Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Rationale
The study of rational expressions is foundational to further levels of mathematics.
Rational expressions, which are fractions involving variables, have applications in
fields like physics, chemistry, biology, economics and calculus just to name a few.
The applications of rational expressions are essential to solving problems in these
fields that is why this unit in centered around a project that gets students to solve
practical problems they may actually face today or in their future workplace. The
problem solving project will also help students experience mathematics outside of
simply memorizing processes or algorithms.
The layout of this unit is based on the McGrawHill Ryerson PreCalculus 11 textbook
which covers the Algebra and Number SLOs 4, 5 and 6 in Chapter 6. Section 6.1
covers simplifying rational expressions and determining nonpermissible values (SLO
4). Sections 6.2 and 6.3 cover performing operations on rational expressions (SLO
5). Multiplying and dividing are covered in 6.2 and adding and subtracting in 6.3.
Section 6.4 covers problem solving involving rational equations (SLO 6).
In this unit, students will gain an understanding of rational expressions and rational
equations. They will be able to perform operations on rational expressions and
equations in order to solve problems. Throughout this unit, students will rely on their
prior knowledge of equivalent fractions, operations on fractions, factoring
expressions and solving equations. A solid understanding of these topics will be
essential for students to find success in this unit. The assessment of this prior
knowledge at the beginning of this unit will be a very important piece moving
forward in the unit. In future courses, students will use their understanding of
rational expressions and equations to graph and analyze rational functions.
There have been 9 classes allowed for the completion of this unit: 6 instructional
days, 2 review days and 1 day to write the unit exam. During this time, students will
work individually and in small groups while using a variety of tools to reach the
desired outcomes. The sequencing of each lesson has been done in such a way as
to provide scaffolding to the students as they are introduced to increasingly
complex concepts.
Mathematical Processes
Students will develop their communication skills throughout this unit by being able
to express the definitions of mathematical terms, represent equivalent expressions,
and discuss concepts with the class. They will also read, interpret and solve
problems to effectively communicate accurate solutions.
Spring 2016: Marynowski
Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
In this unit students will also see the connections that exist between rational
expressions and realworld experiences. They will experience the worth of making
these connections through their unit project and gain a greater appreciation for the
usefulness and relevancy of mathematics in their everyday life.
Students will execute mental mathematics and estimation strategies while
performing operations on rational expressions. They will need to be able to
determine which strategy is best to use in order to simplify expressions in addition
to being about to factor in a variety of ways and recognize common factors within
expressions.
In this unit students will develop their problem solving skills be being given
problems in which they have not been given the ways to solve the problem but
instead use their new learnings and prior knowledge to build new contexts for the
mathematical concept. The project designed for this unit will create an environment
where students openly look for, and engage in, finding a variety of strategies for
problem solving. This will serve to develop students into confident, mathematical
risktakers.
Throughout this unit students will build upon their reasoning skills as justify their
thinking when dealing with rational expressions. In their unit project, students will
be required to use their reason to decide which strategies to use to find solutions.
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Established Goals:
Algebra and Number
GLO: Develop algebraic reasoning and number sense.
Understandings:
Students will understand that

Essential Questions:
What important uses do rational expressions
have in society?
How do rational expressions help represent
and solve problems?
If I can graph a vertical line, why is 5/0
undefined?
Students will be able to do
4. Determine equivalent forms of rational
expressions (limited to numerators and
denominators that are monomials, binomials
or trinomials).
[C, ME, R]
5. Perform operations on rational expressions
(limited to numerators and denominators that
are monomials, binomials or trinomials).
[CN, ME, R]
6. Solve problems that involve rational
equations (limited to numerators and
denominators that are monomials, binomials
or trinomials).
[C, PS, R]
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Resources Needed:
 SmartBoard, McGrawHill Ryerson PreCalculus 11 textbooks, exit slips,
Rational Renos project handout, student notes, chart paper, markers, frayer
models
Resources Consulted:
 Alberta Program of Studies, McGrawHill Ryerson PreCalculus 11 Textbook
Chapter 6, Mathematics 201 Rational Expressions and Equations High School
Collaborative Venture Edmonton Public Schools, Alberta Education Outcome
with Assessment Standards for Mathematics 201
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Learning
Outcome
s
Title
Type
(Formative/Sum
mative)
Weighting
(%)
4. Determine
equivalent forms of
rational expressions
(limited to
numerators and
denominators that
are monomials,
binomials or
trinomials).
