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CHAPTER - 17

Hand Tools and Portable Power Tools


1.
2.
3.

THEME

Statutory Provisions
Indian Standards
Hand Tools :
3.1 Causes and Control of Tool
Accidents
3.1.1 Main Causes of Tool
Accidents
3.1.2 Control of Tool Accidents
3.1.3 Ergonomic Design of
Hand Tools
3.2 Types & Safe Use of Hand
ToolsMetal cutting, Wood cutting,
Material
handling, Torsion,
Shock, Nonsparking and
Miscellaneous tools.
3.3 Centralised and Personal Tool
Issue
System

3.4 Purchase, Storage and Supply

of Tools
3.5 Causes of Tool Failure
3.6 Inspection, Maintenance and
Repairs
of Tools
3.7 Tempering, Safe Ending,
Dressing
and Handles of Tools
4. Portable Power Tools :
4.1 Types, Hazards and Safe Use
4.2 Selection, Inspection,
Maintenance
and Repairs
4.3 Use of Personal Protective
Equipment

1 STATUTORY PROVISIONS

Tools - for hand, footwear 6053, handles


wooden 620, handling device 4676,
masons 1630, metal cutting 10097,
metal forming 6652, mining - tungsten
carbide
4005,
non-sparking
4595,
planning 6075, 8842, threading 8778,
pneumatic 5651, portable - motor
operated 4665, rotating 1850, shanks taper and automatic changers 11173,
numerically controlled machine tools
11172, steel high speed 7291, turning
and planning 1983, universal, test chart
3080.
Tool and die - hot work 3748, cold
work 3749, press sets of, guide posts
7664, broaching 7773.
See Part 2.3 of Chapter-15 and Part 3
of Chapter-25 also.

Section 36A of the Factories Act


states that portable electric appliance
(any tool, equipment or instrument) when
used in any confined space (tank, vat,
chamber, pit, pipe, flue etc.), shall be of
low voltage up to 24 Volt only, or other
safety device like ELCB should be
provided.
If inflammable gas, fume or dust is
likely to be present in such confined
space, portable lamp or light should be of
flameproof construction.
Clause (5), Part III of Schedule XIX,
Chemical Works u/r 102 of the Gujarat
Factories Rules requires all tools and
appliances for work in flammable area of
non-sparking type. Similar provision is
also required under clause (5), Schedule
XXI, Solvent Extraction Plants, under the
same rule.

3 HAND TOOLS
No work is finally possible without
hand-held or hand operated tools. Such
tools are of many types, having many
purposes and operated by hand only or
by some energy e.g. electric, pneumatic,
hydraulic etc.

2 INDIAN STANDARDS
Some IS are : Safety procedures in
hand operated tools 8235 (PED5), SP-53.

3.1
Tool

instead of wrench etc. This may cause


accident. Therefore it should be avoided.

Causes and Control of


Accidents:

2 Tools in good condition : Examples


of poor condition are : Hammers with
loose handles, screw drivers and cutting
tools with broken points or broken
handles, wrenches with cracked or worn
jaws, dull saws, and flexible electric
cables with splint insulation, broken plugs,
unearthed
ground
wire
etc.
Such
conditions should be removed.

Causes of tool accidents and their


safety
aspects
including
ergonomic
design are important -

3.1.1 Main
Accidents:

Causes

of

Tool

Table 5.8 in Chapter-5 states that in


India, injuries due to Hand Tools were 9
fatal and 10571 non-fatal i.e. total 8.25%
in 1990 and 5 fatal and 3314 non-fatal i.e.
total 5.47% in 1991.
Table 5.20 states 9 & 12 fatal
accidents due to hand tools in Gujarat in
1996 & 1997. This comes to 4.91% &
4.89% respectively.
The last raw of Table 5.22 indicates
that hand tool accidents (Causation No.
124) were 4.52% (710 out of 15683) in
Gujarat in 1994. Thus hand tools
accidents vary from @ 4 to 8% each year
which need to be controlled.
USA figures of deaths due to cutting
or piercing instruments or objects were
103, 108 and 132 in the year 1994, 1993
and 1992. Percentage wise these were
0.11, 0.15 & 0.15 respectively. (Accident
Facts, 1997, NSC).
The causes and effects of hand
tools accidents are eye injuries due to
flying chips from tools, puncture wounds
and infections, cut injuries due to knives,
chisels and hammers, bone fractures due
to defective or slipping wrenches and
scratches due to scrap etc., cutting of
fingers, tendons and arteries, contusion
etc.
Poor maintenance, incorrect tool,
wrong use, carelessness, bad storage and
poor material are main causes of tool
accidents.

