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Coconut

Other names:
NIYOG, BUKO, COCO, LUBI (cebuano)
The local names for coconut (niu in Polynesia and Melanesia, niyog in the
Philippines and Guam) are derived from the Malay word nyiur or nyior. This is often
cited as proof that the species originated in the Malay-Indonesian region.

Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry


www.traditionaltree.org
April 2006

Coconuts are the fruit of the coconut palm, botanically known as cocos nucifera, with
nucifera meaning "nut-bearing."

In Sanskrit, the coconut palm is known as kalpa vriksha, meaning "tree which gives
all that is necessary for living," because nearly all parts of the tree can be used in
some manner or another.

Called the "tree of life" in the Philippines, all parts of the palm has uses -nothing is
wasted even at the end of its fruit bearing years.

The coconut's name is a bit of a misnomer, since it is botanically classified as a


drupe and not a nut. It is the largest seed known.

Coconuts © 2007 Peggy Trowbridge Filippone, licensed to About.com, Inc

coco da Bahia, coco da India, coqueiro de Bahia (Portuguese)


coco, coco de agua, cocotero, palma de coco, palmera de coco
(Spanish)
coco, cocos, cocospalm, klapperboom (Dutch)
coco, cocotier, cocoyer, coq au lait, noix de coco (French)
Kokospalme (German)
kelapa, nyior (Malaysia/Indonesia)
niyog (Philippines, Tagalog)
Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry
www.traditionaltree.org
April 2006
COCONUT
Other scientific names Common names
Cocos mamillaris Coco (Span.) Lubi (C.Bis., P. Bis.)
Coconut (Engl.) Oñgot (Ibn.)
Gira-gira (Sbl.) Ponlaing (Sub.)
I-ing (It.) Punlaing (Yak.)
Iniug (Ibn.) Uñgut (Pamp.)
Lobi (S.L. Bis.)
http://www.stuartxchange.com/index.html
Ranking:

• The Philippines is only second only to Indonesia as the world's top


producer of coconut products.
• Annual domestic coconut trade and production is valued at $800
million or P40 billion.

• Specifically, UCAP data showed that the country’s coconut export


earnings as of Jan. 28 dropped by 88% to $18.81 million from $152.24 million
during the same month last year, while volume dipped by 81% to 39,714 metric
tons (MT) from 212,378 MT in the same comparative periods.
o Coconut oil exports were down by 79% to 25,020 MT (accounting for
63% of total coconut product shipments) from 121,766 MT a year
earlier.
o Similarly, copra meal shipments dropped by 70% to 10,750 MT (or
27% of the total) from 36,031 MT.
o Data on shipments of other coconut products like desiccated coconut,
coconut shell charcoal, activated carbon, and oleo chemicals were not
immediately available.
BENJAMIN V. BUCO, JR., Researcher, BusinessWorld
02/03/2009
• About 1/3 of the country’s arable agricultural land or 3.26 million
hectares is planted to coconut representing sixty eight (68) out of total seventy-
nine (79) provinces and 1,195 out of 1,554 municipalities in the country.
• There are 3.5 million coconut farmers and about 25 million people
benefit from the coconut industry (directly & indirectly) and not surprisingly,
• Coconut product exports is one of the top 5 dollar earners for the
county (U.S. $760 M p.a.). 45.9 Million annually, Top agriculture export.
• National coconut production hit 15.3 million metric tons at P75.7
billion in 2008.-GMANews.TV

• The coconut industry contributes about 1.14% of the Gross National


product (GNP).]
• The Philippines has 224 coconut accessions listed in the
International Coconut Genetic Resources Database of the International Coconut
Genetic Resources Network.
• The Research, Development and Extension Branch of the
Philippine Coconut Authority reported that there are 16 coconut varieties
registered with the Philippine National Seed Industry Council, while there are 15
registered coconut hybrids.
• There are two recognized types of coconut varieties: the a) dwarf
and the b) tall variety. (distinguished according to their heights)

From Philippine Coconut Authority Library 2007

AREAS PLANTED TO COCONUT*

• 3.258 M hectares

• 27% of total agricultural land

• 68 out of 79 provinces are coconut areas

• 1,195 coconut municipalities

NUMBER OF COCONUT TREES*

• 331 Million bearing tree

NUT PRODUCTION*

• 14 Billion nuts/year

• 43 nuts/tree/year (average)

* Source: DA-BAS

COCONUT PRODUCTION
(A) NUT
YEAR COPRA TERMS EQUIVALENT* GROWTH RATE
(Million MT) (Billion)
1997 2.600 13.627
1998 2.500 13.102 -3.85
1999 1.374 7.201 -45.04
2000 2.572 13.480 87.20
2001 2.868 15.031 11.51
2002 2.315 12.133 -19.28
2003 2.631 13.789 13.65
2004 2.377 12.458 -9.65
2005 2.652 13.899 11.57
2006 2.474 12.966 -6.71
2007 2.352 12.327 -11.31
AVERAGE
2003-2007 2.497 13.088 (4.03)
1998-2007 2.412 12.639 2.81

