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Preparation Outline

Informative Speech
Alisha Groome
Spring 2015
Sex Trafficking in the Philippines
Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the causes of sex trafficking in the
Philippines along with actions being taken to end sex trafficking.
Central Idea:
Briefly explain the history of sex trafficking in the Philippines, discuss the
main reasons sex trafficking is such a huge part of Philippine society, and finally discuss steps
International Justice Mission is taking to help end it.

Introduction
I.

II.
III.

IV.

Today, I will be briefly discussing the history and causes of sex trafficking within the
Philippines, along with an organizations initiatives and actions to end sex trafficking
there.
This is important information to know because sex trafficking, or human trafficking of
any kind, is something everyone needs to have knowledge about.
I hope you find this information as important as I do. Hopefully you will gain some
knowledge of the injustice that occurs in this island nation, along with acts of justice
occurring as well.
First, I will briefly explain the history of sex trafficking in the Philippines. Second, I will
discuss the factors that are causing sex trafficking to be so wide-spread across the
country. Finally, I will briefly discuss International Justice Mission, and some of the
work this organization has done in the Philippines to help end trafficking.

(Internal Preview: The first topic I will be discussing is the history of sex trafficking in the
Philippines.)
Body
I.
The history of how sex trafficking in the Philippines became such an issue can be briefly
summed up within the last century.
A. Starting in the early 1900s, military bases located in major cities throughout the
country could point to the rise of what is now a very commercialized trade.
1. Wendy Lee wrote in a 1991 journal that military bases from various countries
including the U.S. were standard as early as 1901 in the Philippines.
2. The succession of conflict and foreign military accelerated the establishment
of mass prostitution.

3. The same publication stated these brothels were made available to help
military visitors unwind, and many men stationed in neighboring countries
like Vietnam during the 1960s would visit on leave for these services.
4. Also stated by Lee in 1991, by the 1970s the amount of soldiers visiting
greatly decreased, but sex tours never did.
5. They became more commercialized than ever before, but now for civilian
tourists.
B. Sex trafficking today in the Philippines is sadly linked with tourism because of its
beginnings.
1. Also according to Lee in 1991, after much of the military left the Philippines,
marketers built up the trade in order to maintain what was in high demand
with the implementation of cheap airfare and accommodations.
(Transition: Now that we have touched on the history of sex trafficking in the Philippines, lets
discuss what has caused it to continue at such a high level.)
II.

What has caused sex trafficking in the Philippines to continue today?


A. A large cause is that the government is not willing to truly take legal action against it or
prosecute the people responsible because of the gross national product (GNP) it brings in
for the country, and also the blatant disregard of the law.
1. According to Donna M. Hughes in a 2005 journal, prostitution is now the
fourth largest source of GNP for the country.
2. The Philippine government will turn a blind eye to the corruption
occurring if it means their poverty-stricken country can gain some type of
income and worth.
3. According to Andrew Guth in a 2009 journal, confronting corruption at the
municipal level allows it to be dealt with then and there.
4. Low-level corruption, like law enforcement officers, leaves almost no
protection or justice to those at risk of being trafficked.
5. Traffickers realize this disregard for the law, which makes recruiting new
victims that much easier.
B. Another cause that forces sex trafficking to be such an ignored issue is the poverty that is
evident all over this island nation.
1. According to Maria Clariza in her 2007 University of Hawaii thesis, the
higher the poverty rate, the higher the risk of becoming a victim of sex
trafficking.
2. This is the case in the Philippine city of Mindanao, where government
neglect and underdevelopment feeds the sex trade even though the city is
rich in resources the country needs.
3. The desperation for work is so needed, that Filipina women turn to work
overseas in order to make an income.

i) According to McKenzie, Theoharides, and Yang in a 2014


journal, the government started the Overseas Employment
Program
to help citizens find work in other countries due to the
impoverished state of the nation in 1974.
ii) Also according to the same publication, by 2007, 1.7 million
Philippine citizens were working in 181 countries outside
the
country with the number only growing.
4. The poverty seen across the Philippines forces impoverished citizens,
mainly women, to either work in a completely different country, or turn to
the sex trade, many times by manipulation and lies.
(Transition: Now that we have discussed causes of sex trafficking in the Philippines, lets briefly
discuss the International Justice Mission and the work they have accomplished there.)
III.

International Justice Mission, or IJM, is an organization that does work all over the globe
seeking justice for those in slavery and human trafficking situations that cant seek justice
for themselves.
A. A specific and very successful five-year anti-sex trafficking project called Project
Lantern that IJM worked on in Cebu, the Philippines will be the focus.
1. According to Jones, Schlagen, and Bucoy in the 2010 IJM research
report for Project Lantern, the project was funded by the Bill and
Melinda Gates Foundation, and the goal of the project was to create a law
enforcement-based strategy to reduce the amount of sex trafficking and
exploitation in the city of Cebu.
2. To summarize the 2010 report, IJM was able to better police operations,
prosecute sex trafficking criminals, and empower the local government to
be more severe against traffickers.
B. Evidence from Project Lantern was able to prove that IJMs work was very successful.
1. According to the 2010 journal, the work Project Lantern did was able to
rescue 225 sex trafficking victims, and arrest 73 traffickers from March
2007 to February 2010.
2. The research report also states they were able to help prosecutors file
charges against 85 suspected traffickers, as well as improve service
providers ability to help rescued victims.
3. This is one of the numerous projects IJM has done, and still do to seek
justice not only in the Philippines, but all over the world.

I.

Conclusion
To summarize, you have learned about the history of sex trafficking in the
Philippines, the causes that force it to continue, and how IJM is working to end it.

II.

III.

I hope you were able to gain knowledge about the circumstances that influence
countries like the Philippines that turn to injustices like trafficking humans for
income.
Hopefully this information will help you empathize with what these victims go
through. Thank you for your time and attention.
Any Questions?

Reference List

Clariza, M. E. (2007). Human trafficking in Mindanao, Philippines (Master's thesis). December


Guth, A. P. (2009, November 10). Human trafficking in the Philippines: the need for an effective
anti-corruption program. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(2-3), 147-166.
Hughes, D. M. (2005). The demand for victims of sex trafficking. Women's Studies Program,
University of Rhode Island.
Jones, A., Schlagen, R., & Bucoy, R. (2010, October 21). An evaluation of the International
Justice Missions Project Lantern. In IJM.
Lee, W. (1991). Prostitution and tourism in South-east Asia. Working women: International
perspectives on labour and gender ideology, 79-103.
McKenzie, D., Theoharides, C., & Yang, D. (2014, April). Distortions in the international
migrant labor market: Evidence from Filipino migration and wage responses to
destination country economic shocks. American economic journal: Applied economics,
6(2), 49-75.