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General Science (Paper - I) (Civil Service Prelims Examination)

General Science

(Paper - I)

(Civil Service Prelims Examination)

General Science

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3

General Science

 

Content

Biology

7

The Science of

9

Classification of Organisms

13

Biology of a Cell

23

Organisation of Living

31

Genetics

41

Nutrition

53

Respiration

63

Transportation in Plants & Animals

67

Excretory

75

Neurology

79

Skeletal and Muscular System

89

Reproduction

99

Evolution of Life

105

Health and

113

Agriculture .........................................................................................121

Chemistry ...........................................................................................127

Physics

................................................................................................

159

General Science

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General Science

Preface

In the General Studies paper of Civil Service (Prelims), a considerable number of questions are from the Biology, Chemistry, Physics and Technology. The questions are based mainly on genetics, cell, nutrition, neurology, skeletal and muscular system, health and diseases, use of chemicals in our daily life, application of various laws of physics and the latest development in computer, space and defense technology. Although there is no specific provision for it and we can expect

questions from any section. The subject of General Science constitutes its own category in the sense that we can put it clearly in various natural aspects,

chemicals and artificial things around us. It is very interesting that the subject

teaches us and acknowledges us those things which are directly affecting our

physical and social environment.

From Prelims point of view, however, what has to be kept in mind is that you

understand the basics of the subject well, so that many terms and concepts are

not difficult to retain. Thus in this booklet, we have tried to provide clear and

comprehensive notes on the topics stated above and with an additional

supplementary material of terminology, important factoids and ample practice questions related to General Science. A set of practice questions has been set at the end which you must try after reading the material thoroughly. This will help you self-assess your progress.

This booklet represents an effort of ETEN faculty and Publishing Team. While ETEN ensures a study material that has potential to give an added advantage to our students, it is also true that it is a result of cumulative effort of our academic team and staff. We invite all our distinguished readers to give constructive as well as critical suggestions so that we make it a habit to constantly improve and innovate.

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General Science

Biology

General Science

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9

General Science

The Science of Life

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1
9 General Science The Science of Life 1 Biology, as the science of life, uses scientific

Biology, as the science of life, uses scientific principles to study the living world. The great Greek philospher Aristotle is considered to be the 'Father of Biology'. In modern times, Jean Baptiste- de-Lamarck, the French naturalist, was the first to use the word 'biology' in 1800. The other important influence on the study of biology was that of the English zoologist Thomas Henry Huxley, who argued against the division of the subject into zoology and botany.

Branches of Biology

9 General Science The Science of Life 1 Biology, as the science of life, uses scientific

Living & Non-Living Organisms

 

Living Organisms

Non-Living Organisms

Metabolism

Cells transform energy while maintaining

No metabolism done

Growth

their identity and reproduce through metabolism Grow from within, using food obtained from nutrition. The molecules are formed into new living material.

Non-living objects, such as a crystal or a stalagmite, grow by addition of new material to their outside surface.

Reproduction

Life span is limited but organisms have an ability to perpetuate life. The offsprings have the same general characteristics as of their parents. Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), containing the coded information, are passed on to the next generation.

Can be broken down into new or similar objects, but cannot produce products that can grow to a similar size or shape as their own.

Nutrition

Need food and other material for life

Objects do not require energy for

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processes. Light and chemical energy are the only two energy sources.

Respiration

Energy is released during the breakdown

their survival. If, however, some input is added to the object, it may

Organisation

Such complex organisation is not

of energy-rich compounds, the process called as respiration. This energy is stored up in molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), known as 'universal energy carrier', present in all living cells.

lose its original identity. No inbuilt mechanism is available for the generation, consumption and storage of energy.

Occur in definite shapes, sizes and possess inherited physical and chemical composition. The whole organism can be brought down to organs, tissues and cells.

present here. Example : Water (H 2 O) can be found in various physical forms such as a dew drop, ice, vapour or vast ocean.

Adaptation and

responsiveness

Have the ability to respond to changes in

Changes, physical or chemical, are

presence of acids and bases; physical, heat

both internal and external environments,

bound to destruct the inanimate

therefore, survival chances are maximum. The change may be chemical, such as

objects, either in shape, size or composition.

or light; mechanical, a contact or a blow. The responsiveness to such changes brings about

structural, physiological or behavioural

changes in animals or plants. Permanent

adaptation, however, may occur over

generations.

Movement

Some organisms are mobile. They move from

Inanimate objects move under the

place to place, as animals or some bacteria, in

influence of physical or chemical

search of food or for survival. Plants, unlike

forces. Movement of plants is due to

mobile organisms, manufacture their own

gravitational and centrifugal forces.

food from raw material obtained in one place. Inanimate objects cannot move on

However, some movement can occur in plants their own. as well, such as the growth of a leaf towards the sun or a flower closing at night.

Excretion

Excretion is removal of waste products from the body that are left after metabolism. Example : Excess proteins cannot be stored in animals and must be broken down and expelled.

Four Groups of Biological Entities

Four Groups

Four Groups of Biological Entities

Four

Four

Groups of

Groups

of Biological

of

Biological Entities

Biological

Entities Entities

No metabolism or nutritional intake, therefore, no excretion takes place.

  • (a) Archaea : These are a group of organisms that can live in extremely hostile habitats like thermal volcanic vents, saline pools and hot springs. Like bacteria, archaea are single-celled organisms. They are sometimes referred to as archaebacteria.

  • (b) Bacteria : Bacteria are simple single-celled organisms that generally lack chlorophyll (cyanobacteria are an exception). They have a prokaryote cell type. It is through the breakdown of organic matter, that is, through fermentation and respiration that bacteria derive energy to sustain themselves. They also help in maintenance of nitrogen in the atmosphere (Rhizobium spp. and cyanobacteria). The oldest fossils of life on Earth are bacteria-like organisms.

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  • (c) Eukaryota : All organisms with a eukaryote cell type are termed eukaryota. Included in this group are the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae.

  • (d) Viruses : These are fragments of DNA or RNA, which depend for reproduction on the hos cell that they infect. They are not cells but are thought to be parts of the genetic code that originated from eukaryote or prokaryote cells. The viruses, at times, are metabolically inert and technically non-living but can cause several diseases in eukaryote organisms. In humans, they can cause smallpox, chicken pox, influenza, shingles, herpes, polio, ebola, AIDS, rabies and some types of cancer.

Major Fields of Biology

Major Fields of Biology

Major Fields

Major

Major

Fields

of Biology

of

Biology

Biology

Fields of

  • l Anatomy : Structure and organisation of living things.

  • l Bacteriology : Study of Bacteria.

  • l Biochemistry : Chemical processes and substances occurring in living things.

  • l Biophysics : Applies tools and techniques of the physics in the study of living things.

  • l Botany : Study of plants.

  • l Cryobiology : Analysis how extermely low temperatures affect living things.

  • l Cytology : Structure, composition and function of cells.

  • l Ecology : Relationships between living things and environment.

  • l Embryology : Formation and development of plants and animals through fertilization until they become independent organisms.

  • l Entomology : Study of insects.

  • l Ethology : Animal behaviour under natural conditions.

  • l Evolutionary biology : Study of evolution of organisms.

  • l Ichthyology : Ichthyology is study of fish.

  • l Immunology : Study of body's defence mechanism against diseases and foreign substances.

  • l Limnology : Bodies of fresh water and the organisms found in them.

  • l Marine biology : Investigates sea life.

  • l Medicine : Science and art of healing.

  • l Microbiology : Study of microscopic organisms.

  • l Molecular biology : Analysis of molecular process in cells.

  • l Neurobiology : Study of nervous system of animals.

  • l Ornithology : Study of birds.

  • l Palaentology : Study of fossils.

  • l Pathology : Examines the changes in body leading to the disease or changes caused by the disease.

  • l Physiology : Function of living things.

  • l Sociobiology : Focuses on biological basis for social behaviour in human beings and other animals.

  • l Taxonomy (Systematics) : Scientific classification of plants and animals.

  • l Virology : Deals with viruses and viral diseases.

  • l Zoology : Study of animals.

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Organism Group

Marine invertebrates Fish

Land Plants Amphibians Reptiles Mammals Flowering plants Huminid line

Time of origin

570 million years ago 505 million years ago 438 million years ago 408 million years ago 320 million years ago 208 million years ago 140 million years ago 20-15 million years ago

Practice Questions

Practice Questions

Practice Questions

Practice

Practice

Questions

Questions

  • 1. Which of the following scientist introduced the word 'biology'?

  • (a) Aristotle

(b)

Henry Huxley

  • (c) Lamark

(d)

Carl Linneaus

  • 2. Zoology comes under which part of biology?

  • (a) Basic biology

(b)

Applied biology

  • (c) Botany

(d)

Microbiology

  • 3. Which of the following statement is wrong for Living Objects?

    • (a) Cell transform energy and reproduce through metabolism

    • (b) Used food to get nutrition for their growth

    • (c) Offsprings may or may not have general characteristics as of their parents

    • (d) Light and chemical energy are the only two energy sources for living organism

  • 4. Archaea are :

    • (a) (b)

  • bacteria

    • (c) (d)

    both

    Single-celled organisms

    None of these

    • 5. Which of the following are fragments of DNA or RNA?

      • (a) (b)

    Viruses

    • (c) (d)

    Bacteria

    Eukaryota

    Archaea

    • 6. Which of the following are prokaryote cell type organisms?

      • (a) (b)

    Viruses

    • (c) (d)

    Archaea

    Bacteria

    None of these

    • 7. Which of the following kingdoms belong to Prokaryota?

      • (a) (b)

    Protista

    • (c) (d)

    Animalia

    Fungi

    Plantae

    • 8. What is regarded as a link between the living and non-living?

      • (a) (b)

    amoeba

    • (c) (d)

    bacteria

    virus

    RNA

    Answers Answers Answers Answers Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers

    1. (a) 3. (b) 5. (b) 7. (c)

    2. (a) 4. (d) 6. (c) 8. (a)

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    2

    Classification of Organisms

    13 General Science 2 Classification of Organisms Classification Classification Classification Classification Classification Classification is grouping things

    Classification

    Classification

    Classification

    Classification

    Classification

    Classification is grouping things together on the basis or certain features and the science of classification is called taxonomy. Taxonomy has two branches - 'nomenclature' (the naming of the organisms) and 'systematics' (the placing of organisms together). These needs were met by the work of the famous Swedish naturalist, Carolus Linnaues who described his system of classification

    in a book called "Systima Natural" and also put forth the concept of bionomial nomenclature in

    1758.

    Binomial Nomenclature

    Binomial Nomenclature

    Binomial Nomenclature

    Binomial

    Binomial

    Nomenclature

    Nomenclature

    According to this system of nomenclature being universally followed since then, the name of

    every living organism consists of two words. The first word refers to the generic name (name of

    the genus) which it shares with related forms and the second word is a specific eithet. The two

    words together constitute the name of the species.

    Other Important Types of Classifications

    Other Important Types of Classifications

    Other Important

    Other

    Important Types

    Important

    Types

    Types of

    of

    Classifications Classifications

    Other

    of Classifications

    Artificial classification : Usually designed for practical purpose with an emphasis on

    convenience and simplicity, this category is based on one or a few easily observed characteristics.