* computed from (A) at 5,241 nuts = 1 MT copra


COCONUT EXPORTS

In Million MT
YEAR
(copra terms)
2001 2.449
2002 1.767
2003 2.171
2004 1.792
2005 2.144
2006 2.034
2007 1.608

Source: UCAP

COCONUT DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION

In Million MT
YEAR
(copra terms)
2001 0.513
2002 0.513
2003 0.506
2004 0.444
2005 0.468
2006 0.600
2007 0.625

Source: UCAP

• Largest Coconut production in 2007


o Indonesia 29.8%
o Philippines 18%
o India 17.1%
o Sri Lanka 5.0%
o Papua New Guinea 2.0%
o Others 28.1%

• Philippine Local Consumption


2007 2008 2009
2,302 2,538 2,549
In ‘000 MT, copra terms
• Population of coconut trees by province x1000 trees
1000-2000
o Mindoro o Bukidnon
o Antique o Agusan del Sur
o Capiz o Surigao del Sur
o Ilo-ilo o Sultan Kudarat
o Catanduanes o Southern Leyte
2001-3000
o Sub Province of Aurora o Negros Occidental
o Romblon o Palawan
o Aklan o Agusan del Norte
o North Cotabato o South Cotabato
3001-4000
o Laguna o Albay
o Marinduque o Negros Oriental
4001-5000
o Batangas o Bohol
o Camarines Sur o Tawi-Tawi
o Cebu
5001-7000
o Camarines Norte o Lanao del Sur
o Masbate o Davao del Norte
o Eastern Samar o Basilan Island
7001-10000
o Sorsogon o Misamis Oriental
o Western Samar o Maguindanao
o Zamboanga del Norte o Sulu
o Lanao del Norte
10000-up
o Quezon o Zambaonga del Sur
o Northern Samar o Davao del Sur
o Leyte o Davao Oriental
o Surigao del Norte
Not much coconut
o Kalinga o Bolilio Islands
o Abra o Burias Islands
o Ilocos Sur
o Mountain Province
o Ifugao
o Bengeut
o Tarlac
o Nueva Ecija
o Pamapanga
o Bulacan
o Zambalaes
o Bataan
o Manila
o Rizal
• Philippine Coconut Producing Areas 2008
o Luzon 1002 98 3407
o Visayas 630 70 2682
o Mindanao 1747 171 9231
o PHILIPPINES 3380 339 15320
Hectares Bearing Harvest
Tress Nuts
• Exports of Copra and coconut oil, oil Basis
o Philippines 848
o Indonesia 649
o Malaysia 132
o Papua New Guinea 62
o Others 227
 World Total 1918

References
http://wwww.agriculture.ph
http://www.pca.da.gov.ph
http://www.ucap.org.ph
http:///pcaagribiz.da.gov.ph
Philippine Coconut Authority 2007 Coconut Statistics
Species and Sub-species:

From http://www.neda.gov.ph/Knowledge-Emporium/ 12/2005 -10//2006

Coconut Variety For Commercial Buko Production


Tacunan Green Dwarf (TACD)

Plantation Sites: Rabanuel’s Farm, Tacunan, Davao City

Conservation Sites:
(Planted in 1977/1981) PCA Albay, Davao and Zamboanga Research Centers, and
Coconut Breeding Trials Unit, PSPC Mambusao, Capiz

Botanical and Morphological Description:

Known to local villagers as “Bilaka” or “Linkuranay”, which means ‘to sit before’. This
local phrase fittingly describes the short, early bearing trait of this variety since one
needs to bend to be able to harvest the first nuts borne by this variety during the early
stages of its growth and development. Unlike most dwarf varieties, this variety has
medium to large nuts. It has thick stems with closely spaced leaf scars. Its inflorescence
has short and wide peduncle with short spikelets. This variety can be easily recognized
through its thick and stubby spathe, which is hollow in the tip. Its nuts exhibit cracks in
the stigmatic end while its fronds are born on a spherical crown, with wide leaflets.

Outstanding Characteristics for Commercial Buko Production:

This variety is early bearing with the first bunches often seen with nuts touching the
ground during the early bearing years, which could be less than two year in highly
suitable conditions. Tacunan palms established in typhoon or cyclone prone areas were
observed to endure strong winds, which could be linked to its thick stem, robustness of
the palm, and well-anchored root system. It has an average nut production of 94
nuts/palm/year, with yield potential of 204 nuts, and copra per nut of >250 grams.