[C, ME, R]
5. Perform operations
on rational
expressions (limited
to numerators and
denominators that
are monomials,
binomials or
trinomials).
[CN, ME, R]
6. Solve problems
that involve rational
equations (limited to
numerators and
denominators that
are monomials,
binomials or
trinomials).
[C, PS, R]
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Exit
Slips
Format
ive
Observa
tion
Formativ
e
Questioni
ng
Formativ
e
Assignm
ent
Qui
z
Bot
h
Project
Exam
Summati
ve
Summat
ive
15
20
30
35
Both
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Outcomes
[Processes]
Exit Slips
Observations
Brief Description
At various times throughout the unit
student will be asked to write an exit slip
at the end of class to provide the teacher
with feedback about what the student
took away from the lesson that day.
These are considered assessment for
learning as the responses will guide the
teacher to know what needs to be
reviewed again and what concepts the
students have a solid understanding of.
These exit slips will also inform the
teacher as to how well individual students
understand particular concepts within the
unit. Some exit slips will be more
reflective in nature to serve as
assessment as learning. These exit slips
will ask students to reflect upon their own
achievement in the unit such as areas
they need more work on and areas of
strength.
A key area of assessment for learning is
the observation of student work.
Observing and taking anecdotal notes of
common errors students make or
common questions students have will
inform the teacher on where the focus of
future lessons might need to lie.
Observations also allow the teacher to
see where clarifications need to made
from previous lessons and gives the
opportunity to provide individual support
to students if needed. Seeing how
students are able to complete
introductory activities will also serve an
important preassessment tool.
Fo
r
AS
OF
Questioning
1.4, 1.5
[C, R, CN]
Assignment
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
1
5
Quiz
1.4, 1.5
[C, ME, R, CN,
PS]
Project
1.5, 1.6
[C, ME, R, CN,
PS]
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
2
0
3
0
Exam
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
3
5
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
As part of a Math 201 AP course, this unit will be completed in only 9 classes. Units within this course are completed
in a condensed time frame to allow for time to complete Math 301 units at the end of the term.
Monday
Tuesday
Time: 83 minutes
Unit Introduction
6.1 Lesson and Qs
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Time: 73 minutes
Time: 73 minutes
6.2 Lesson and Qs
6.1/6.2 Review
Exit Slip (6.1 and 6.2) Worksheet
Time: 73 minutes
6.1/6.2 Quiz
6.3 Lesson
Time: 83 minutes
6.3 Questions
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Time: 83 minutes
6.4 Lesson
Time: 73 minutes
6.4 Questions
Time: 73 minutes
Chapter 6 Review
Project Due
Time: 73 minutes
Chapter 6 Exam
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
together. Class discussion about the different strategies groups came up with.
Students will see that multiplying rational expressions follows the same rules as
multiplying fractions. Students will try to find a strategy for dividing rational
expressions and will conclude it is the same as dividing fractions. Students will
understand that nonpermissible values of products and quotients of rational
expressions must be found throughout the steps and before any cancellation
occurs. Class examples on the SmartBoard of determining products and quotients
of rational expressions and finding nonpermissible values. Students will be given
practice problems on multiplying and dividing rational expressions.
Daily Assessment: Observation during small group time, practice problems
Day 3: 6.1/6.2 Review (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Vocabulary review of rational expression and nonpermissible value by completing Frayer model for both terms. Add terms to
vocabulary sheet.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Problem solving activities
involving problem solving by modelling a situation with a rational expression and
multiplying/dividing rational expressions. Students will work in small groups or
individually to solve problems on the board. Review of important things to
remember when working with rational expressions and performing operations
(things to remember for the quiz). Students will each complete a 6.1/6.2
worksheet. Question period for student to gain any clarifications needed.
Daily Assessment: Vocabulary sheet, questioning student reasoning, observing student
practice, review assignment
Day 4: 6.1/6.2 Quiz and 6.3 Lesson (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Begin right away with 6.1/6.2 Quiz
After quiz have students find a sum and a difference of two fractions. Have them
record their strategies used. Discuss as a class and have a few students show their
strategy on the board. It is important to find the lowest common denominator.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Have students work in small
groups to use these strategies to add/subtract rational expressions. Have them find
nonpermissible values. Continually increase the difficulty of the problems including
factoring polynomials, have students solve and then review.
