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ED 3601 Curriculum and

Instruction for Majors:


Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Rationale
The study of rational expressions is foundational to further levels of mathematics.
Rational expressions, which are fractions involving variables, have applications in
fields like physics, chemistry, biology, economics and calculus just to name a few.
The applications of rational expressions are essential to solving problems in these
fields that is why this unit in centered around a project that gets students to solve
practical problems they may actually face today or in their future workplace. The
problem solving project will also help students experience mathematics outside of
simply memorizing processes or algorithms.
The layout of this unit is based on the McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 textbook
which covers the Algebra and Number SLOs 4, 5 and 6 in Chapter 6. Section 6.1
covers simplifying rational expressions and determining non-permissible values (SLO
4). Sections 6.2 and 6.3 cover performing operations on rational expressions (SLO
5). Multiplying and dividing are covered in 6.2 and adding and subtracting in 6.3.
Section 6.4 covers problem solving involving rational equations (SLO 6).
In this unit, students will gain an understanding of rational expressions and rational
equations. They will be able to perform operations on rational expressions and
equations in order to solve problems. Throughout this unit, students will rely on their
prior knowledge of equivalent fractions, operations on fractions, factoring
expressions and solving equations. A solid understanding of these topics will be
essential for students to find success in this unit. The assessment of this prior
knowledge at the beginning of this unit will be a very important piece moving
forward in the unit. In future courses, students will use their understanding of
rational expressions and equations to graph and analyze rational functions.
There have been 9 classes allowed for the completion of this unit: 6 instructional
days, 2 review days and 1 day to write the unit exam. During this time, students will
work individually and in small groups while using a variety of tools to reach the
desired outcomes. The sequencing of each lesson has been done in such a way as
to provide scaffolding to the students as they are introduced to increasingly
complex concepts.
Mathematical Processes
Students will develop their communication skills throughout this unit by being able
to express the definitions of mathematical terms, represent equivalent expressions,
and discuss concepts with the class. They will also read, interpret and solve
problems to effectively communicate accurate solutions.
Spring 2016: Marynowski
Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

In this unit students will also see the connections that exist between rational
expressions and real-world experiences. They will experience the worth of making
these connections through their unit project and gain a greater appreciation for the
usefulness and relevancy of mathematics in their everyday life.
Students will execute mental mathematics and estimation strategies while
performing operations on rational expressions. They will need to be able to
determine which strategy is best to use in order to simplify expressions in addition
to being about to factor in a variety of ways and recognize common factors within
expressions.
In this unit students will develop their problem solving skills be being given
problems in which they have not been given the ways to solve the problem but
instead use their new learnings and prior knowledge to build new contexts for the
mathematical concept. The project designed for this unit will create an environment
where students openly look for, and engage in, finding a variety of strategies for
problem solving. This will serve to develop students into confident, mathematical
risk-takers.
Throughout this unit students will build upon their reasoning skills as justify their
thinking when dealing with rational expressions. In their unit project, students will
be required to use their reason to decide which strategies to use to find solutions.

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Established Goals:
Algebra and Number
GLO: Develop algebraic reasoning and number sense.
Understandings:
Students will understand that
-

rational expressions and


equations can be used to model
scenarios to solve problems
rational expressions and
equations may have restrictions
the operations on rational
expressions are similar to
operations on fractions

Students will know

Essential Questions:
What important uses do rational expressions
have in society?
How do rational expressions help represent
and solve problems?
If I can graph a vertical line, why is 5/0
undefined?
Students will be able to do
4. Determine equivalent forms of rational
expressions (limited to numerators and
denominators that are monomials, binomials
or trinomials).
[C, ME, R]
5. Perform operations on rational expressions
(limited to numerators and denominators that
are monomials, binomials or trinomials).
[CN, ME, R]
6. Solve problems that involve rational
equations (limited to numerators and
denominators that are monomials, binomials
or trinomials).
[C, PS, R]