3 Tools used in the right way: Wrong


ways are : Screw drivers applied to job
(e.g. to open a lid, to remove bearing),
knives pulled toward the body and failure
to ground electrical equipment. Tools
should be used in right way.
4 Tools kept in a safe place and
safe way: Unsafe practices are: Tools
kept overhead so as to fall; chisels and
other sharp tools kept in pocket or left in
tool boxes with cutting edges exposed.
They should be kept in a proper way.
5 Good housekeeping for orderly
layout and cleanliness: Haphazard
lying of tools anywhere, leaving tools at
the workplace after completion of the job,
slippery surface not cleaned, tools kept in
aisles or walkways etc. are common
causes of tool accidents. Tools should be
kept orderly.
The supervisors and workers should
be trained:
1. To wear safety goggles, face shield,
helmet etc. as per requirement.
2. To select the right tools for each job
and their right use. To return the tools
after use.
3. To guard, inspect, repair and maintain
tools in safe condition.
4. To use the proper storage facilities in
the tool room and on the work place.
5. To put the tools in such a way that
they can be readily available.
6. To scrap and replace the tools when
worn.
7. To check out tools at cribs.
8. To store in safe condition when not in
use.

3.1.2 Control of Tool Accidents :


The main control measures are:
1 The right tool for the right job:
Wrong methods are: To use file instead of
pry, wrench instead of hammer, pliers

3.1.3
Tools

hammer should be slightly larger (9 mm


by dia) than the struck face of the chisel.
Bull chisel should be held by tongs or
chisel holder to save the holder from
injury.
Stamping and marking tools
should be held by tool holder to keep
fingers away from the tool being struck.
In tap and die work, hands should
be kept away from broken tap ends and
threads being cut.
Hack saws
should be properly
tightened in the frame to prevent
buckling and breaking. Select proper
blade (teeth per inch) for the proper
metal (hard or soft) to be cut. Pressure
should be applied on forward stroke only.
Cutting speed of 40 to 60 strokes per
minute is proper.
Selection of correct file for the job
can prevent injuries, increase production
and file life. A file should not be
hammered or used as a pray. It should not
be used as a punch, chisel or other tool
because the hardened steel may fracture
in that way.
Jaws of hand snips should be kept
tight and well lubricated. Do not hammer
on the handles or jaws of the snips.
Safety goggles and leather or canvas
gloves are necessary.
Cutters should be used to cut at
right angles only. They need frequent
lubrication and should not be used as nail
pullers or pray bars.

Ergonomic Design of Hand

Ergonomic design of hand tools


takes into consideration that they should :
1. Effectively
perform
the
intended
function.
2. Be properly proportioned to the
dimensions of the user.
3. Be appropriate to the strength and
endurance of the user.
4. Minimise users fatigue.
5. Provide sensory feedback.
Some biomechanical factors to be
considered in tool design are grasp,
handedness (left or right, single or
double), hand strength, sex and clothing.
Criteria affecting handle design are
its shape, diameter, length, angulations
and texture. Specific criteria are diameter, shape, weight, section, length,
angulations of and placement of handle
for hammer.
Screw drivers, pliers, saws and power
tools are important for ergonomic design.

