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Issue 4, January2016

TRANSPORTATION
Inside this issue:

Timeline of Transportation
Boats, Aircraft , Trucks, Lorries
History of the Ship
Published by :
Kapakl Tulay Ilgen

Trains
History of Cars
Italian Cars
Sea Pane/ Sea bird
Word Catch

Boats
Some boats are driven by an engine.
The engine is driven by diesel and
gasoline which isn't good for the
environment so I think that diesel
and gasoline could be switched to
electric motors or be driven by a
renewable fuel.

will probably also be much faster


and more exclusive looking I think.
By: Klara Blixte
http://www.batnet.se/batmarknad/so
k/index.php
Hur maskiner till sjss fungerar
(work book)

https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%
Other ways boats can be driven is
A5t#Externa_l.C3.A4nkar
by paddle and oar (driven by
muscle power) which is good for the
environment and economy but can
take a long time and get exhausting
after a while, Sails (driven by the
air) is good for the environment,
In historical development there
your economy and time if the wind
has been many attempts to master
is right.
the air and thus able to fly, everyThe cost of buying a boat can be
thing possible has been tried, mandifferent depending on how old it is, ual designs with mechanical wings
how good shape it's in and of course by flapping could lift the man from
what kind of boat it is but a boat
can cost from 5000 Swedish crowns
up to 30 millions (10 crowns=a bit
more than 1 Euro).

Aircraft

The first boats were made about


8000 b.kr out of hollowed trees
and from there on it has only developed. Thousands of years later
it was discovered that you could
attach several wood pieces to each
other which made it possible to
make boats in all different shapes
and sizes. The smaller ones you
could paddle but the bigger ones
needed sails to get forward.
The boat in the picture is a boat
found in Hlsingland (in Sweden)
and is dated to 8000 b.kr. A similar one has been found near our
school.

Today we have many different kinds of


boats like motorboats, yachts, dinghy,
ferry, hydrofoil and many more. In the
future we will probably have even
more boats than today and hopefully
we will have found a more envi
ronment safe way to power the
engine. The boats in the future

the ground.
Aircraft is a machine that was invented by the Wright brothers. An
aircraft is able to fly by gaining
support from the air. It counters
the force of gravity by using either
static lift or by using the dynamic lift
of an airfoil.

Trucks, Lorries
I think most of us have seen a
truck (or a lorry) A truck looks like
a big car and is designed to transport cargo. Trucks are used all over
the world to transport everything
from ice cream to shoelaces.
History
The first truck was made 1891 by
Karl Benz and Daimler.
In the picture you can see Swedens
first truck.by Vabis in

Sdertlje1902. The 1.5-tonner had


a top speed of 12 km/h. Even if the
truck opened a new way to transport cargo, it took until the middle of
20th century for the breakthrough.
It took so long time because the
roads were not designed for motor
vehicles, the roads in that time
were made for horse and carriages.
Modern
The modern trucks are divided into
different groups ultra light, very
light, light, medium, heavy and off
road trucks (the name is after

size). The modern trucks are pow-

The human activity that surrounds


aircraft is called aviation. Crewed
aircraft are flown by an onboard
pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles
may be remotely controlled or selfcontrolled by onboard computers.
Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, air
craft propulsion, usage and others.

ered by diesel. Trucks often pays


more road taxes than other vehi
cles, because they wear and tear
more on the roads. Trucks pollute
the nature more than example
trains do because they are powered
on fossil fuels. I think trucks will be
driven by renewable fuels in the
future.

From being able to fly shorter trips


with a huge amount of fuel consumed, people can now manage
with the same tank long distances.

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truck
http://www.truckspotting.se/
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lastbil
http://www.lastbil.me/lastbilensutveckling

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft
http://www.flygplan24.se/
By: Melker Karlsson

Written by: Isabell

History of the ship - Greece


The ship shipbuilding and art are
starting in Greece, as the archaeological findings, legends, ancient
writers (Homer, Xenophon etc.) and
nautical terminology. Eg nafs, navy,
shipyard etc.> nave, nautical etc

whose technique also used by the


Greeks and Romans. Many elements
of the technique are given in various
Assyrian presentations.