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Resources Needed:
- SmartBoard, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 textbooks, exit slips,
Rational Renos project handout, student notes, chart paper, markers, frayer
models
Resources Consulted:
- Alberta Program of Studies, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 Textbook
Chapter 6, Mathematics 20-1 Rational Expressions and Equations High School
Collaborative Venture Edmonton Public Schools, Alberta Education Outcome
with Assessment Standards for Mathematics 20-1

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Learning
Outcome
s

Title
Type
(Formative/Sum
mative)

Weighting
(%)

4. Determine
equivalent forms of
rational expressions
(limited to
numerators and
denominators that
are monomials,
binomials or
trinomials).
[C, ME, R]
5. Perform operations
on rational
expressions (limited
to numerators and
denominators that
are monomials,
binomials or
trinomials).
[CN, ME, R]
6. Solve problems
that involve rational
equations (limited to
numerators and
denominators that
are monomials,
binomials or
trinomials).
[C, PS, R]

Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Exit
Slips
Format
ive

Observa
tion
Formativ
e

Questioni
ng
Formativ
e

Assignm
ent

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Qui
z
Bot
h

Project

Exam

Summati
ve

Summat
ive

15

20

30

35

Both

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Assessment Tool Overview


Assessment
Tool Title

Outcomes
[Processes]

Exit Slips

1.4, 1.5, 1.6


[C, R, CN]

Observations

1.4, 1.5, 1.6


[ME, CN, PS]

Brief Description
At various times throughout the unit
student will be asked to write an exit slip
at the end of class to provide the teacher
with feedback about what the student
took away from the lesson that day.
These are considered assessment for
learning as the responses will guide the
teacher to know what needs to be
reviewed again and what concepts the
students have a solid understanding of.
These exit slips will also inform the
teacher as to how well individual students
understand particular concepts within the
unit. Some exit slips will be more
reflective in nature to serve as
assessment as learning. These exit slips
will ask students to reflect upon their own
achievement in the unit such as areas
they need more work on and areas of
strength.
A key area of assessment for learning is
the observation of student work.
Observing and taking anecdotal notes of
common errors students make or
common questions students have will
inform the teacher on where the focus of
future lessons might need to lie.
Observations also allow the teacher to
see where clarifications need to made
from previous lessons and gives the
opportunity to provide individual support
to students if needed. Seeing how
students are able to complete
introductory activities will also serve an
important pre-assessment tool.

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Fo
r

AS

OF

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Questioning

1.4, 1.5
[C, R, CN]

Assignment

1.4, 1.5, 1.6


[C, ME, R, CN,
PS]

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Throughout the unit, students will be


asked a number of meaningful questions
designed to prompt further thought as
well as have students communicate their
understanding of a concept. Questioning
(along with observation) will be a key preassessment strategy throughout this unit
as students will be asked questions to
make them draw upon their knowledge of
fractions to lay the foundation for
learning about rational expressions.
Questioning will be used as assessment
for learning as student response will
give insight to the teacher about how well
the students understand concepts or if
they need clarification. This will guide the
future instruction given by the teacher.
Questioning will also serve as assessment
as learning as students will be posed
questions designed to evaluate their own
learning. As students think about their
responses they become self-monitor of
their own progress.
The Chapter 6 Review Assignment will be
completed towards the end of the unit
and will require students to demonstrate
their knowledge of all outcomes covered
in the unit. It will serve as assessment
as learning as students will be able to
recognize for themselves which outcomes
they have a solid understanding of and
which outcomes they need clarification in
before the unit exam. The assignment will
also be taken as an assessment of
learning as it will inform the teacher how
well the student has understood the
concepts taught throughout the unit and
will be used in determining the students
final grade for this unit.

