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Department of Public Works and Highways Department of Public Works and Highways

Cost Estimation Process


Planning Design Procurement
The Cost Estimation
Process as it evolves to
specific stages of project
development.
Identify and Prepare
Feasibility Studies
and Preliminary
Design
Perform
Detailed Design
Prepare
Bidding
Documents
Receive
and
Evaluate
Bids
BBPEE BBDEE Estimate for
the ABC
Planning Service, PMO-Implementing Offices POCW with the assistance
Feasibility Studies PMOs, ROs and DEOs from PMOs, ROs, DEOs

Cost Estimation Process


Review/Study Design Drawings
Data Collection Field Surveys
Labor Equipment Materials Materials Sources Labor
Evaluation/processing of Data
Pay Item Quantity
Calculation (Bill
of Quantities)
Cost Estimate
Unit Price Analysis
Construction Pay
Items Unit Rates
Maintenance Unit
Rates
Maintenance
Activities
Maintenance Cost Project Cost

Project Estimation Phase


Project Estimate Components
A. Direct Cost
Materials
Labor
Equipment
Dayworks
Provisional Sum
B. Indirect Cost
OCM
Profit
Mobilization/Demobilization
C. VAT
D. Total Civil Works Cost
E. Contingency
F. Engineering Costs
Detailed Engineering
Construction Supervision*
Administrative Cost
G. Feasibility Cost (Optional for Pre-FS)
H. IROW Acquisition Cost
BBPEE
v
v
v
v
Per DO 57 s2002
v
v
v
12% (A+B)
A+B+C
10% of D
Per NEDA
4-6% (D+E)
8-10% (D+E)
3.5% (D+E)
1-3% (D+E)
v
BBDEE
v
v
v
v
Per DO 57 s2002

v
v
v
12% (A+B)
A+B+C
10% of D
ABC
v
v
v
v
v Per DO 46 s2007
v Per DO 46 s2007
Per DO 57 s2002
v
v
v
12% (A+B)
A+B+C
5% of D
Per NEDA
8-10% (D+E)*
3.5% (D+E)
v
I. Total Estimated Project Cost D+E+F+G+H D+E+F+G+H D+E
*Construction Supervision only applies to foreign-assisted projects

Basic Consideration or Basis of Cost Estimate

Work type

proposed improvement works of the project

Location of the project


includes terrain types and
embankment and aggregate material sources
Design plans and specification
working drawings and
DPWH Standard Specifications Vol. II, Ed. 2004
Equipment rental rates
2003

ACEL Guidebook, ed. 22, yr.

Labor rates and fringe benefits


DOLE, Regional Wage
Board, SSS, Philhealth, Pag-Ibig, & bonus
Construction Materials List and Material Sources Map
DPWH Department Orders
estimation
NEDA Circular
estimation

DOs relevant to cost

Circular/memo relevant to cost

Unit Price Analysis


Two Main Parts:
Direct Cost
Labor
Materials
Equipment
Indirect Cost (% of Direct Cost as defined in DO 57)
OCM (overhead, contingency & miscellaneous)
profit
Mobilization/Demobilization

Unit Price Analysis


Elements of the Direct Cost
Labor
basic wage
fringe benefits
bonuses
social security & other social charges
Production Rate
Equipment
bare hourly & rental operating cost
fuels & lubricants
repairs & maintenance
labor
Materials
processing & transport
labor
equipment

Unit Price Analysis


Labor Categories
Labor Category Labor Index
1. Foreman, construction 1.80
2. Leadman 1.65
3. Operator, Heavy 1.50
4. Operator, Light 1.40
5. Labor, Highly Skilled 1.40
6. Driver 1.30
7. Labor, Skilled 1.30
8. Labor, Unskilled 1.00