    Natural classification : It considers more evidence than artificial classification, including internal as well as external features, and tries to use natural relationships between organisms.

    Phylogenetic classification : Based on evolutionary relationships, this system proposes that organisms belonging to the same groups have common ancestors. The phylogeny (evolutionary history) of a group can be shown be means of a family tree. Cladisdes, a form of phylogenetic classification, is the most popular method for the classification of organisms.

    Phenetic classification : If there is little or no fossil evidence, it can be difficult and even controversial, to establish evolutionary relationships. Phenetic classification, therefore, relies solely on observable characteristics, all of which are considered equally important.

    The Five Kingdoms

    The Five Kingdoms

    The Five

    The

    The

    Five Kingdoms

    Five

    Kingdoms Kingdoms

    Taxonomists in the last few decades have felt that the classification is artificial and quite unsatisfactory. Therefore there have been attempts during this period to devise systems. The system currently gaining maximum support is that of R.H.O. Whittaker (1969), He divides organisms into five kingdoms.

    • (a) Bacterial conjugation : Transfer of DNA from one bacterial cell to another vial a special protein structure called a conjungation pilus.

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    • (b) Transformation : Transfer of naked DNA from one bacterial cell to another in solution (this can include dead bacteria).

    • (c) Transduction : Transfer of viral, bacterial or both bacterial and viral DNA from one cell to another via bacteriophage.

    After acquiring DNA from any of these events, bacteria can undergo fission and pass the recombined genome to new progeny cells. Many bacteria harbour plasmids that contain extrachromosomal DNA. Under favourable conditions, bacteria may form aggregates to naked eyes, such as bacterial mats.

    • l Symbiosis (Greek symbioum, "to live together") looks into the interdependence of different species, which are sometimes called symbionts. The symbiosis resulting in mutual benefits to interdependent organisms is called mutualism. Example : Rhizobium, a nitrogen-fixer living in the root nodules of legumes such as pea and clover.

    • l Parasitism is a kind of relationship between organisms of different species in which one (the parasite) benefits from a prolonged, close association with the other (the host), which is harmed. In general, parasites are much smaller than their hosts, show a high degree of specialisation for their mode of life and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts. Parasites that cause disease are called pathogens.

    • l Commensalism, another type of symbiosis, defines the association between two different kinds of non-parasitic animals, called commensals. It is harmless to both and beneficial to one of the two organisms. The association of colour bacteria with humans and other animals, especially plant-eaters, is also a type of commensalism.

    Reproduction in Bacteria

    The reproduction in bacteria is asexual, through binary fission or simple cell division. Here,

    one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a transverse cell.

    Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae) is a photosynthetic bacteria containing chlorophyll.

    Classified under plant kingdom earlier, discoveries through electronic microscope and new biochemical techniques, however, showed them to be prokaryotes, more similar to bacteria than plants. Now, they are placed under kingdom Monera. Cyanobacteria are familiar to many as a component of pond scum.

    Viruses

    Viruses

    Viruses

    Viruses

    Viruses

    Viruses are the smallest living organisms, but without a cellular structure. They have a simple structure, consisting of a small piece of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein or lipoprotein coat. They can reproduce by invading living cells, therefore are all parasitic.

    Structure of Viruses

    The structure of viruses comprises :

    • (a) Core : The genetic material, either DNA or RNA, which may be single stranded or double stranded.

    • (b) Capsid : A protective coat of protein surrounding the core.

    • (c) Nucleocapsid : The combined structure formed by the core and capsid.

    • (d) Envelope : A few viruses, such as HIV and influenza viruses, have an additional lipoprotein layer around the capsid, derived from the cell surface membrane of the host cell.

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    General Science

    • (e) Capsomers : Capsids are often built up of identical repeating subunits called capsomers.

    Kingdom Protista

    Kingdom Protista

    Kingdom Protista

    Kingdom

    Kingdom

    Protista

    Protista

    Kingdom Protista consists of unicellular or colonial eukaryotes with diverse nutritional habits and reproduces, both sexually and asexually, through meiosis and nuclear fusion, respectively. Those interested in evolution find the group fascinating, as its organisms are the link between prokaryotes and the modern eukaryotes like plants and animals. A wide variety of protista organisms exist, inhabiting in different environments like freshwater, seawater, soils and intestines of animals (where they perform crucial digestive processes).

    Structure of Protists

    Most protists contain membrane-bounded organelles (cellular parts) called 'mitochondria', which break down complex molecules and in the process, release chemical energy that powers the rest of the cell. In addition to mitochondria and nuclei, membrane-bound organelles called 'plastids', which perform photosynthesis, are found in the protist cell structure.

    Algae : Algae are placed in kingdom Protista due to their occurrence in microscopic forms, but many of them have characteristics in common with plants, such as contain cell walls, green pigment chlorophyl and manufacture own food through photosynthesis. Chlorophyll may be masked by other pigments, giving various kinds of algae of different colours.

    Kingdom Fungi

    Kingdom Fungi

    Kingdom Fungi

    Kingdom

    Kingdom

    Fungi

    Fungi

    Kingdom Fungi comprises of numerous moulds that grown on damp organic matter (such as

    bread, leather, decaying vegetation and dead fish) and unicellular yeasts that are abundant on

    sugary surfaces of the ripe fruits and many parasite plants. Though botanists classified fungi in

    the plant kingdom, biologists later considered it as a separate kingdom. Most fungi can be seen

    through naked eye and its study is called 'mycology' ('mykes' mushrooms). They are sub-divided

    on the basis of mycelium morphology and mode of nutrition and reproduction.

    Characteristics Of Fungi (Kingdom Fungi)

    • l The absence of chlorophyll makes fungi non-photosynthetic therefore, they resort to heterotrophic nutrition.

    • l Can be mutualists, parasites or saprotrophs.

    • l Digestion takes place outside the body and nutrients are absorbed directly.

    • l Body is usually a 'mycelium', a network of five tubular filaments called 'hyphae'. These may be septate (have cross-walls, like Penicillium) or aseptate (no cross-walls, e.g. Mucor).

    • l Rigid cell walls containing 'chitin' as the fibrillar material (Chitin is nitrogen-containing, polysaccharide, very similar in structure to cellulose with high tensile strength). It, therefore gives shape to the hyphae and prevents osmotic bursting of cells.

    • l If carbohydrate is stored, it is usually as 'glycogen' and not starch. They reproduce by means of spores and are non-motile organisms.

    Classification of Fungi

    Classification of Fungi

    Classification of

    Classification

    of

    of Fungi

    Fungi

    Fungi

    Classification

    Fungi are categorised on the basis of reproduction modes, kinds of life cycle and growth forms.

    • (a) Zygomycota Terrestrial species including several important decomposers, mycorhizal fungi and parasites of spiders and other insects, fall in this category.

    • (b) Ascomycota also called sac fungi, it is the largest group of fungi which includes yeast, lichens, movels, cup-fungi, truffles and a number of plant parasites such as powdery mildew.

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    • (c) Basidiomycota or club fungi include mushrooms, puff-balls, birds nest fungi, jelly fungi, rusts, smuts and shelf and bracket fungi. Also grouped under this category are vital plant parasites, mutualists and saprobes, including decay fungi that cause brown rot and white rot of wood.

    • (d) Denteremycetes or 'fungi imperfecti' : The reproduction in some fungi is through asexual mode either by detached mycelium or by vegetative spores and conidia. Such fungi that reproduce exclusively by asexual reproduction are placed under the artificial group called 'fungi imperfecti' or imperfect fungi.

    Kingdom Plantae (Plant Kingdom)

    Kingdom Plantae (Plant Kingdom)

    Kingdom Plantae

    Kingdom

    Kingdom

    Plantae

    Plantae (Plant

    (Plant Kingdom)

    (Plant

    Kingdom) Kingdom)

    Classification of Plant Kingdom

    With about 2.5 lakh species of mosses, liverworts, ferns, flowers, bushes, trees and other plants, the Kingdom Plantae accounts for the largest proportion of the Earth's biomass. Aquatic and terrestrial plants, which are the basis of all food webs, contribute life-supporting oxygen to the atmosphere and provide to the humans fossil fuels, medicines and other substances required for

    existence.

    General Science 16 (c) Basidiomycota or club fungi include mushrooms, puff-balls, birds nest fungi, jelly fungi,

    Bryophytes : Found mostly in moist places, bryophytes are simple, non-vascular small plants with thalius like body, which remains attached to the soil by 'rhizoids'. The mode of reproduction is mainly sexual and they lack roots, flowers and seeds. Bryophytes are embryo-bearing plants of three plant divisions - Bryophyta (mosses), Hepatophyta (liverwort) and Anthocerophyta (hornworts). In their level of organisation, bryophytes lie between chlorophyts (from which they are likely to be evolved and simpler, lower vascular plants like the Lycopodophyta.

    Tracheophytes : Found only on land, tracheophytes are a collective term applied to vascular plants of a division or phyla. The nine divisions can be divided into two main groups - pteridophytes and permatophytes.

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    • A. Pteridophytes (Lower Seedless Vascular Plant)

    Lycopodophyta : Multicellular terrestrial plants with vascular tissues, lycopodophyte's body are differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. The spores are produced in the axils of fertile leaves most aggregated into club-like terminal cones. Club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts are common examples.

    Arthrophyta : Possessing upright stems that grow from underground branches, arthrophyta, too are multicellular plants with vascular tissues. The plant body is divided into roots, stem and small whorled leaves. They are largely an extinct group, represented by a single living genus the 'Equisetum' (the horsetails).

    Pterophyta : They contain spores for reproduction, which usually are produced on the lower surface of leaves on their margins. Pterophyta also are multicellular plants with vascular tissues, their body differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. Here, seeds are not produced.

    B. Spermatophytes

    B.

    B.

    B.

    B.

    Spermatophytes

    Spermatophytes

    Spermatophytes

    Spermatophytes

    These plants have seeds and are divided as (i) Gymnosperm (Latin gymn 'naked' and Greek sperma 'seed') and (ii) Angiosperm (Latin angi 'enclosed' and Greek sperma 'seed' meaning seed inside fruits).

    Gymnosperm : These are further divided into :

    • l Cycadophyta : These are multicellular terrestrial plants with vascular tissues (without vessels). The plant body is divided into root, stem and leaves. The stem is large and woody, leaves are large and fern like. Example - Cycus (sago palm), Zamia (sago tree).

    • l Coniferophyta : Multicellular plants with well-developed tissues, the main plant body of 'coniferophyta' is large and woody leaves are simple, smaller than cycodophyta and needle- like. Example - Cedrus (deodar) and Taxus (yew).

    • l Angiosperms (or Authrophyta) : This category includes more advanced flowering plants with well developed vascular tissues and makes up for more than half of all known species of plants, about 20,000. They are predominantly saprophytic, possess a well-differentiated body of roots, stem and leaves and occur in almost all places. on the basis of age they are grouped as

      • (a) Perennials : living for many years,

      • (b) Annuals : producing flowers and fruits in the course of a single season,

      • (c) Biennials : living for two seasons.

    Angiosperms are broadly divided into two classes :

    • l Dicotyledons : Possessing two cotyledons (seed leaves that usually do not become foliage leaves but serve to provide food for the new seedling) in their seeds, these plants may be annuals, biennials or perennials. Example - Gram.