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

1
5

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Quiz

1.4, 1.5
[C, ME, R, CN,
PS]

Project

1.5, 1.6
[C, ME, R, CN,
PS]

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

The quiz in this unit will cover the first


two outcomes of the unit in sections 6.1
and 6.2. The quiz will be used as
assessment for learning as it will allow
the teacher to see which concepts from
6.1 and 6.2 need to be revisited before
moving farther on in the unit. The quiz
will be used as assessment as learning
as students will be given the opportunity
to correct their own mistakes and see for
themselves where their misunderstanding
of concepts lie. This gives students a
greater responsibility for their learning.
The quiz will also be used as assessment
of learning as it will be included in the
compilation of data used to calculate the
students overall achievement in the unit.
This project is designed to apply problem
solving using rational expressions to
practical life skills that students may
encounter in their future or current lives.
The project titled Rational Renos will
require students to use their knowledge
of rational expressions to solve problems
involving how long it would take to
complete various renovation projects
based on a set of facts. Student will be
expected to work on this project
throughout the course of the unit but very
little direction on how to solve the
problems will be given to work on the
students problem solving abilities. The
project is considered assessment as
learning as the students will be required
to decide for themselves which processes
to engage in to solve the problem. They
will not be told if their process is right or
wrong, they will discover that for
themselves as they complete the project.
The project will also be used as evidence
of the students understanding
throughout the entirety of the unit and so
will be used as assessment of learning.

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

2
0

3
0

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Exam

1.4, 1.5, 1.6


[C, ME, R, CN,
PS]

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

The unit exam will cover all topics cover


in Chapter 6 and will require students to
show both their conceptual knowledge as
well as their ability to use rational
expressions to solve problem. The exam
will be used only as assessment of
learning as the students will not be an
active assessor of their own progress nor
will any future lessons be dedicated to
these topics. This exam will be used to
show the students overall understanding
of the outcomes indicated at the
beginning of the unit.

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

3
5

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

As part of a Math 20-1 AP course, this unit will be completed in only 9 classes. Units within this course are completed
in a condensed time frame to allow for time to complete Math 30-1 units at the end of the term.

Monday

Tuesday

Time: 83 minutes
Unit Introduction
6.1 Lesson and Qs

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Time: 73 minutes
Time: 73 minutes
6.2 Lesson and Qs
6.1/6.2 Review
Exit Slip (6.1 and 6.2) Worksheet

Time: 73 minutes
6.1/6.2 Quiz
6.3 Lesson

Time: 83 minutes
6.3 Questions

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Time: 83 minutes
6.4 Lesson

Time: 73 minutes
6.4 Questions

Time: 73 minutes
Chapter 6 Review
Project Due

Time: 73 minutes
Chapter 6 Exam

Day 1: Unit Introduction/6.1 (83 minutes)


Introductory Activities: To activate prior knowledge needed for the unit,
students will work in small groups and participate in a class discussion about
equivalent fractions (and inserting variables in to them) to discover the link
between fractions and rational expressions. What are rational expressions? To
introduce the unit, there will be a class discussion about where rational expressions
might be useful. Unit project will be presented to the students.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: As in the intro activity, students
will continue in their small groups to now make equivalent rational expressions and
substitute in values to prove equivalency. Students will discover non-permissible
values. What is a non-permissible value? Class examples will be done on the
SmartBoard on the topics of determining non-permissible values, simplifying
rational expressions and modelling situations using rational expressions. Students
will be given practice problems.
Daily Assessment: Questioning during small group time as well as in-class
discussion, textbook practice questions, exit slip: How are rational expressions
related to fractions? Why are some values considered non-permissible in rational
expressions?
Day 2: 6.2 Lesson (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Do Now Problem of the Day question involving
multiplying fractions. Review exit slip question from previous day of how rational
expressions are related to fractions.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Students will work in small
groups to come up with a strategy about how to multiply two rational expressions
Spring 2016: Marynowski
Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