The reason for this is that in the


Greek Sea (= the Aegean Sea) there
are too many islands that many of
them look for the naked eye from the
shore so this lead to build a boat and
go there.
The archaeological findings indicate that in the Greek sea circulating
forms ships already very old, 14 to
17 cent. B.C. and the Iliad and the
Odyssey are the oldest written references relating to ship construction
methods and the oldest written testimonies about the life and naval ship
building art.
The bow ships in Greece, commercial and military, were of wood and
the driving strength was rowing.
Then, at King Minos time, the sails
were invented by Daedalus.
The story of the ship is too old and

can not accurately determine the


construction time of the first ships.
The oldest representations of ships
found, dating from 3000 BC and Cretan and Egyptian. They had as a key
means to move the paddles (20 paddlers) and auxiliary a double
specialty tissue.
The Greek ships Homer's time,
according to data available in the
Iliad was fast, elegant and
"fenceless" ( Without deck). The crew
consisted of 50 to 120 men who were
at the same time paddlers. The
length varied from 15 to 30 m. And
was "singleton Nies"(ships), they had
a series of paddles. Later they became "biremes" and "galleys".
Ancient ships had a great evolution
and were refined by the Phoenicians,

The first piston ships were constructed in the 8th century. B.C. In
the 7th century BC the ships had
two rows of rowers, thus increasing
their speed. Around 500 BC Greeks
and Phoenicians even more perfected
their ships, adding a third row of
oars ("trireme"). These had a length
36 m. And a width of about 6 meters.
Their plunge was less than 1 m., to
be transported easily on land.
Triremes were used mainly in the
naval battle of Salamis, and later, in
classical times, was the main warship. The hitherto technique was
adopted by the Romans, who after
260 BC understood the great utility
of ships for military and commercial
purposes. During the Greco-Roman
times and the early years of the Byzantine Empire we dont have substantial improvements in ships.
In the 7th century AD contact of
the Byzantine to Arab fleet affected
the form of ships. Then was adopted
the triangular cloth and also they
became lighter and fast ships. At
the same time the Vikings were using more sophisticated ships. The
row boats experienced their greatest
development in the 13th century by
the Venetians and the Genoese.

means of movement of ships. The


possibility of sailing ships to sail in
open seas and for a long time, the
large capacity in food and ammunition and increased speed made sailing ship to excel considerably.
In 1807 construction of the first
steamboat by the American Robert
Fulton revolutionized the navigation.
After 1870 perfecting the steam engine brought an end to the use of sail
as auxiliary drive means of steamboats. The use of steam and iron resulted in significant changes and
warships. So, the first war steamers
initially shielded with iron plates.
Later only made of iron. The first
model considered the English battleship "Ntrentnot" built in 1906.
In the early 20th century began to
be used for marine traffic the inter-

nal combustion engine (diesel engine). Later replaced the steam engines. The enormous technological
advances of the 20th century allowed
the construction of ships with large
dimensions and speed, fitted with
additional modern equipment and
machines that make the journey easier and safer. The continuous improvement has led to the construction of ships powered by atomic energy. So, in 1955 built the first nuclear submarine, the US "Nautilus".
Since then, many ships, especially
naval, use as a means of movement
of nuclear power.

Trains

By Adrian Tth and Adrian Kaa, Zkladn kola tefana


Kohriho II. s VJMII. Kohry Istvn Alapiskola, Fiakovo,

Trains have been a popular form of transport. When the


first steam train was built in 1804, people were worried
that the speed would make rail passengers unable to
breathe or that they would be shaken unconscious by the
vibrations. But by the 1850s, passengers were travelling
at previously unthinkable speeds of 80kph or more.
People who had never been on a journey before could
now afford to make trips by train.

Railways

existed long before steam engines were


invented. From the mid-1500s onwards, railways were
used in some mines to move heavy wagonloads of coal
and mineral ore along tunnels. The wagons ran first on
parallel wooden planks, and then on iron rails. The job of
hauling the wagons was done by people or horses.

My names Adrian and hes


my classmate. Were both fans
of trains. My hobby is
collecting small train models.
My friend goes to the railway
station almost every day. He
watches the railway traffic and makes notes about the
passing trains. Hes a real train spotter.