3.2
Types and Safe Use of
Hand Tools:

Main types of hand tools are as under

(A) Metal Cutting Tools :

(B) Wood Cutting Tools :

These are chisels, stamping and


marking tools, tap and die work,
hacksaws, files, hand snips and cutters.
Factors of selection and safe use
are : Materials to be cut, size and shape
of the tool, depth of cut, sponge rubber
shield or combination of rubber hand
grips and shields on hammer struck tools,
use of chisel holder or tong, safety
goggles, vice, wrench, right type of file
with smooth handle, lubrication on cutters
etc.
The flat chisel
should have its
cutting edge slightly convex. All chisels
(flat, cold, diamond point or cape type)
should be strong enough so as not to
bend when struck. Striking face of the

These are wood chisels, saws, axes,


adzes and hatches.
Factors of safe use are : Proper
method of holding and using the tool,
splinters free handles, nail detection,
sheath or metal guard on axe blade, use
of safety goggles, sharp and proper
cutting angle. Do not drop the tools.
The wood to be cut should be free of
nails to avoid damage to the cutting
edge. A wood chisel should not be used
as a pry or wedge, otherwise the hard
steel may break.
Proper saw
(crosscut or ripping)
should be selected. When not in use,
saws should be wiped off with an oily rag

and kept in racks or hang by handle. Nails


should be cut by metal cutting saws.
Axes and hatches are designed to
cut, trim or prune trees and soft wood.
Their cutting edges should not strike
against metal, stone or concrete. A
narrow - bladed axe is used for hard wood
and a wide axe for soft wood. Safety
shoes, goggles and thick pants should be
worn while using an axe.
Adzes are hazardous tools and
should be used by trained workers only.
Safety shoes, shin guards and safety
goggles are necessary. When not in use, it
should be set aside in a safe place with
its cutting edge covered or left stuck in
the timber.

and screw drivers and screw driver not


using for other purposes. A screw driver
tip must be properly ground. The user
should not lose balance on slipping of tool
or the job.
Box and socket wrench (spanner)
completely encircles the nut, bolt or
fitting and grip it at all corners as
opposed to the two corners grip by an
open-end wrench. They cannot easily slip.
Wrench capacity should not be
overloaded by using pipe extension on
the handle or striking the handle as
normally bus drivers do. For heavy duty
work, sledge-type box wrenches are
available. Penetrating oil (kerosene)
should be used first to loosen tight nuts.
The use of the wrong size wrench can
round the corners of the bolt or cause
slippage and make its subsequent use
difficult. Makeshift approach is not good.
Adjustable wrenches should be used
for light duty jobs where no fixed spanner
is available.
For the reason of safety, wrenches
should be pulled toward the self and not
pushed.
Pipe wrenches should be prevented
from slipping and falling. Its adjusting nut
should be checked frequently. If it is
cracked, the wrench should be withdrawn
from the use. A pipe wrench should be
used for pipes and their fittings only and
not for nuts and bolts because their
corners can break the teeth of the
wrench, thereby making it unsafe to use
later for pipe work. It should also not be
used for soft metal (brass, copper) valves
or fitting which can be crushed or bent
out of shape.
Pliers are meant for gripping and
cutting operations and should not be used
as wrenches. A guard cover on cutting
edge of side-cutting pliers can prevent
flying short ends. Pliers for electrical work
must be insulated and simultaneous use
of electricians shock-proof gloves is also
necessary.
Pullers are used to pull out gear,
wheel, pulley, bearing etc. from a shaft.
Prybars and chisels should not be used for
this purpose.
Screwdriver tip must be properly
ground to fit the slot and it should be of
the correct size for the head. Handle

(C) Material Handling Tools :


These are crow bars, jacks, hooks,
shovels and rakes.
Factors of safe use are : Proper
size and type of the tool and its handle,
solid footing and lubricating of jack,
shielded point of the hook, trimmed
edges and polished handles of shovels.
A crowbar has a point toe to grip the
object to be moved and a heel to act as a
pivot or fulcrum. Sometimes a wooden
block may be placed under the heel to
prevent the crowbar from slipping and
injuring hand.
Hooks should be sharp so that they
should not slip when applied. Handles
should be strong and properly shaped and
attached.
Shovels should be used by proper
leg positions so as not to lose balance.
Edges should be trimmed and handles
without splinters.
(D) Torsion Tools :
These
are
adjustable
wrenches
(spanners), pipe wrenches, pipe tongs,
machine wrench, torque wrenches, socket
wrenches, open end or box wrenches,
pliers, tongs, special cutters, nail band
crimpers and screw drivers.
Factors of safe use are : Sharp
jaws of wrenches, inspection of adjusting
nut of the wrench, correct size of the
wrench and not to change its dimension,
insulated handles of electricians pliers

should not be hammered. For electrical


work, handle should be insulated. Screws
should not be overtightened to avoid
slipping.

