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To get the Knowledge of design of boiler joints
To study design of boiler joints & longitudinal butt joint for a boiler.
To know the importance of design of boiler joints
Knowledge the design of longitudinal butt joint for a boiler
To know the importance design of longitudinal butt joint for a boiler

To get the Knowledge of design of boiler joints
To study design of boiler joints & longitudinal butt joint for a boiler.
To know the importance of design of boiler joints
Knowledge the design of longitudinal butt joint for a boiler
To know the importance design of longitudinal butt joint for a boiler

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To study design of boiler joints & longitudinal butt joint for a

boiler.

To know the importance of design of boiler joints

Knowledge the design of longitudinal butt joint for a boiler

To know the importance design of longitudinal butt joint for a

boiler

is made with 25 mm diameter rivets at 100 mm pitch. The permissible

stresses are:

t = 120 MPa; = 100 MPa; c = 150 Mpa

Find the efficiency of joint, taking the strength of the rivet in double

shear as twice than that of single shear.

Solution.

Given :

t = 20 mm ;

d = 25 mm ;

p = 100 mm ;

t = 120 MPa = 120 N/mm2 ;

= 100 MPa = 100 N/mm2 ;

c = 150 MPa = 150 N/mm2

( i ) Tearing resistance of the plate : We know that tearing resistance of the plate per pitch length,

Pt = ( p d ) t s t

= (100 25) 20 120

Pt = 180 000 N

(ii) Shearing resistance of the rivets

Since the joint is double riveted butt joint, therefore the strength of two

rivets in double shear is taken. We know that shearing resistance of the rivets,

Ps = n 2 d 2

4

= 2 2 (25) 2 100

4

Ps = 196 375 N

Since the joint is double riveted, therefore the strength of two rivets is taken.

We know that crushing resistance of the rivets,

Pc = n d t c

= 2 25 20 150

Pc = 150 000 N

Strength of the joint

= Least of Pt, Ps and Pc

= 150 000 N

We know that the strength of the unriveted or solid plate,

Least of Pt , Ps and Pc

P

150000

240000

0.625

= 62.5% ..Ans.

The boiler has a longitudinal joint as well as circumferential joint.

The longitudinal joint is used to join the ends of the plate to get the

required diameter of a boiler, For this purpose, a butt joint with two

cover plates is used.

The circumferential joint is used to get the required length of the

boiler. For this purpose, a lap joint with one ring overlapping the

other alternately is used.

The tensile stress is equally distributed over the section of metal

between the rivets.

The shearing stress in all the rivets is uniform.

The crushing stress is uniform.

There is no bending stress in the rivets.

The holes into which the rivets are driven do not weaken the member.

The rivet fills the hole after it is driven.

The friction between the surfaces of the plate is neglected.

BOILER

According to Indian Boiler Regulations (I.B.R), the following

procedure should be adopted for the design of longitudinal butt joint

for a boiler.

1. Thickness of boiler shell

First of all, the thickness of the boiler shell is determined by using the

thin cylindrical formula, i.e.

P.D

t

1mm as corrosion allowance

2 t t

where t = Thickness of the boiler shell,

P = Steam pressure in boiler,

D = Internal diameter of boiler shell,

t = Permissible tensile stress, and

t = Efficiency of the longitudinal joint.

a) The thickness of the boiler shell should not be less than 7 mm.

b) The efficiency of the joint may be taken from the following table.

Efficiencies of commercial boiler joints.

the best joint.

(c) According to I.B.R., the factor of safety should not be less than

The following table shows the values of factor of safety for various kind of

joints in boilers.

Factor of safety for boiler joints.