Steam-powered locomotives
were invented in the early
1800s. At first they pulled
wagons full of coal, and
later carriages full of
people. A steam locomotive
generally burned coal in a
furnace, or firebox, and
the fire heated water in a
boiler to make steam. The
steam was fed into cylinders to drive moveable rods
called pistons, and the motion of the pistons was used
to turn the wheels. One of the most successful early
steam locomotives was Rocket, built by English
engineer Robert Stephenson in 1829.

Engineers

Did you know?

that in Slovakia all children and students


until the age of 26 can travel by train for
free.

that Transport Museum in Bratislava is


located in the railway track area of the 1st
Bratislavas station of steam-engine railway
from the 19th century.

that since 1964, Japans Shinkansen (bullet


train) is a well known example of a high
speed passenger rail system.

that technologies, such as magnetic


levitation may provide faster, more efficient
train travel in the future. Magnetic
levitation propels trains forward using
magnets, keeping the vehicle levitated but
close to the track.

developed the first electric locomotives in


the late 19th century. From the 1940s to the 1960s,
electric and diesel trains replaced steam power. An
electric locomotive uses electric motors to drive the
wheels. Some locomotives collect electricity from
overhead cables, while others take power from a third
live rail on the track. Electric locomotives are cleaner,
quieter, faster, and more reliable than steam or diesel
engines. Today, most high-speed trains are powered by
electricity, and also busy underground railways and
commuter services. There are high-speed trains in
many countries, including the TGV in France. It
reaches a speed of just over 574kph.

Diesel locomotives entered service after World War I.


In a diesel
l o co mo t i ve ,
the
power
comes from
an
engine
that
burns
diesel
oil.
The engine
d o e s n t
usually drive
the
wheels
directly.
Instead,
it
p o w e r s
a generator that supplies electricity to electric motors,
which turn the wheels. Diesel-powered trains are used
worldwide.

Freight trains transport heavy goods across large distances. Freight trains can be extremely long which are

TECHMATES 4

History of cars

There are different forms


of transportation.

Cars give the people freedom to travel where they like and when they like. The
cars of today are the result of more than 120 years of development. They still work
on the same principles as the earliest cars, but they take us from place to place
more quickly and more safely than before, and they use much less fuel.
The first early cars were more or less horse carts fitted with an engine, which is
why they were often known as horseless carriages. A steam-powered carrage
had been built as early as 1769, but the real breakthrough in the development of
the car came with the invention of first successful petrol engine by German
engineer Nicolaus Otto in 1876. Soon, experimental petrol cars were being built.
In 1885, the first car sold to the public rolled out of the workshops of Karl Benz in
Mannheim, Germany. This was Karl Benzs petrol-powered, three-weeled
Motorwagen. The age of the automobile had begun. The Benz Motorwagens top Air transportation:
speed was 10kph, not much quicker than fast walking pace!
PLANE
First sold in 1908, Henry Fords Model T was reliable and easy to drive. In 1913,
it became the first car to be mass-produced in a factory on a moving assembly line. HELICOPTER
From 1914 until 1925, all Model T were black. This was because black paint dried BALLOON
the quickest, allowing the assembly line to operate at top speed. The first Model Ts ROCKET
were sold for about $850, but by 1925 the price had fallen to $260.Ford had built
Land transportation:
15 million Model Ts when he stopped making the car in 1927, a record number
MOTORBIKE
that was overtaken only by Volkswagen Beetle in 1972.
BICYCLE
BUS
TAXI
LORRY
AMBULANCE
TRAIN
TRACTOR
FIRE ENGINE
CAR
Water transportation:
SUBMARINE
BOAT
Children have to match the
names of the vehicles with the
pictures. Then they make a
poster- means of transport.

Page 6

ITALIAN CARS
The Italian automobile industry had its beginning in 1884.
Three years later, Giovanni Agnelli founded Fiat. Italy is now on of the top five
automobile manufactures in the world, and Fiat dominates
the industry with over 90% of overall production.

1.

ALFA ROMEO

Alfa Romeo Automobiles was founded on June 24, 1910 in Milan. Initially named
ALFA. In 1920 the company name was changed to Alfa Romeo. Models currently
in production include the MiTo, Giulietta, 159, GT, Brera, Spider and 8C Spider.