should not be put in pockets. Tools shall


never be thrown on ground. Tools should
not be put on vibrating or slippery
overhead surfaces, ladder step, scaffold
plank, overhead piping or part of any
structure or machine from which they can
easily fall or hurt.
While giving tool to another person,
the handle should be toward the receiver.
While turning around, care should be
taken not to strike others.
Misuse of hand tools can cause
injuries. Use of hand tool with power
driven machinery (e.g. lathe) should be
controlled. Training is necessary for their
safe handling and use. Use of safety
goggles and setting up a shield or screen
to prevent injury to others from flying
particles,
sparks,
excessive
light,
radiation etc. are also required.
Indian Standards should be followed
for
design,
selection,
use
and
maintenance of above tools. See Part 2.

(E) Shock Tools :


These
are
hammers,
sledge
hammers, riveting hammers, carpenters
or claw hammers. The handles should be
smooth and of proper size.
(F) Non-Sparking Tools :
Such tools of non-ferrous (Beryllium,
copper alloy, brass, copper, lead, plastic,
rubber) materials are used where
flammable gases, volatile liquids and
explosive substances are stored or used.
They should be kept free of picked up
foreign particles to avoid friction sparks.
They cannot be used to apply heavy
stroke. Therefore careful use is necessary.
It should be properly selected.
(G) Miscellaneous Cutting Tools :

3.3
Tool

Planes, scrapers, bits, drawknives, ice


picks and brad awl are used for special
purposes.
Knife accidents are many. A handle
guard or finger ring on the handle of knife
and the cutting stroke away from the
body are desirable. Knives should be
carried over the right or left hip toward
the back. This will prevent severing a leg
artery or vein in case of fall. Knives
should not be kept mixed with other tools.
Knives should not be used in place of
screwdrivers, can openers or ice picks.
All such tools should be kept sharp
and in good condition. When not in use,
they should be placed in a rack on the
bench or in a tool box in such a way that
will protect the user as well as the cutting
edge.
Carton cutters are safer than hooked
or pocket knives for opening cartons as
they eliminate deep cuts that could
damage inner contents.
While walking or climbing on ladders,
workers should use a strong bag, bucket,
tool hoist belt or pouch to hold tools
safely and to keep both hands free for
safe moving and working. Sharp tools

The main advantage of such tool


control is the uniform inspection and
maintenance of tools by a trained man. It
facilitates the effective records of tool
failure, accident causes and suggestions
for improvement. It provides positive
control than scattered storage. Tools are
well maintained and less exposed to
damage,
deterioration
and
falling
hazards.
The
central
tool
control
room
attendant can advise and issue the right
type of tool, ask to return the damaged or
worn tool and encourage the safe use of
tools.
He
can
also
suggest
the
appropriate type of personal protective
equipment at the time of issuing the tool
and make arrangement to get clean and
to well maintain the tools after and before
issue.
Methods of service, repair and
reconditioning should be established.
Supervisors should frequently, at least
weekly, inspect all tools and remove from
service those found damaged. A checklist
of inspection can also be designed and
used.

Centralised and Personal


Issue System :

It is the employers responsibility to


see that the employees are provided with
and use the safe tools in safe methods.

3.4
Purchase, Storage
Supply of
Tools :

individually and work is not suffered


because of any waiting time. If this is not
possible, working time of the tool should
be so scattered and planned to minimise
the waiting period. Time of supply should
be during working hours and suitable to
the workers.