Unit Price Analysis


Basic Labor Rates Calculation
Monthly Wages based on 314 days per year, 8 hours per day (Basic Daily
Wage x (314/12))
Leave, vacation and sick = Basic Monthly Pay / 12
Bonus, 13th Month Pay = Basic Monthly Pay / 12
SSS, Medicare, Employer's Compensation = Amount Representing
Employer's Contribution, Graduated Scale
Pag-ibig, Employer's Compensation = Amount Representing Employer's
Contribution, (2% of Basic Monthly Wage or P100 max.)
Rate per Hour = Total rate per month x (12/314/8)

Unit Price Analysis


Take the value of
non-agricultural
sector
Unit Price Analysis
Take the value of
non-agricultural
sector

Unit Price Analysis


Take the values under the
column of total monthly
contributions in reference
with range of compensation
Unit Price Analysis
Take the values under the
column of total monthly
contributions in reference
with range of compensation

Unit Price Analysis


Take the values under the
column of total monthly
contributions
Unit Price Analysis
Take the values under the
column of total monthly
contributions

Unit Price Analysis Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis


Equipment Category Sample Equipments
Earthmoving equipment
wheel loader, grader, tractor dozer
Compaction equipment vibratory steel drum, plate compactor
Lifting equipment cranes, forklifts
Excavating equipment backhoe, trenchers
Foundation equipment pile vibratory driver, pile hammer, drill rig
Asphalting equipment asphalt paver/finisher, asphalt distributor
Concreting equipment paver/finisher, mixer, transit mixer
Hauling equipment dump truck, cargo truck, trailer
Air equipment compressor, pneumatic breakers handheld
Pumping equipment submersible pump, diaphragm pump
Power generating equipment generator set
Shop equipment welding machine, shop machine
Special support equipment truck water wagon/pump
Miscellaneous equipment joint sealer, rebar cutter/bender
Plants asphalt concrete plant, concrete batching plant
Offshore equipment dredger, crane barge, tugboat
Cable stringing equipment cable tensioner/puller, splicing machine
Others chip spreader, power broom

Unit Price Analysis


Equipment Unit Rate Analysis
Basic Calculation
Bare Month Rental
Bare monthly rate 200h/mo.
Repair & Miscellaneous
Repair - 6.3% of Bare Rental
Spare Parts
5.1% of Bare Rental
Miscellaneous
0.6% of Bare Rental
Fuel
Fuel
Price/lit. x HP x 0.1514
Oil & Lubricant
Price/lit. x HP x 0.003
Labor
Operator or driver
Labor rate/hr

Unit Price Analysis


Sample calculation of
adjusted equipment
rates in spreadsheet
Unit Price Analysis
Sample calculation of
adjusted equipment
rates in spreadsheet

Unit Price Analysis


Materials Category Sample Materials
Commercial Materials
Portland Cement
Reinforcing Steel Bars (RSB or Rebars)
Lumber
Plywood
Tie Wire
Structural Steel
Common Wire Nails (CWN) assorted sizes
Emulsified Asphalt (SS-1)
Cut-Back Asphalt (MC-70/MC-250)
Asphalt Cement Penetration 85/100
Joint Sealer
Reflective Paints
Metal Beam Guard Rails,
Guard End Pieces
Reflective Pavement Stud (raised or low profile)
Fuel (Diesel/gasoline/premium gasoline
Lubricants
Contractor s processed materials
Reinforced Concrete Pipe Culvert (RCPC)
Base/Subbased Courses

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of contractor s process
materials
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of contractor s process
materials

Unit Price Analysis


Hauling Unit Rate Analysis
Basic Consideration
Terrain type
Road condition
Dump truck capacity
Selection of loader capacity, output, bucket fill factor and operating
factor (to estimate loader production rate)
Material type
Cycle time
Total Cycle Time, T

Loader
Load bucket and shift gears
Turn and dump the load
Travel distance and time from dumping to loading position and return to
the loading position

Unit Price Analysis


Hauling Unit Rate Analysis (cont.)
Cycle time
Dump Truck
Average hauling distance
Terrain type
Loading time
Loaded travel time
Initial traveled distance during acceleration
Succeeding traveled distance at an average speed
Final speed at a distance until it stops
Unload and maneuver
Return empty
Same as loaded but at a greater speed
Allowance for delay
Number of dump truck trips, n
Total Cycle Time, T