Like the Galas green dwarf, coconuts from this variety passed the international
standards for young tender coconut. Its buko has an average circumference of 56 cm,
with 159 g of meat, 5.1 mm thick and 2.2 lbs firm. It has an average of 478 ml water with
6.30% Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and pH 6.6. It has a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)
content of 71%, 53% of which is Lauric (C12).
PCA 15-9 (TACD x TAGT) Tacunan Green Dwarf x Tagnanan Tall

Seed Production Sites:

New Coconut Seed Production Center (NCSPC), Aroman, Carmen, Cotabato and PCA
Research Centers in Davao and Zamboanga

Description of the Coconut Hybrid:

After more than 15 years of research study and field evaluation, fifteen (15) locally
developed coconut hybrids and one (1) local tall were selected from the pool of 67 F1
hybrids and cultivars established in 11 genetic trials at the PCA genebank in
Zamboanga.

The coconut hybrids generally flower earlier (3-4 years from field planting) and produce
nuts one to two years earlier than the local cultivars. Under moderate condition, i.e. 4 to
5 dry months per year, these hybrids have a potential yield of 5 tons copra per hectare.

PCA 15-9 is a cross between Tacunan green dwarf and Tagnanan tall. Nut size is
medium to large. Copra per nut is about 286 to 303 grams. It is resistant to bud rot and
is relatively tolerant to adverse environment.
Potential Yield and PCA 15-9
Basic Traits (TACD x TAGT)
AGE (years)
3-3.5
First Flowering
4
First Nut Harvest
Nut Size Medium to Large
Nut Color Brown/Green
Nuts/kg of Copra (no) 3.3
Nuts per Palm (no) 128
Nuts per Hectare (no) 17,2951
Copra per Nut (g) 303
Copra per Palm (kg) 39
Copra per Hectare (ton) 6.0
Medium Chain Fatty Acid
70.33
(%)
52.30
Lauric (C12:0)
PCA 15-4 (CATD x TAGT) Catigan Green Dwarf x Tagnanan Tall

Seed Production Sites:


New Coconut Seed Production Center (NCSPC), Aroman, Carmen, Cotabato and PCA
Zamboanga Research Center, San Ramon, Zamboanga City

Description of the Coconut Hybrid:

After more than 15 years of research study and field evaluation, fifteen (15) locally
developed coconut hybrids and one (1) local tall were selected from the pool of 67
hybrids and cultivars established in 11 genetic trials at the PCA-ZRC genebank.

The coconut hybrids generally flower earlier (3-4 years from field planting) and produce
nuts one to two years earlier than the local cultivars. Under moderate condition, i.e. 4 to
5 dry months per year, these hybrids have a potential yield of 5 tons copra per hectare.

PCA 15-4 is a cross between Catigan green dwarf and Tagnanan tall. It possesses high
and stable yield and is moderately resistant to environmental stresses. It has a higher
tolerance to bud rot and leaf spot diseases than MAWA.
Potential Yield and PCA 15-4
Basic Traits (CATD x TAGT)
AGE (years)
3-3.5
First Flowering
4
First Nut Harvest
Nut Size Medium
Nut Color Brown/Green
Nuts/kg of Copra (no) 3.6
Nuts per Palm (no) 119
Nuts per Hectare (no) 18,571
Copra per Nut (g) 277
Copra per Palm (kg) 33
Copra per Hectare (ton) 5.0
Medium Chain Fatty Acid
(%) 73.13
Lauric (C12:0) 53.66
Galas Green Dwarf (GALD)

Plantation Sites: Galas, Dipolog City

Conservation Sites:
(Planted in 1983) PCA Zamboanga Research Center, San Ramon, Zamboanga City &
Coconut Breeding Trials Unit, PSPC Mambusao, Capiz.

Botanical and Morphological Description:

The palm shows uniformity in nut size, e.g., mostly medium and with thick husk, a
spherical and well-balanced crown, a relatively stout stem with a conspicuously tapering
base, slow rate of upward growth, and green/yellow peduncle. Its immature fruits are
deep green, while the newly opened inflorescences bear yellow flowers. Its fronds are
rather short but its leaflets are more and longer if compared with the Kapatagan green
dwarf. It has a fairly small bunch, with medium sized nuts tending to crowd one another
in a tight cluster. It bears normal inflorescence and exhibits good autogamy. The round
fruit exhibits a flat shaped nut inside.