    • l Monocotyledons : Mostly annuals with a single cotyledon in their seeds, these plants do not have any secondary growth and their features include flower parts in threes : one cotyledon leaf veins (which are usually parallel) and vascular tissues (present in scatterred bundles in the stem).

    Other Classifications

    Other Classifications

    Other Classifications

    Other

    Other

    Classifications

    Classifications

    • (a) Terrestrial plants - grow on soil.

    • (b) Hydrophytes - grow in water.

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    • (c) Epiphytes - perch on other plants, but do not take nourishment from them. They are not rooted in the soil but upon branches and stems of other plants. Example - Urn.

    • (d) Xerophytes - grow in dry habitats like deserts. Example - Cacti.

    • (e) Mesophytes - thrive under conditions intermediate between very wet and very dry. A great variety of crops like beans, tomatoes, peas etc. belong to this category.

    • (f) Parasitic - lack chlorophyll and therefore cannot prepare their own food.

    • (g) Carnivorous - trap insects and other small creatures on their sticky leaves and digest them to obtain nitrogen and other material essential for their growth. Example - Insectivorous plants like pitcher plant and bladderwort.

    Kingdom Animalia (Animal Kingdom)

    Kingdom Animalia (Animal Kingdom)

    Kingdom Animalia

    Kingdom

    Kingdom

    Animalia

    Animalia (Animal

    (Animal Kingdom)

    (Animal

    Kingdom) Kingdom)

    Kingdom Animals has all animals as its members, but does not contain prokaryotes or protists. All members are multicellular and heterotrophs, relying directly or indirectly on other organisms for nourishment. Most ingest food and digest it in an internal cavity.

    General Science 18 (c) Epiphytes - perch on other plants, but do not take nourishment from

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    General Science

    The rigid cell wall that characterises plant cells is absent here. The bodies of animals (except sponges) are made up of cells organised into tissues, each specialised to a certain extent to execute specific functions. As compared to plants and other organisms, most animals are capable of rapid movement. They reproduce sexually, by means of differentiated eggs and sperms are diploid.

    While the exact number is yet to be known, about 10 million animal species are found on Earth. They may vary in size from no more than a few cells to organisms weighing several tonnes such as blue whales and giant squids.

    Protozoa

    Protozoa

    Protozoa

    Protozoa

    Protozoa

    Protozoa, the single-celled microscopic organisms, includes flagellated Zoomastigina as its members, many of which live as parasites on plants and animals. All functions of protozoa are performed within the single cell itself. Examples : Amoeba, sarcodina.

    Metazoa

    Metazoa

    Metazoa

    Metazoa

    Metazoa

    All animals, including humans are placed under the metazoa sub-kingodm. They are multicellular organism in which cells are grouped together to form tissues, organs and systems. Metazoa are divided in two main groups :

    • 1. Invertibrates (Non-chordata Phyla) : Commonly called sponges, non-chordates do not possess a vertebral column; they lack a backbone and up till now the most abundant species on Earth. Nearly 2 million such animals have been identified so far, constituting about 98 percent of the total members identified in the entire animal kingdom. Many invertebrates, such as earthworms, have no hard body parts at all and their body shape is maintained by means of an internal pressure, similar to the one in an inflated balloon.

    • 2. Vertebrates (Phylum Chordata) : These are animals that possess a backbone or spinal column, made of interlocking units called vertebrate. Also called as phylum Chordata, vertebrates have a strong but flexible structure that supports the body and anchors the limbs. They also protect the nerves of the spinal cord. They include fish, amphibians and reptiles, as well as birds and mammals. In all vertebrates, the spinal column forms part of a complete internal skeleton, which can grow gradually along with the rest of the body.

    Four Evolutionary Lines of Placemental Mammals

    • (a) Insectivorous Includes primitive insect-eating placental mammals and the group arising from it, such as bats and primates.

    • (b) Rodents and rabbits Both groups have no canines. The incisors are adapted for gnawing.

    • (c) Whales, dolphins and tortoises The are aquatic placental mammals and have flipper like fore limbs and lack hand limbs.

    • (d) Elephants, carnivoures and ungulates Elephants have padded feet and no hoovers. Their trunk is an elongated nose and the tusks are modified incisors, Carnivores are flesh eating ungulates are hoofed herbivorous mammals.

    Family Hominidae

    Family Hominidae

    Family Hominidae

    Family

    Family

    Hominidae

    Hominidae

    The family that humans belong to 'Family Hominidae' also includes chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans. There are only four generae and six species in this family, but it is a very diverse group. Male hominids are larger than females, and they have opposable thumbs and big toes, except for humans. Hominids, probably the most advanced family in the world, possess developed forearms with legs longer than the arms. They lack a tail and all the species in this family, other than humans are good tree climbers. Hominids also have a unique structure of their teeth with

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    canines and have not developed into tusks and broad incisors. Following species are included under the family hominidae.

    • l Gorilla beringei beringei

    Mountain gorilla

    • l Gorilla gorilla gorilla

    Western lowland gorilla

    Homo sapiens

    • l

    Humans

    Pan paniscus

    • l

    Bonobo or pygmy chimpanzee

    Pan troglodytes

    • l

    Chimpanzee

    • l Pongo pygmaeus

    Orangutan

    Homo sapiens – Humans

    Homo sapiens (our species) are the only living species in the Homo genus. The main characteristics here are bipedal posture, excellent eyesight and a large brain that allows problem solving capabilities and innovative thinking. The head is larger than other primates because the skull requires room to enclose the large brain. Humans also have a highly developed nervous system and strong senses.

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice

    Practice

    Questions

    Questions

    • 1. Crows and pigeons are :

    • (a) (b)

    warm blooded

    cold blooded

    • (c) neither (a) nor (b)

    (d)

    both (a) and (b)

    • 2. Cud-chewing animals are knows as :

    • (a) (b)

    frugivores

    sanguivores

    • (c) (d)

    ruminant

    cannibals

    • 3. Fungi are always :

    • (a) (b)

    autotrophic

    heterotrophic

    • (c) (d)

    parasitic

    saprophytic

    • 4. Man has become the dominant species in the biosphere because of his :

      • (a) tool making capacity

      • (b) ingenious brainpower

      • (c) articulated speech and language

      • (d) all the above mentioned qualities

  • 5. Which of the following is a carnivorous plant?

    • (a) urn plant

    (b)

    pitcher plant

    • (c) cacti

    (d)

    ribbon plant

    • 6. Which of the following is a parasitic plant?

    • (a) marchantia

    (b)

    kelp

    • (c) mushroom

    (d)

    pteris

    • 7. Which of the following is an amphibian?

    • (a) whale

    (b)

    turtle

    • (c) frog

    (d)

    cow

    21

    General Science

    • 8. Which of the following is not a mammal?

    • (a) (b)

    fish

    cow

    • (c) (d)

    goat

    whale

    • 9. The banana plant is :

    • (a) (b)

    shrub

    herb

    • (c) (d)

    tree

    none of the above

    • 10. Every multicellular organism, be it a microscopic algae, a banyan tree or a human being, starts as a single cell called a/an :

    • (a) (b)

    egg

    sperm

    • (c) (d)

    nucleus

    gene

    • 11. The life span of which of the following may extend up to 140 years?

    • (a) (b)

    monkey

    parrot

    • (c) (d)

    eagle

    none of the above

    • 12. The life span of which of the following may extend up to 3000 years?

    • (a) (b)

    sequoia

    tortoise

    • (c) (d)

    banyan tree

    none of the above

    • 13. Fern belongs to :

    • (a) (b)

    bryophyta

    pterophyta

    • (c) (d)

    anthophyta

    none of these

    • 14. Ferns, club mosses and horsetails are all included in :

    • (a) monocotyledons

    (b)

    dicotyledons

    • (c) (d)

    gymnosperms

    pteridophytes

    • 15. Vascular plants with flowers, fruits and seeds are grouped under :

    • (a) (b)

    angiosperms

    gymnosperms

    • (c) (d)

    pteridophtes

    bryophtes

    • 16. Vascular plants with seeds but not fruit are grouped under :

    • (a) (b)

    bryophytes

    pteridophytes

    • (c) (d)

    gymnosperms

    angiosperms

    • 17. Vascular plants without seeds are grouped under :

    • (a) (b)

    gymnosperm

    ferns

    • (c) (d)

    angiosperms

    bryophytes

    Answers Answers Answers Answers Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers

    1. (a) 5. (b) 9. (a) 13. (b)

    2. (a) 6. (c) 10. (b) 14. (d)

    3. (b) 7. (c) 11. (b) 15. (a)

    4. (d) 8. (c) 12. (a) 16. (c)

    17. (b)

    General Science

    22

    23

    General Science

    Biology of a Cell

    3
    3
    23 General Science Biology of a Cell 3 The Cell The Cell The Cell The The

    The Cell

    The Cell

    The Cell

    The

    The

    Cell

    Cell

    Cells are the basic unit of life and the smallest part of a living organism that can lead an independent life. The discovery of cell was made by Robert Hooke (1665) as when he observed a section of cork under his microscope and found that the structure is resembling a 'honey comb'. He gave the name 'cell' to each of the compartments of the structure. Further observations concluded that each and every living organism is made up of cells.

    Size and Shape of Cells

    They vary considerably in size with the smallest cell, mycoplasma (a type of bacterium),

    measuring 0.0001 mm in diameter while the largest ones, such as the nerve cells running down a

    giraffe's neck may exceed 3 metre in length. In humans, small red blood cells (RBCs) measure

    only 0.00076 mm while liver cells may be 10 times larger. About 10,000 average sized human cells

    can fit on the head of a pin.

    Cell Structure

    Cell Structure

    Cell Structure

    Cell

    Cell

    Structure

    Structure

    Generalised Structure of a Cell

    Every cell is surrounded by a membrane or a living covering through which it consumes what it requires from the atmosphere and discharges what is superfluous. Withing the membrane is there protoplasm.

    Parts of the Protoplasm : The nucleus controls and directs the activities of all other parts of the cell. The remainder is known as cytoplasm, where many vital activities of the cell takes place. The diagram shows the following structures under an ordinary microscope :

    23 General Science Biology of a Cell 3 The Cell The Cell The Cell The The

    General Science

    24

    • (a) Cell wall is found only in plant cells and consists of non-living substances such as lignin, pectin and cellulose.

    • (b) Cell membrane (Plasmalemma) is found both in animals and plants. It is the outer membrane of the cytoplasm and consists of living substances such as proteins.

    • (c) Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of tubes or channels of membrane in the cytoplasm, which help in protein synthesis and conduction of material.

    • (d) Ribosomes are extremely small dense, granular and spherical bodies found in a free state in the cytoplasm and are composed of RNA and proteins. They help in the synthesis of protein from amino acids.

    • (e) Golgi apparatus (Golgi bodies) are bag like structures formed of stacks of membranes. They are called 'dictyosomes' in plants and their functions include secretion of various substances from amino acids.

    • (f) Vacuoles are fluid-filled sacs within a cell. In plant cells, they are very big and surrounded by a membrane called 'tonoplast' while in animals, they are tiny. Their functions include osmo-regulation and maintenance of cell turgidity.