Unit Price Analysis


Hauling Unit Rate Analysis (cont.)
Number of dump trucks
Average hauling output
Total hauling cost per hour
Equipment
1 Wheel loader, ___ m3/hr -------------- _____ P/hr
N Dump trucks, ___ m3 ------------------ _____ P/hr
Labor
1 Leadman, rate --------------------------- _____ P/hr
2 Laborers, rate ---------------------------_____ P/hr
Total Cost per hour _____ P/hr

Total unit cost per m3, (loose volume)

Sample of hauling cost analysis using spreadsheet


Unit Price Analysis
Sample of hauling cost analysis using spreadsheet
Unit Price Analysis

Production
Unit Price
Production
Unit Price

Rate Derivation of a Pay Item


Analysis
Rate Derivation of a Pay Item
Analysis

Unit Price Analysis


Elements of the Indirect Cost
Profit
contractor s profit
Overhead Expenses
Office Expenses (office equipment and supplies)
Engineering and Administrative Cost
Transportation allowances
Contractor s All Risk Insurance
Premiums on Bid Security and Performance Security
Premium/charges/fees on credit lines
Contingencies
Miscellaneous Expenses
Laboratory Tests
Other expenses
Mobilization/Demobilization

Unit Price Analysis


DO 57 s 2002
Estimated
Indirect Cost % for OCM
and Profit (Maximum
Ranges) % Cost for
Total
Maximum
Indirect
Direct Cost
(EDC) OCM (% of
EDC)
Profit (% of
EDC)
Mob/Demob
(Maximum)
Cost % for
OCM, Profit
and Mob/
Demob
Up to P1Million 13 15 1 29
Above P1M to
P5M 12 14 1 27
Above P5M to
P10M 12 13 1 26
Above P10M to
P20M 11 12 1 24
Above 20M to
P50M 11 11 1 23
Above P50M 10 10 1 21

Unit Price Analysis


Cost Currency Components:
Foreign Cost Component
imported equipment & spare parts
foreign currency component of locally goods
& services
wages of expatriate personnel
foreign overheads & profits
Local Cost Component
local materials
equipment & supplies
wages, local supervision
transport & freight
overhead & profits
Tax Component
revenue for the government derived from each item

Unit Price Analysis


Cost Component of Selected Construction Items
Description
Heavy Equipment
Light Equipment
Reinforcing Steel
Structural Steel
Lumber
Asphalt
Cement
Diesel fuel
Engine oil
Tires
Imported Miscellaneous Materials
Locally Produced Miscellaneous Materials
Skilled Foreign Labor
Unskilled Labor
Royalty
Foreign
(%)
68
65
54
85
33
76
40
60
60
47
64
17
65
0
0
Components
Local
(%)
10
15
35
4
57
2
45
13
13
43
7
69
25
90

90
Tax
(%)
22
20
11
11
10
22
15
27
27
10
29
14
10
10
10

Unit Price Analysis


Quantity Calculations for Pay Items
Bill of Quantities
Pointers in the conduct of quantity calculations:
Based on the design plans and specifications
Units of measurement are all in metric based on
DPWH Standard Specifications.
Solid mensuration is extensively used and othermathematical formulae.
Used of computer softwares in calculations.
Used of calculators (simple or scientific)
Conversion factors
Rates of application of materials such as, liquifiedasphalt materials, paints, e
tc.