Outstanding Characteristics for Commercial Buko Production:

Based on the standards set by C&A Products Co., Ltd., Thailand, the buko from Galas
green dwarf passed the international standards for young tender coconut. It has an
average circumference of 46 cm, with 137 g of meat, 5.2 mm thick and firmness of 1.9
lbs. It has an average of 318 ml water with 7.30% TSS and pH 5.9.
In the ZRC genebank, this variety produces an average of 70 nuts per palm/year with a
potential production of 177. It has a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) content of 72%,
54% of which is Lauric. Owing to this trait, e.g. 72% MCFA, its food value has also good
nutritional properties.
PCA 15-9 (TACD X TAGT) - TACUNAN GREEN DWARF X TAGNANAN TALL

Seed Production Sites:

New Coconut Seed Production Center (NCSPC), Aroman, Carmen, Cotabato and PCA
Research Centers in Davao and Zamboanga

Description of the Coconut Hybrid:

After more than 15 years of research study and field evaluation, fifteen (15) locally
developed coconut hybrids and one (1) local tall were selected from the pool of 67 F1
hybrids and cultivars established in 11 genetic trials at the PCA genebank in
Zamboanga.

The coconut hybrids generally flower earlier (3-4 years from field planting) and produce
nuts one to two years earlier than the local cultivars. Under moderate condition, i.e. 4 to
5 dry months per year, these hybrids have a potential yield of 5 tons copra per hectare.

PCA 15-9 is a cross between Tacunan green dwarf and Tagnanan tall. Nut size is
medium to large. Copra per nut is about 286 to 303 grams. It is resistant to bud rot and
is relatively tolerant to adverse environment.
COCONUT VARIETY FOR YOUNG TENDER COCONUT PRODUCTION -
AROMATIC GREEN DWARF (AROD)

Plantation & Conservation Sites:

(Planted in 1983)
PCA Zamboanga Research Center, San Ramon, Zamboanga City & Coconut Breeding
Trials Unit, PSPC Mambusao, Capiz

Historical data:

Professor D. G. Cendaña of the UP College of Agriculture in College, Laguna, first


introduced the variety into the Philippines in 1956. He planted two seedlings of the
variety around the family's residence and these palms started the science of the palms
that were established at DRC in 1973. Out of the 85 or so seednuts sown/grown, only
48 palms turned "true to type", e.g. dwarf, small nuts, deep green, narrow-short leaflets,
and bears young nuts with uniquely sweet water. These were then the source of AROD
palms currently planted at the above named plantation and conservation sites in the
Philippines.
Botanical and Morphological Description:

Leaves short with wide leaflets; male flowers numerous and small; immature nuts deep
green, with sweet meat and water. The palms have short, thin stem, which grows less
than 20 cm per year. The fronds are generally short, erect and very deep green with
equally short, wide overlapping leaflets. The bunch is borne on a short peduncle with
small nuts borne on its short spikelets. The inflorescence of the AROD is also short with
the bunch held close to the center of the crown. AROD comes in two forms; one that
smells of "pandan" hence it is called "buko pandan" while the other is just basically
sweet. The endosperm of the mature nut of the "sweet AROD" is characteristically thin,
smooth and endowed with a navel-like protrusion that covers the embryo. AROD is
notably late germinating dwarf but bears fruits in 3 years, and with closely spaced leaf
scars. In the ZRC genebank, this variety produces an average of 80 nuts/palm/year with
a potential production of 166. It has a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) content of 69%,
52% of which is Lauric. Owing to this trait, e.g. 69% MCFA, its food value has also good
nutritional properties.

Economic opportunities:

Through the years, AROD has been known and has become popular for its young
tender nuts having sweet water and meat. The development of the variety for this
purpose presents tremendous economic opportunities for farmers' whose farms are
close to urban centers, transit spots and resort. The variety was registered for buko as
its major use with the National Seed Industry Council of the Department of Agriculture in
August 2000. Since then, several plantings of AROD have evolved all over the country.
The most prominent ones are planted in the provinces of La Union, Quezon, Batangas,
Laguna, Palawan, Negros Occidental, Iloilo, Misamis Oriental, Davao, Basilan and
Zamboanga.
PCA 15-4 (CATD X TAGT) - CATIGAN GREEN DWARF X TAGNANAN TALL

Description of the Coconut Hybrid:

After more than 15 years of research study and field evaluation, fifteen (15) locally
developed coconut hybrids and one (1) local tall were selected from the pool of 67
hybrids and cultivars established in 11 genetic trials at the PCA-ZRC genebank.

The coconut hybrids generally flower earlier (3-4 years from field planting) and produce
nuts one to two years earlier than the local cultivars. Under moderate condition, i.e. 4 to
5 dry months per year, these hybrids have a potential yield of 5 tons copra per hectare.