together. Class discussion about the different strategies groups came up with.
Students will see that multiplying rational expressions follows the same rules as
multiplying fractions. Students will try to find a strategy for dividing rational
expressions and will conclude it is the same as dividing fractions. Students will
understand that non-permissible values of products and quotients of rational
expressions must be found throughout the steps and before any cancellation
occurs. Class examples on the SmartBoard of determining products and quotients
of rational expressions and finding non-permissible values. Students will be given
practice problems on multiplying and dividing rational expressions.
Daily Assessment: Observation during small group time, practice problems
Day 3: 6.1/6.2 Review (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Vocabulary review of rational expression and nonpermissible value by completing Frayer model for both terms. Add terms to
vocabulary sheet.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Problem solving activities
involving problem solving by modelling a situation with a rational expression and
multiplying/dividing rational expressions. Students will work in small groups or
individually to solve problems on the board. Review of important things to
remember when working with rational expressions and performing operations
(things to remember for the quiz). Students will each complete a 6.1/6.2
worksheet. Question period for student to gain any clarifications needed.
Daily Assessment: Vocabulary sheet, questioning student reasoning, observing student
practice, review assignment
Day 4: 6.1/6.2 Quiz and 6.3 Lesson (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Begin right away with 6.1/6.2 Quiz
After quiz have students find a sum and a difference of two fractions. Have them
record their strategies used. Discuss as a class and have a few students show their
strategy on the board. It is important to find the lowest common denominator.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Have students work in small
groups to use these strategies to add/subtract rational expressions. Have them find
non-permissible values. Continually increase the difficulty of the problems including
factoring polynomials, have students solve and then review.
Daily Assessment: Quiz, observation, questioning, exit slip: what are the
similarities and differences between adding/subtracting fractions and
adding/subtracting rational expressions?
Day 5: 6.3 Questions and Work Period (83 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Review Quiz. Do Now Problem Solving question involving
problem solving by modelling a situation with a rational expression and
adding/subtracting rational expressions.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Individual textbook practice
problems adding/subtracting rational expressions and work period for unit problem
solving project.
Daily Assessment: Questioning, observation of student practice and of project work,
Spring 2016: Marynowski
Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

practice problems
Day 6: 6.4 Lesson (83 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Do Now: Solve a riddle of clues about how long a man
lived by using x to represent the number of years he lived. Have students describe
the process they took to solve the riddle. Discuss the similarities and differences
between adding/subtracting a rational expression and the process of solving an
equation. What is a rational equation? Add rational equation definition to
vocabulary sheet.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Class Examples on the
SmartBoard on the steps to take to solve rational equations. Examples of solving
rational equations and then problem solving using rational equations.
Daily Assessment: Questioning, Observation of student work, exit slip: How is a
rational expression different from a rational equation?
Day 7: 6.4 Questions (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Do Now: Solve a rational equation.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Review previous lessons concepts
and then students will work individually or in small groups to complete practice
problems on 6.4 Solving Rational Equations and all of Chapter 6 review practice
from the textbook.
Daily Assessment: Observing completion of practice problems
Day 8: Chapter 6 Review (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Students hand in project and then work on the Do Now:
Solving Rational Equation Problem Solving Question
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Gallery Walk: Divide into students
into 5 groups and have each group write a list of steps of how to do the following:
find non-permissible values, simplify rational expressions, add/subtract rational
expressions, multiply/divide rational expressions, solve rational equations. Students
can edit other groups work during the gallery walk and then class discussion about
how to do each types of problem. Then students will complete individual Chapter 6
review assignments.
Daily Assessment: observation of problem solving, questioning/observation during
group work and gallery walk, review assignment and textbook practice, exit slip: two
things I need to study for the exam
Day 9: Chapter 6 Exam (73 minutes)
Introductory Activities: Go over all instructions for the exam.
Learning Activities/Instructional Strategies: Students have all class to complete the
exam.
Daily Assessment: Chapter 6 Unit Exam

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Lesson Plan 1
Grade/Subject: Math 20-1 AP Unit: Rational Expressions and Equations
Lesson Duration: 8:15am-9:38am (83 min)