    • (g) Mitochondria are rod-like or spherical semi-solid structures containing DNA in its matrix along with some enzymes, which are found in all cells. They synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (energy storing molecules).

    • (h) Plastids are small bodies found in the cells of higher plants. They are of two types : 'Lucoplasts' which are colourless and store starch, protein or lipids; and 'Chromoplasts' which are coloured and further have two sub-groups : (i) non-photosynthetic chromoplasts (providing colour in flowers, fruits and leaves) and (ii) photosynthetic chromoplasts (manufacture food from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight).

    • (i) Nucleus may be round, oval, cylindrical or elongated in shape. Each nucleus is bound by the nuclear membrane, which contains 'nucleoplasm'. Nucleoplasm consists of 'chromatin' and 'nucleoli'. Chromatin consists of DNA, RNA and proteins. The nucleus controls all cell activities and is responsible for the transfer of hereditary characters and also assists in cell division.

    • (j) Centrosome, a dense area of the protoplasm, lies close to the nucleus and is usually found in animal cells. In the middle of the centrosome are two small dot-like bodies called centrioles. They form a spindle during cell division.

    • (k) Cillian and flagella are fine extensions of the cell surface and are similar in structure. They help in locomotion or movement and in some animals also help in feeding.

    • (l) Cell inclusions are non-living substances, present either in cytoplasm of the cell or in vacuoles. In animals, cell inclusions are in the form of secretory granules, such as zymogen granules, haemoglobin in RBCs; food material in the form of glycogen in liver cells and as pigments in skin, eye and hair cells. In plant cells, they are present in the form of food particles, such as starch granules, oil globules or excretory products like resin, gum etc.

    Plant and Animal Cells

    Animal Cells

    Plant and Animal Cells

    Plant and

    Plant

    Plant

    and Animal

    and

    Animal

    Cells

    Cells

    The living world has two types of cellular organisation first type, the prokaryotes, there is no definite membrane bound nucleus in contrast to the eukaryotes, which have a defined nucleus with a double membrane.

    25

     

    General Science

     

    Animal Cell

    Plant Cell

    • 1. Usually smaller in size

    1.

    Comparatively larger in size

    • 2. Enclosed by plasma membrane only

    2.

    In addition to plasma membrane, surrounded by a thick cell wall

    • 3. Plastids absent

    3.

    Plastids are very common

    • 4. Cytoplasm consists largely of smaller vacuole

    4.

    Cytoplasm peripheral central space occupied by a large vacuole

    • 5. Prominent and highly complex Golgi bodies present near nucleus

    5.

    Contain several sub-units of Golgi apparatus called dictyosomes

    • 6. Possess centrosome with one or two

    6.

    Instead two small clear areas called polar

    centrioles

    caps are present

    Cell Division in Animal and Plant Cells

    Plant Cells

    Animal Cells

    Centriole absent

    Centrioles exist

    Aster forms

    No aster forms

    Cell division involves formation of a cell plate

    Cell division involves formation and cleavage of cytoplasm

    Occurs mainly in main stem

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

    Eukaryotic Cell

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

    Prokaryotic and

    Prokaryotic

    Prokaryotic

    and

    and Eukaryotic

    Eukaryotic

    Cell

    Cell

    Occurs in tissues throughout the body

    Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Structure

    Prokaryotic Cells

    Eukaryotic Cells

     

    Cell Size

    Mostly very small (1-10 micrometers in diameter)

    Much larger, mostly 10-100 micrometers (µm)

    of some cyanobacteria may be larger (upto 60 µm) in diameter.

     

    and cells of 'Mycoplasmas' (smallest bacteria) are

    only 0.2-0.3 mm in diameter.

    Cell Wall

    Present, except in 'Mycoplasma' but chemically

    Absent in animals and Protozoa, present in

    different from plant cell walls in being made up plants (made up of cellulose) and Fungi

    of peptides and polysaccharide (peptidoglycans). (made up of chitin).

     

    Cytoskeleton

    Absent

    Present,

    made

    up

    of

    microfibresand

     

    microbules.

    Plasma Membrane

    Present (lipoproteinaceous) but chemically often Present (lipoproteinaceous). different.

     

    Intracellular

    Absent

    Present, comprising gendoplasmic reticulum

    Membrane System Other Cell organelles

    Absent, except ribosomes

    and Golgi bodies Organelles like mitochondria, microbodies,

    DNA

    lysosomes, chloroplasts (or proplastids), centrioles or basal bodies and ribosomes present in various groups. Multiple DNA molecules (linear, not circular)

     

    Single circular DNA molecule without associated proteins (naked DNA).

    with associated proteins to form many chromosomes.

    Cell Division

    Binary fission, budding or other means; no Both by mitosis (equational) and meiosis

    mitosis or meiosis.

    (reductional).

    Ribosomes Vacuoles

    Smaller in size (70s type), Absent.

    Larger (80s type). May be present or absent.

    Plasmid

    Often present

    (as very small extrachromosomal

    Absent but very small circular DNA molecule

    circular DNA molecule). present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    General Science

    General Science 26 Cell Division Cell Division Cell Division Cell Division Division Cell Cell division is

    26

    Cell Division

    Cell Division

    Cell Division

    Cell

    Division

    Division

    Cell

    Cell division is the process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called daughter cells. Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. In meiosis however, a cell is permanently transformed and cannot divide again.

    Three types of cell division occur : binary fission, mitosis and meiosis.

    • 1. Binary fission : It is the method used by prokaryotes. It produces two identical cells from one cell.

    • 2. The more complex process of mitosis, which also produces two genetically, identical cells from a single cell, is used by many uni-cellular eukaryotic organisms for reproduction.

    • 3. Multicellular organisms use mitosis for growth, cell repair and cell replacement.

    Mitosis

    Mitosis or mitotic division or karyokinesis or indirect cell division.

    The mitotic division occurs in the body cells (somatic cells) of the organism and therefore it is also called somatic cell division.

    Since the number of chromosomes remains the same during mitosis, this division is also referred to as the equational division. Although it is a continuous process, mitosis is generally divided into four phases - (a) prophase; (b) metaphase; (c) anaphase; (d) telophase.

    The events during the cell division are almost similar in plants and animals, but the difference

    lies in the formation of the spindle and cytokinesis. In animal cells the centrioles are responsible

    for the formation of spindle. The microtubules radiating from the centrioles form aster and are

    instrumental in establishing the spindle. Therefore, this kind of spindle is called 'astral spindle'.

    Since there are no centrioles in higher plants, the spindle formed is called anastral.

    In most cells (plants and animals alike), mitosis and cytokinesis take place in close sequence

    usually cytokinesis is initiated during anaphase. In animal cell, cytoplasmic division is simply by

    furrowing from the plasma membrane since there is no rigid cell wall but in plants it begins in the

    centre proceeding towards the periphery by the formation of a cell plate.

    Meiosis

    Prophase I : It is the longest phase divided into four stages :

    • 1. Early Prophase I (chromosomes shorten and become visible as single structures),

    • 2. Prophase I (homologous chromosomes pair up in a process called 'synopsis'. Each pair is called 'bivalent', one coming from male parent and the other from female. Each chromosome and its centromeres are clearly visible here).

    • 3. In the next stage, crossing over takes place (homologous chromosomes appear to repel each other and are partially separate. The stage is called crossing over phase and the two chromosomes are joined at several points along their length, the joining points called as 'chiasmata (cross) and

    • 4. The chromosomes of homologous chromosomes continue to repel each other and bivalents assume particular shapes, depending upon the number of chiasmatas.

    • l Metaphase I : The bivalents become arranged around the quarter of the spindle attached by their centromeres.

    • l Anaphase I : Spindle fibre pulls homologous chromosomes and centromeres towards opposite poles of the spindles, separating chromosomes into two haploids sets, one at each end of the spindle.

    27

    General Science

    • l Telophase I : The arrival of homologous chromosomes marks the end of Meiosis I. Though the chromosomes divide into halves, two chromatids still remain present.

    • l Interphase II : Varying in length, this stage is usually present only in animal cells. No further DNA replication occurs here.

    • l Meiosis II : Meiosis II is very similar to mitosis.

    • l Prophase II : This is absent if Interphase II is absent. The nucleoli and nuclear envelope disperse, chromatids shorten and thicken and the spindle fibre appears.

    27 General Science l Telophase I : The arrival of homologous chromosomes marks the end of
    • l Metaphase II : Chromosomes line up separately around the equator of the spindle.

    • l Anaphase II : The centromeres divide and the spindle fibres pull the chromatids to opposite poles.

    • l Telophase II : Four daughter cells are formed. The chromosomes uncoil, lengthen and become very indistinct. Spindle fibres disappear and the centrioles replicate. Nuclear envelopes reform around each nucleus, which now have half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell (halploid). The subsequent cleavage (animals) or cell wall formation (in plants) will produce four daughter cells from the original single parent cell.

    General Science

    28

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice

    Practice

    Questions

    Questions

    • 1. A mature living cell without a nucleus is a :

    • (a) sieve cell

    (b)

    sieve tube

    • (c) companion cell

    (d)

    vessel

    • 2. Chromosomes are :

      • (a) parts of the human brain

      • (b) thread-like bodies that occur in the nuclei and carry the genetic code

      • (c) constituent of blood, which produces heat in the body

      • (d) none of the above

  • 3. The plant hormone that induces cell division is :

    • (a) auxins

    (b)

    gibberellins

    • (c) cytokinis

    (d)

    domains

    • 4. The power house of energy in cells is :

    • (a) Golgi bodies

    (b)

    mitochondria

    • (c) ribosomes

    (d)

    endoplasmic reticulum

    • 5. The process of cell division can take place :

    • (a) heterosis

    (b)

    fusion

    • (c) mitosis

    (d)

    none of these

    • 6. Which of the following is absent in Prokaryotic cell organisms?

    • (a) Cell Wall

    (b)

    Cell Membrane

    • (c) Mesosomes

    (d)

    Ribosomes

    • 7. Cell recognition and adhesion occur due to biochemicals of Cell Membrane named :

    • (a) Proteins

    (b)

    Lipids

    • (c) Proteins and lipids

    (d)

    Glycoproteins and glycolipids

    • 8. Cell Wall of chloroplast is removed, the remaining is called :

    • (a) Etioplast

    (b)

    Aleuroplast

    • (c) Amyloplast

    (d)

    Protoplast

    • 9. Endocyotosis is a process whereby a cell :

    • (a) digests itself

    • (b) engulfs and internalizes material using its membrane

    • (c) identifies other cells within its immediate

    • (d) enables the extracellular digestion of large molecules

    • 10. A plant cell is distinguished from an animal cell by the presence of :

    • (a) nucleus

    (b)

    chloroplasts

    • (c) cell membrane

    (d)

    cell wall

    • 11. In meiosis the daughter cells are not similar to that of parent because of :

    • (a) crossing over

    (b)

    synapsis

    • (c) both (a) and (b)

    (d)

    none of these

    29

    General Science

    • 12. Movement of cell against concentration gradient is called :

    • (a) (b)

    osmosis

    active transport

    • (c) (d)

    diffusion

    passive transport

    • 13. Which organelle does assemble ribosomes?