PCA 15-4 is a cross between Catigan green dwarf and Tagnanan tall. It possesses high
and stable yield and is moderately resistant to environmental stresses. It has a higher
tolerance to bud rot and leaf spot diseases than MAWA.
Seed Production Sites:

New Coconut Seed Production Center (NCSPC), Aroman, Carmen, Cotabato and PCA
Zamboanga Research Center, San Ramon, Zamboanga City
COCONUT VARIETY FOR COMMERCIAL BUKO PRODUCTION - TACUNAN
GREEN DWARF (TACD)

Botanical and Morphological Description:

Known to local villagers as "Bilaka" or "Linkuranay", which means 'to sit before'. This
local phrase fittingly describes the short, early bearing trait of this variety since one
needs to bend to be able to harvest the first nuts borne by this variety during the early
stages of its growth and development. Unlike most dwarf varieties, this variety has
medium to large nuts. It has thick stems with closely spaced leaf scars. Its inflorescence
has short and wide peduncle with short spikelets. This variety can be easily recognized
through its thick and stubby spathe, which is hollow in the tip. Its nuts exhibit cracks in
the stigmatic end while its fronds are born on a spherical crown, with wide leaflets.

Outstanding Characteristics for Commercial Buko Production:

This variety is early bearing with the first bunches often seen with nuts touching the
ground during the early bearing years, which could be less than two year in highly
suitable conditions. Tacunan palms established in typhoon or cyclone prone areas were
observed to endure strong winds, which could be linked to its thick stem, robustness of
the palm, and well-anchored root system. It has an average nut production of 94
nuts/palm/year, with yield potential of 204 nuts, and copra per nut of >250 grams.
Like the Galas green dwarf, coconuts from this variety passed the international
standards for young tender coconut. Its buko has an average circumference of 56 cm,
with 159 g of meat, 5.1 mm thick and 2.2 lbs firm. It has an average of 478 ml water with
6.30% Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and pH 6.6. It has a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA)
content of 71%, 53% of which is Lauric (C12).

Plantation Sites: Rabanuel's Farm, Tacunan, Davao City

Conservation Sites:
(Planted in 1977/1981) PCA Albay, Davao and Zamboanga Research Centers, and
Coconut Breeding Trials Unit, PSPC Mambusao, Capiz
COCONUT VARIETY FOR COMMERCIAL BUKO PRODUCTION - GALAS GREEN
DWARF (GALD)

Plantation Sites: Galas, Dipolog City

Conservation Sites:
(Planted in 1983) PCA Zamboanga Research Center, San Ramon, Zamboanga City &
Coconut Breeding Trials Unit, PSPC Mambusao, Capiz

Botanical and Morphological Description:

The palm shows uniformity in nut size, e.g., mostly medium and with thick husk, a
spherical and well-balanced crown, a relatively stout stem with a conspicuously tapering
base, slow rate of upward growth, and green/yellow peduncle. Its immature fruits are
deep green, while the newly opened inflorescences bear yellow flowers. Its fronds are
rather short but its leaflets are more and longer if compared with the Kapatagan green
dwarf. It has a fairly small bunch, with medium sized nuts tending to crowd one another
in a tight cluster. It bears normal inflorescence and exhibits good autogamy. The round
fruit exhibits a flat shaped nut inside.

Outstanding Characteristics for Commercial Buko Production:

Based on the standards set by C&A Products Co., Ltd., Thailand, the buko from Galas
green dwarf passed the international standards for young tender coconut. It has an
average circumference of 46 cm, with 137 g of meat, 5.2 mm thick and firmness of 1.9
lbs. It has an average of 318 ml water with 7.30% TSS and pH 5.9.

In the ZRC genebank, this variety produces an average of 70 nuts per palm/year with a
potential production of 177. It has a medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) content of 72%,
54% of which is Lauric. Owing to this trait, e.g. 72% MCFA, its food value has also good
nutritional properties.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 16

Variety Name: West African Tall -WAT

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree :

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 68.4 + 19.6
Nuts/ha. : 9,227 + 2,641 (Potential = 12,803)
Copra/nut (g) : 184.6 + 20.8
Copra/palm (kg) : 12.6 + 3.78
Copra/ha (t) : 1.69 + 0.52 (Potential = 2.68)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 20 years
Height (m) : 10.67 + 0.76

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 942.6 + 57.3
Fruit shape : round (polar) and angled (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 43.3 + 1.3
Meat : 32.0 + 1.1
Water : 11.4 + 0.9
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.40 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 568.4 + 37.1
Nut shape : ovoid

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


Characterized by late germination of nuts. Serves as pollen source palms in the
mass production of PCA recommended F1 coconut hybrid, i.e. PCA 15-11.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 17

Variety Name: Rennel Island Tall -RIT

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree :

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 63.7 + 20.2
Nuts/ha. : 8,602 + 2,729 (Potential = 14,407)
Copra/nut (g) : 304.71 + 40.66
Copra/palm (kg) : 18.99 + 4.83
Copra/ha (t) : 2.57 + 0.65 (Potential = 3.52)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 24 years
Height (m) : 11.37 + 1.25
FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,824.9 + 140.6
Fruit shape : oblong (polar) and egg (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 61.0 + 0.9
Meat : 33.5 + 0.7
Water : 27.6 + 0.8
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.31 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 1,393.0 + 101.7
Nut shape : ovoid