2.

FERRARI

Ferrari was founded in 1929 by Enzo Ferrari under the name


Scuderia Ferrari. Ferrari manufactured racing cars and sponsored drivers before expanding into the road vehicles market
in 1947.
The first Ferrari race car was entered in the 1940. Ferrari is
the only team to have competed in the Formula One World
Championship continuously since it was founded in 1950. In
1973 Ferrari concentrate on Formula One.
The Ferrari museum, Galleria Ferrari, features a variety of displays that document
the companys achievements.
Enzo Ferrari died in 1988.

3.

FIAT

Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors. The company grew quickly, and, 25 years later, dominated the Italian
car market. It produces a range of cars.
Fiat-based cars are built in many countries. Consequently,
Fiat is now the largest Italian car manufacturer, and the worlds sixth largest one.

Page 7

4.

LAMBORGHINI

Automobili Lamborghini was founded in


1963 by Ferruccio Lamborghini. Lamborghini built a tractor business using leftover
military hardware. By 1955, his tractor company was one of Italys largest farming
equipment manufactures. Lamborghini is
now a player in the automobile manufacturing industry. Lamborghinis cars are also
popular because they play the Italian and International races
.
5.

LANCIA

Lancia Automobiles was founded in 1906. The


company has a long history of cars. Lancia became famous for its many innovations in the
automobile industry. Lancia has always enjoyed a reputation
as a high-end luxury car.

6.

MASERATI

Maserati was founded in 1914, by the Maserati brothers. One of their early models
won the 1926 Targa Florio. They continued
working for the company as engineers. Ten
years later, they finally left the company and
founded a rival company, OSCA. Maserati
began focusing on building road cars. Maserati has a long
history of takeovers and reinvention . In 1993, it was sold to
Fiat. Maserati cars regained the popularity they had lost in
the previous years.

What is Transportation?
It is the transfer of an item from
one place to another (any types
of matter or energy) or the act
of moving something from one
place to another. It facilitates
trade, exchange and travel. It
prevents regions to be largely
isolated with each other. It allows people to move to new areas. It allows people to get to
their destination.

On and under
the water

6000 B.C. Reed


boats are made
in Egypt.
4500 Sailing
ships are made
in
Mesopotamia.
3500 Oar-powered ships sail
Eastern Mediterranean seas.
A.D. 1200 The rudder is invented
in China.
1620 The submarine is invented in
Timeline of
the Netherlands.
Transportation
1787 The steamboat is invented in
America.
On the road
1807 The passenger steamboat is
invented in the United States.
6500 B.C. The wheel
1891 The modern submarine is
is invented by the
invented in the United States.
Sumerians.
1911 The hydroplane is invented
3500 Animals pull wheeled
in the United States.
vehicles in Mesopotamia.
1912 The Titanic is built in
44 The wheelbarrow is
England.
invented by the Chinese.
1955 The hovercraft is built in
A.D. 1769 The first steamEngland.
powered vehicle, with three
1973 Clayton Jacobsen introduces
wheels, is invented in France.
the Jet-ski and Kawasaki begins
1791 The bicycle is invented in production of the vehicle for
public sale.
Scotland.
1792 The ambulance is created 1994 The Chunnel opens, linking
France and England with rail
for Napoleon's army.
service and a tunnel for passenger
1839 The electric car is
cars.
invented in Scotland.
1869 The modern motorcycle is 2006 To meet increased demand
for cruise ships, Freedom of the
invented in Germany.
Seas is introduced and becomes
1871 The cable streetcar is
the largest cruise liner ever. It has
invented in the United States.
18 decks and can carry 4,000
1885 The first car with internalpassengers.
cumbustion engine is invented 2009 Expected delivery of Royal
in Germany.
Caribbean's "Project Genesis,"
1892 The first car is run by
which will be 43% larger than any
gasoline in the United States.
other cruise ship, weighing 220,000
1892 The tractor is invented in tons and carrying 5,400
the United States.
passengers.

