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Finite Volume Method

For Predicting
Mid Semester Presentation
23rd September,2015

Rajibul Alam
GUIDE
Dr. Ratan Joarder
Department Of Aerospace Engineering
IIT Kharagpur

Why?
There is a solver already to solve Navier-Stoke equation. In the
present solver, heat transfer term present on the right hand side
consists of conduction and convection heat transfers only.
How ever there are several cases like combustion chamber,
reentry vehicle etc. where radiation heat transfer is not
negligible.
In such cases it becomes necessary to predict radiant heat
transfer correctly to save shielding material.

What?
Finite volume method used for other cases gives satisfactory
results.

Its convenient if the radiation model is based on the same

philosophy and even if it uses same computational grid as the
solver already existing to solve the Navier-Stoke equation.

As the existing solver uses finite volume method, hence to

introduce radiation term, finite volume method is used.

How?

With the above quantities , if we do an energy balance,

Radiative Transfer Equation is obtained which is given as

dI
( K S ).I ( KI b S I )
ds

Where,

I (r , s )

1
I ( r , s ' ) ( s , s ' ) d '

(1)

(2)

Integration of the above equation over any specified volume and

applying divergence theorem yields the desired integral equation
which is
S
S
I
(
s
.
n
)
dA
d

(
K

)
I

KI

I ]dVd
S
b
S

AS

This equation demands that the net radiant energy

within
that leaves through all surfaces of the volume is
exactly balanced by the excess, within the volume, of
inscattering and emission over outscattering and absorption.

Discrete Equation, Level 1 Approximation :

The objective of the finite volume method is to find
,the
intensity at each node P associated with each discrete bundle
An algebraic equation for
is obtained by introducing
approximations into equation (3).
With such an approximation, right hand side of the equation
becomes
VP

l
[( K S ) I KI b S I ] dV d [( K P P ) I Pl K P I bP
P I lP ]VP l
S

(4)

To further simplify, control volume surface is sub divided into f

no of elementary surface panels . Denoting radiant heat
transfer through each panel as
, the integrated equation
becomes ,
Nf

Nf

Q A I
f 1

l
f

f 1

S, f

( s.n f ) d [( K P PS ) I Pl K P I bp PS I Pl ]V l

(5)

Level 2 approximation:
Relations are required between intensity at integration point f
and intensity at the node P.
Here ray is traced back to the point uf where intensity can
easily found by the interpolation of nodes.

Such a determination of intensity at the integration

point f and putting it back in the basic equation
gives,

Q AS , f I e
l
f

l
uf

k f S

N AS , f R 1 e
l
f

l
f

k f S

l
f

AS , f
kf

(1 e

k f S

R l
(1 k f S )) ( ) f D ljf
j 1 x j
3

(6)
Where,

k K S and R ( KI b S I ) / k
and N lf l ( s.n)d , D ljf l (e j .s ) ( s.n f ) d

For special case of radiative equilibrium and isotropic

scattering, the value of R at a node for all solid angle becomes
equal to the average intensity at that node which is also equal
to the black body radiation at that node.
i.e.

R RP I aP I bP
l
P

I ( r , s ' ) d '

is solved.

Figure shows two isothermal diffuse plates at temperatures

and emissivities respectively enclosing a scattering emitting

Finding the heat transfer on the two surfaces above and below a
Given node P, which are designated as North node and South node
and putting these values in equations (5) & (6) , gives a relation,

a Pl I Pl aSl I Sl a Nl I Pl bPl

(7)

meanings.

Now with an assumed value of intensity at the lower plate,

intensities at different nodes are found ,sweeping upward till
the second last node.
With that intensity, heat transfer from the upper plate is
determined .

Once heat transfer on the upper surface is obtained, intensity

on the upper surface is also calculated with the diffuse surface
boundary condition which is given by
l
l
Q

I
T
S
T

s l .e3 0

A similar treatment but in downward direction is done with the

intensity on the upper surface.

This upward and downward sweeping constitutes one cycle.

This cycle is repeated till two consecutive values of intensities at
any node have difference more than 0.000001. [ 10^(-6) ]
The value of R is then iterated till the two successive values of
heat transfer on either plate have difference more than 0.0001
[10^(-4)]

Current Status Of The Project :

A program is written in FORTRAN95 for the
above problem. Though the program runs
without any error, but desired accuracy is not
achieved yet.

References:
1) A Finite volume Method for Predicting a Radiant
Heat Transfer in Enclosures With Participating
Media- G. D. Raithby & E. H. Chui
2) Finite Volume Method for Radiation Heat Transfer
-John C. Chai , HaeOk S. Lee & Suhas V. Patankar
3)NUMERICAL MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF HEAT
TRANSFER IN SEMITRANSPARENT :JEDIA WITH