Daily Assessment: Quiz, observation, questioning, exit slip: what are the
similarities and differences between adding/subtracting fractions and
adding/subtracting rational expressions?
Day 5: 6.3 Questions and Work Period (83 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Review Quiz. Do Now Problem Solving question involving
problem solving by modelling a situation with a rational expression and
adding/subtracting rational expressions.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Individual textbook practice
problems adding/subtracting rational expressions and work period for unit problem
solving project.
Daily Assessment: Questioning, observation of student practice and of project work,
Spring 2016: Marynowski
Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
practice problems
Day 6: 6.4 Lesson (83 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Do Now: Solve a riddle of clues about how long a man
lived by using x to represent the number of years he lived. Have students describe
the process they took to solve the riddle. Discuss the similarities and differences
between adding/subtracting a rational expression and the process of solving an
equation. What is a rational equation? Add rational equation definition to
vocabulary sheet.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Class Examples on the
SmartBoard on the steps to take to solve rational equations. Examples of solving
rational equations and then problem solving using rational equations.
Daily Assessment: Questioning, Observation of student work, exit slip: How is a
rational expression different from a rational equation?
Day 7: 6.4 Questions (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Do Now: Solve a rational equation.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Review previous lessons concepts
and then students will work individually or in small groups to complete practice
problems on 6.4 Solving Rational Equations and all of Chapter 6 review practice
from the textbook.
Daily Assessment: Observing completion of practice problems
Day 8: Chapter 6 Review (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Students hand in project and then work on the Do Now:
Solving Rational Equation Problem Solving Question
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Gallery Walk: Divide into students
into 5 groups and have each group write a list of steps of how to do the following:
find nonpermissible values, simplify rational expressions, add/subtract rational
expressions, multiply/divide rational expressions, solve rational equations. Students
can edit other groups work during the gallery walk and then class discussion about
how to do each types of problem. Then students will complete individual Chapter 6
review assignments.
Daily Assessment: observation of problem solving, questioning/observation during
group work and gallery walk, review assignment and textbook practice, exit slip: two
things I need to study for the exam
Day 9: Chapter 6 Exam (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Go over all instructions for the exam.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Students have all class to complete the
exam.
Daily Assessment: Chapter 6 Unit Exam
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Lesson Plan 1
Grade/Subject: Math 201 AP Unit: Rational Expressions and Equations
Lesson Duration: 8:15am9:38am (83 min)
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Written/Performance Assessments:
 Textbook practice problems: pg. 317321 # 3abdef, 4def, 6cd, 8abcdf, 15; ext. # 26ab
 Exit Slip: How are rational expressions related to fractions? Why are some values considered nonpermissible in rational expressions?
LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
4 x 1
3 x 1
2 x
binomials. Discuss.
Put the following on the board and ask students if they are
equivalent:
2 x 1
2x 2
2x 4
3x 2
x 2 4
0
2
and .
2
0
Talk about
For
0
0 , because 2 fits into 0, zero times.
2
For
2
undefined , because 0 fits into 2, an infinite
0
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
6
3 because we can fit three 2s into 6.
2
number of times.
Discuss that when using rational expressions, the
denominator of the expression cannot be zero or else the
expression becomes undefined. Students must consider all
factors in the denominator that cause the denominator to be
zero.
Important to remember that students find NPVs before
simplifying
Ongoing
 Put up examples on the SmartBoard to have the students
try to solve on their own in their notes. Then walk through
the solutions on the board.
 Examples: Determine all nonpermissible values of
Assessments:
Observe: Can students use binomials to
create equivalent expressions? Are students
adding the same factor to both the numerator
and denominator?
Ask:

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
3,4
*All other examples and solutions are in the student notes key*
Differentiation:
If students are struggling to understand the concept of simplifying
expressions try working with these specific students showing that
the simplification on rational expressions follows the same steps as
prime factorization of fractions.
After (25 min) 9:13am 9:38am

Differentiation:
 If students are having trouble have them work in close
proximity to the teacher with other students experiencing
the same issues so that the teacher can spend a little more
time reexplaining concepts.