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General Learning Outcomes: Algebra and Number: Develop algebraic reasoning and number sense.
Specific Learning Outcomes: 4. Determine equivalent forms of rational expressions (limited to numerators and
denominators that are monomials, binomials or trinomials). [C, ME, R]
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Determine non-permissible values for a rational expression
2. Simplify a rational expression by comparing it to the process of simplifying a fraction
3. Model a situation using a rational expression
ASSESSMENTS
Key Questions:
- What is a rational expression?
- How do rational expressions relate to fractions?
- Why are some values considered non-permissible in rational expressions?
- How do you simplify rational expressions?
Observations:
- Observation of student discussions while working in small groups
- Discuss the relationship between fractions and rational expressions

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template
-

Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Observe students completing practice problems

Written/Performance Assessments:
- Textbook practice problems: pg. 317-321 # 3abdef, 4def, 6cd, 8abcdf, 15; ext. # 26ab
- Exit Slip: How are rational expressions related to fractions? Why are some values considered nonpermissible in rational expressions?
LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED
-

McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 Textbook


wncpactivemath.wordpress.com
Mathematics 20-1 Rational Expressions and Equations High School Collaborative Venture Edmonton
Public Schools
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

- McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 Textbook for


each student
- SmartBoard 6.1 file
- student chapter 6 notes
PROCEDURE
Before (15 min) 8:15am 8:30
Focus of Inquiry: Students will use prior knowledge of fractions to
Assessments:
relate equivalent forms of rational expressions to equivalent
Observe:
fractions. Students will be able to explain what a rational expression
- Can students create equivalent
is.
fractions?
Task Expectations: Put students in groups of 3 or 4 and give the
Ask:
class the fraction . Ask the groups to come up with 3 equivalent
fractions to that they think will be different from all the other
groups. Have one student from each group write their fractions on
the board. Look over solutions and discuss any interesting ones. If
some students included a variable in their fraction then ask students
to consider the difference between fractions with variables and
fractions without. If no students include variables suggest the
equivalent fraction 3x/4x and ask students if 3x/4x is equivalent to
. Introduce the term rational expression to describe fractions that
include variables.
Differentiation: If students are struggling to create equivalent
fractions work with individual groups and explain that adding the
same factor to both the numerator and denominator of a fraction
creates an equivalent fraction.
During (43 min) 8:30am 9:13am

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

What makes a fraction equivalent to


another?
How are fractions that include
variables different from fractions that
do not?
Is 3x/4x equivalent to ? Why or why
not?

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Length of Unit
(days)

Initially: In their same groups, ask students to write an equivalent


expression to 3x/4x using binomials.
-

4 x 1

3 x 1

2 x

is an equivalent form involving fractions with

binomials. Discuss.
Put the following on the board and ask students if they are
equivalent:

2 x 1

2x 2
2x 4

3x 2
x 2 4

How can students tell that these expressions are


equivalent? Possible answers:
o Factor the expressions and simplify like a fraction
o Substitute a number into both to verify you get the
same number
For the second answer: suggest that students substitute in
the number 2. What do they find? Why is this value a
problem?

What is a non-permissible value?

0
2
and .
2
0

Discuss the difference between

Talk about

For

0
0 , because 2 fits into 0, zero times.
2

For

2
undefined , because 0 fits into 2, an infinite
0

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

6
3 because we can fit three 2s into 6.
2

number of times.
Discuss that when using rational expressions, the
denominator of the expression cannot be zero or else the
expression becomes undefined. Students must consider all
factors in the denominator that cause the denominator to be
zero.
Important to remember that students find NPVs before
simplifying

Ongoing
- Put up examples on the SmartBoard to have the students
try to solve on their own in their notes. Then walk through
the solutions on the board.
- Examples: Determine all non-permissible values of

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Assessments:
Observe: Can students use binomials to
create equivalent expressions? Are students
adding the same factor to both the numerator
and denominator?
Ask:
-

What makes expressions equivalent


to each other?
How can you tell that expressions
are equivalent?
Why are some values considered
non-permissible in rational
expressions?
How do you find non-permissible
values of rational expressions?