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Formula of Plane Shapes & Figures
Area of a Triangle
A = x base x height = (bh)
Perimeter of a Triangle
P = side1 + side2 + side3
Area of a Parallelogram
A = x base x height = (bh)
Perimeter of a Parallelogram
P = 2a + 2b
Area of a Rectangle
A = width x length = (wl)
Perimeter of a Rectangle
P = 2(lwidth) + 2(length) = 2(w) + 2(l)
Area of a Circle
A = pr2
Circumference of a Circle
C = 2pr = pD p = 3.14 159

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Formula of Solid Geometric Figures
Volume of Rectangular Solid
V = abc
Surface Area
SA = 2(ab + ac + bc)
Volume of Cube
V = a3
Surface Area
SA = 6a2
Volume of Sphere
V = 4/3 pr3
Surface Area
SA = 4pr2
Volume of Circular Cone
Volume of Circular Cylinder
V = 1/3 pr2h
V = pr2h or pD2 4
Surface Area
Surface Area
SA = pr2 + prl
SA = 2 prh + 2pr2

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Typical Road Sections
Unit Price Analysis
Sample Typical Road Sections

Unit Price Analysis


Methods of Estimating Work Output
.
Estimating the work output of a piece of equipment is determined in 2 ways:
Using work output formula based on the cycle of operation and other factors whic
hcontrolled production.
Using tables based on past experiences of average work output under varying cond
itions fordifferent operations.
.
To calculate earthmoving equipment consider the volume changes in earth caused b
y
handling. These volume changes have the following terms, to wit:
Swell
increase in volume of earth that results when it is dug from its natural p
osition.
Shrinkage

decrease in volume of earth when compacted.

Loose yards
volume of earth after it has been removed from its natural location
and swellhas taken place.
In-place yards

volume of earth in its natural location before handling.

Compacted yards
volume of earth that has been properly compacted in embankment o
nfill.
.
Basis of calculations for excavation and fill
Loose yards

are used to express the carrying capacity of earth moving equipment.

In-place yards
are converted to compacted yards to determine the volume of mater
ials in afill that will be realized from a given amount of materials in its natu
ral location.
In-place yards
are converted to loose yards to determine the amount of earth mov
ingequipment required to handle the materials.
The output of equipment in loose yards must be converted to compacted yards to d
eterminethe final volume of fill

Unit Price Analysis


Illustrations of Soil Handling
1.0 m3 in natural condition
(in-place yards)
1.25 m3 after digging
(loose yards)
0.9 m3 after compaction
(compacted yards)
Volume Changes in Common Earth Caused by Handling
Bowl Capacity of Dozer

Unit Price Analysis


Formula for Earthmoving Equipment Work Output
The working capacity of construction equipment is expressed by
the work practically done by the operation of equipment per unit
time ( 1 hour or day)
where:
Q = bowl capacity in loose cubic meters
f = soil conversion factor
60 = minutes per hour
E = efficiency factor
Cm = total cycle time in minutes

Unit Price Analysis


Bowl Capacity of Dozers (loose yards)
Tractor Model
D4
D6
D7
D8
Soil Type
Sand
Common Earth
Clay
Bulldozer
1.25 m3
1.44 m3
2.20 m3
2.40 m3
Conversion Factors, f
Present
Condition In-place
In-place 1.00
Loose 0.90
Compacted 1.05
In-place 1.00
Loose 0.80
Compacted 1.11
In-place 1.00
Loose 0.70
Compacted 1.11
Angle Dozer
1.82 m3
2.01 m3
2.58 m3
2.97 m3
Converted to
Loose Compacted
1.11 0.95
1.00 0.86
1.17 1.00
1.25 0.90
1.00 0.72
1.39 1.00
1.43 0.93
1.00 0.63
1.59 1.00

Source: Construction Equipment Manual, BRS/DPWH

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Calculation for Work Output
Given: Average haul distance one way

30 m

Soil type - common earth


Efficiency factor (E) - 80%
Speed - 2.5 kph
Required: Determine in place cubic meters moved per hour if D7 tractor dozer is
to be used.
Solution:
Step 1. From conversion factor table, the soil conversion factor (f), soil type
common earth loose to in-place,
f = 0.80
From dozer bowl capacity table, D7 tractor dozer, Q = 2.2 m3
Step 2. Determine fixed time
@ 2 gear shift @ 10 sec. per shift = 20 sec = 0.33 min
Step 3. Determine variable time
Travel forward 30 m @ 2.5 kph
Travel backward 30 m @ 5.0 kph
Step 4. Add fixed and variable time
Total cycle time, Cm = 0.33 + 0.72 + 0.36 = 1.41 min.
Step 5. Substitute in work output formula