    • (a) nuclear envelope

    (b)

    nucleolus

    • (c) (d)

    chromosomes

    nucleoplasm

    • 14. When Plant Cell Wall is kept in saline drip cell :

    • (a) (b)

    decreases in size

    bursts out

    • (c) (d)

    increases in size

    remains unchanged

    Answers Answers Answers Answers Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers

    1. (b) 5. (c) 9. (b) 13. (b)

    2. (b) 6. (b) 10. (d) 14. (a)

    3. (c) 7. (d) 11. (a)

    (b) (d) (b)

    4. 8. 12.

    General Science

    30

    31

    General Science

    4
    4

    Organisation of Living Organism

    31 General Science 4 Organisation of Living Organism Organisation ininininin Plants Organisation Organisation Organisation Organisation Plants

    Organisation ininininin Plants

    Organisation Organisation Organisation

    Organisation

    Plants

    Plants

    Plants

    Plants

    The organisation in lower plants (algae and myophytes) is generally very simple. The cells may be organised into colonies or filaments (algae) or into flattened thallose forms (bryophytes). In large-sized marine algae (sea weeds) and some bryophtes, howeever the plant body shows differentiation into root, stem, and leaflike forms. Internally also, there is nor much differentiation of cells into different tissues. But in ferns, gymnosperms (cycads, conifers etc.) and flowering plants, the plant body is differentiated into true root, stem and leaves which in turn are made up of different kind of tissues. These plants are called vascular plants since they have a well developed

    vascular system (conducting tissues like xylem and phloem).

    Plant Tissues

    Plant Tissues

    Plant Tissues

    Plant

    Plant

    Tissues

    Tissues

    Tissues are organisations of cells of one or more types with a common origin performing

    commong functions or a set of functions. They are variously classified. However on the basis of

    their stage of development the tissues are classified into two types : meristematic tissues and

    mature non meristematic tissues.

    • (v) Axillary Meristems : These are actually the apical meristems of axillary buds but some anatomists put them in separate category – the axillary meristems, because the buds are located in axls.

    On the basis of the types of derivatives produced, the meristems are classified into the following categories :

    • 1. Protoderm : The meristem that produces cells that differentiate into epidermis is referred to as the protoderm.

    • 2. Procambium : The meristem producing primary vascular tissues (primary xylem and primary phloem) is called procambium.

    • 3. Ground Meristem : It is the meristem that produces relatively large amounts of more or less homogeneous tissues. E.g. cortex, pith or masses of sclerenchyma fibres within a spine.

    • 4. Promeristems : These are meristems that directly give rise to other meristems or to other, distinct parts of the same meristem.

    Another classification of the meristems is based on their origin or the sequence of formation of the tissues.

    • 1. Primary Meristems : The meristematic tissues whose cells develop directly from the embroyonic cells constitute the primary meristems. E.g. the root and the shoot apical meristems.

    General Science

    32

    • 2. Secondary Meristems : The tissues produced by the activity of primary meristems are called primary tissues. Any meristem that develops within these tissues constitutes the secondary meristem like the cork cambium and the vascular cambium of roots and many stems.

    Mature Tissues

    Mature Tissues

    Mature Tissues

    Mature

    Mature

    Tissues

    Tissues

    The products of the activity of all meristems differentiate into various kinds of tissues performing different functions. These tissues are called mature because it was believed that the tissues that undergo differentiation gradually lose the embryonic characteristics of the meristem and acquire mature state.

    If a mature tissue is made up of a single type of cells, it is called a 'simple tissue' but if the tissue is composed of more than one type of cells performing various functions, it is referred to as a 'complex tissue'.

    Simple Tissues

    • 1. Parenchyma is found throughout the plant and is living and capable of cell division at maturity. Usually only primary walls are prsent and these are uniformly thickened. The cells of parenchyma tissue carry out many specialised physiological functions - for example, photosynthesis, storage, secretion and wound healing. They also occur in the xylem and phloem tissue.

    • 2. Collenchyma is also living at maturity and is made up of cells unevenly thickened primary cell walls. Collenchyma tissue is pliable and functions as support tissue in young, growing portions of plants. On the basis of the pattern of thickening, the collenchyma is usually classified into four types - angular collenchyma, lamellar collenchyma, lacunar collenchyma and annular collenchyma.

    • 3. Sclerenchyma consists of cells that lack protoplasts at maturity and that have thick secondary walls usually containing lignin. Sclerenchyma tissue is important in supporting and strengthening those portions of plants that have finished growing.

    Complex Tissues

    • 1. Xylem : The xylem is primarily a conducting tissue meant for the transport of water and mineral elements. Since the transport is under tension, the walls of its conducting elements are highly thickened and therefore, provide strength to the plant body. Some of its cells are also involved in storage of water and nutrients. It is considered a complex tissue because it consists of four types of cells in the flowering plants, vessel elements, tracheids, fibres and parenchyma.

    • 2. Phloem : Phloem is meant for the transport of food material from the leaves, where it is synthesized, to the consumption/storage organs of the plant. It is considered a complex tissue because this too consists of four types of cells in flowering plants - sieve tube members, companion cells, fibres and 'parenchyma'.

    • 3. Epidermis : The epidermis is the outermost layer of the plant body and is primarily protective in function. It protects the plant against excessive loss of water through transpiration from the general surface of the shoot and also protects against microbial (fungal and bacterial) infection. Epidermis is considered a complex tissue because it consists of several types of cells, ordinary epidermal cells, guard cells, trichomes, subsidiary cells and root hairs. The leaf and stem epidermis is always covered with a thick layer of cutin. Because of its lipid nature, it is strongly hydrophobic and impervious to water. The layer of cutin over the

    33

    General Science

    surface is called cuticle. The epidermis of leaves and young twigs is interrupted by very fine pores called 'stomata' which are guarded by a pair of 'guard cells'. The guard cells together with the adjacent epidermal cells constitute the 'stomatal complex'.

    Secretory Tissues

    The tissues secreting various types of substances resin, mucilage, essential oils, gums, nectar etc. have complex structures (several types of cells) and hence in recent years they are included among the complex tissues.

    Organisation ininininin Animals

    Organisation Organisation Organisation

    Organisation

    Animals

    Animals

    Animals

    Animals

    Cells are organised into four types of tissues in higher animals including man. They are Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous tissues.

    Animal Tissues Epethelial Connective Muscular Nervous
    Animal Tissues
    Epethelial
    Connective
    Muscular
    Nervous

    Epithelial Tissue

    Epithelial tissue is the covering tissue. It forms a continuous protective layer on the entire body surface and cavities inside the body and its parts. The skin, surface layers of mouth, alimentary canal and lungs are made of epithelial tissues. The cells in epithelial tissue vary in their shape. The main functions of the epithelial tissues are :

    • 1. Inside the body they form lining of the mouth and alimentary canal and protect these organs.

    • 2. They help in the elimination of waste products.

    • 3. They help in the absorption of water and other nutrients.

    l Simple squamous – flat cells, one layer thick l Simple cuboidal – cube-shaped cells, one
    l
    Simple squamous
    flat cells, one layer thick
    l
    Simple cuboidal
    cube-shaped cells, one layer thick
    l
    Simple columnar
    rectangular cells, one layer thick

    General Science

    34

    • l Stratified squamous

    multilayered with outhermost cells flat

    • l Stratified cuboidal

    multilayered with outhermost cells cube-shaped

    • l Stratified columnar

    multilayered with outermost cells rectangular

    Muscular Tissues

    Muscles of the body are made of muscle cells. Being elongated in structure they are also called muscle fibres. The movement of the body or limbs is brought about by contraction and relaxation of contactile proteins present in muscle cells. The unit of muscle tissue is a cell that is usually called a muscle fibre. It represents a compound structure. Since it consists of fine thread called 'myofibrils'. A myofibril is made up of still finer elements called myofilaments.

    There are three types of muscle fibres :

    • 1. Striated muscle

    • 2. Unstriated muscle

    • 3. Cardiac muscle

    • 1. Striated muscle or skeletal muscle : The skeletal muscles are attached to the bones and help in body movement. Also called striped muscles and it brings about powerful voluntary contractions affecting movements of limbs or other parts of body.

    • 2. Unstriated muscle : It constitutes the walls of hollow organs except the heart. The component cells are in the form of long spindles tapering at two ends except in the middle where the elongated nucleus is present. They are significant in bringing, about wave-like peristaltic movements by the involuntary contraction and relaxation of the walls of the oesophagus, stomach and intestine.

    • 3. Cardiac muscle : This type of muscle tissue is exclusively present in the heart.

    General Science 34 l Stratified squamous – multilayered with outhermost cells flat l Stratified cuboidal –

    Connective Tissue

    It performs the functions of binding, supporting and packing together different organs of the body. The cells of this tissue are embedded in a matrix. The matrix is the basis for further classification of connective tissues. Three main categories are recognised as soft. hard and fluid.

    The space between cells is filled with the matrix which may be solid as in bone or cartilage and fluid as in blood. Different types of connective tissues are found in our body.

    The examples of connective tissue are cartilage bone, tendons, ligaments and blood. They connect different tissues and organs and provide necessary support to the body.

    Tendon and ligaments : Tendons and ligaments are thick network of fibres. The fibres are loose and very elastic in nature. These fibres are secreted by the surrounding connective tissue cells, the tendons are strong and connect the muscle to bone. The ligaments are elastic and connect

    35

    General Science

    bone to bone. There are other examples of connective tissue such as areolar tissue, which forms a packing tissue for organs lying in the body cavity.

    Blood : Blood is also a connective tissue. In this tissue the cells move in a fluid matrix or medium called blood plasma. The plasma is a complex fluid forming 55 percent of the total volume of blood. Its activities are related to respiration, coagulation, temperature regulation, buffer mechanisms and fluid balance. Plasma also transports hormones, antibodies, nutrients and excretary wastes. The blood plasma also contains cells called blood corpuscles. They are RBC (Red Blood Corpuscles) and WBC (White Blood Corpuscles).

    35 General Science bone to bone. There are other examples of connective tissue such as areolar

    Nervous Tissues

    Brain, spinal cord and nerve are all composed of nervous tissue, the cell of nervous tissues are

    called neurons. These are highly specialised to conduct impulse (signals) and they are the structural

    and functional unit of the nervous system. The nervous tissues does not exclusively consists of

    neurons but is as well supported by non-nervous cells called 'neuroglia'. A neuron consists of a

    cell body with a prominent central nucleus and a number of cytoplasmic processes. Several branches

    that arise from the cell body show tree-like form and are called dendrites. They carry impulses towards the cell. One thin and long cytoplasmic process termed axon moves away from the cell body. It maintains a uniform diameter and branches profusely at its terminal end. Each tiny branch ends in a swollen structure called 'synaptic knots'. It is the axon that is directly concerned with the conduction of nerve impulse away from the cell body. Two neurons are not directly joined to each other and there is a gap between them termed as synapse. The synaptic knobs that contain the chemical transmitter - acetylcholine, help in the transmission of the impulse across the synapse after it has travelled the entire course of an axon. The impulse travels from one neuron to another

    neuron.