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

3,4

*All other examples and solutions are in the student notes key*

Differentiation:
If students are struggling to understand the concept of simplifying
expressions try working with these specific students showing that
the simplification on rational expressions follows the same steps as
prime factorization of fractions.
After (25 min) 9:13am 9:38am
-

Students are given the remainder of the time to work on


their textbook assignment: pg. 317-321 # 3abdef, 4def,
6cd, 8abcdf, 15; ext. # 26ab

Exit Slip: How are rational expressions related to fractions?


Why are some values considered non-permissible in
rational expressions?

Differentiation:
- If students are having trouble have them work in close
proximity to the teacher with other students experiencing
the same issues so that the teacher can spend a little more
time re-explaining concepts.
- If students are not challenged by the practice assignment
have them complete the extension question. Then have
students begin to think of some of the applications of
rational expressions by considering question 19. How might
rational expressions be applied in different sectors in
society?

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Assessments:
Observe:
- Are students finding all NPVs?
- Are students simplifying correctly by
cancelling ONLY common factors?
Ask:
- How did you find those nonpermissible values?
- How do you know that your answers
are equivalent?
- How is your process the same as
when dealing with fractions? How is it
different?

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Lesson Plan 2
Grade/Subject: Math 20-1 AP Unit: Rational Expressions and Equations
Lesson Duration: 8:15am-9:28am (73 min)

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General Learning Outcomes: Algebra and Number: Develop algebraic reasoning and number sense.
Specific Learning Outcomes: 5. Perform operations on rational expressions (limited to numerators and
denominators that are monomials, binomials or trinomials). [CN, ME, R]
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Compare multiplication and division on rational expressions to the same operations on rational numbers.
2. Determine the product of quotient of rational expressions in simplest form.
3. Identify non-permissible values when performing operations on rational expressions.
ASSESSMENTS
Key Questions:
- How do operations on rational expressions relate to operations on rational numbers?
- Which non-permissible values are included when finding products or quotients of rational expressions?
- What are the steps to finding the product or quotient of rational expressions?
Observations:
- Observation of student discussions while working in small groups
- Discuss the relationship between operations on fractions and operations on rational expressions
- Observe students completing practice problems
Written/Performance Assessments:

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template
-

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Length of Unit
(days)

Textbook practice problems:


LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

Resources:
- McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 Textbook
- wncpactivemath.wordpress.com
- Mathematics 20-1 Rational Expressions and Equations High School Collaborative Venture Edmonton
Public Schools
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
- McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 Textbook for
each student
- SmartBoard 6.2 file
- student chapter 6 notes

PROCEDURE
Before (15 min) 8:15am 8:30am
Focus of Inquiry: Introduce performing operations on rational
expressions by continuing on comparing rational expressions to
rational numbers. Do now problem solving activity that requires
students to activate their prior knowledge of multiplication of
fractions.

Assessments:
Observe:
- Do students recall the connections
between rational expressions and
rational numbers?
- Are students able to multiply
Task Expectations: The problem of the day will be written on the
fractions?
board. Students will work independently or with their elbow buddy to
- Are the students apply correct
find a solution to the following problem:
strategies to find solutions?
A certain lottery pays out

9
of all money for prizes and the jackpot Ask:
14
-

2
winner gets
of the payout. For one particular lottery, there are 3
5
1
winners so each winner gets
of the jackpot payout. What
3
fraction of the total money collected does each jackpot winner get?

Answer: 18/210 = 3/35

Have a couple of students share their answer and write it on


the board. Talk about the different strategies that could be
used to solve the problem specifically simplifying the
expression before or after multiplying. Which one is easier?
Briefly review the process of multiplying fractions.

Differentiation: Have students work in small groups where students


who understand the problem work with those who may not to
explain what they are doing and why. Pull aside struggling students
to quickly review the concept of multiplying fractions.

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

How is multiplying fractions the same


and different from multiplying rational
expressions?
What strategy did you use to find the
solution to the problem? Did
someone else use a different
strategy?
Did you encounter any difficulties?
What could have made the process
easier for you?