and

Careful purchase of hand tools can


eliminate
hazards
from
beginning.
Standard (IS & others) and approved type
of tools should be ordered for purchase.
Material
of
construction,
quality,
durability, ergonomic design, good handle
and insulation, effective cutting edge and
electrical safety with electrical tools are
some of the points for better selection.
Purchase of tool boxes, chests, cabinets,
belts and pouches also needs attention.
In-charge
of
a
central
purchase
department should fix the criteria or
guidelines for best quality tools. Advice of
the safety committee and experienced
supervisors and workers should also be
taken.
Storage of tools should be in a dry
cool place and away from any chemical
effect. Tools should be kept in a tool box.
Proper cupboard, rack or shelves should
be used to put tool boxes. Shelves may
be movable so that workers can reach all
sections to get their tool boxes out.
Tool boxes should be used to put
and carry the tools. A tool box should
have handle, catch or a hasp and locking
arrangement. Bigger tool boxes having
more drawers or trays are called tool
chests. Mobile tool cabinets are bigger
tool chests and move on wheels.
Depending on size, weight and number of
tools, proper type of tool box, chest or
cabinet should be selected.
Supply of tools may be from a
central tool room or through supervisors
on need-base system or allotted to the
worker to keep with him in his tool box. It
should be ensured that the tool should be
of good quality and in safe and good
working
condition.
Supply
includes
replacement of damaged or worn tools. A
record
of
purchase
date,
service
condition, repair and maintenance can be
useful in this regard.
Tools should be in sufficient number
so that it can be supplied or replaced

3.5

Causes of Tool Failure :

They are : overheating or under


heating of the forging of steel when it was
hardened, cracks from improper forging,
improper tampering, failure to relieve
stresses in forging, improper quenching,
incorrect angle of cutting edge or steel of
poor quality.
Defects of these types will be found
in tools of inferior construction, which,
because of breakage and inefficiency, are
more expensive in the long run than are
tools of the best quality obtainable.

3.6
and

Inspection, Maintenance
Repairs of Tools :

The tool room attendant or tool


inspector should be qualified by training
and experience to pass judgement on the
condition of tools for further use. No dull
or damaged tools should be given for
work.
Efficient tool control requires periodic
inspection
of
all
tool
operations.
Responsibility for such periodic inspection
should be placed with a top man,
preferably the department head and
should not be delegated by him.
Hand tools receiving the heaviest
wear,
such
as
chisels,
wrenches,
hammers,
sledges,
star-drills,
blacksmiths tools and cold cutters
require frequent maintenance on a
regular schedule.
Repair facilities require work benches,
vices, hardening or tempering furnace or
forge, tempering baths, goggles, repair
tools, grinders, fasteners and good
lighting.
Enough
stock
should
be
maintained to replace and issue safe
tools.

should be taken before grinding hardened


tools. They should not be ground until
they have been drawn or tempered.
Grinding should be done in easy stages
with no attempt to take off much metal at
one time. While grinding, the tool should
be kept as cool as possible with water or
other
cooling
medium.
The
manufacturers recommendations for type
and kind of grinding wheel should be
followed. Each cutting edge should have
the correct angle according to its use and
be finished off with a file.
Redressing of Tools : Redressing or
reshaping of tool edges or surfaces which
are badly damaged is not recommended.
It should be discarded.
Procedure for correct redressing of
dull cutting edges is as under :

3.7
Tempering, Safe Ending,
Dressing
and
Handles
of
Tools :
Tempering of Tools : Hammerstruck and striking tools (chisels, stamps,
punches, cutters, hammers, sledges and
rock drills) should be made of carefully
selected steel and heat-treated so that
they are hard enough to withstand blows
without mushrooming excessively and yet
not be so hard that they chip or crack.
For safety, it is better that shock
tools, some of which can be dressed
frequently, be a little soft rather than too
hard, because a chip may fly from an
excessively hard tool without warning
when the tool is struck with a hammer or
sledge.
Forming and tempering of tools is a
skilled operation. Before heat-treating any
tool, the exact analysis of tool or
recommendations for its proper heat
treatment should be obtained.
Safe-ending of Tools : Hammerstruck tools, such as chisels, rock drills,
flatters, wedges, punches, cold cutters
and number dies should have heads
properly
hardened
by
a
qualified
workman. The hazard of burred heads can
be reduced by safe-ending the tool. This
can be quickly and economically achieved
by grinding or flame-cutting a shoulder
recess about 1/8 inch wide and 1/4 inch
deep into the tool head and then bronzewelding it. The proper base-metal
temperature for bronze-welding is 1600 0
to 17000 F. The correct temperature is
indicated by a bright red colour when the
tool is looked at through dark glasses in
the light of oxyacetylene flame.
Short sections of tight-fitting rubber
hose can also be set flush with the
striking ends of hammer-struck tools to
keep chips from flying.
Dressing of Tools : Shock, cutting
and
pointed
tools
require
regular
maintenance of their edges or striking
surfaces. Once the cutting or striking
surfaces have been properly hardened
and tempered, only an emery wheel,
grindstone, file or oilstone need be used
to keep the head in shape and the edges
clean and sharp. Proper precautions

