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Sistem Informasi Manajemen

Sistem Informasi Manajemen

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Published by Mohammad Afif
Sistem Informasi Manajemen
Sistem Informasi Manajemen

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Published by: Mohammad Afif on Apr 24, 2010
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SISTEM INFORMASI SISTEM INFORMASI

MANAJEMEN MANAJEMEN
Moh. Afif, S.Si, MT., M.PSc Moh. Afif, S.Si, MT., M.PSc
Week #1 Week #1
Introduction Introduction
Information System is a collection of Information System is a collection of
interrelated interrelated components components that that
work together to perform a specific work together to perform a specific
task. task.
e.g. : e.g. :
Human Body Human Body
Business Organization Business Organization
A Computer A Computer
Sub Systems ? Sub Systems ?
In a System the different components are In a System the different components are
connected with each other and they are connected with each other and they are
interdependent interdependent. . Each component is a Each component is a Sub Sub
System System of the original system of the original system and carries out and carries out
part of the systems tasks. part of the systems tasks.
e.g. : e.g. :
Parts like digestive system in the Parts like digestive system in the
human body human body
The marketing branch of a business The marketing branch of a business
organization organization
Elements of a System Elements of a System
Input Output
Processing
Basically there are three major components in every
system, namely input, processing and output.
The System is separated from the external
environment from the system boundary.
The system receives inputs from a its environment and
returns outputs to the environment by processing the
inputs.
Input
Output
Sub systems should communicate with each other in
order to process an output to a particular input.
One subsystems output will be an input to another.
A good system will be made up of highly independent
subsystems with minimal flows between them.
Levels of Management Levels of Management
Upper or Top or Strategic Management
Middle or Tactical Management
Lower or Operational level Management
Three levels of management
Strategic
Tactical
Operational
Levels of Management cont.. Levels of Management cont..
Each level of management can be Each level of management can be
distinguished by the types of distinguished by the types of
Decisions made
Time frame considered in the decisions
Types of report information needed to
make decisions
Lower or Operational level Management
They make structured decisions (Operational They make structured decisions (Operational
decisions). Structured decision is a predictable decisions). Structured decision is a predictable
decision that can be made following a well decision that can be made following a well
defined set of routine procedures. defined set of routine procedures.
Most decisions at this level require easily Most decisions at this level require easily
defined information that relates to the current defined information that relates to the current
status and activities within the basic business status and activities within the basic business
functions. functions.
Information is gained from detailed reports Information is gained from detailed reports
which contain information about routine which contain information about routine
activities. activities.
Detailed tasks defined by middle management Detailed tasks defined by middle management
are carried out by people at operational level. are carried out by people at operational level.
Middle or Tactical Management
Information needed involves review, Information needed involves review,
summarization and analysis of data to help plan summarization and analysis of data to help plan
and control operations and implement policy that and control operations and implement policy that
has been formulated by upper management. has been formulated by upper management.
Information is usually given to middle managers Information is usually given to middle managers
as summarized reports. as summarized reports.
Deals with semi structured decisions. (Tactical Deals with semi structured decisions. (Tactical
decisions). Semi structured decisions that must decisions). Semi structured decisions that must
be made without a base of clearly defined be made without a base of clearly defined
informational procedures. In most cases a semi informational procedures. In most cases a semi
structured decision is complex, requiring detailed structured decision is complex, requiring detailed
analysis and extensive computations. analysis and extensive computations.
Upper or Top or Strategic Management
Decides on the broad objectives of an Decides on the broad objectives of an
organization. organization.
Make unstructured decisions. (Strategic Make unstructured decisions. (Strategic
decision). Unstructured decisions are the most decision). Unstructured decisions are the most
complex type of decisions and are rarely based complex type of decisions and are rarely based
on predetermined routine procedures. They on predetermined routine procedures. They
involve subjective judgments of the decision involve subjective judgments of the decision
maker. maker.
Types of Information Systems Types of Information Systems
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Executive Information Systems (EIS)
Expert Systems (ES)
These systems capture and process data about
business transactions.
Some times called as data processing systems
Mostly used at operational level
Usually creates detailed reports of daily transactions or
future transactions
Reports generated are useful only to lower level
managers
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
Provides middle level management with reports that
summarize and categorize information derived from
company databases. (In pre determined format)
Supplements Transaction processing Systems
Able to produce detailed information, summary
information, exception information
Information produced is based on accepted
management or mathematical/statistical models
Management Information Systems (MIS) Management Information Systems (MIS)
Decision Support Systems (DSS) Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Provides its users with decision oriented information
whenever a decision-making situation arises
Analyses information already captured by TPS and MIS in
order to support unstructured decision making at top
management level
Facts
DSS does not make decisions, it helps some one to
make a decision by providing information
TPS or MIS does not analyze information they
produce
Executive Information System (EIS) Executive Information System (EIS)
Is a DSS which is especially meant for top level
management and specifically support unstructured
decision making
