John D Anderson

Viscous Fluid Flow- Frank M White

Notes On Advanced Environment Fluid Mechanics- C.C.

Mei

Introduction To Aerodynamics- John D Anderson

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