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Prakash S & Sharma HD.

, 1990, Pile foundation in


Engineering practice, John Wiley $ Sons

Bearing pile

Friction pile

Pile under uplift

PPile under
lateral loads

Batter piles under lateral load

Situations in which deep foundations may be needed


(Vesic, 1977; FHWA, 2006a).

TIMBER PILES
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

v.

Have been used since ancient times


Length of timber piles depends on types of
trees used to harvest the piles,
Common length are 12m
It is susceptible to termites, marine
organisms and rot within zones exposed to
seasonal changes.
Eventhough its cheaper but it has low
capacity and cant take hard driving.

CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE PILES


i.

Formed by driving a cylindrical steel shell into


the ground to the desired depth and cavity of
shell is filled with fluid concrete.

ii.

The steel shell doesnt contribute to the load


transfer capacity of the pile.

iii.

Its purpose is to open a hole in a ground and


keep it open to facilitate the construction of
concrete pile. (same function as formwork)

iv.

Vigilant quality control & good construction


practice are necessary to ensure the integrity
of cast-in-place piles.

Among the advantages of Cast-In-Place


Concrete are :

Can sustain hard driving


Resistant to marine organism
Easily inspected
Length can be changed easily
Easy to handle and ship

PRECAST CONCRETE PILES


i.
ii.
iii.

iv.

Usually have square/circular/octagonal cross


sections.
Fabricated in a construction yard from
reinforced or pre-stressed concrete.
Disadvantages of this pile are problems in
transporting long piles, cutting and
lengthening.
It has higher capacity than timber piles.

PRECAST CONCRETE PILES


i.
ii.
iii.

iv.

Usually have square/circular/octagonal cross


sections.
Fabricated in a construction yard from
reinforced or pre-stressed concrete.
Disadvantages of this pile are problems in
transporting long piles, cutting and
lengthening.
It has higher capacity than timber piles.

TYPES OF PILE CHOSEN DEPENDS


ON FOLLOWING FACTORS:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

What type of pile is readily available


Location & type of structure (magnitude of loading)
Ground Condition (soil type)
Cost
Durability

TYPES OF PILE CONSTRUCTION


Displacement Piles
- It cause the soil to be displaced radially as well
as vertically as pile shaft is driven or jacked
into the ground.
b) Non Displacement Piles
- It cause the soil to be removed and the
resulting hole filled with concrete or a pre cast
concrete pile is dropped into the hole and
grouted in.
a)

Displacement Pile

Replacement Pile / Non Displacement Pile

Effect of installation of piles


Ground disturbance
Large displacement
Small displacement
Non displacement pile

Composite pile

Effect of installation of piles:


Effects of pile driving in clays

Effect of installation of piles:


Effects of pile driving in clays

(1962 )

Negative skin friction


Pile driven in a soft clay or recently
placed fill and has its tip resting in a
dense stratum the settlement of both
the pile and the soft clay or
fill is taking place after the pile has been
driven and loaded. During and
immediately after driving, a portion of
the load is resisted by adhesion of soft
soil with pile. But, as consolidation of
the soft clay proceeds, it transmits all
the load onto the tip of the pile.

Piles in soft soil overlying dense strata: (a) Skin friction immediately
and during pile driving, (b) negative skin friction

Friction pile may be used to support downward load

Building movement due to pile driven

Pile heave

1971

There 2 type of end bearing piles that is preformed timber pile & in-sitereinforced concrete pile

Effects of installing bored piles in clays

Effects of installing bored piles in clays

Effects of installing bored piles in sands

Effects of installing bored piles in sands

Pile hammer

Bored pile with casing

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation
Installation by driving

Equipment installation

Installation by drilling (boring)

Equipment installation

Installation by drilling (boring)

Equipment installation

Installation by drilling (boring)

Equipment installation

Installation by drilling (boring)

Equipment installation

Installation by drilling (boring)

Equipment installation

Installation by drilling (boring)

Resume of deep
foundations