1. The tool edge should be supported


firmly.
2. File or stone away from the cutting
edge. Do not use a grinding wheel.
3. Restore the original contour of the
cutting edge.
Handles : The handles of the tools
should be of the best straight-grained
material. Fitting of handles is very
important. Poorly fitted handles make it
difficult for the worker to control the tool.
Design criteria for handle are its shape,
diameter, length, angulations, texture
and ergonomic aspects for convenience
and safe use.
Handles should be fitted or replaced
by an experienced person. Long use or
shrinkage can loosen the handle. Wedges
can be inserted in gap, tool head can be
further driven in the handle with wedges
reset and the protruding end of the
handle cut off. If this is not possible a new
similar handle should be fitted after
removing the old one.

4 PORTABLE
TOOLS

POWER

4.1
Types, Hazards and Safe
Use :
Portable power tools are divided into
five primary groups according to the

power source : electric, pneumatic,


hydraulic, gasoline and explosive (powder
actuated). Several types of tools such as
saws, sanders, drills, and grinders are
common to the first three groups;
whereas
explosive
tools
are
used
exclusively
for
penetration
work,
compression and cutting. Pneumatic
grinders, impact tools and flexible shafts
tools are also in use. Hydraulic tools are
used mainly for compression work.
A portable power tool presents similar
hazards as a stationary machine of the
same kind, in addition to the risks of
handling. Typical injuries caused by
portable power tools are burns, cuts and
strains. Sources of injury include electric
shock, flying particles in the eyes, fire,
falls, explosion of gases and falling tools.
The power line should always be
disconnected before accessories on a
portable tool are changed, and guards
should be replaced or put in correct
adjustment before the tool is used again.
Care should be taken to set power
driven tools in safe area where they may
not be struck by passers-by and
activated. A tool should not be left in an
overhead place where there is a chance
that the line, if pulled, will cause the tool
to fall.
Flexible cords, cables or hoses should
be hung overhead and on safe points, and
not over nails, bolts, sharp edges, oil, hot
surfaces and chemicals. They should be
frequently checked for cracks, opened
joints, cut phases or earth wires.

be inserted in plug. Three pin top


should be used.
3. Metal casing should be effectively
earthed. Earth core of the flexible
cable should be properly connected to
the metalwork to be handled. Flexible
conduit is not suitable for this purpose.
4. Second alternative is the use of 110 V
supply with centre tapped to earth to
reduce an effective shock voltage to
55 - a relatively safe voltage.
5. Power cutting switches should be
within reach and near the apparatus.
6. Regular maintenance to check earth
core continuity and strength of
earthing.
7. Additional back-up protection is ELCB.
i.e. earth leakage circuit breaker which
detects the current difference between
power supply line and current returning
to the supply point. In normal safe
operating
condition,
this
current
difference is zero but if there is a fault
and leakage starts to earth, a
differential
current
occurs
which
operates the device that rapidly
senses and trips its contacts to cut off
power to the apparatus. See Part 6.2.3
of Chapter 11.
8. Electric tool should never be put in wet
area or used in raining condition.
9. Double
protection
or
doubleinsulated or all insulated type
equipment which need not be earthed.
10. Dead man control. This tool
operates till the button is pressed and
it stops as the button is released.
Portable saw, hoist and remote control
pendant are of this type.