2. Diameter of rivets.

After finding out the thickness of the boiler shell (t), the diameter of the

rivet hole (d) may be determined by using Unwin's empirical formula, i.e.

d 6 t

(when t is greater than 8 mm)

Size of rivet diameters for rivet hole diameter as per

3. Pitch of rivets.

of the plate to the shearing resistance of the rivets. It may noted that

a) The pitch of the rivets should not be less than 2d, which is necessary

for the formation of head.

b) The maximum value of the pitch of rivets for a longitudinal joint of a

boiler as per I.B.R. is

max C t 41.28mm

where

C = Constant.

The value of the constant C is given in Table

Values of constant C.

4.

Regulations is as follows

a) For equal number of rivets in more than one row for lap joint or butt

joint, the distance between the rows of rivets (pb) should not be less

than

0.33 p + 0.67 d,

2 d,

b) For joints in which the number of rivets in outer rows is half the

number of rivets in inner rows and if the inner rows are chain riveted,

the distance between the outer rows and the next rows should not be

less than

0.33 p + 0.67 or 2 d, whichever is greater.

The distance between the rows in which there are full number of

rivets shall not be less than 2d.

c) For joints in which the number of rivets in outer rows is half the

number of rivets in inner rows and if the inner rows are zig - zig

riveted, the distance between the outer rows and the next rows shall

not be less than 0.2 p + 1.15 d. The distance between the rows in

which there are full number of rivets (zig - zag) shall not be less than

0.165 p + 0.67 d.

According to I.B.R., the thicknesses for butt strap (t1) are as given below:

a) The thickness of butt strap, in no case, shall be less than 10 mm.

b) t1 = 1.125 t, for ordinary (chain riveting) single butt strap.

pd

,for single butt straps, every alternate rivet in outer rows

p 2d

t1 1.125t

being omitted

riveting(chain riveting).

pd

t1 0.625t

, for double butt straps of equal width having every

p 2d

alternate rivet in the outer rows being omitted.

c) For unequal width of butt straps, the thicknesses of butt strap are.

t1 = 0.75 t,

t2 = 0.625 t,

for narrow strap on the outside.

5. Margin.

The margin (m) is taken as 1.5 d.

FOR A BOILER

1. Thickness of the shell and diameter of rivets.

The thickness of the boiler shell and the diameter of the rivet will be

same as for longitudinal joint.

2.

Number of rivets.

Shearing resistance of the rivets,

Ps n d 2

4

Where,

(i)

Knowing the inner diameter of the boiler shell (D), and the pressure

of steam (P), the total shearing load acting on the circumferential joint,

Ws

D2 P

4

From equations (i) and (ii), we get

2

n d D 2 P

4

4

n

( ii )

3. Pitch of rivets.

If the efficiency of the longitudinal joint is known, then the efficiency

of the circumferential joint may be obtained. It is generally taken as 50%

of tearing efficiency in longitudinal joint, but if more than one

circumferential joints is used, then it is 62% for the intermediate joints.

Knowing the efficiency of the circumferential lap joint (c), the pitch of

the rivets for the lap joint ( p1) may be obtained by using the relation :

p1 d

c

p1

4. Number of rows.

The number of rows of rivets for the circumferential joint may be

obtained from the following relation :

Number of rows

Number of rivets in one row

where

(D t)

p1

5. After finding out the number of rows, the type of the joint (i.e. single

riveted or double riveted etc.) may be decided. Then the number of

rivets in a row and pitch may be re-adjusted. In order to have a leakproof joint, the pitch for the joint should be checked from Indian

Boiler Regulations.

6. The distance between the rows of rivets (i.e. back pitch) is calculated

by using the relations as discussed in the previous article.

7. After knowing the distance between the rows of rivets (pb), the

overlap of the plate may be fixed by using the relation,

Overlap = (No. of rows of rivets 1) pb + m

where

m = Margin

ANY

QUESTIONS

Questions ?

1. Describe the drawing sheet designations and their sizes as per ISO-A

series.

2. What is the principle involved in fixing the sizes of the drawing

sheets ?

3. What are the scales recommended for machine drawing ?

4. What should be the ratio of thick to thin line used in machine

drawing ?

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