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

During (33 min) 8:30am 9:03am


Initially: Review previous lesson about rational expressions and
non-permissible values by reviewing the exit slip questions: How
are rational expressions related to fractions? Why are some values
considered non-permissible in rational expressions?

Assessments:

Observe:
- Are students able to divide fractions?
- What strategies do they apply?
Ongoing
(multiplying reciprocal vs. common
- Since rational expressions are related to rational numbers have
denominator?
students use their knowledge about multiplying fractions to come up
- Are students simplifying correctly by
with a strategy for multiplying rational expressions, then apply the
only cancelling common factors?
strategy to the following examples. Compare answers around the
class.
Ask:
- What strategies did you use when
2x 10
7x

multiplying rational expressions?


21x
3x 15
- What did you notice about finding
non-permissible values of products
x 2 x 3 x 4 x 1
or quotients?
x 2 x 4 x 2 x 3
- If the final answer has no variables in
the denominator, then do any non- Potential strategies include:
permissible values still exist? Why or
Multiply all terms together first, students should see
why not?
that they will get a 4th degree polynomial on the top
and bottom and then are not able to simplify.
Cancelling factors that are common in the numerator
and denominator.
**mention that anytime variables there are variables in
the denominator we have to list all NPVs before
simplifying.
- Complete multiplying examples on the SmartBoard from the
students notes
- Ask the students to consider how one might divide rational
expressions? What steps might apply and how did they
choose? How do you divide fractions?
- Dividing rational expressions follows the same process as
dividing rational numbers multiply by the reciprocal. At this
point the steps become the same as multiplying rational
expressions.
- ** Need to remember to include non-permissible values
from the very beginning and that even if the final answer
has no variables in the denominator the non-permissible
value still exists.
- Complete dividing examples on the SmartBoard from
students notes
Differentiation: If students do not remember the rule of how to
divide fractions, spend a small amount of time reviewing this
concept.
After (25 min) 9:03am 9:28am
-

Students are given the remainder of the time to work on

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Assessments:

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

their textbook assignment: pg. 327-330 # 1ac, 2ac, 4ab, 5, Observe:


6, 7b, 8ac, 15
- Are students able to correctly
- Students can ask for clarification on any misunderstandings
multiply and divide rational
they may have
expressions?
- Do students keep track and report
Differentiation:
ALL NPVs throughout their solution?
- If students are having trouble have them work in close
proximity to the teacher with other students experiencing
Ask:
the same issues so that the teacher can spend a little more
- Can you explain the strategy you
time re-explaining concepts.
used to find the product/quotient?
- For students who need an additional challenge with this
- How do you know which terms you
topic, have the students create a scenario where the
can cancel and which terms you
multiplication or division of a rational expression would be
cannot?
required and then create the expression to represent that
- What differences do you notice
scenario.
between finding products/quotients of
rational numbers and finding
products/quotients of rational
expressions?

Lesson Plan 3
Grade/Subject: Math 20-1 AP Unit: Rational Expressions and Equations
Lesson Duration: 8:15am-9:28am (73 min)

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES


General Learning Outcomes: Algebra and Number: Develop algebraic reasoning and number sense.
Specific Learning Outcomes:
4. Determine equivalent forms of rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are
monomials, binomials or trinomials). [C, ME, R]
5. Perform operations on rational expressions (limited to numerators and denominators that are monomials,
binomials or trinomials). [CN, ME, R]
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Students will:
1. Understand and simplify rational expressions.
2. Understand and determine non-permissible values of rational expressions.
3. Determine the product of quotient of rational expressions in simplest form.
4. Solve problems using the multiplication and division of rational expressions
ASSESSMENTS
Key Questions:

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template
-

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic
Length of Unit
(days)

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

What is a rational expression?


What is a non-permissible value of a rational expression and why do they exist?
How do you simplify rational expressions?
What are the steps to finding the product or quotient of rational expressions?