Electric Tools :
Electric shock is the chief hazard from
electrically powered tools. Types of
injuries are electric flesh burns, minor
shock that may cause falls and shock
resulting in death.
Main safety points for electric power
tools are :

While using electric drills, saws and


grinding wheels, eye protection is always
required. Drill bit should not be of
excessive length, otherwise it may break.
Electric saws should have guards. Circular
saw (portable) should be equipped with a
trigger switch that shuts off power when
pressure is released. It will not run when
not in use. Grinding wheel should be
properly mounted and guarded.
Sanders should run away from the
body as it cannot completely guarded.
Dust should be cleaned daily by a low
pressure (30 psi or less) air and wearing

1. Flexible cable (cord) should be


protected from misuse, abuse and
damage to insulation resulting in
broken or exposed live conductor.
2. Plug-socket connection should be tight
and safe. No bare conductors should

safety
goggles.
Vacuum
cleaning
equipment is safer.
Pneumatic or Air-powered tools
are less hazardous than electric power
tools. Grinders and impact tools have air
hoses (pipes) which pose tripping or
stumbling hazard. Self-storing recoiling air
hoses are safe. Speed regulator or
governor is necessary to avoid overspeeding the tool.
Impact tools include riveting guns
and jackhammers. Air pressure safety
valve,
automatically
closing
valve
actuated by a trigger located inside the
handle (machine can run only when the
trigger is depressed) and retaining device
that holds the tool in place so that it
cannot be fired accidentally from the
barrel are necessary.
Air should be filtered and cooled
moisture or water should be removed
from the tool. Pneumatic tools are of two
types - percussive and rotary. In rotary
tool either piston and cylinder or rotor
vanes are used. Speed regulator is
necessary. Pneumatic tools are started
and stopped by means of shut off valves
and rotary valves. Rotary valves are
equipped with a spring returning the
rotary handle to its stop position as soon
as the handle is released. Maximum
operating pressure is 6 bar. Additional
handle is provided to control back twisting
torque when the cutting tool (e.g. drill,
reamer) gets jammed.
Effects of noise and vibration
cause health hazards. Vibration and jerks
cause strain in the joints and disease.
White fingers or Vasospastic vibration
syndrome is a disease due to vibration
exposure and vascular spasm. 8 to 16 Hz
frequency causes the most harmful
effects as it generates resonance in handarm system. Safe limit of vibration
intensity i.e daily exposure is -

protection is required due to flying chips.


Two chippers should work away from each
other, back to back, to prevent cuts from
flying chips. They should not point a
pneumatic hammer at anyone. Neither
should it be used to clean dust from
clothes due to risk of intestine inflation.
Jack hammer handles should have rubber
grips to reduce effects of vibration and
fatigue.
Operators
should
wear
metatarsal - type safety shoes to protect
against fall of heavy hammer.
See Chapter-12 for Noise and
Vibration.
Hydraulic
power
tools
are
hydraulic chain saws and compression
devices. A small leak can impose high oil
pressure on finger. Therefore, proper
pressure hose should be selected. Safety
pins are provided to shear at pre-set
pressure. Pins should be secured by
retainers. Poor quality shear pins,
improper design or use of sockets can
cause sudden failure and result in flying
missiles.

4.2
Selection, Inspection,
Maintenance and Repairs :
Information and training to select
right tool for the right job is necessary. If
a small hole is to be drilled and if it is
easily possible by a hand drill, power drill
is not necessary. Manual hazards are less
serious than the power hazards.
Tool
supplier
should
be
given
complete information about the job for
which a tool is required so that he can
recommend the most appropriate tool for
that job.
Normally portable power tools are to
be used on light or home work. For
continuous operation and production
service or heavy work, industrial duty
tools are selected.
Periodic inspections are necessary to
find defects and to keep the tool in good
working condition. Then it serves the
purpose of preventive maintenance. It
prevents hazards and costly breakdowns.
Defective tools should be tagged and
repaired.
Record of date of inspection, fault
noticed and date of repair is necessary.

60 HZ for 1 hour working and


112 HZ for 30 minutes working.
To reduce vibration, damping springs,
air cushions and vibration absorbing
handles are necessary.
Noise level near the tool should be
measured and ear protection should be
given to the operator if necessary. Eye

Cause of fault and detail of repair carried


out can also be added to such record.
Workers should be trained to inspect
tools, identify defects, report and repair.
They should be warned not to do
makeshift repairs and to do no repair
work unless authorised.
For cleaning purpose non flammable
and non-toxic solvent should be used.
The following inspection checklist will
help in detecting defects in portable tools.

