P 080922004 MTech CAMDA 1st semester

Topics to discuss
Introduction -Types of Damping Hysteresis Damping Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damper Forced Vibration with Hysteretic Damper Examples

Introduction
Damped Vibration : When the energy of a vibrating system is gradually dissipated by friction and other resistances, the vibration is said to be damped. Types of Damping models Viscous damping models Hysteretic damping model

Hysteretic Damper
The damping caused by the friction between the internal planes that slip or slide as the material deforms is called hysteresis (or solid or structural) damping.

Free Vibration with Hysteretic Damper
Consider the spring-viscous damper arrangement For this system the force needed to cause displacement x(t)

For a harmonic motion of frequency ω and amplitude X, x(t)=X sin ωt F(t) = k X sin ωt+ c X ω cos ωt =

When F versus x is plotted represents a closed loop. The area of the loop denotes the energy dissipated by the damper in a cycle of motion and is given by

The energy loss in one loading and unloading cycle is equal to the area enclosed by the hysteresis loop. The similarity between the hysteresis loop and Force vs displacement of spring mass damper system can be used to define a hysteresis damping constant. It was found experimentally that the energy loss per cycle due to internal friction is independent of the frequency but approximately proportional to the square of the amplitude

The damping coefficient e is assumed to be inversely proportional to the frequency as

where h is called the hysteresis damping constant. The energy dissipated by the damper in a cycle of motion becomes

Complex Stiffness The spring and the damper are connected in parallel The force-displacement relation can be expressed as

Where
is called the complex stiffness of the system and dimensionless measurement of damping. is a constant indicating

Response of the system
In terms of β, the energy loss per cycle can be expressed as Under hysteresis damping ,the motion can be nearly considered as harmonic and the decrease in the amplitude per cycle can be determined using energy balancing .

Consider the energies at points P and Q

--------(a) Similarly, the energies at points Q and R give ------------(b) Multiplying equation (a) and (b) we have

The hysteresis logarithmic decrement can be defined as The equivalent viscous damping ratio is given by

The equivalent damping constant Ceq is given by

Forced Vibration with Hysteresis Damping
Consider a single degree system with hysteresis damper. The system is subjected to Harmonic force F(t)= F0 sin ωt The equation of motion can be derived as

Where denotes the damping force. The steady-state solution of equation of motion can be assumed as By substituting we have

The amplitude ratio

attains its maximum

value of at the resonant frequency in the case of hysteresis damping, while it occurs at a frequency below resonance in the case of viscous damping. The phase angle φ has a value of at ω=0 in the case of hysteresis damping . This indicates that the response can never be in phase with the forcing function in the case of hysteresis damping.

Application
Hysteresis Dampers are used for controlling seismic response of Bridges and Structures.

Damper brace system MCB damper system

Stockbridge damper is also an hysteresis damper. Used to arrest the vortex excitation, which which tends to produce oscillations of high frequency ,low amplitude in a direction transverse to wind stream which result in fatigue failures.

Reference
Mechanical Vibration by S.S.Rao 4/e, Pearson Education Inc 2004. Technical Review Vol. 42 No. 1 (Feb. 2005) ,Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Hysteresis Dampers for

Controlling Seismic Response of Bridges and Structures, by MOTOETSU ISHII, SATORU UEHIRA,
YASUO OGI, KUNIHIRO MORISHITA.

Thank you.