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


Characterized by moderately high and stable yield. Serves as pollen source
palms in the mass production of PCA recommended F1 coconut hybrid, i.e. PCA 15-12.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 18

Variety Name: Tacunan Green Dwarf -TACD

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree :

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 99.4 + 29.9
Nuts/ha. : 16,641 + 5,225
(Potential = 26,724)
Copra/nut (g) : 233.5 + 23.5
Copra/palm (kg) : 23.26 + 7.23
Copra/ha (t) : 3.98 + 1.24 (Potential = 6.1)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 19 years
Height (m) : 4.29 + 0.33
FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,153.3 + 94.7
Fruit shape : oblong (polar and equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 49.1 + 1.7
Meat : 31.7 + 1.3
Water : 17.5 + 1.5
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.14 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 751.2 + 63.8
Nut shape : ovoid

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


This big-seeded dwarf population is characterized by high yielding and early
bearing palms. Tacunan green dwarf serves as pollen source palms in the mass
production of PCA recommended F1 coconut hybrid, i.e. PCA 15-8, PCA 15-9, PCA 15-
1, PCA 15-11 and PCA 15-10, highly tolerant to leaf spot and can withstand strong
winds.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 19

Variety Name: PCA 15-8

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : TACD X BAOT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield
Nuts/palm : 72 + 32
Nuts/ha. : 9,747 + 4282 (Potential = 17,832)
Copra/nut (g) : 301 + 30
Copra/palm (kg) : 22 + 11
Copra/ha (t) : 2.99 + 1.44 (Potential = 5.81)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 20 years
Height (m) : 7.97 + 1.17

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,358.8 + 179.0
Fruit shape : round (polar and equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 58.3 + 2.9
Meat : 33.8 + 1.7
Water : 24.5 + 2.4
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.24 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 1,016 + 150.2
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. One of the PCA’s recommended F1 coconut hybrids for the National Coconut
Planting and Replanting Program.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 20

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 9

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : TACD x TAGT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield
Nuts/palm : 67 + 30
Nuts/ha. : 8,978 + 4,049 (Potential = 16,164)
Copra/nut (g) : 303 + 36
Copra/palm (kg) : 21 + 11
Copra/ha (t) : 2.78 + 1.44(Potential = 5.62)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 20 years
Height (m) : 7.27 + 0.8

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,434.7 + 184.7
Fruit shape : round (polar and equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 59.6 + 1.7
Meat : 34.2 + 1.4
Water : 25.4 + 1.2
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.28 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 1,092.1 + 144.2
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. One of the PCA’s recommended F1 coconut hybrids for the National Coconut
Planting and Replanting Program.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 21

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 10

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : TACD x LAGT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 76 + 36
Nuts/ha. : 10,228 + 4,841(Potential = 18,594)
Copra/nut (g) : 262 + 29
Copra/palm (kg) : 20 + 11
Copra/ha (t) : 2.75 + 1.43 (Potential = 5.40)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 20 years
Height (m) : 7.45 + 0.75

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,270.5 + 120.0
Fruit shape : almost round (polar) and round (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 56 + 2.2
Meat : 33.1 + 1.6
Water : 22.9 + 1.5
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.22 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 928.5 + 96.6
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. Use of this hybrid in the National Coconut Planting and Replanting Program can
provide the industry with valuable and wide genetic base planting materials.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 22

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 11

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : TACD x WAT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 77.6 + 30.6
Nuts/ha. : 11,791 + 4,649
(Potential = 18,131)
Copra/nut (g) : 205.4 + 18.5
Copra/palm (kg) : 16.7 + 7.0
Copra/ha (t) : 2.54 + 1.06 (Potential = 4.29)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 18 years
Height (m) : 6.76 + 0.85

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,067.2 + 148.7
Fruit shape : oblong (polar) and angled (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 47.9 + 2.1
Meat : 31.5 + 2.4
Water : 16.4 + 2.2
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.24 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 692.2 + 94.7
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. Use of this hybrid in the National Coconut Planting and Replanting Program can
provide the industry with valuable and wide genetic base planting materials.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 23

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 12

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : TACD x RIT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 64.1 + 36.4
Nuts/ha. : 9,751 + 5,538 (Potential = 18,552)
Copra/nut (g) : 273.1 + 30.3
Copra/palm (kg) : 18.2 + 11.7
Copra/ha (t) : 2.76 + 1.78 (Potential = 5.67)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 18 years
Height (m) : 6.70 + 0.84
FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,416.7 + 163.1
Fruit shape : oblong (polar) and egg (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 58.2 + 2.3
Meat : 34.8 + 1.9
Water : 23.4 + 2.9
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.27 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 1,057.3 + 130.9
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. Use of this hybrid in the National Coconut Planting and Replanting Program can
provide the industry with valuable and wide genetic base planting materials.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 24