revolving tools such as drills, saws and


grinders. The weight of most power tools
makes it advisable for users to wear
safety shoes (with steel toe) to reduce
chances of injury, if the tool falls or drops.
While working at overhead places
with power tools, the operator should
wear a safety belt and use a good
platform or support.
Dust type respirators should be worn
on buffing, grinding or sanding jobs which
produce harmful dusts.
Ear protection is necessary at high
noise levels.
Safety goggles or face shields should
be worn for work on grinders, buffing
wheels and scratch brushes because the
unusual positions in which the wheel
operates will cause particles to be thrown
off in all directions. For this reason,
protective equipment is even more
important than it is for work on stationary
grinders.
Eye protection equipment (safety
goggles or face shields) is a must in all
operations where hardened metal tools
are struck together, where wood working
or other cutting tools are used, where
anything is struck by a metal hand tool,
or where the cutting action of a tool
causes particles to fly. Clothing should be
free of oil, solvents or frayed edges to
minimise fire hazard from sparks.

Inspection Checklist
General : Low voltage equipment
used in tanks and wet area? Tools well
maintained? Motors in good condition?
Approved
tools
used
in
explosive
atmosphere? Tools left where they cannot
fall?
Cords : Insulation, plugs and sockets
unbroken? Cords protected against trucks
& oil? Cords not in aisle?
Grounding : Ground wire fastener in
safe condition? 3-wire plug extension
cord? Defects or minor shocks reported?
Guarding : Guards used on grinders &
saws? Movable guards operate freely?
Eye & face protection worn?

4.3
Use of Personal
Protective Equipment:
Gloves, loose clothing and jewellery
should not be worn by workers using

Exercise
1. Explain, State, Mention or
Discuss 1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Causes and control of tool


accidents.
Wrong methods to use hand
tools.
Merits
and
demerits
of
centralised tool issue system.
Different types of hand tools
and factors of their safe use.

7.
8.
9.

10

Types of material handling tools


and factors of their safe use.
Types of torsion tools and safe
methods of their use.
Types of portable power tools
and their safety aspects.
Safety aspects of using electric
power tools.
Types of pneumatic power
tools, their main hazards and
control measures.

10. What type of PPE is required


while working on which type of
portable power tools?
11. Hazards and control of portable
power tools.
12. Main causes and control of
hand tools vis--vis. power
tools.
13. Types of defects in hand tools.
14. How hand tools are misused?
What are the methods of right
use?
15. A safety programme for control
of hand tool accidents.
2.

22. Main causes of hand tool


injuries and remedial measures
for them.
23. Safe practices to be followed in
the use of hand tools OR power
tools.
24. Spark resistant tools.
3.

Explain the difference between


1.
2.

Write Short Notes on -

3.

1.
2.

4.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Ergonomic design of hand tools.


Criteria for careful purchase of
hand tools.
Safe storage of hand tools.
Tool boxes.
Causes of tool failure.
Maintenance and repairs of
hand tools.
Dressing of hand tools.
Handles of hand tools.
Metal cutting tools.
Wood cutting tools.
Correct and wrong use of
screw-driver.
Non-sparking tools.
Knife accidents.
Safe methods to use portable
power tools.
White finger disease.
Safe methods of using airpowered tools.
Noise and vibration control of
pneumatic tools.
Hydraulic power tools.
Inspection checklist for portable
power tools.
Double insulation.
Fail safe design of a portable
power tool.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Centralised tool issue system


and personal tool issue system.
Tempering of tools and safe
ending of tools.
Pressing and redressing of hand
tools.
Metal cutting tools and wood
cutting tools.
Chisel and File.
Hack saw and cutter.
Crowbar and shovel.
Pliers and pullers.
Double protection and Dead
man control.
Shock tools and torsion tools.

4. Comment
on
the
following
explaining whether it is true or
false
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

No work is finally possible


without hand-held or hand
operated tool.
It is wrong belief that nonsparking tools are safe.
Electric drill should not be used
in wet condition.
Earthing of portable electric
grinder is not necessary.
Trained purchase officer is
necessary for ordering hand
tools or power tools.

Reference and Recommended Readings


1. Accident
Prevention
Manual
Industrial Operations, NSC, USA.

for

2. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health


& Safety, ILO, Geneva.

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