Observations:
- Observe problem solving strategies while working individually or in small groups
- Observe strategies employed to complete review worksheet
Written/Performance Assessments:
- 6.1/6.2 Review Worksheet
LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED
Resources:
- McGraw-Hill Ryerson Pre-Calculus 11 Textbook
- wncpactivemath.wordpress.com
- Mathematics 20-1 Rational Expressions and Equations High School Collaborative Venture Edmonton
Public Schools
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT
-6.1/6.2 Review Worksheet
- Frayer models
- SmartBoard file of Frayer Models

PROCEDURE
Before (20 min) 8:15am 8:35am
Focus of Inquiry: To solidify student understanding of simplifying
rational expressions, non-permissible values, and of products and
quotients of rational expressions.
Task Expectations: Handout Frayer models for both rational
expression and non-permissible value to each student. Have
students complete the model including a definition, characteristics,
examples and non-examples. Discuss answers as a class and fill
out class model on the SmartBoard.
Differentiation: If students seem to be struggling to fill in various
parts of the model, have students form small groups to discuss
potential answers with one another before discussing as a class.

Assessments:
Observe:
- Are students are to define each
term?
- Are students able to show both
examples and non-examples?
- Can they explain the importance of
each concept in relation to the rest of
the unit?
Ask:
- Why are non-permissible values
important to know?
- Where might non-permissible values
be used in different sectors of
society?

During (22 min) 8:35am 8:57am


Initially:
- Students will break into small groups of 2 or 3. The following word

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Assessments:

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Length of Unit
(days)

problem involving a quotient of a rational expression will be


displayed on the board.
Problem: Simone is shipping his carving to a buyer in Winnipeg. He
makes a rectangular box with a length of (
width of

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

metres and a

metres. The volume of his box is

cubic metres. What is an expression for the height of the box?


Ongoing
Students are to work with their groups to use their knowledge of
multiplying and dividing rational expressions to solve the problem.
After the groups have enough time to work through the problem on
the board as a class. Discuss the non-permissible values. Why are
these values for x impossible to have to create the dimensions of
the box?

Observe:
- How are students working in groups?
- Are all students equally participating?
- Are students setting up problems
correctly?
- Are students considering nonpermissible values?
Ask:
-

Can you explain the strategy you


used to get your answer?
Does you answer seem reasonable?
Why or why not?
Are there any topics we covered in
this unit so far that I need to go over
again?

Display the next problem on the board and follow the same
procedure as above.
A plane travels from Victoria to Edmonton, a distance of 900km, in
hours. What is the average speed of the plane?

After completing both problems, as a class brainstorm a list of


important things to remember so far about working with rational
expressions. Can include steps to follow when performing
operations on rational expressions, what to look for when finding
non-permissible values, how to simplify etc.
Remind students of the quiz next class. It will cover sections 6.1 and
6.2. They will need to be able to simplify rational expressions, find
non-permissible values and be able to multiply and divide rational
expressions. Hint: pay attention to order of operations for the quiz.
Differentiation: If some students are struggling or not participating
in a group well, form a new group with additional teacher support.
Ask students to identify what they know about the problem, what is
being implied and what they have to find out.
After (31 min) 8:57am 9:28am
Students have an extended work period to complete the 6.1/6.2
Assessments:
review worksheet that will be excellent practice for their quiz. During Observe:

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

ED 3601 Curriculum and


Instruction for Majors:
Mathematics
Unit Plan Template

Subject Area
Grade Level
Topic

Math
20-1
Rational Expressions and
Equations
9 Classes (Days)

Length of Unit
(days)

this time students are to complete the worksheet and ask questions
about any concept they need clarification on before they write the
quiz.

Differentiation: If some students require more time, have those


students simplify only one expression from question one and then
move one so they still get a variety of practice before the quiz while
they still have the opportunity to take advantage of teacher support
in class.

Ask:
-

Spring 2016: Marynowski


Adapted from Wiggins and McTighe (2005)

Which types of problem raises the


most questions with students?
What types of mistakes are most
commonly being made?
Can you explain why you simplified
the expression like you did?
How did you know to use that
particular strategy?
Do you have any questions or
concerns about the quiz tomorrow?