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Typical Cross-Section of Drainage Structures
Sample Quantity Calculation for Volume of Excavation:
Sample: Given a RCPC 1220mm and a length of 5.0 meters, compute volume of excavat
ion.
Solution: Size of excavation as given from the above drawings for 1220mm:
width = 1.60m, height = 2.0 m, length = 5.0 m
Volume = w x h x l = 1.6 x 2 x 5 = 16 m3 compacted volume (stated in the plans)
Applying the soil conversion factor, common earth from compacted to loose, use
factor, f = 1.39 the excavated loose volume = 16 x 1.39 = 22.24 m3

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Quantity Calculation
Volume of Backfill and Bedding Materials:
Sample: Using the same sample, calculate backfill and bedding materials
Solution: Size of excavation as given from the above drawings for 1220mm:
width = 1.60m, height = 2.0 m, length = 5.0 m
Volume of trench = w x h x l = 1.6 x 2 x 5 = 16 m3
Volume of bedding materials at compacted state, using thickness of 15cm
= 1.6 x 0.15 x 5 = 1.2 m3
Using soil conversion factor, compacted to loose, f = 1.17
Volume of bedding materials required to purchase = 1.2 x 1.17 = 1.404m3
Volume of backfill = Voltrench
(VolRCPC + Volbedding) = 16
(7.371+1.2) = 7.429 m
3
Applying conversion factor, compacted to loose, f = 1.39
Volume of backfill required = 7.429 x 1.39 = 10.326 m3

Unit Price Analysis


Composition and Strength of Concrete for Use in Structures
This composition of concrete is used for concrete batching plant.

Unit Price Analysis


Concrete Proportion
Mixture Sand Gravel
Cement
Class of Proportion
cu. m. cu. m.
in Bags
Concrete
AA 1:1:3 0.5 1.0
12.0
A 1:2:4 0.5 1.0
9.0
B 1:2:5 0.5 1.0
7.5
C 1:3:6 0.5 1.0
6.0
This concrete proportion is used for manual mix.

Unit Price Analysis


Cement and Sand Proportion for Mortar and Plastering
Mixture
Class of
Concrete
Proportion
Cement
in Bags
40 kgs.
Sand
cu. m.
A
B
1:2
1:3
18.0
12.0
1.0
1.0
C 1:4 9.0 1.0
D 1:5 7.5 1.0
Sample Calculation:
Given: Volume = 10 m3 of mortar, use class A
Solution: Refer to the above table
Cement = 10 x 18 = 180 bags
Sand = 10 x 1.0 = 10 m3

Unit Price Analysis


Sample Calculation for Asphalt Concrete Pavement:
Given: Carriageway width = 6.7m, Length = 1 km., thickness = 50cm,
use 301(1) - MC-70 Cut-Back Asphalt
Solution:
Determine Item 301(1) - Bituminous Prime Coat
Determine Item 310
rete)

Bituminous Concrete Surface Course, Hot-Laid (AC

Asphalt Conc

The derived quantities are then summarized in the bill of quantities and subsequ
ently,
manually entered in the estimated construction cost spreadsheet which are multip
lied bythe unit prices to come up with total cost of that item and summed up all
the pay items tocalculate the total direct cost. After which, indirect cost is
applied to determined the total
estimated project cost.