Also called Executive Support Systems (ESS)
Draws data not only from the organization, able to draw
information from outside sources such as news services
and marketing ± research databases.
Expert Systems (ES) Expert Systems (ES)
Captures knowledge expertise of a problem solver or
decision maker and then simulates thinking of that
expertise for those who have less expertise.
Includes logic and reasoning within there respective fields
Facts
Emerged from the filed of artificial intelligence
(Creating computer systems that simulate human
reasoning and sensation)
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Problem
Definition
Testing
Implementation
Software Development Software Development
Maintenance
System Analysis System Analysis
Feasibility Study Feasibility Study
System Design System Design
SDLC cont.. SDLC cont..
Every system has a life cycle. Be it a computer Every system has a life cycle. Be it a computer
or human or human
SDLC is an organizational process of developing SDLC is an organizational process of developing
an information system to solve business an information system to solve business
problems and needs problems and needs
SDLC means combinations of various activities. SDLC means combinations of various activities.
These activities are called phases and the SDLC These activities are called phases and the SDLC
consists of many phases consists of many phases
Phase 1: Problem Definition Phase 1: Problem Definition
Provides a broad statement of user requirements, which
in other words is what the user expects the systems to
do
Sets the direction for the whole project
Also sets the project bounds, which define what part of
the system can be changed by the project and what
parts remain the same
The resources to be made available to the system are
also specified in this phase
Phase 2 : Feasibility Study Phase 2 : Feasibility Study
Determines whether a particular project is technically and
economically feasible
Determines the best method to achieve the objectives of
the new information system
Outcome of this phase is a recommendation of a new
system proposal
This proposal is to agreed by the higher management in
consultation with department managers.
Phase 3 : System Analysis Phase 3 : System Analysis
System analysts studies the existing system in detail, leading to
specifications of a new system. This is carried out by gathering facts.
o Facts gathering techniques
o Inspection of written documents
o Interviews
o Questionnaires
o Site Observations
Gathered data must be analyzed and documented in data flow
diagrams, data dictionary, logical data structures.
The system is broken down into smaller sub processors during this
phase.
At the end of the phase the System analyst has to produce a detailed
report on the specifications of the new system.
Phase 4 : System Design Phase 4 : System Design
Produces a logical design specification for the new system.
The analyst
schedules design activities
works with user to determine the various data inputs to the system
plan how data will flow through the system
designs required outputs
writes program schedules
During design, the analyst
Draws a model of the new system, using dataflow diagrams and
entity relationship diagrams
Devises formats for all the reports that the system will generate
Develops a method for collecting and inputting data
By the end of this phase the analyst has to contd..
Defines detailed data requirements with a data dictionary
Writes program specifications
Specifies control techniques for the system¶s outputs, database and
inputs
Identifies and orders any hardware or software that the system will
need
By the end of this phase the analyst has to
prepare complete systems specifications in form of a detailed report
(this report contains step by step instructions that describes the
proposed system)
Phase 4 : System Design (continued) Phase 4 : System Design (continued)
Phase 5 : Software Development Phase 5 : Software Development
Design specifications are converted into source code
of a programming language.
Programmers carry out these tasks.
Software that is to be developed, is divided into many
modules according to the subdivisions in phase 3.
These modules are created independently and then
tested individually. This type of testing is called unit
testing)
Phase 6 : Testing Phase 6 : Testing
The system should be fully tested for errors (bugs) before
implementation.
Two types of tests are conducted
Integration testing, After completion of unit tests of all
modules, the modules are to be combined and be tested.
At this stage the test is done on actual data
Acceptance testing, Acceptance criteria is the agreement
made between the user and the system developer. The
acceptance criteria contains a list of important
requirements that the system has to satisfy. The tests
conducted to check the acceptance criteria are called
acceptance testing.
Phase 7 : Implementation Phase 7 : Implementation
The phase contains two activities
The user training, The users are to be given training for operating a
new information system. Main topics of such type of training are:
o How to execute the package
o How to enter data
o How to process data
o How to take reports
The conversion, The process of replacing an existing system with a
new system is called conversion. Conversion of the system may
proceeds in four ways.
Direct Implementation
o The entire system is replaced with the new system in
one go.
Parallel Implementation
o Both systems i.e. the new and the old systems are
executed in parallel for a certain defined period of time.
This strategy is helpful because of the following
Results of the old system can be compared with
the results of the new system
Failure of the new system at the early stage, does
not affect working of the organization
Phased implementation
o The new system is introduced in a phased manner
Pilot implementation
o New system installed in parts and executed successfully
for a considerable time period. When the results are
found satisfactory then the other parts are implemented
Phase 8 : Maintenance Phase 8 : Maintenance
Eliminates errors in a system during it¶s life time and Eliminates errors in a system during it¶s life time and
to tune the system to any variations. to tune the system to any variations.
It also means the review of the system from time to It also means the review of the system from time to
time. time.
oo The review is done for The review is done for
Knowing the full capabilities of the system Knowing the full capabilities of the system
Knowing the required changes or the additional Knowing the required changes or the additional
requirements requirements
Studying performance Studying performance
If a major change to a system is needed a new If a major change to a system is needed a new
project may have to be setup. project may have to be setup.
THANK YOU THANK YOU

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