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 13

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : MRD x LAGT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 76 + 40
Nuts/ha. : 10,218 + 5,453 (Potential = 19,492)
Copra/nut (g) : 252 + 33
Copra/palm (kg) : 20 + 12
Copra/ha (t) : 2.68 + 1.60 (Potential = 5.68)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 20 years
Height (m) : 7.97 + 0.94

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,169.8 + 185.7
Fruit shape : oblong (polar) and egg (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 57.7 + 2.0
Meat : 34.9 + 1.3
Water : 22.8 + 1.6
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.38 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 861.7 + 139.2
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. Use of this hybrid in the National Coconut Planting and Replanting Program can
provide the industry with valuable and wide genetic base planting materials.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 25

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 14

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : MRD x BAOT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 76 + 38
Nuts/ha. : 10,290 + 5,150
(Potential = 18,260)
Copra/nut (g) : 269 + 33
Copra/palm (kg) : 21 + 11
Copra/ha (t) : 2.84 + 1.53 (Potential = 5.44)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 20 years
Height (m) : 9.37 + 1.09

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,329.9 + 194.8
Fruit shape : oblong (polar) and egg (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 59.9 + 2.1
Meat : 34.5 + 1.7
Water : 25.4 + 1.8
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.30 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 1,004.5 + 154.2
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. Use of this hybrid in the National Coconut Planting and Replanting Program can
provide the industry with valuable and wide genetic base planting materials.
NSIC Registration Number: NSIC 2000 Co 26

Variety Name: PCA 15 – 15

Commercial Name: Coconut

Breeder:

Philippine Coconut Authority


Zamboanga Research Center
San Ramon, Zamboanga City

BACKGROUND:
Parents/Pedigree : CATD x BAYT

VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS:
Yield :
Nuts/palm : 70.7 + 42.2
Nuts/ha. : 10,743 + 6,416 (Potential = 20,629)
Copra/nut (g) : 230.5+ 26.7
Copra/palm (kg) : 16.9 + 11.5
Copra/ha (t) : 2.58 + 1.74 (Potential = 5.22)
Fruiting season : 12 months
Regularity of bearing : biennial
Age–years after planting: 18 years
Height (m) : 7.71 + 0.83

FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS:
Fruit size : medium to large
Fruit weight (g) : 1,290.6 + 178.0
Fruit shape : oblong/round (polar) and round (equatorial)
Edible portion (%) : 57.7 + 2.7
Meat : 34.5 + 1.8
Water : 23.2 + 3.0
Flesh thickness (cm) : 1.26 + 0.1
Nut size : medium to large
Nut weight (g) : 940.9 + 137.7
Nut shape : almost round

OTHER FEATURES OF THE VARIETY:


High and stable yield. Moderately resistant to environmental stress, e.g. strong
winds. Use of this hybrid in the National Coconut Planting and Replanting Program can
provide the industry with valuable and wide genetic base planting materials.

National Seed Industry Council 2000


http://bpi.da.gov.ph/NSIC/
six well-studied tall coconut varieties namely, Baybay (BAYT), Rennel (RIT), Bago Oshiro (BAOT),
Laguna (LAGT), West African (WAT) and Tagnanan (TAGT)

Table 1. Nomenclature and Description of Some Selected Coconut Varieties.


VARIETY CODE ORIGIN DISTINGUISHING FEATURES
TALL
Copra per nut is quite heavy although nuts
do not really look big; very thin husk;
homogenous and produces high number of
Baybay BAY Philippines leaves per year; bunches with short
peducle and nuts are trapped between leaf
axils; stem quite robust and firm; tolerant to
FDMT.
Usually bears extra large nuts when young
San Ramon SNR Philippines
needing 3 to 3.5 nuts per kilo copra.
Produces nuts with good fruit corn position;
Tagnanan TAG Philippines 350 g copra per nut and very homogenous;
good GCA with MRD
Produces a fairly large number of nuts; 190
Laguna LAG Philippines g copra/nut; hybrid cross with CAT green
dwarf good
Husk of nut is streaked, making it look
Agta AGA Philippines around and tough. Young nuts show black
streaks
A mutant form of the Laguna variety, nuts
have soft and jelly-like meat. This character
is lethal to the embryo which needs to be
Macapuno MAC Philippines grown in artificial medium. Naturally
occurring palms grown from normal nuts
bear about 25%. MAC nuts may give 100%
macapuno nuts.
DWARF
Nuts are medium sized, round with
prominent stigmatic tip; copra per nut is
Catigan CAT Philippines about 200 to210g; husk is thick; peduncle
and bunch rachis are long; young nuts and
petioles are green.
Nuts are very small, oblong and smooth;
stem quite thin and high yielder of toddy.
Coconino CNO Philippines
Copra per nut seldom exceeds 100g.
Coconino is a green dwarf.
Green dwarf, nuts are extra large, robust
Kinabalan KIN Philippines stem and copra per nut sometimes
exceeds 300g; homogeneous.
Nuts are green and round; female flowers,
tip of roots and base of shoots of newly
Pilipog PIL Philippines
germinated seedlings are pink; copra per
nut is 100g.
Another green dwarf; spikelets are very
short; nuts are medium to large oblong with
Tacunan TAC Philippines broad equatorial diameter and pointed
stigmatic; and unopened spathes are flat
on distal end.
A green dwarf which retains hundred of
ripe nuts on the crown due to drying of nuts
Mangipod MGP Philippines
on the tree. Highly self-pollinating and
shows very strict dwarfism.
Nuts are long and pointed. Shape of shell
Tampakan
TMP Philippines and cavity conforms exactly to the shape of
(South Cotabato)
inhole nut which has a very thin husk.
Mostly Names of the Coconut are based on the place where it is produced