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of Bill of Quantities
Item Number
100(1)
102(1)
102(2)
103(3)
103(6)
104(1)
105(1)
105(3)
200
201
301(1)
310
500(1)
Description
Clearing and Grubbing
Unsuitable Excavation
Surplus Common Excavation
Foundation Fill
Pipe Culverts and Drainage Excavation
Embankment
Subgrade Preparation (Common Material)
Subgrade Preparation (Unsuitable Material)
Aggregate Subbase Course
Aggregate Base Course
Bituminous Prime (MC-70 Cut-Back Asphalt)
Bituminous Concrete Surface Course, Hot-Laid
RCPC 610mm
Unit
ha.
m3
m3
m3
m3
m3
m2
m2
m3
m3
ton

m2
l.m.
Quantity
20
1,000
11,000
2,000
1,858
7,500
3,000
5,000
10,455
12,156
30,780
5,689
3,105

Sample of unit
price analysis in
spreadsheet
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of unit
price analysis in
spreadsheet
Unit Price Analysis

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of Summary of Construction Pay Items Unit Prices
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of Summary of Construction Pay Items Unit Prices

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of Total Estimated Project Cost
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of Total Estimated Project Cost

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of the Program of Work (POW)
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of the Program of Work (POW)

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of the Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC)
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of the Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC)

Unit Price Analysis


Sample of the Minimum Equipment Requirement
Unit Price Analysis
Sample of the Minimum Equipment Requirement

Maintenance Cost
Highway Maintenance
-is defined as the act of preserving and keeping each
highway type of highway as nearly as possible in its
original conditions as constructed or as subsequently
improved. It does not include rehabilitation, betterment
and improvement
Two calculation methods for maintenance cost
-EMK (Equivalent Maintenance Kilometrage)
-Traffic Dependent Method

Maintenance Cost
Two Categories:
Routine Maintenance
vegetation control
cleaning and repairing culverts General Cost
cleaning ditches
cleaning and repairing traffic signs
climatic loss of gravel on shoulder
Periodic Maintenance
road surface repairs
resurfacing
shoulder repair & resurfacing

Maintenance Cost
EMK Factors
Basic Formula:
Road:
MCR = EMKbudget x Ft x Fw x Length
where:
MCR = maintenance cost for road
EMKbudget = annual allocation
Ft = factor for surface type
Fw = factor for carriageway width
Length = in kilometer
Bridge:
MCB = EMKbudget x Fb x Length
where:
MCB = maintenance cost for bridge
EMKbudget = annual allocation
Fb = factor for bridge type
Length = in meter
Source: BOM/
DPWH
0
AADT
AADT

Maintenance Cost
Traffic Dependent Method
Traffic volume in terms of vehicle units:
Light vehicles . 0.4 vehicle units
Buses . 2.5 vehicle units
Trucks . 3.0 vehicle units

Maintenance Cost
Basic assumptions in calculating routine maintenance unit rates :
Vegetation Control
0.5 ha/km/year
400 m2/crew day
2 - knapsack movers
2 - unskilled laborers
Cleaning and Repair of Culverts
1
4 number units/day/km
1
dump truck
3
unskilled laborers
Materials
Replace, Clean and Repair Traffic Signs
2
5 units repaired, repainted or replace daily
1
pick-up vehicle
Materials
Clearing Side Ditches
40
1000 l.m./day (half by grader and half by hand or manual)
1
grader
3
unskilled laborers
Source: Road Maintenance Manual, BOM-DPWH

Maintenance Cost
Periodic Maintenance
Road Surface Repair
Regravelling gravel road and gravel shoulder
Grading & reshaping gravel road
Joint & crack sealing for PCCP
Pothole repair (spot regravel) for gravel road
Patch potholes for ACP
Crack sealing for ACP
Edge break for ACP
Resurfacing
Asphalt Concrete Overlay
Shoulder Repair & Resurfacing
Regravelling
Grading and reshaping
Asphalt Concrete Overlay

Maintenance Cost
Sample of routine maintenance unit
price analysis
Maintenance Cost
Sample of routine maintenance unit
price analysis