 If students are not challenged by the practice assignment
have them complete the extension question. Then have
students begin to think of some of the applications of
rational expressions by considering question 19. How might
rational expressions be applied in different sectors in
society?
Assessments:
Observe:
 Are students finding all NPVs?
 Are students simplifying correctly by
cancelling ONLY common factors?
Ask:
 How did you find those nonpermissible values?
 How do you know that your answers
are equivalent?
 How is your process the same as
when dealing with fractions? How is it
different?
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Lesson Plan 2
Grade/Subject: Math 201 AP Unit: Rational Expressions and Equations
Lesson Duration: 8:15am9:28am (73 min)
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Length of Unit
(days)
Resources:
 McGrawHill Ryerson PreCalculus 11 Textbook
 wncpactivemath.wordpress.com
 Mathematics 201 Rational Expressions and Equations High School Collaborative Venture Edmonton
Public Schools
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
 McGrawHill Ryerson PreCalculus 11 Textbook for
each student
 SmartBoard 6.2 file
 student chapter 6 notes
PROCEDURE
Before (15 min) 8:15am 8:30am
Focus of Inquiry: Introduce performing operations on rational
expressions by continuing on comparing rational expressions to
rational numbers. Do now problem solving activity that requires
students to activate their prior knowledge of multiplication of
fractions.
Assessments:
Observe:
 Do students recall the connections
between rational expressions and
rational numbers?
 Are students able to multiply
Task Expectations: The problem of the day will be written on the
fractions?
board. Students will work independently or with their elbow buddy to
 Are the students apply correct
find a solution to the following problem:
strategies to find solutions?
A certain lottery pays out
9
of all money for prizes and the jackpot Ask:
14

2
winner gets
of the payout. For one particular lottery, there are 3
5
1
winners so each winner gets
of the jackpot payout. What
3
fraction of the total money collected does each jackpot winner get?
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Assessments:
Observe:
 Are students able to divide fractions?
 What strategies do they apply?
Ongoing
(multiplying reciprocal vs. common
 Since rational expressions are related to rational numbers have
denominator?
students use their knowledge about multiplying fractions to come up
 Are students simplifying correctly by
with a strategy for multiplying rational expressions, then apply the
only cancelling common factors?
strategy to the following examples. Compare answers around the
class.
Ask:
 What strategies did you use when
2x 10
7x
Assessments:
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Lesson Plan 3
Grade/Subject: Math 201 AP Unit: Rational Expressions and Equations
Lesson Duration: 8:15am9:28am (73 min)
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Observations:
 Observe problem solving strategies while working individually or in small groups
 Observe strategies employed to complete review worksheet
Written/Performance Assessments:
 6.1/6.2 Review Worksheet
LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED
Resources:
 McGrawHill Ryerson PreCalculus 11 Textbook
 wncpactivemath.wordpress.com
 Mathematics 201 Rational Expressions and Equations High School Collaborative Venture Edmonton
Public Schools
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
6.1/6.2 Review Worksheet
 Frayer models
 SmartBoard file of Frayer Models
PROCEDURE
Before (20 min) 8:15am 8:35am
Focus of Inquiry: To solidify student understanding of simplifying
rational expressions, nonpermissible values, and of products and
quotients of rational expressions.
Task Expectations: Handout Frayer models for both rational
expression and nonpermissible value to each student. Have
students complete the model including a definition, characteristics,
examples and nonexamples. Discuss answers as a class and fill
out class model on the SmartBoard.
Differentiation: If students seem to be struggling to fill in various
parts of the model, have students form small groups to discuss
potential answers with one another before discussing as a class.
Assessments:
Observe:
 Are students are to define each
term?
 Are students able to show both
examples and nonexamples?
 Can they explain the importance of
each concept in relation to the rest of
the unit?
Ask:
 Why are nonpermissible values
important to know?
 Where might nonpermissible values
be used in different sectors of
society?
Assessments:
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
metres and a
Observe:
 How are students working in groups?
 Are all students equally participating?
 Are students setting up problems
correctly?
 Are students considering nonpermissible values?
Ask:

Display the next problem on the board and follow the same
procedure as above.
A plane travels from Victoria to Edmonton, a distance of 900km, in
hours. What is the average speed of the plane?
Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Math
201
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)
Length of Unit
(days)
this time students are to complete the worksheet and ask questions
about any concept they need clarification on before they write the
quiz.
Ask:
