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are registered trademarks of the College Board.

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AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.org.

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Proton mass, m p

1.67 10 27 kg

Neutron mass, mn

1.67 10 27 kg

Electron mass, me

9.11 10 31 kg

8.31 J (mol K)

1 electron volt, 1 eV

1.60 10 19 J

3.00 108 m s

6.67 10 11 m 3 kg s 2

9.8 m s2

1.38 10 23 J K

Boltzmanns constant, kB

1u

1.66 10 27 kg

931 MeV c 2

Plancks constant,

6.63 10 34 Js

hc

1.99 10 25 J m

e0

8.85 10 12 C2 N m 2

Vacuum permittivity,

Coulombs law constant, k

9.0 109 N m 2 C2

m0

4 p 10 7 (T m) A

Magnetic constant, k

1 atmosphere pressure,

meter,

kilogram,

second,

ampere,

kelvin,

PREFIXES

Factor

Prefix

Symbol

12

tera

T

10

m

kg

s

A

K

mole,

hertz,

newton,

pascal,

joule,

1.24 103 eV nm

1 4 pe0

Vacuum permeability,

UNIT

SYMBOLS

1.60 10 19 C

Speed of light,

Universal gravitational

constant,

Acceleration due to gravity

at Earths surface,

6.02 10 23 mol 1

Avogadros number, N0

mol

Hz

N

Pa

J

m0 4 p

1 10 7 (T m) A

1 atm

1.0 10 5 N m 2

watt,

coulomb,

volt,

ohm,

henry,

W

C

V

W

H

1.0 10 5 Pa

farad,

tesla,

degree Celsius,

electron volt,

F

T

C

eV

30

sinq

37

45

53

60

90

12

35

2 2

45

3 2

10 9

giga

10 6

mega

cosq

3 2

45

2 2

35

12

10 3

kilo

tanq

3 3

34

43

10

2

centi

10

3

milli

10 6

micro

9

nano

10 12

pico

10

I. The frame of reference of any problem is assumed to be inertial unless

otherwise stated.

II. In all situations, positive work is defined as work done on a system.

III. The direction of current is conventional current: the direction in which

positive charge would drift.

IV. Assume all batteries and meters are ideal unless otherwise stated.

V. Assume edge effects for the electric field of a parallel plate capacitor

unless otherwise stated.

VI. For any isolated electrically charged object, the electric potential is

defined as zero at infinite distance from the charged object

-2-

AP PHYSICS 2 EQUATIONS

MECHANICS

x

x 0 a x t

x 0 x 0 t

x2

1 2

a t

2 x

x20 2ax x x0

Fnet

m

F

m

Ff m Fn

ac

2

r

mv

Dp F Dt

K

DE

P

q

1 2

mv

2

W

DE

Dt

q0 w0 t

w0 at

A cos wt

xcm

Fd cos q

Fd

1 2

at

2

A cos 2 p ft

mi xi

mi

I

rA F

rF sin q

Iw

DL

t Dt

1 2

Iw

2

Fs

kx

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Us

t net

I

a

A

d

E

F

f

I

K

k

L

m

P

p

r

T

t

U

v

W

x

y

a

m

q

t

w

acceleration

amplitude

distance

energy

force

frequency

rotational inertia

kinetic energy

spring constant

angular momentum

length

mass

power

momentum

radius or separation

period

time

potential energy

speed

work done on a system

position

height

angular acceleration

coefficient of friction

angle

torque

angular speed

1 2

kx

2

DUg

T

mg Dy

2p

w

1

f

FE

1 q1q2

4 pe0 r 2

FE

q

1 q

4 pe0 r 2

DU E

V

qDV

1 q

4 pe0 r

DV

Dr

DV

Q

C

ke0

Q

e0 A

UC

A

d

1

QDV

2

1

C DV 2

2

=

=

=

=

=

e=

F =

I =

=

P =

Q =

q =

R =

r =

t =

U =

A

B

C

d

E

V =

v =

k =

r=

q =

F=

DQ

Dt

r

A

I DV

FM

DV

R

FM

Rs

FM

FM

Ri

area

magnetic field

capacitance

distance

electric field

emf

force

current

length

power

charge

point charge

resistance

separation

time

potential (stored)

energy

electric potential

speed

dielectric constant

resistivity

angle

flux

qv B

qv sin q B

I B

I sin q B

Ts

2p

m

k

1

Rp

R1i

FB

B A

Tp

2p

g

Cp

Ci

FB

B cos q A

1

Cs

C1i

B v

Fg

UG

Fg

m

m1m2

r2

B

Gm1m2

r

-3-

m0 I

2p r

DFB

Dt

AP PHYSICS 2 EQUATIONS

FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS

m

V

F

A

P0 rgh

rVg

Fb

A1v1

A2 v2

1

P1 rgy1 rv12

2

P2 rgy2

Q

Dt

kA DT

L

PV

nRT

3

k T

2 B

P DV

DU

NkBT

= area

= force

= depth

= thermal conductivity

= kinetic energy

= thickness

= mass

= number of moles

= number of molecules

= pressure

= energy transferred to a

system by heating

T = temperature

t = time

U = internal energy

V = volume

v = speed

W = work done on a system

y = height

r = density

A

F

h

k

K

L

m

n

N

P

Q

1

rv 2

2 2

v

f

n 1 sin q1

n 2 sin q2

1

1

si so

1

f

hi

ho

DL

ml

d sin q

si

so

ml

Rectangle

A bh

Triangle

1

A

bh

2

QW

Circle

MODERN PHYSICS

E

hf

K max

hf f

h

p

mc 2

E=

f =

K=

m=

p =

l=

f=

pr 2

2 pr

Rectangular solid

V wh

energy

frequency

kinetic energy

mass

momentum

wavelength

work function

d = separation

f = frequency or

focal length

h = height

L = distance

M = magnification

m = an integer

n = index of

refraction

s = distance

v = speed

l = wavelength

q = angle

Cylinder

V

S

pr 2

2 pr 2 pr 2

Sphere

V

S

4 3

pr

3

4 pr

A=

C=

V=

S =

b =

h =

=

w=

r =

area

circumference

volume

surface area

base

height

length

width

radius

Right triangle

c2

a 2 b2

a

sin q

c

b

cos q

c

a

tan q

b

c

q

b

-4-

a

90

PHYSICS 2

Section II

4 Questions

Time90 minutes

Directions: Questions 1 and 4 are short free-response questions that require about 20 minutes each to answer and are

worth 10 points each. Questions 2 and 3 are long free-response questions that require about 25 minutes each to

answer and are worth 12 points each. Show your work for each part in the space provided after that part.

The figure above shows a cross section of a drinking glass (index of refraction 1.52) filled with a thin layer of

liquid (index of refraction 1.33). The bottom corners of the glass are circular arcs, with the bottom right arc

centered at point O. A monochromatic light source placed to the right of point P shines a beam aimed at point

O at an angle of incidence q . The flat bottom surface of the glass containing point P is frosted so that bright

spots appear where light from the beam strikes the bottom surface and does not reflect. When q q1 , two bright

spots appear on the bottom surface of the glass. The spot closer to point P will be referred to as X; the spot

farther from P will be referred to as Y. The location of spot X and that of spot Y both change as q is

increased.

(a) In a coherent paragraph-length answer, describe the processes involved in the formation of spots X and Y

when q q1 . Include an explanation of why spot Y is located farther from point P than spot X is and what

factors affect the brightness of the spots.

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-5-

(b) When q is increased to q2 , one of the spots becomes brighter than it was before, due to total internal

reflection.

i. On the figure below, draw a ray diagram that clearly and accurately shows the formation of

spots X and Y when q q2 .

ii. Which spot, X or Y, becomes brighter than it was before due to total internal reflection? Explain your

reasoning.

(c) When q is further increased to q3 , one of the spots disappears entirely.

i. On the figure below, draw a ray diagram that clearly and accurately shows the formation of the

remaining spot, X or Y, when q q3 .

ii. Indicate which spot, X or Y, disappears. Explain your reasoning in terms of total internal reflection.

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-6-

A battery of emf e and negligible internal resistance, three identical incandescent lightbulbs, and a switch S

that is initially open are connected in the circuit shown above. The bulbs each have resistance R. Students make

predictions about what happens to the brightness of the bulbs after the switch is closed.

(a) A student makes the following prediction about bulb 1: Bulb 1 will decrease in brightness when the switch

is closed.

i. Do you agree or disagree with the students prediction about bulb 1 ? Qualitatively explain your

reasoning.

ii. Before the switch is closed, the power expended by bulb 1 is P1 . Derive an expression for the power

Pnew expended by bulb 1 after the switch is closed in terms of P1 .

iii. How does the result of your derivation in part (a)ii relate to your explanation in part (a)i?

(b) A student makes the following prediction about bulb 2: Bulb 2 will decrease in brightness after the switch

is closed.

i. Do you agree or disagree with the students prediction about bulb 2 ? Explain your reasoning in words.

ii. Justify your explanation with a calculation.

(c) While the switch is open, bulb 3 is replaced with an uncharged capacitor. The switch is then closed.

i. How does the brightness of bulb 1 compare to the brightness of bulb 2 immediately after the switch

is closed? Justify your answer.

ii. How does the brightness of bulb 1 compare to the brightness of bulb 2 a long time after the switch

is closed? Justify your answer.

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

-7-

3. (12 points, suggested time 25 minutes)

Students are watching a science program about the North Pole. The narrator says that cold air sinking near the

North Pole causes high air pressure. Based on the narrators statement, a student makes the following claim:

Since cold air near the North Pole is at high pressure, temperature and pressure must be inversely related.

(a) Do you agree or disagree with the students claim about the relationship between pressure and temperature?

Justify your answer.

After hearing the students hypothesis, you want to design an experiment to investigate the relationship between

temperature and pressure for a fixed amount of gas. The following equipment is available.

___ A cylinder with a fixed lid, shown above on the right

Note: The two cylinders have gaskets through which measurement instruments can be inserted without

gas escaping.

___ A pressure sensor

___ A source of mixed ice and water

___ A basin that is large enough to hold

___ A meterstick

either cylinder with a lot of extra room

___ A thermometer

___ A source of hot water

___ A stopwatch

(b) Put a check in the blank next to each of the items above that you would need for your investigation. Outline

the experimental procedure you would use to gather the necessary data. Make sure the outline contains

sufficient detail so that another student could follow your procedure.

The table below shows data from a different experiment in which the volume, temperature, and pressure

of a sample of gas are varied.

Trial Number

Volume cm

Pressure (kPa)

Temperature C

10

11

12

13

14

10.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

5.0

4.0

10.0

5.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

10.0

3.0

5.0

100

0

0

0

0

20 20

110

20

40 40 40 60

120

60

420 250

70 70

(c) What subset of the experimental trials would be most useful in creating a graph to determine the relationship

between temperature and pressure for a fixed amount of gas? Explain why the trials you selected are most

useful.

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-8-

(d) Plot the subset of data chosen in part (c) on the axes below. Be sure to label the axes appropriately.

Draw a curve or line that best represents the relationship between the variables.

(e) What can be concluded from your curve or line about the relationship between temperature and pressure?

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

-9-

The apparatus shown in the figure above consists of two oppositely charged parallel conducting plates, each with

area A 0.25 m2 , separated by a distance d 0.010 m . Each plate has a hole at its center through which

electrons can pass. High velocity electrons produced by an electron source enter the top plate with speed

v0

5.40 10 6 m s , take 1.49 ns to travel between the plates, and leave the bottom plate with speed

vf

8.02 10 6 m s .

(a) Which of the plates, top or bottom, is negatively charged? Support your answer with a reference to the

direction of the electric field between the plates.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the electric field between the plates.

(c) Calculate the magnitude of the charge on each plate.

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-10-

(d) The electrons leave the bottom plate and enter the region inside the dashed box shown below, which

contains a uniform magnetic field of magnitude B that is perpendicular to the page. The electrons then leave

the magnetic field at point X.

i. On the figure above, sketch the path of the electrons from the bottom plate to point X. Explain why the

path has the shape that you sketched.

ii. Indicate whether the magnetic field is directed into the page or out of the page. Briefly explain your

choice.

STOP

END OF EXAM

Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

-11-

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