    35 General Science bone to bone. There are other examples of connective tissue such as areolar

    General Science

    General Science 36 Plant Organs Plant Organs Plant Organs Plant Plant Organs Organs The body of

    36

    Plant Organs

    Plant Organs

    Plant Organs

    Plant

    Plant

    Organs

    Organs

    The body of a vascular plant is organised into three general kinds of organs :

    (a) Roots : Root is an important basic organ of the plant because of its two major functions- absorption of water and minerals from the soil and fixation of the plant in the soil.

    Unlike stems, they have no leaves or nodes. The epidermis is just behind the growing tip of roots and is covered with root hairs, which are outgrowths of the epidermal cells. Internally, roots consist largely of xylem and phloem, although many are highly modified to carry out specialised functions. Thus, some roots are important food and storage organs - for example, beets, carrots and radishes.

    Such roots have an abundance of 'parenchyma tissue'. Many tropical trees have aerial prop roots that serve to hold the stem in an upright position. 'Epiphytes' have roots modified for quick absorption of rainwater that flows over the bark of the host plants.

    On the basis of place of origin two types of roots are distinguished - (i) Tap roots and (ii) Adventitious roots.

    • (i) Tap root : The root developing directly from the radicle is known as primary root. It usually produces lateral branches called 'secondary roots' and their branches in turn are called 'tertiary roots'. This arrangement is called 'aeropetal'.

    (ii)

    Adventitious Roots : Roots developing from any part of the plant, other than radicle

    are known as 'adventitious roots'.

    Modification of Roots

    Roots are modified into a number of forms to carry out specific functions.

    Modification of Tap roots – (i) fusiform roots; (ii) napiform roots; (iii) conical roots; (iv)

    Tuberous or tubercular roots; (v) Pneumatophores or knees.

    Modification of Adventitious roots – (i) fasciculated roots; (ii) Tuberous roots; (iii) maniliform

    or beaded roots; (iv) nodulose roots; (v) annulated roots; (vi) prop roots; (vii) stilt roots; (viii)

    climbing roots; (ix) floating roots. Fixation, absorption, conduction, storage and aeration are the major functions of the roots.

    (b) Stems : Stems usually are above ground, grow upward and bear leaves, which are attached in a regular pattern at nodes along the stem. The portions of the stem between nodes are called internodes. Stems increase in length through the activity of an apical meristem at the stem tip. This growing point also gives rise to new leaves, which surround and protect the stem tip, or apical bud, before they expand. Apical buds of deciduous trees, which lose their leaves during part of the year, are usually protected by modified leaves called 'bud scales'.

    Stems are more variable in external appearance and internal structure than are roots, but they also consist of the three tissue systems and have several features in common. The vascular tissue of herbaceous plants is surrounded by parenchyma tissue, whereas the stems of woody plants consist mostly of hard xylem tissue. Stems increase in diameter through the activity of 'lateral meristems', which produce the bark and woody in woody plants. The bark, which also contains the phloem, serves as a protective outer covering, preventing damage and water loss.

    Within the plant kingdom are many modifications of the basic stem, such as the thorns of hawthorns. Climbing stems, such as the tendrils of grapes and Boston ivy, have special modifications that allow them to grow up and attach to their substrate. Many plants, such as cacti, have reduced leaves or no leaves at all, and their stems act as the photosynthetic surface. Some

    37

    General Science

    stems, including those of many grasses, creep along the surface of the ground and create new plants through a process called vegetative reproduction. Other stems are borne underground and serve as food-storage organs, often allowing the plant to survive through the winter; the so-called bulbs of the tulip and the crocus are examples.

    Stem has two major functions :

    Normal function - It includes mechancial support, conduction, etc.

    Special function - It includes food storage, water storage, vegetative propagation and photosynthesis.

    Modifications of Stems

    In some plants, the stem gets modified to carry out some specific functions such as vegetative propagation and synthesis and storage of good, etc. Modification are (i) Underground modification; (ii) Sub-aerial modification; (iii) Aerial modification.

    (c) Leaves : The leaf is the primarily photosynthesis organ of most plants. Leaves are usually flattened blades that consist, internally, mostly of parenchyma tissue called the 'mesophyll', which is made up of loosely arranged cells with spaces between them. The spaces are filled with air,

    from which the cells absorb carbon dioxide and into which they expel oxygen. The mesophyll is bounded by the upper and lower surface of the leaf blade, which is covered by epidermal tissue. A vascular network runs through the 'mesophyll', providing the cell walls with water and removing

    the food products of photosynthesis to other parts of the plants.

    The leaf blade is connected to the stem through a narrowed portion called the 'petiole', or

    'stalk', which consists mostly of vascular tissue. Appendages called 'stipules' are often present at

    the base of the 'petiole'.

    Major functions of leaves are -

    (i)

    Synthesis of organic food;

    (ii)

    Exchange of gases;

    (iii) Transpiration;

    (iv)

    Food storage;

    (v)

    Protection;

    (vi)

    Vegetative Propogation.

    Factors Affecting Plants : Growth and Growth Hormones

    The growth and differentiation of plants is controlled by a special class of chemicals are synthesised at one place in the plant body and translocated to another where they act in a specific manner. They regulate growth and differentiation of root and stem, elongation of cells, production of flowers, movement of organs, dominance of certain parts over the other and production of many abnormal structures such as galls and tumors. Thus plant hormones are certainly essential for plant development. They are needed in small quantitites at very low concentration. They are rarely effective at the site of their synthesis.

    Plant hormones also known as growth factors, growth substances, growth regulators or phytohormones, can either promote the growth or may inhibit it. On the basis of their chemical nature, phytohormones can be classified into following groups - (a) Auxins; (b) Gibberellins; (c) Cytokinins.

    Auxin, one of the most important plant hormones is produced by growing stem tips and transported to other areas where it may either promote growth or inhibit it. 'Gibberellins' are

    General Science

    38

    other important plant growth hormones which control the elongation of stems, and they cause the germination of some grass seeds by initiating the production of enzymes that break down starch into sugars to nourish the plant embryo. 'Cytokinins' promote the growth of lateral buds, acting in opposition to auxin they also promote bud formation. In addition, plants produce the gas ethylene through the partial decomposition of certain hydrocarbons and ethylene in turn regulates fruit maturation and abscission.

    Tropisms : It causes a change in the direction of a plant's growth. Examples are 'phototropism', the bending of a stem toward light, and geotropism, the response of a stem or root to gravity. Stems are negatively geotropic growing away from gravity, whereas roots are positively geotropic. Photoperiodism, the response to 24-hour cycles of dark and light, is particularly important in the initiation of flowering.

    Diseases of Plants : The microorganisms, parasitic flowering plants, nematodes, viruses or adverse environmental conditions affects the normal growth of plants.

    • 1. Diseases caused by Bacteria : Oak Apple Gall Galls; the gall or cecidium, Citrus canker,

    • 2. Diseases caused by Fungus : Hemileia vastatrix, destroyed the coffee plantations of Sri Lanka.

    • 3. Diseases caused by Virus : The calico virus or mistletoes, dodders and root parasites of the genera Striga and Orobanche (broomrape) are the more common of these parasitic plants.

    • 4. Nematodes or roundworms, are an important cause of disease in plants.

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice

    Practice

    Questions

    Questions

    • 1. Which of the following can be found in cartilage but not in bone tissue?

    • (a) lacunae

    (b)

    protein fibres

    • (c) blood vessels

    (d)

    chondroitin

    • 2. The most common type of exocrine gland is of this type :

    • (a) apocrine

    (b)

    merocrine

    • (c) endocrine

    (d)

    holocrine

    • 3. Epithelia that consist of more than one layer of cells is termed :

    • (a) striated

    (b)

    stratified

    • (c) stipilated

    (d)

    intercalated

    • 4. The matrix of connective tissue is composed of :

    • (a) cells, fibres and ground substance

     
    • (b) cells and fibres

    • (c) fibres and ground substance

    • (d) cells and ground substance

    • 5. Small hair-like structures on the surface of some epithelial cells are termed :

    • (a) cilia

    (b)

    glia

    • (c) villi

    (d)

    microvilli

    • 6. These cells are located in bone tissues :

    • (a) chondroblasts

    (b)

    ostecytes

    • (c) fibroblasts

    (d)

    chondrocytes

    • 7. Which of the following heals the quickest after injury?

    • (a) bone

    (b)

    epithelium

    • (c) cartilage

    (d)

    muscle

    39

    General Science

    • 8. The small holes in which some connective tissues cells reside are termed :

      • (a) (b)

    lumen

    • (c) (d)

    lacunae

    lamellae

    lamaze

    • 9. Which of the following does not describe skeletal muscle tissue fibres?

      • (a) (b)

    striated

    • (c) (d)

    multinucleate

    voluntary

    branched

    • 10. Which of the following suffixes implies 'growth' or 'formation'?

      • (a) (b)

    - blast

    • (c) (d)

    - stasis

    - lemma

    - cyte

    • 11. Based on basic tissue type, which of the following terms does not belong grouped with the others :

      • (a) (b)

    muscle

    • (c) (d)

    cartilage

    ligament

    blood

    • 12. A tissue viewed under the microscope displays cells in little holes, densely packed fibres and no blood vessels. This describes :

      • (a) dense regular connective tissue

      • (b) hyaline cartilage

      • (c) fibro cartilage

      • (d) adipose tissue

  • 13. Which of the following characteristics can be used to describe epithelial tissue?

    • (a) it is derived from mesenchyme

    • (b) sarcomas originate from it

    • (c) it is well vascularized

    • (d) it forms the glands of the body

  • 14. The serous membrane lining the surface of the lung is the :

    • (a) parietal pleura

    (b)

    visceral peritoneum

    • (c) visceral pleura

    (d)

    peritoneal pleura

    • 15. Read the following statements carefully. Which of the following is/are incorrect statements:

      • 1. Cartilage heals slower than skin because cartilage is a deeper tissue.

      • 2. The inside lining of the intestine has a large surface area because of the presence of cilia.

      • 3. Adipose is a type of connective tissue because that it is where fat is stored.

    Code :

    • (a) only 1 and 3 are incorrect

    (b)

    only 1 and 2 are incorrect

    • (c) only 2 and 3 are incorrect

    (d)

    all are incorrect statements

    Answers Answers Answers Answers Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers
    Answers

    1. (d) 6. (b) 11. (a)

    2. (b) 7. (b) 12. (c)

    3. (b) 8. (c) 13. (d)

    4. (c) 9. (d) 14. (c)

    5. (a) 10. (a) 15. (d)

    General Science

    40

    41

    General Science

    Genetics

    5
    5
    41 General Science Genetics 5 Genetics ----- The Science Heredity Genetics Genetics Genetics Genetics The Science

    Genetics ----- The Science of Heredity

    Genetics

    Genetics

    Genetics

    Genetics

    The Science

    The Science of Heredity

    The

    The

    Science of

    Science

    of Heredity

    of

    Heredity

    Heredity

    It is a common observation that a wheat grain when sown gives only a wheat plant and puppies always grow into having the characteristics of the race their parents belonged to. The fact of characters being transferred from parents to progeny has been well known (in fact it is not the characters that are transferred but the potential).

    Gene : A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a polypeptide or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes as they specify all proteins and functional RNA

    chains. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism's cells and pass genetic

    traits to offspring.