http://www.agriculture.ph 2009

Other Use:
Products and By-Products

1. Copra – is the dried coconut meat. It is the source where coconut oil is extracted for
many uses.

1. Oil – extracted processed/filtered oil obtained from copra. It is mainly used for
cooking but also used for many other purposes; moisturizer, liniment for muscles and
joints, cosmetics, medicines, soaps and detergents, paints, biofuels, etc.
2. Coconut milk – the liquid obtained by pressing grated coconut meat. This is used for
cooking. And making home-made coconut oil.
3. Latik – heat coagulated content of coconut milk. This is also used for food purposes.
4. Dessicated coconut – dried coconut grated meat mainly prepared for food uses.
5. Coconut Flour – this is the de-oiled dessicated coconut that is finely grounded. This is
used in baking.

2. Coconut Shell – This is the protective covering of the coconut meat and water. This
makes a very good source of charcoal. This is a very good fuel for domestic cooking.

1. Activated charcoal – found to possess the ability to adsorb gases and vapors hence
finds uses in gas mask, cigarette filters, removal of bad odors from air-conditioning,
freezers and refrigerators, and many other adsorption capabilities. Continuing research
on this is making advances lately. Activated charcoal are used in filtering water and air.
2. Charcoal briquettes – coconut shell charcoal are processed into briquettes so that it
is easier to transport. Specifically used in grills.
3. Novelty items – local craftsmen make indigenous novelties from shells such as
lamps, figurines, picture frames, musical instruments, souvenirs and many more.

3. Coconut Husk – the fibrous outer covering of the nut. This part extends from the nut
skin to the shell and varying thickness up to 5 cm.

1. Coco-coir – The hair-like thread extracted from the coconut husk by mechanical
method or by the decorticating machine. The resulting products are coco dust and coco
coir. Coco coir is used for upholstery, mattress fibers, filter pads, carpets, erosion nets,
insulation material, biodegradable pots, orchid and ornamental planting medium, etc.
2. Coco dust – Are the medium collected after separating the coir from the husk. It has
very good water retention capabilities thus used mainly as potting medium.

4. Coconut Water – the liquid found inside the coconut. It is an excellent and readily
available drinking water. The quality of water varies according to the age of the nut.
Younger nut water is largely consumed locally as beverage. Water from mature nuts is
used as raw material for making nata de coco, vinegar, intravenous fluid, electrolyte,
wine and alcohol. Large uses however have not prospered

5. Coconut Sap – a very sweet juice obtained from a young inflourescence. Locally
known as Tuba. Toddy in India.
1. Liquor – Coco-sap are left to ferment and made into alcoholic beverages called
“Tuba”. In Samar and Leyte province, they add bark from a local tree and ferment to
produce “Bahalina”. In Southern Tagalog and Bicol area, coco-sap are distilled and
made into a strong alcohol called “Lambanog”.
2. Vinegar – Coco sap are also made into vinegar.
3. Coco sugar – Coco sap are sometimes cooked to produce sugar. This has been a
long practice in some places but not in very large quantities.

References

Banzon, Julian A and Velasco, Jose R. “Coconut” Production and Utilization. Copyright
1982
Dar, William D. “Coco-based Farming Systems” State of the Knowledge and Practice
1990
Bourgoing, Raymond D “Coconut: A pictorial Technical Guide for Smallholders” Edited
by Dante Benigno 1991

Conclusion:

Hence, it is acknowledge and an export material, there is lack of competitiveness


among us, even though we have our own distinctive quality of coconuts, we just don’t
have the drive, the confidence to make it stand out. And also we lack the R&D to our
coconuts.

We should study, develop our coconuts to reach its potential, 100x the export quality.
And we should be just THE PRODUCERS of coconuts, we should also be the top
coconut products producers/suppliers.

Related Interests