FIREARM

INJURIES

Types of firearm weapons
Short Long

Types of firearm weapons
1. Non-rifled: only long 2. Rifled: short and long

Types of missiles
Non-rifled Rifled

Types of missiles
Non-rifled weapons

Types of missiles
Rifled weapons

Firing

Firing - Dispersion

Firing - Dispersion

Characters of firearm injuries
1- Loss of substance 2- Presence of inlet and/or exit 3- Powder marks 4- Beveling of flat bones

Differences between inlet & exit
Inlet Size Edges Regularity Powder marks Beveling Small Inverted More regular Present Internal Exit Large Everted Less regular Absent External

Near firing (point blank) (contact)

Inlet and exit abnormalities 
Inlet + no exit  No inlet + exit  Single inlet + 
Causes of atypical inlet:
Near firing Dumdum bullets Putrefaction

multiple exits

Characters of firearm injuries
1- Loss of substance 2- Presence of inlet and/or exit 3- Powder marks 4- Beveling of flat bones

Characters of firearm injuries
1- Loss of substance 2- Presence of inlet and/or exit 3- Powder marks 4- Beveling of flat bones

Characters of firearm injuries
1- Loss of substance 2- Presence of inlet and/or exit 3- Powder marks 4- Beveling of flat bones

Range Gases Burning, blackening Tattooing 15 cm 25 100 cm 50 200 cm 1x 2-8x 4-16 x

Characters of firearm injuries
1- Loss of substance 2- Presence of inlet and/or exit 3- Powder marks 4- Beveling of flat bones

Specimens

Points to be fulfilled
I.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Injury description
Number Shape Site Size Edges Type Post-trauma changes: sepsis, healing, surgical interference Antemortem or postmortem

II. Causative instrument III. Causes of death

Points to be fulfilled
I.
1. 2.
a. b. c.

Injury description
Number: one, two or multiple area(s) of loss of substance Shape:
Bullets or shots rounded Slugs square Point-blank (contact) cruciate

3. 4. 5.
a. b.

Site: in relation to anatomic landmark (bone) or specimen(soft tissue) Size Edges
Bone: beveling (internal or external) Soft tissue:
1. 2. 3. Inlet: inverted edges Inlet of point-blank: everted lacerated edges surrounded by powder marks in the form of burning, blackening and tattooing Exit: everted edges

Points to be fulfilled
I. Injury description
6.
a. b. c.

Type
Inlet/exit of a bullet Inlets of slugs Inlets of shots

Post-trauma changes: sepsis, healing, surgical interference 8. Antemortem or postmortem: all are AM due to
7.
a. b. c. d. Traces of hemorrhage Powder marks Surgical interference In bones: AM signs are absent due to rapidity of death

Points to be fulfilled
II. Causative instrument
1. 2. 3.

Bullet of a rifled weapon wither long or short (short in suicidal cases) Shots of long, non-rifled, non-automatic weapon Slugs of long, non-rifled, non-automatic weapon

III. Causes of death
1. 2. 3.

Head specimens: brain laceration intracranial hemorrhage Other body parts: shock (neurogenic or hemorrhagic) injury to internal organ If there is surgical interference: as above + operative complications

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