    Gregor Mendel ----- Father of Genetics

    Gregor Mendel

    Gregor

    Mendel

    Mendel

    Father of

    Father

    Father

    of

    Genetics Genetics

    Gregor Mendel

    Gregor

    Father of Genetics

    of Genetics

    Gregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, conducted some elegant experiments on garden peas (Pisum

    sativum) which were published in a local journal in 1866 enunciating the basic principles of

    heredity. He postulated that :

    • 1. The characters like flower colour, height of the plant, etc. are controlled by a pair of factors (now called genes).

    • 2. Recessive characters like white flower colour are not able to express themselves in the presence of dominant characters like red flower colour.

    • 3. The factors segregate and recombine in the next generation.

    • 4. The factors are inherited independently of each other.

    Genotype and Phenotype

    The genotype refers to the genetic complement of an individual or a group of individuals, e.g. in the experiment given above. Plants of the F 1 generation have a different genotype (RrTt) although they are similar in the appearance to one of the parents (RRTT). On the other hand, the phenotype refers to the physical appearance of individuals. Individuals that are similar in appearance with references to a particular trait.

    Sex Chromosomes

    A pair of chromosomes controls the inheritance of sex. These chromosomes are referred to as sex chromosomes in contrast to the autosomes referring to the other chromosomes.

    Sex-linked Inheritance

    The inheritance of characters controlled by genes in the sex chromosomes varies with the sex and is, therefore, called sex-linked.

    General Science

    42

    Man - the Heterogametic Sex

    The study of human chromosomes has finally established that there are 23 pairs of chromosomes (46) in a human body cell. A human sperm or egg, therefore, has 23 chromosomes. If the pair consists of two identical chromosomes (designated XX) the sex would be female, i.e. women have an XX chromosomal complement. On the other hand, if the pair consists of two dissimiliar chromosomes (XY) the sex would be male.

    Mutation : A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. Mutations in a gene's DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. This happens when the DNA sequence of each gene determines the amino acid sequence for the protein it encodes. The DNA sequence is interpreted in groups of three nucleotide bases, called codons. Each codon specifies a single amino acid in a protein.

    Linkage, Crossing Over and Recombination of Genes

    Linkage : Genetic linkage is the tendency of certain loci or alleles to be inherited together. Genetic loci that are physically close to one another on the same chromosomes tend to stay together during meiosis, and are thus genetically linked.

    Recombination : Genetic recombination is a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid (usually DNA, but can also be RNA) is broken and then joined to a different one. Recombination can occur between similar molecules of DNA, as in homologous recombination, or dissimilar molecules, as in non-homologous end joining. Recombination is a common method of DNA repair

    in both bacteria and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, recombination also occurs in meiosis where it

    facilitates chromosomal crossover.

    Crossing Over : Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is an exchange of genetic material

    between homologous chromosomes. It is one of the final phases of genetic recombination, which

    occurs during prophase I of meiosis (pachytene) in a process called synapsis. Synapsis begins

    before the synaptonemal complex develops, and is not completed until near the end of prophase

    I. Crossover usually occurs when matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then

    reconnect to the other chromosome.

    General Science 42 Man - the Heterogametic Sex The study of human chromosomes has finally established
    General Science 42 Man - the Heterogametic Sex The study of human chromosomes has finally established
    General Science 42 Man - the Heterogametic Sex The study of human chromosomes has finally established

    43

    General Science

    K. Lansteiner and his students classified human beings (1900-1902) in four groups on the basis of the reactions of their blood. A, B, AB and O. Since then, the data has been of great help in blood transfusions as would be clear from Table.

    Blood Group and Possible Transfusions in Various Persons

    Blood Group

    Carries antigen

    Carries antibody

    Can donate blood to

    Can receive blood from

    A

    A

    anti-B

    A, AB

    A and O

    B

    B

    anti-A

    B, AB

    B and O

    AB

    A and B

    none

    only AB

    universal acceptor

    O

    none

    anti-A and anti-B

    universal donor

    only

    Possible/impossible Blood Groups of Children from Parent of Various Blood Groups

    Blood Group Parents

    Possible blood group of children

    Blood group of children not possible

    A × A

    A or O

    B or AB

    A × B

    O, A, B, AB

    A × AB

    A, B, AB

    O

    A × O

    O or A

    B or AB

    B × B

    B or O

    A, AB

    B × AB

    A, B, AB

    O

    B × O

    O or B

    A, AB

    B × AB

    A, B, AB

    O

    AB × O

    A, B

    O, AB

    O × O

    O

    A, B, AB

    RhRhRhRhRh Factor

    Factor

    Factor

    Factor

    Factor

    Another blood antigen was discovered in 1940 by Landsteiner and A.S. Wiener. Since this was

    initially found in rhesus monkeys (Macacus rhesus) and later in human beings, it has been caleld

    Rh factor. The antigen is present in a majority of humans but some persons do not carry this factor in their blood. These Rh persons also do not carry anti-Rh antibodies naturally but could synthesize

    them if sensitised through blood transfusion from an Rh + person, or pregnancy. Testing for Rh factor is also, therefore, very important.

    Genetic Disorders

    A change in the number or structure of chromosomes or gene mutations often result in various kinds of disorders which are heritable. These are called genetic disorders, some examples of which are given below :

    • 1. Albinism : The disorder is characterised by the absence of pigment (melanin) in the skin, hair and iris of the eyes. It is caused by a recessive gene that blocks the conversion of the amino acid tytosine to melanin throug a series of reactions.

    • 2. Cri-du-chat syndrome : A chromosomal abnormality arising by the deletion of whole or part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The most characteristic feature of the syndrome is the infant's cry like that of the mewing of cat; other characteristic features linclude a small head, receding lower jaw and a moonlike face.

    • 3. Cystic fibrosis : The disorder develops because of a recessive autosomal gene. In homozygous condition it results in increased susceptibility to lung infection and abnormal pancreatic function resulting in improper absorption of fats and proteins

    General Science

    44

    from the intestine. It also causes an abnormally high levels of excretion of sodium and chloride in sweat. The disorder often results in early death.

    • 4. Down syndrome (Mongolism) : A congennital abnormality in human beings due to the trisomy of chromosome 21 (chromosome 21 occurs in triplicate rather than in duplicate). The affected individuals, therefore carry 47 chromosomes and are generally retarded physically and mentally. They are usually short-saturated with a broad skull and a round face having a much higher frequency of congential heart defects.

    • 5. Edward syndrome : An abnormally arising because of the trisomy of chromosome 18 (chromosome 18 occurs in triplicate). The characteristic features are mental deficiency and multiple congenital malformations affecting almost all organ system. Most infants with the disorder die before 6 months.

    • 6. Fabry's disease : The disease develops because of a recesive X-linked (sex-linked) gene that results in a metabolic block affecting the metabolism of glycosphingolipids (a kind of lipid). As a result, these compounds get deposited as crystals in the wells of blood vessels in the heart, kidneys and eyes, often causing shooting plan with progressive heart, kidney and opthalmic problems.

    • 7. Galactosemia : A recessive autosomal gene in homozygous condition results into a defect in the enzyme system utilising the sugar galactose which is a breakdown product of the milk sugar, galactose which is a breakdown product of the milk sugar, lactose. Since the infants feed only on milk, this defect lead to high levels of galactose in the blood and may result into development of cataracts and brain damage.

    • 8. Hemophilia : The disease is caused by a sex-linked recessive gene which results into synthesis of a defective protein (antihemophic globulin) essential for the clotting of blood. As a result, a person suffering from the disease may bleed to death even from minor cuts as the blood would not clot naturally. However injections of the protein (factor VIII) may save the person as it would cause normal clotting.

    • 9. Huntington's disease : The disease is caused by a dominant autosomal gene which leads to progressive deterioration of the nervous system. A peculiar feature of the disease is that it develops at an age of 30 to 45 years and slowly leads to loss of control on the movement of limbs so that eventually the person becomes helpless and bedridden. Ultimately the affected person dies some 10 to 15 years after the disease developed.

      • 10. Kincfelter syndrome : An abnormality in men who are always sterile due to improper development of testes because of an additional X chromosome (47, XXY). The affected persons may also suffer from some degree of mental retardation.

      • 11. Lesch Nyhan syndrome : It is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait resulting into the development of involuntary movements, mental retardation and kidney damage. The disease is progressive and fatal.

      • 12. Marfan syndrome : It is inherited as an autosomal dominant resulting into abnormalities of the eye, cardiovascular system and the skeletal system. Most persons suffering from the disease have myopia, elongated eyeballs, long and narrow extremities (spider fingers), and irregular body proportions.

      • 13. Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne type) : This is a sex-linked recessive disease developing in childhood, at an age of 1 to 6 years. The disorder leads to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy so that the patient is often confined to wheelchair by the age of 12 years. A majority of the individual die before the age of 20.

    45

    General Science

    • 14. Patau syndrome : It results from the trisomy of chromosome 13 (47, 13 + ) that leads to cleft lip and/or plate, deafness, cardiac malformations and mental retardation. Most children with this abnormality die within 3 months of their birth.

    • 15. Phenylketonuria (PKU) : This disease is caused by a recessive autosomal gene which, in homozygous condition, results into lack of an enzyme essential for metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-alanine hydroxylase). As a result, phenyl-alanine accumulates and damages the brain producing an idiot. If detected soon after birth, it can be prevented by feeding the child on low phenylalanine diet.

    • 16. Sickle cell anaemia : It is caused by an abnormal haemoglobin molecule due to a recessive gene in homozygous condition resulting in sickling of the red blood cells. The heterozygous individuals (carriers) may also suffer at high altitudes due to low oxygen tension.

    • 17. Tay-sachs disease : This disease is caused by an autosomal recessive gene. Usually the development of the child is normal till the age of eight or nine months after which degeneration of the cerebral functions begins leading to epilepsy, enlargement of the head, paralysis and even blindness. Ultimately the affected child dies by the age of two or three years.

    • 18. Thalassemia : Also called "Cooley's anaemia", the disease occurs mostly in children and is nearly fatal. It occurs due to an abnormality of the haemoglobin controlled by a recessive gene which in homozygous condition causes severe anaemia.

    • 19. Turner syndrome : A human abnormality in which the affected individuals are phenotypically females but have rudimentary sex organs and mammary glands. It results from lack of an X chromosomes, that is, the complement is XO with 45 chromosomes (45, XO).

    • 20. Xeroderma pigmentosum : This is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from an inherited sensitivity to ionizing radiations like ultraviolet light. The persons suffering from the disease have been found to be deficient in the repair of UV-induced damage to DNA and are, therefore, extremely sensitive to sunlight. This results in excessive pigmentation of skin and development of lesions on exposed body parts such as the face. The lesions frequently become cancerous. It has been determined that the disorder may arise as a result of mutations in as many as six different genes. It has also been found that some individuals with Xeroderma Pigmentosum develop neurological disorders because of the premature death of some long-lived nerve cells.