1893 The license plate is


invented in France.
1895 The diesel engine is
invented in Germany.
1905 The hybrid car is invented
in the United States.
1908 The Model T car is the first
car mass produced on an
assembly line in the United
States.
1923 The traffic signal is
invented in the United States.
1959 The seat belt is invented
in Sweden.
1980 Rollerblades are invented
in the United States.
2001 The Segway human
transporter is invented in the
United States.

On
the rail

1769 The steam engine is invented


in Scotland.
1804 The steam-powered
locomotive is invented in England.
1825The railway is invented in
England.
1964 The bullet train is invented in
Japan.

1983 The TGV (Train Grande


Vitesse) is invented in France.

In the air
1783 The hot-air balloon is
invented in France.
1783 The parachute is invented in
France.
1852 The dirigible is invented in
France.
1900 The zeppelin is invented in
Germany.
1903 The first propellor airplane
is invented in the United States.
1911 The first hydroplane is
invented in the United States.
1926 The rocket is invented in the
United States.
1930 The jet engine is invented in
England.
1936 The double-rotor helicopter
is invented in Germany.
1939 The jet is invented in
Germany.
1940 The single-rotor helicopter is
invented in Russia and the United
States.
1955 The hovercraft is invented in
England.
1969 The Concorde supersonic
passenger airplane is invented in
England.
1970 The jumbo jet is invented in
Germany and England.
1981 The first solar-powered
airplane is invented in the United
States.
1981 The first space
shuttle, Columbia, is launched in
the United States.
2006 The Airbus 380 superjumbo
jet, the world's largest passenger
plane, is developed in France.
2007 Boeing begins rollout of the
787 Dreamliner,
a smaller,
quieter, and
more efficient
challenger to
the Airbus 380.
It is the world's
first commercial
airliner to be
built mainly of
composite
materials.

SEA-PLANE / SEABIRD
A seaplane is a powered fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking
off and landing (alighting) on water. Seaplanes that can also take off
and land on airfields are in a subclass called amphibian aircraft. Seaplanes and amphibians are usually divided into two categories based on
their technological characteristics: floatplanes and flying boats; the latter are generally far larger and can carry far more.
Modern production seaplanes are typically light aircraft, amphibious,
and of a floatplane design.
The earliest flights in a seaplane goes back to 1908. Numerous modern
civilian aircraft have a floatplane variant, usually for light-duty transportation to lakes and other remote areas. Seaplanes can only take off
and land on water with little or no wave action and, like other aircraft,
have trouble in extreme weather. The size of waves a given design can withstand depends on, among other factors, the
aircraft's size, hull or float design, and its weight, all making for a much more unstable aircraft, limiting actual operational days. Flying boats can typically handle rougher water and are generally more stable than floatplanes while on the
water. Rescue organizations, such as coast guards, are among the largest modern operators of seaplanes due to their efficiency and their ability to both spot and rescue survivors. Land-based aircraft cannot rescue survivors, and many helicopters are limited in their capacity to carry survivors and in their fuel efficiency compared to fixed-wing aircraft. Water aircraft are also often used in remote areas such as the Alaskan and Canadian wilderness, especially in areas with a large
number of lakes convenient for takeoff and landing. They may operate on a charter basis, provide scheduled service, or be
operated by residents of the area for private, personal use. Seaplanes are used in Greece to connect the many islands to
the mainland.

Seabird Airlines was an airline operating scheduled seaplane services


in Istanbul, Turkey and the surrounding area. Its main base was at Hali
on the Golden Horn. It was the only floatplane operator in Turkey. It also
operated sightseeing flights over Istanbul . The airline was established in
Istanbul in 2010 although it took a further two years to get all the
required certification from the Turkish aviation authorities. It is part of
the Burulas Havacilik Group . Its main route is between its base in Hali
to Gemlik.

Ittakes only 15 minutes from Gemlik to Istanbul and


14 passengers can fly at a time and a ticket costs 140
Turkish Liras / about

MOTORCYCLE
SHIP
SHUTTLE
SKATEBOARD
SKATES
SUBMARINE
TRAIN
TRUCK
WAGON
AIRPLANE
BICYCLE
BOAT
CAR
FERRYBOAT
HELICOPTER
HORSE
JET
MOPED