Maintenance Cost
Periodic Maintenance Task

Maintenance Cost
General Formula for Maintenance Cost Calculations
Routine Maintenance (peso/km)
Maintenance Task = Qtytable x Lshoulder x W x 365 days x unit rateactivity
General Cost
Periodic Maintenance (peso-vehicle unit/km)
Maintenance Task = (Qtytable x L x W x 365 days x unit rateactivity) Frequencyve
hicle
where:
L = length in meters
W = width in meters
Qtytable = Periodic Maintenance Task Table
unit rateactivity = maintenance unit price analysis
Frequency = benchmark of traffic volume in terms of v.u. as shown in Periodic
Maintenance Task Table

Maintenance Cost
Sample of Summary Routine Maintenance Unit Cost
Routine Maintenance Unit Cost
Road Segment Economic Financial
a. Vegetation control P 5,312.58/kmP 6,498.57/kmb. Cleaning and repair culverts
4,880.19/km 7,055.90/kmc. Replace, clean and repair traffic signs 5,384.64/km 6,
667.53/kmd. Clearing side ditches 10,813.92/km 13,250.68/km
Total per annum P 26,391.34/km P 33,472.67/km
Routine Maintenance Unit Cost
Bridge Segment Economic Financial
a. Concrete bridge P 568.79/l.m. P 721.41/l.m.
b. Steel bridge 3,714.14/l.m. 4,710.72/l.m.

Maintenance Cost
Sample of Summary of Periodic Maintenance Unit Cost
Maintenance Tasks Unit Cost
Economic
1. Gravel ( Surface ) P 481.87/m3
2. Regrade and Reshape
a. Carriageway 5.14/m2
b. Shoulder 15.41/m2
3. AC Resurfacing ( 3 cm.) 94.36/m2
4. AC Overlay ( 5 cm. ) 135.51/m2
5. Replacement of Failed Bay
a. t = 230 mm 2,527.25/m2
b. t = 200 mm 2,197.69/m2
6. Repair of Cracks/Joints 18,066.78/m2
7. Patching and Pothole Repair
a. Pothole Repair ( Gravel ) 498.56/m3
b. Pothole Repair (AC) 494.06/m2
c. Sealing and Patching (AC) 510.81/m2
8. Road Stripping (painted lines) 48.53/m
Financial
P 579.45/m3
6.29/m2
18.87/m2
113.28/m2
162.25/m2
3,089.00/m2
2,686.20/m2
22,123.42/m2
598.08/m3
597.05/m2
617.50/m2
57.48/m

Maintenance Cost
Sample of Summary Maintenance Cost
Summary of Maintenance Costs
Maintenance Category
Road Type
Routine Periodic
Economic Financial Economic Financial
Gravel Roads (5.0m roadway) 49,521.08 61,286.05 737.36a 896.59a
AC with gravel shoulders
a. 0.5+6.1+0.5 31,210.03 39,267.13 80.05a 96.33a
b. 1.0+6.1+1.0 36,028.73 45,061.58 100.55a 121.40a
c. 1.5+6.1+1.5 40,847.42 50,856.03 121.06a 146.47a
d. 3.0+6.7+3.0 55,303.51 68,239.39 186.01a 225.81a
PCC with gravel shoulders
a. 0.5+6.1+0.5
t = 230 mm31,210.03 39,267.13 62.77a 75.81a
t = 200 mm 31,210.03 39,267.13 62.12a 75.01a
b. 1.0+6.1+1.0
t = 230 mm36,028.73 45,061.58 83.27a 100.88a
t = 200 mm 36,028.73 45,061.58 82.62a 100.08a
c. 1.5+6.1+1.5
t = 230 mm40,847.42 50,856.03 103.77a 125.95a
t = 200 mm 40,847.42 50,856.03 103.12a 125.15a
d. 3.0+6.7+3.0
t = 230 mm55,303.51 68,239.39 166.34a 202.43a
t = 200 mm 55,303.51 68,239.39 165.69a 201.63a
Note: a = vehicle unit, v.u.

Sample of
Work Unit
in HDM-4
Sample of
Work Unit
in HDM-4

Summary of
Cost used
Summary of
Cost used