    DNA Fingerprinting

    DNA Fingerprinting

    DNA Fingerprinting

    DNA

    DNA

    Fingerprinting

    Fingerprinting

    DNA of very individual comprises of the same chemical constituents. However, the difference lies in the base pairing that varies from person to person. DNA comprises of millions of base pairs. So, every individual has a different sequence. But it also makes the differentiation difficult. This difficulty can be overcome by utilising the repeating patterns in DNA. These patterns help in predicting whether two DNA samples belong to the same person or two related people or non- related people. Such samples are used by the researchers that are known to vary among individuals. These samples are analysed to reach to a certain level of probability.

    How DNA fingerprinting is done?

    In the first step, DNA is separated from the cells, tissues etc. For example, it can be isolated from the root of the hair or blood. This is followed by cutting the DNA at specific places. This is done by using special kinds of enzymes like. These pieces are separated by a process called electrophoresis. The DNA pieces are passed through a gel. Then a nylon sheet is place over the gel

    General Science

    46

    and the DNA pieces are put on to the sheet. They are soaked overnight. Radioactive or coloured probes are added to the nylon sheet which produces a pattern called the DNA fingerprint.

    Uses of DNA Fingerprinting

    • 1. It helps in identifying biological parents. An individual inherits the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) (repeat sequences) from his parents. As a result, one can easily construct the parents repeat sequences by using the child's VNTRs. Thi is helpful in the detection of biological parents of an individual.

    • 2. It helps in criminal and forensic investigations. If blood, hair, skin cells or other genetic evidence is left by the criminal at the scene of crime then DNA is isolated from these evidences and VNTR patterns (repeat sequences) of this DNA are studied and compared with the DNA of the suspects.

    • 3. Inherited disorders can be easily recognised. DNA finger printing helps in the detection of various inherited disorders before or after the birth of a child. These include cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell anaemia and thalassemia, etc. This further guides the parents regarding the treatment required.

    • 4. Inherited diseases can be cured. This is done by studying the DNA fingerprints of those who are related to the individual and have a history of some particular disorder. Besides this, it can also be studied by comparing large groups of people with and without the disorder. This helps in identifying the DNA patterns that show association with a particular disease which is to be studied.

    Molecular Biology

    Molecular Biology

    Molecular Biology

    Molecular

    Molecular

    Biology

    Biology

    Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. The field overlaps with other

    areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly

    concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of cell, including

    the interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these

    interactions are regulated.

    Gene (DNA) Expression

    Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), possibly induced by viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation and post-translation modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adapatability of any organism.

    Gene Replication

    DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA; it is the basis for biological inheritance. The process starts with one double-stranded DNA molecule and produces two identical copies of the molecule. Each strand of the original double- stranded DNA molecules serves as template for the production of the complementary strand, a process referred to as semi conservative replication. Cellular proofreading and error toe-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication. In a cell, DNA replication begins at

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    specific locations in the genome, called 'origins'. Unwinding of DNA at the origin, and synthesis of new strands, forms a replication fork. In addition to DNA polymerase, the enzyme that synthesises the new DNA by adding nucleotides matched to the template strand, a number of other proteins are associated with the fork and assist in the initiation and continuation of DNA synthesis.

    Transcription

    Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of the correct enzymes. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand. As opposed to DNA replication, transcription results in an RNA complement that includes uracil (U) in all instances where thymine (T) would have occurred in a DNA complement.

    Transcription can be explained easily in 4 or 5 steps, each moving like a wave along the DNA.

    • l RNA polymerase moves the transcription bubble, a stretch of unpaired nucleotides, by breaking the hydrogen bonds between complementary nucleotides.

    • l RNA polymerase adds matching RNA nucleotides that are paired with complementary DNA bases.

    • l RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase.

    • l Hydrogen bonds of the untwisted RNA+DNA helix break, freeing the newly synthesised RNA strand.

    • l If the cell has a nucleus, the RNA is further processed (addition of a 3' poly-A tail and a 5' cap) and exits through to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex.

    Translation

    In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the third stage of protein biosynthesis (part

    of the overall process of gene expression). In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by

    transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide,

    that will later fold into an active protein. In Bacteria, translation occcurs in the cell's cytoplasm, where the large and small subunits of the ribosome are located, and bind to the mRNA. In Eukaryotes, translation occurs across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in a process called vectorial synthesis.

    Genetic Code

    The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. The code defines how sequences of three nucleotides, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions, a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. Because the vast majority of genes are encoded with exactly the same code (see the RNA codon table), this particular code is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code.

    Gene Regulation

    Regulation of gene expression (or gene regulation) includes the processes that cells and viruses use to regulate the way that the information in genes is turned into gene products. Although a functional gene product can be an RNA, the majority of known mechanisms regulate protein coding genes. Any step of the gene's expression may be modulated, from DNA-RNA transcription

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    to the post-translational modification of a protein.

    Concept Keywords IPR

    Concept

    Concept Keywords IPR

    Concept Keywords

    Concept

    Keywords

    Keywords IPR

    IPR IPR

    Reproduction and Inheritance

    All living things reproduce. Offspring closely resemble but are not identical to their parents, from whom they inherit genetic traits. The units of inheritance are called genes and contain the genetic information. Simple organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, contain one copy of their genes. More complex organisms contain two copies of each gene, receiving one from each parent, but the two genes are not necessarily identical. For simple genetic traits, the two inherited copies of a gene determine the phenotype for that trait. Other genetic traits are determined by more than one gene.

    DNA

    The genetic information is contained in DNA molecules, which have a unique double-helical structure and a four-letter information code.

    Chromosomes

    Chromosomes are long pieces of DNA that consist of linear arrangments of genes and other DNA. Sexually reproducing organisms have two sets of chromosomes in most cells of their bodies. Each parent contributes one of each pair of chromosomes to its offspring randomly.

    Genetic and Environmental Determinants

    Together with the environment, an organism's genes influence its appearance and

    characteristics.

    Proteins

    The DNA information in genes provides instructions for building proteins. Proteins carry out

    life functions and are a diverse collection of molecules that includes hormones, enzymes, structural

    proteins and antibodies.

    Cells

    Cells are the building blocks of almost every organism's body. Each cell of an organism contains the same genetic information, which is passed on faithfully when cells divide. Different types of cells arise because they use different parts of the information, as determined by the cell's history and immediate environment. Different cell types may be functionally organised into tissues and organs.

    Note : Viruses are very simple organisms that are not made up of cells.

    Variation

    There are genetic differences between individuals of the same species. Any one gene can have alternate forms called alleles. Changes in the DNA, or mutations, cause new alleles to arise. New alleles or new combinations of genes can lead to variation among the individuals within a population. Some variations may confer a survival or reproductive advantage under specific environmental conditions.

    Applications

    Genetics research has applications in many fields, for example, in medicine, agriculture, biotechnology and environmental science.

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    Ethics

    Genetics research raises many ethical, legal and social issues; it is important for everyone to develop skills to address these issues.

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice Questions

    Practice

    Practice

    Questions

    Questions

    • 1. That genes control heredity through their control on enzyme synthesis and that one gene controls the synthesis one enzyme - the one gene one enzyme hypothesis was proposed by :

    • (a) Beadle and Tatum

    (b)

    Darwin

    • (c) Mendel

    (d)

    Morgan

    • 2. The genetic material that contains all the information needed for the development and existence of an organism is :

    • (a) (b)

    ribonucleic acid

    deoxyribonucleic acid

    • (c) (d)

    ribosomal RNA

    transfer RNA

    A man met with a serious road accident while going to his office and was immediately rushed to a nearby hospital where the doctors advised for blood transfusion. The man's blood group was found to be A. Since the required blood group was not available in the blood bank, the relatives were asked to donate. Whose blood group was found to be :

    • 1. Wife

    O

    • 2. Son

    A

    • 3. Daughter

    O

    • 4. Brother

    AB

    • 3. Who among the above relations could donate blood to the man?

    • (a) (b)

    Only 2

    2 and 4

    • (c) (d)

    1, 2 and 3

    1 and 3

    • 4. If the above man was sometimes required to donate blood, to whom among the relations mentioned above could he donate?

    • (a) (b)

    son only

    son and brother

    • (c) wife and daughter

    (d)

    wife, son and daughter

    • 5. That same human diseases are genetically controlled was first established by :

    • (a) (b)

    Gregor Mendel

    A.E. Garrod

    • (c) Watson and Crick

    (d)

    William Bateson

    • 6. Which of the following human diseases is/are controlled by heredity?

    • (a) (b)

    alkaptenuria

    leukemia

    • (c) (d)

    anaemia

    all the above

    • 7. Genetics is the branch of science that deals with the study of :

      • (a) relations between plants and the environment

      • (b) inheritance and variation

      • (c) cell structure

      • (d) thermal structures

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    50

    • 8. A woman receives her X chromosome from :

    • (a) her mother only

    (b)

    her father only

    • (c) both her mother and father

    (d)

    either her mother or her father

    • 9. Gene, the basic unit of heredity, was first synthesized in the laboratory by :

    • (a) Arthur Komberg

    (b)

    Hargobind Khurana

    • (c) Gregor Mendel

    (d)

    Watson and Crick

    • 10. DNA molecules are composed of deoxyribonucleotides of :

      • (a) adenine and guanine

      • (b) adenine, guanine and cytosine

      • (c) adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine

      • (d) none of the above

  • 11. A man of AB blood group meets with a serious accident and requires blood transfusion. Who among the following could donate blood to him?

  •  

    Relation

    Blood group

    1.

    Wife

    A

    2.

    Son

    AB

    3.

    Friend

    O

    4.

    Daughter

    B

    Codes :

    (a)

    Only 2

    (b)

    2 and 4

    (c)

    1, 2 and 4

    (d)

    1, 2, 3 and 4

    • 12. Disorder of sex chromosomal changes are :

    (a)

    Klinefelter's and Turner's syndrome.

    (b)

    Down's syndrome and Edward's syndrome.

    (c)

    Super female and super male.

    (d)

    Cri du chat and Patau's syndrome.

     
    • 13. Consider the following statements about viruses :

      • 1. A particular virus has either DNA or RNA, or both.

      • 2. The DNA or RNA of the viruses is enclosed protected by a lipoproteinaceous membrane.

      • 3. RNA is the genetic material of some viruses.

      • 4. Dr. Peyton Rous, an American virologist, was awarded the Nobel Prize for first isolating a virus in pure crystalline form.

    Which of the above statements is/are true?

    • (a) (b)

    Only 1

    • (c) (d)

    2 and 4

    2 and 3

    3 and 4

    • 14. A pair of chromosomes determines sex in human beings and therefore, these chromosomes are called sex chromosomes. What is the name given to other chromosomes?

      • (a) (b)

    autosomes

    • (c) (d)

    polysomes

    heterosomes

    spherosomes

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    General Science

    • 15. DNA replication means :

      • (a) DNADNA

      • (b) DNARNA

      • (c) autocatalytic function of DNA

      • (d) heterocatalytic function of DNA

  • 16. Gregor Mendel is often referred to as the Father of Genetics since he first enunciated the Principles of Heredity. His experimental material was :

    • (a) (b)

    fruit fly

    bread mould

    • (c) (d)

    pea plant

    rhesus monkey

    • 17. A white woman marries a black man. They have four children – 2 sons and 2 daughters. What proportion of these children is likely to be black?

    • (a) (b)

    25 percent

    50 percent

    • (c) (d)

    100 percent

    none

    • 18. There are fort